SLOT 2 Concrete
MONDAY 9.30 am
TUESDAY 11.30 am
WEDNESDAY 8.30 am
www.civil.iitb.ac.in/~abhijit/ce307.htm
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering, 1
IITB
Contents
Introduction
Concrete
Design by working stress method
Design by Limit state method
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 2
Structural Analysis
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 3
Methods of Analysis
1. Manual computation methods
Slope – Deflection Method
Strain Energy Method
Moment Distribution Method
Kani’s Method
2. Computer Methods
Matrix Methods
Finite Element Method
Finite Difference Method
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 4
Design Process
Preliminary Design
Analysis
Modify
Design Response
Not Satisfactory
Check Material Parameter
Satisfactory
Drawing
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Civil Engineering,
IITB 5
Structural Design
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 6
Optimum Design
Optimum Point
Economy Safety
Cost
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 7
Concrete
binder
+
concrete = coarse aggregates air
+ +
fine aggregates admixtures
+
water
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 8
A closer look
Milimeter
Centimeter
Nanometer
Micro meter
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 9
Coliseum of Rome
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 10
History of concrete
3000 BC The Egyptians began to use mud mixed with straw to bind
dried bricks. They also used gypsum mortars and mortars of
lime in the building of the pyramids
800 BC The Greeks used lime mortars that were much harder than
later Roman mortars. This material was also in evidence in
Crete and Cyprus at this time.
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 11
History of concrete contd…
12001500 The quality of cementing materials deteriorated and even the use
of concrete died out during The Middle Ages as the art of using
burning lime and pozzolan (admixture) was lost, but it was later
reintroduced in the 1300s
1414 Fra Giocondo used pozzolanic mortar in the pier of the Pont de
Notre Dame in Paris. It is the first acknowledged use of concrete
in modern times
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 13
History of concrete contd…
1894 Anatole de Baudot designs and builds the Church of St. Jean
de Montmarte with slender concrete columns and vaults and
enclosed by thin reinforced concrete walls
1903 The first concrete high rise was built in Cincinnati, Ohio.
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 15
Hoover dam (first concrete dam)
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 16
History of concrete contd…
1970
Fiber reinforcement in concrete was introduced.
1973 The Opera House in Sydney, Australia was opened. Its
distinctive concrete peaks quickly became a symbol for the
city.
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 17
Opera house (Sydney)
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 18
History of concrete contd…
1980 Superplasticizers were introduced as admixtures
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 19
Petronas Tower
Concrete
(various strength up
to grade 0)
160,000 cu m in the
superstructure
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Civil Engineering,
IITB 20
Concrete Mix Design
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 21
Basic factors in the process of Mix Design
Liability to chemical Method Size of section
attack or size of concrete mass Of and spacing
Compaction of Reinforcement
Type Age at
Mean
of which Strength Durability
Strength
Cement is required
Water/Cement
Ratio
Aggregate/Cement Overall
Ratio Grading of
Aggregate
Proportion
of each Size
Fraction
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Weights of Ingredients
Civil Engineering, Per Batch
IITB 22
Basic definitions
x=
∑ x
n
where x = mean strength
x = sum of strengths of cubes
n = number of cubes
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 23
Gaussian distribution curves for concretes with a
minimum strength of 20.6 Mpa
A
Probability Density
B
C
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Strength MPa
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 24
Percentage of Specimens having a strength lower
than (Mean – k x Standard deviation)
Degree of
control
k Percentage of specimen having
a strength below than ( x– kσ )
1.00 15.9
1.50 6.7
1.96 2.5
2.33 1.0
2.50 0.6
3.09 0.1
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 25
Water / Cement ratio
vibration
com pressive strength
Hand compaction
Insufficiently compacted
concrete
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering, water/cement ratio
IITB 26
Relation between Compressive strength and
Water/Cement Ratio for OPC of late 1950’s
90
80
70
3M
60 on 1Y
th ea
s r
50
7D
40
ay
s 28
D ay
30
s
20
3D
ays
1D
10
ay
0
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 27
Relationship between Water/cement ratio and
Compressive strength for OPC of late 1970’s
70
1 Year
28 Days
60
7 Days
Compressive Strength  MPa
50
1 Day
1Y
ea
r
40
28
D ay
s
30 7D
ays
20
1D
ay
10
0
0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
Water/cement ratio by Weight
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 28
Road Note No. 4 type grading curves
for 19.05 mm aggregate
100
90
80
Percentage passing
70 Zone C
60 Zone B
50 Zone A
40
30
20
10
0
0.075 0.150 0.300 0.600 1.200 2.400 4.760 9.520 19.050
120
100
Percentage Passing
Zone C
80
Zone B
60 Zone A
40
20
0
0.075 0.150 0.300 0.600 1.200 2.400 4.760 9.520 19.050 38.100
Metric Size (mm)
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 30
McIntosh and Erntroy’s type grading curves
for 9.52mm aggregate
100
90
80
Percentage Passing
70
Zone C
60 Zone B
50
Zone A
40
30
20
10
0
0.075 0.15 0.3 0.6 1.2 2.4 4.76 9.52
Metric Size (mm)
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 31
Aggregate/Cement Ratio (by weight) with different
Gradings of 38.1mm Irregular Aggregate
Degree of
Very low Low Medium High
Workability
0.35 4.0 3.9 3.5 3.2 3.4 3.3 3.2 2.9 2.9 2.8 2.6 2.5 2.7 2.5 2.3 2.3
0.40 5.3 5.3 4.7 4.3 4.5 4.5 4.2 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.7 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.3 3.1
0.45 6.5 6.5 5.9 5.3 5.6 5.6 5.3 4.8 4.6 4.7 4.6 4.3 4.1 4.4 4.3 4
0.50 7.7 7.7 7.1 6.3 6.7 6.6 6.3 5.7 5.4 5.7 5.5 5.1 4.8 5.2 5.1 4.8
Water/cement ratio 0.55   8.1 7.3 7.6 7.6 7.2 6.6 6.2 6.5 6.3 5.8 x 5.9 6 5.5
by weight 0.60      7.4 7.0 7.3 7.1 6.6 x x 6.7 6.2
0.75  x x  8
0.80 x x  
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 33
Estimated relation between Minimum and Mean Compressive Strengths
of Site Cubes with Additional Data on Coefficient of Variation
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 34
Steps in Mix design
Minimum strength = 30 MPa
Calculation of Mean strength
mean strength = minimum strength / 0.75 (slide # 33)
Cement 3.15
Coarse 2.50
aggregate
Fine aggregate 2.60
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 36
+
fck
σc all.
strain
f ck
σ call . =
F .S .
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 38
Structural Members
Flexural Member
Subjected to transverse loading and resists internal moments and shears.
Transverse
A loading
BEAM
A
B.M.D.
M
F.B.D. showing
V V internal moments
and shears
F.B.D. showing
C
jd internal moments
V V
T as CT couple
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 39
Assumptions
δ is very small.
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 40
Assumptions…
dw/dx
dw/dx
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 41
Assumptions…
x
D d Neutral Plane
εs σs
fck
fy
σs all. σc all.
strain strain
fy
σ sall . =
F .S .
f
σ call . = ck
Prof. A. Mukherjee, F .S .
Civil Engineering,
IITB 43
RCC Flexural Member
Reinforcing steel
Hogging
moment
Continuous Beam
Sagging
moment
Prof. A. Mukherjee, Reinforcing steel
Civil Engineering, 44
IITB
Modular ratio
Es 280
m= =
Ec 3σ c.all
x
D d Neutral Plane
εs σs
d = Effective depth
x = Depth of Neutral axis
εc max = Maximum compressive strain
εs max = Maximum tensile strain
Es = Young’s modulus of steel
Ec = Young’s modulus of concrete
m = Es / Ec = Modular ratio
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 46
εc
Compatibility Relationship:
ε c m ax ε s m ax x
=
x d − x d
(d − x) εs
ε s max = ε c max
x Strain diagram
Constitutive Relationship :
σ c = E cε c & σ s = Esε s
Es
Modular Ratio = m=
Ec
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
σ s = mEc ε c
IITB 47
σc
x
Equilibrium Equations : D d
1. Fs = Fc σs
b Stress diagram
1
But Fc = ∫ σ c d A = σ c m ax xb
2
Fs = σ s As
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 48
1
σ c max xb = σ s As
2
1
Ec ε c max xb = mEc ε s max As
2
(d − x)
ε c max xb = 2m ε c max As
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
x
Civil Engineering,
IITB 49
(d − x)
xb = 2m As
x
x 2 b = 2mdAs − 2mxAs
x b + 2mxAs − 2mdAs = 0
2
Therefore, − 2 m As ± (2 m A s ) 2 + 8 m bdA s
x = , x<d
2b
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
This is a property of cross section and materials.
Civil Engineering,
IITB 50
Equilibrium eqns.
2. Taking moment about reinforcing steel,
x/3
M Fc
x
jd = d – x/3
Fs
M = Fc jd = Fs jd 1 x
M = σ c max xb ( d − )
2 3
x
M = As σ s ( d − )
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 3 51
Balanced Section
x
D d Neutral Plane
εs σs
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 52
Balanced section contd… εc
εc εs
=
x d−x
kd
d
d − x εs
=
x εc εs
Strain diagram
Know,
280
m=
3 * σ call
xbal = kd
therefore,
d − kd σ sall
=
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
kd m * σ call
IITB 53
σ sall 1
= −1
93.33 k
σ sall 1
+1 =
93.33 k
x
lever arm = jd = d
3
k
j = 1 −
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
3 j is the property of steel grade
Civil Engineering,
IITB 54
1 x σc.all
M all = σ call x b (d − ) x/3
2 3
1 kd
M all = σ call k d b (d − ) jd=dx/3
2 3
k k
M all = [ (1  )] σ call b d 2
2 3
Steel grade Concrete Cross
grade section
M all
=R
bd 2 R=Moment of resistance factor
Also, depends on material properties
kd
M all = σ sall As (d
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
)
Civil Engineering, 3
IITB 55
M all
2
=R
bd
Also,
kd
M all = σ sall As (d )
3
M all
As =
σ s jd
As M all
=
bd σ s jbd 2
1 M all Relation between p and M/bd2
p= is dependent on material only
Prof. A. Mukherjee, σ s j bd 2
Civil Engineering,
IITB 56
Design constants for Balanced Section
Fe250 Fe415
Steel
Concrete σsall = 140 N/mm2 σsall = 230 N/mm2
Grade σcall k j R pt k j R pt
M20 7.0 0.4 0.87 1.22 1.00 0.29 0.9 0.91 0.44
M25 8.5 0.4 0.87 1.48 1.21 0.29 0.9 1.11 0.54
M30 10.0 0.4 0.87 1.74 1.43 0.29 0.9 1.31 0.63
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 57
Design example
Given IS
4562000
Moment (M) = 20KNm
Steel Grade is Fe415; σsall = 230MPa refer
table 22
Concrete Grade is M20; σcall = 7 MPa refer
table 21
To Find
Effective depth ‘d’
Area of steel ‘Ast’
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 58
Solution
Assume b = 230mm
For Fe 415 grade steel and M20 grade concrete
R = 0.91 ; pt = 0.44
Now,
d = √ (Mall / R*b)
= √ (20*106 / 0.91*230)
= 309.122 ~ 310 mm
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 59
Reinforced Beam
A Hangers
Links
(Stirrups)
A
Longitudinal Reinforcement
Hangers
Section AA
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering, 60
IITB
Structural Members
Flexural Member
Subjected to transverse loading and resists internal moments and shears.
Transverse
A loading
BEAM
A
B.M.D.
M
F.B.D. showing
V V internal moments
and shears
F.B.D. showing
C
jd internal moments
V V
T as CT couple
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 61
Assumptions
δ is very small.
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 62
Assumptions…
dw/dx
dw/dx
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 63
Assumptions…
x
D d Neutral Plane
εs σs
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 64
RCC Flexural Member
Reinforcing steel
Hogging
moment
Continuous Beam
Sagging
moment
Prof. A. Mukherjee, Reinforcing steel
Civil Engineering, 65
IITB
The stressstrain relationship of steel and concrete, under
working loads, is a straight line.
fck
fy
σs all. σc all.
strain strain
fy
σ sall . =
F .S .
f
σ call . = ck
Prof. A. Mukherjee, F .S .
Civil Engineering,
IITB 66
Modular ratio
Es 280
m= =
Ec 3σ c.all
x
D d Neutral Plane
εs σs
d = Effective depth
x = Depth of Neutral axis
εc max = Maximum compressive strain
εs max = Maximum tensile strain
Es = Young’s modulus of steel
Ec = Young’s modulus of concrete
m = Es / Ec = Modular ratio
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 68
εc
Compatibility Relationship:
ε c m ax ε s m ax x
=
x d − x d
(d − x) εs
ε s max = ε c max
x Strain diagram
Constitutive Relationship :
σ c = E cε c & σ s = Esε s
Es
Modular Ratio = m=
Ec
σ = mEc ε c
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering, s
IITB 69
σc
x
Equilibrium Equations : D d
1. Fs = Fc σs
b Stress diagram
1
But Fc = ∫ σ c d A = σ c m ax xb
2
Fs = σ s As
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 70
1
σ c max xb = σ s As
2
1
Ec ε c max xb = mEc ε s max As
2
(d − x)
ε c max xb = 2m ε c max As
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
x
Civil Engineering,
IITB 71
(d − x)
xb = 2m As
x
x 2 b = 2mdAs − 2mxAs
x b + 2mxAs − 2mdAs = 0
2
Therefore, − 2 m As ± (2 m A s ) 2 + 8 m bdA s
x = , x<d
2b
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
This is a property of cross section and materials.
Civil Engineering,
IITB 72
2. Taking moment about reinforcing steel,
x/3
M Fc
x
jd = d – x/3
Fs
M = Fc jd = Fs jd 1 x
M = σ c max xb ( d − )
2 3
x
M = As σ s ( d − )
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 3 73
Balanced Section
x
D d Neutral Plane
εs σs
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 74
εc
εc εs
=
x d−x
kd
d
d − x εs
=
x εc εs
Strain diagram
Know,
280
m=
3 * σ call
xbal = kd
therefore,
d − kd σ sall
=
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
kd m * σ call
IITB 75
σ sall 1
= −1
93.33 k
σ sall 1
+1 =
93.33 k
x
lever arm = jd = d
3
k
j = 1 −
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
3 j is the property of steel grade
Civil Engineering,
IITB 76
1 x σc.all
M all = σ call x b (d − ) x/3
2 3
1 kd
M all = σ call k d b (d − ) jd=dx/3
2 3
k k
M all = [ (1  )] σ call b d 2
2 3
Steel grade Concrete Cross
grade section
M all
2
=R
bd R=Moment of resistance factor
Also,
depends on material properties
kd
M all
= σ sall As (d )
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
3
IITB 77
M all
2
=R
bd
Also,
kd
M all = σ sall As (d )
3
M all
As =
σ s jd
As M all
=
bd σ s jbd 2
1 M all Relation between p and M/bd2
p=
σ s j bd 2
is dependent on material only
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 78
Design constants for Balanced Section
Fe250 Fe415
Steel
Concrete σsall = 140 N/mm2 σsall = 230 N/mm2
Grade σcall k j R pt k j R pt
M20 7.0 0.4 0.87 1.22 1.00 0.29 0.9 0.91 0.44
M25 8.5 0.4 0.87 1.48 1.21 0.29 0.9 1.11 0.54
M30 10.0 0.4 0.87 1.74 1.43 0.29 0.9 1.31 0.63
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 79
Under Reinforced, Over Reinforced and
Balanced Section
σc = σcall
σ’c
kd
xbal
kd Under
reinforced
balanced
Over reinforced
σ’s
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering, σs= σsall
IITB 80
Reinforced Beam
A Hangers
Links
(Stirrups)
A
Longitudinal Reinforcement
Hangers
Section AA
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering, 81
IITB
Design of Section
Given IS 4562000
Moment (M) = 20KNm
Steel Grade is Fe415; σsall = 230MPa refer table 22
Concrete Grade is M20; σcall = 7 MPa refer table 21
To Find
Effective depth ‘d’
Area of steel ‘Ast’
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 82
Solution
Assume b = 230mm
For Fe 415 grade steel and M20 grade concrete
R = 0.91 ; pt = 0.44
Now,
d = M all / (Rb)
d = (20 *106) / (0.91* 230)
d = 309.122 ≈ 310 mm
Ast = pt*b*d/100 = 0.44*230*310/100 = 313.72 mm2.
Prof. A. Mukherjee, Provide 3 # 12 (3×113=339 mm2)
Civil Engineering,
IITB 83
Design of Beam 1
W =10 KN/m
Simply
Supported
Beam
L = 12 m
52.9 KN
60 KN
60 KN S.F.D.
d =0.71 m
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 84
Material Grade:
Concrete M20 and Steel Fe415
IS – 456:2000
Permissible stresses:
Concrete = σ call = 7 N / m m 2
Table 21
Steel = σ = Table 22
2
sall 230 N / m m
Design Constants:
R = 0.91
Ptbal = 0.44
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 85
Calculation of Depth:
Assume b = 400 mm
M = R b d2
Therefore,
M 1 8 0 x 1 06
d req = =
R b 0.91 x 400
d r e q = 703 m m
Say, 710 mm
Table 16
For moderate exposure
Assuming effective cover = 50 mm
Clear cover=30 mm
σst Ast jd = M
Provide 4 – 20
Ast provided = 1256.63 mm2
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 87
400
Clear gap bet. bars= (4002×304×20)/3
=87mm > 50mm OK
760
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 88
Curtailment of Reinforcement
We will curtail 2 20 dia bars.
Therefore, Ast = 628.32 mm2
Therefore, x = 152.76 mm
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 91
Design for Shear
Shear force at critical section = 52.9 KN Clause 22.6.2.1
Percentage of tension reinforcement,
A st
pt = x 100
bd
628.32
pt = x 100 = 0.22
400 x 710
3) A sv 0.4
≥ Clause 26.5.1.6
bs v 0.87 f y
span = 12 m > 10 m
Basic Value = 20 x 10/12 = 16.67
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 94
Side Face Reinforcement Clause 26.5.13
Since the depth of the beam exceeds 750 mm,
side face reinforcement shall be provided.
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 95
Reinforcement Details
2 legged 8 stirrups @ 225 c/c
B A
2 # 20 B 2 # 20
A
300 1020 9660 1020 300
400 400
2 # 10
4 # 10
760
4 # 20 2 # 20
Clear cover
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Top & bottom = 30 mm
Civil Engineering,
IITB Section BB Side = 25 mm Section AA 96
Design of Beams 2
• Design a fixed beam with concrete grade M20 and steel
Fe415.
Effective span of beam= 10 m
Superimposed Load = 80 KN/m ( including finishing load )
Width of beam= 500 mm (say)
Solution
Assume overall depth of beam=1500 mm (To calculate self
wt of beam)
If required depth is more than assumed then revise the
calculations.
Loading:
Superimposed Load = 80 KN/m
Self weight = 25 x 0.5 x 1.5 = 18.75 KN/m
Prof. A. Mukherjee, 98.75 KN/m
Civil Engineering,
IITB Say 100 KN/m 97
100 KN/m
Fixed
10 m Beam
833.32 KNm
416.6 KNm
B.M.D
500 KN
500 KN
S.F.D
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 98
Material Grade:
Concrete M20 and Steel Fe415
IS – 456:2000
Permissible stresses:
σ = Table 21
Concrete = call
2
7 N / m m
σ = Table 22
Steel = sall
2
230 N / m m
Design Constants:
R = 0.91
Ptbal = 0.44
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 99
Calculation of Depth:
b = 500 mm
M = R b d2
Therefore,
M 8 3 3 . 3 3 x 1 06
d req = =
R b 0.91 x 500
d r e q = 1353 m m
Say, 1360 mm Table 16
For moderate exposure
Assuming effective cover = 80 mm
Clear cover=30 mm
σst Ast jd = M
σst Ast jd = M
Provide 5 20
i.e. Area of steel = 5*314
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
= 1570 mm2
Civil Engineering,
IITB 102
Curtailment of midspan Reinforcement
We will curtail 2 20 dia bars.
Therefore, Ast = 628.32 mm2
Therefore, x = 237.4506 mm
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 105
Design for Shear
Shear force at critical section = 364 KN Clause 22.6.2.1
Percentage of tension reinforcement,
A st
pt = x 100
bd
3220
pt = x 100 = 0.47
500 x 1360
ANNEX B
σsv Asv d 230 x 100 x 1360 B5.4
sv = =
Vs 166.8 x 103
Sv = 187.5mm
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 107
1) 0.75 d = 0.75 x 1360 = 1020.0 mm
2) 300 mm
0.87 × 415 × 100
sv = = 180.5mm
3) 0.4 × 500
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 108
As shear force goes on reducing towards centre, we can increase
the spacing of stirrups in the middle zone.
We will provide 2 legged 8 stirrups @ 300 c/c.
Shear carrying capacity of nominal stirrups,
230 x 100 x 1360
Vn =
300
Vn = 104.26 KN
Area of tension reinforcement in mid span = 1570 mm2
Ast
Pt = x 100
bd
1570
Pt = x 100 = 0.23 %
500 x 1360
Table 23
Prof. A. Mukherjee, Therefore, τc = 0.212 N/mm2
Civil Engineering,
IITB 109
Shear carrying capacity of section,
= Vn + Vc
= τc bd + Vn
= 0.212 x 500 x 1360 + 104260
= 247 KN
Distance from centre where this SF will be reached = 247/100=2.47m
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 110
Reinforcement Details
A B
1500 5# 20 3# 20
8 2 Lstps @ 180 c/c 8 2 Lstirrups @ 300 c/c 8 2 Lstps @ 180 c/c
3000 4000 3000
A 4# 25 B 2# 25
Clear cover
4# 20
Top & bottom = 30 mm
Side = 25 mm
8 2 Lstps @ 180 c/c Side face 8 2 Lstirrups @ 300 c/c
reinforcement
1440 3 on each face
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering, 3# 20 5# 20 Section BB111
Section
IITB
AA 500
Uncertainties in Design
Loads
σ ult
σ all =
Materials
We have so far limited
the maximum stress in
the materials to take care FS
of both
30
25
A
The allowable stresses
are obtained by dividing 20
STRESS N/mm2
the limiting stresses of 15
B
material by factor of C
10
art
safety.
rp
5
ea
Lin
0 o
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
% STRAIN
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Typical Stress strain curve for
Civil Engineering, concrete
IITB 113
Limitations of Working Stress Method
• Ignores uncertainties in different types of load.
• Does not use the full range of strains in the material.
• Therefore, disregards the nonlinear part of the material
curve.
• Considers failure as a function of stress while it is a
function of strain.
• Stress as a measure of safety does not give true margin of
safety against failure. A stress factor of safety 3 for
concrete does not mean that the member will fail at a load
three times the working load.
• The structure must carry loads safely. It is logical to use
the method based on load causing failure.
• The additional load carrying capacity of the structure due
to redistribution of moment can not be accounted for.
• Produces conservative designs.
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 114
Ultimate Load Method
• The loads are enhanced by load factor
• Design load = LF * service load
• The method uses total stressstrain curves of the
material.
• Strain based failure.
• LF=3 means the structure has 3 times more
capacity
• Since the method considers the plastic region of
the stressstrain curve also, it utilizes the reserve
capacity of the member.
• Uncertainty in load only is considered. Uncertainty
in material is ignored.
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 115
Ultimate Load Method
Strain Stress
Prof. A. Mukherjee, Diagram Diagram
Civil Engineering,
IITB 116
Limit State Method
• Combines the concept of ultimate load method
and working stress method. Partial factor of
safety on materials and load factor on loads.
• Uncertainties of both materials and loads can be
considered realistically
• Different limit states are considered – collapse,
servicability and durability.
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 117
Methods of Design
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 118
Stressstrain curves for Concrete
fck ULM
M
LS
STRESS
Experimental
SM
W
0.002
STRAIN
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 119
Limit States
The structure must be fit to perform its function
satisfactorily during its service life span. The condition
or the state at which the structure, or part of a
structure becomes unfit for its use is called Limit State.
Three types of Limit States:
Load
Limit State of Collapse Limit State of Serviceability
Combinations
DL IL WL DL IL WL
Notes:
1. While considering earthquake effects, substitute EL for WL.
2. For the limit states of serviceability, the values of γf given in this table
are applicable for short term effects. While assessing the long term
effects due to creep the dead load and that part of the live load likely to
be permanent may only be considered.
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
* This value to be considered when stability against overturning or stress
Civil Engineering,
reversal is critical. 121
IITB
Partial Safety Factor γm for Material Strength
Clause 36.4.2
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 123
Assumptions contd….
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 124
Idealized StressStrain Curve for Concrete
fck
STRESS (MPa)
0.67fck
0.67 fck / γm
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 125
Stress strain curve for Mild Steel
fy fy
0.87fy fy /1.15
STRAIN
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 126
Stress –strain curve for Deformed Bars
0.975 fy
fy fy
0.95 fy
0.90 fy fy/1.15
0.85 fy
0.80 fy
STRESS
Es = 200000 N/mm2
d N.A.
O
d  0.42 xu,max
Tu Tu
0.87f y
εs =
Es
+ 0.002
Actual Stress Idealized
Diagram Stress
Strain Diagram
Diagram
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 128
Stress Block Parameters contd….
D 0.446 fck C
Area of the stress block = Area of rectangle ABCD 0.42 xu,max
0.43 xu ,max
Cu
+ Area of parabola OAD
A B
= 0.191 fck xumax + 0.169 fck xumax
0.57 xu ,max
= 0.36 fck xumax
O
d  0.42 xu,max
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 129
Maximum Depth of Neutral Axis
b
εcu = 0.0035 From Strain Diagram,
x u max 0 . 0035
=
d − x u max (0 . 002 + 0 . 87 f y E s )
xu,max
d x u max 0 . 0035
N.A. =
d (0 . 0055 + 0 . 87 f y E s )
Xumax depends on grade of steel.
Values of xumax/d
0.87f y for different grades of steel
εs = + 0.002
Es
fy N/mm2 250 415 500
Strain
Diagram xumax/d 0.531 0.479 0.456
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 130
Singly Reinforced Rectangular Section
b
0.42 xu,max
Cu = 0.36fck b xumax
Tu =0.87 fy Ast
Tu = Cu , gives
0.87 fy Ast = 0.36 fck b xumax
pt,lim =(Ast/bd) x 100 = (0.36 fck b xumax/0.87 fy bd) x 100
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 131
Limiting moment of resistance and
reinforcement index for singly reinforced
rectangular sections
M u, lim
0.149 0.138 0.133
2
f ck bd
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 132
Limiting moment of resistance factor
Mu,lim/bd2, for singly reinforced
rectangular sections
fck, N/mm2 fy, N/mm2
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 133
Maximum percentage of tensile
reinforcement pt,lim for singly reinforced
rectangular sections
fck, N/mm2 fy, N/mm2
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 134
Singly Reinforced Section
Under Reinforced Section
• pt < pt,lim
• Steel yields before the concrete crushes in
compression
• Since Ast < Ast,max , xu < xu,max
• Failure is characterized by substantial
deflection and excessive cracking giving
ample warning of impending failure.
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering, 135
IITB
Under Reinforced , Over Reinforced and
Balanced Section
εc =0.0035 0.446 fck
< εc
Xu,lim
Under Reinforced
Balanced
Over Reinforced
<εs
Section
fy
ε s = 0.002 +
Prof. A. Mukherjee, 1.15 × Es
Civil Engineering,
IITB 136
Analysis Problem
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 137
Flow Chart for Find out Pt.lim and Pt
Analysis Problem
Pt < Pt,lim Pt = Pt,lim Pt > Pt,lim
Under Reinforced Balanced Over Reinforced
xu = xu,lim
Find out Tu = 0.87 fy Ast Take, xu = xu,lim
since over
Assume, xu reinforced section
Assume higher value of xu & repeat
is not permitted
Find area of
stress block ie Cu
Cu < Tu Cu = Tu Cu > Tu
Mur = 0.87 fy Ast ( d – 0.42 xu,lim )
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Find lever arm from stress block
Civil Engineering,
IITB Mur = Cu or Tu x Lever arm 138
Example 1:
A RC beam of rectangular section 230mm wide and
400 mm deep is reinforced with 4 bars of 12mm
diameter provided with an clear cover of 25mm.
Calculate the ultimate moment of resistance of the
section and the maximum uniformly distributed
superimposed load this beam can carry if it is
simply supported over a span of 3.5m. The material
used are concrete grade M20 and steel grade
Fe415.
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 139
Example 1: contd…..
Given:
fck =20 N/mm2, fy=415 N/mm2, b=230mm, D=400mm, Ast=4
#12 = 4 x 113 = 452 mm2, L=3.5m
Effective depth = d = D – d’ = 400 31 = 369mm
Pt=452X100/(230X369)=0.532<0.96, underreinforced
Tu = 0.87 fy Ast
= 0.87 x 415 x 452 = 163194.6 N εc = 0.001414
Assume, xu = 100 mm
εc = 0.0038 x 100 / 269
= 0.001414 269
Since, εc < 0.002, Stress block is
parabolic. fy
Stress corresponding to strain 0.001414
ε s = 0.002 +
1.15 × Es
= 0.00380
Moment of Resistance,
Mur = Cu x Lever arm Tu = 163194.6 N
= 162957.3 x 323.5
= 52.72 kNm
For Simply Supported Beam, Mu = wu L2/ 8
52. 72 = wu (3.5)2/8 , wu = 34.43 kN/m
Safe load, wsafe = wu / 1.5 = 22.95 kN/m
Allowable superimposed Load = wsafe – wdead
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
= 22.95 – 25 x 0.23 x 0.4 = 20.65 kN/m
Civil Engineering,
IITB 142
Analysis Problem
( Simplified Approach )
b
Given:
fck =20 N/mm2, fy=415 N/mm2, b=230mm, D=400mm,
Ast=4#12 = 4 x 113 = 452 mm2, L=3.5m
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 145
Example 2:
A rectangular beam simply supported at its ends carries a uniformly
distributed superimposed load of 25 kN/m over a simply supported
span of 6m. The width of beam is 300mm. The characteristic strength
of concrete is 20 N/mm2 and that of steel is 500N/mm2. Design
smallest section of the beam. ( By LSM)
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 146
Example 2: contd…
29.5 kN/m
6m
BMD
199.125 kNm
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 147
Example 2: contd…
300
Clear cover = 30 mm
Effective cover = 30 + 8 + 20 +25/2
575 =70.5 mm
Therefore D = 500 + 70.5 =570.5mm
2#12
say 575 mm
Spacer bar
< 600 mm
Assumed initially
3 #20
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 149
Flanged Sections ( T and L beams)
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 151
Effective width of flange: ( Clause 23.1.2 )
L1 L2 a) For Tbeams:
l0
bf = + bw + 6 D f ≤ b(actual width)
6
b): For LBeams
l0
bf = + bw + 3D f ≤ b (actual width)
L 12
A C) For isolated beams, the
A
effective flange width shall be
b = L1/2 + L2/2 obtained as below but in no case
greater than actual width.
l0
For Tbeam, b f = + bw
l0
bf bf bf b +4
Df
0.5l0
For Lbeam, b f = + bw
l0
bw bw bw
b +4
Section AA Note: For continuous beams and
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering, frames l0 may be assumed as 0.7 times
IITB effective span. 152
Properties of Flanged Section
Case 1 Case 2
xu < D f xu < D f
( N.A. lies inside the ( N.A. lies outside the
flange.) flange.)
Case 2a Case 2b
3xu/7 > Df 3xu/7 < Df
( Rectangular part of ( Rectangular part of
the stress block greater the stress block less
Prof. A. Mukherjee, than Df) than Df)
Civil Engineering,
IITB 153
Case 1: Neutral axis lying inside the flange ie Xu< Df
In this case flanged beam can be considered as a rectangular
beam of width b = bf and expression for Xu, Mur and Ast for
singly reinforced beam can be used by replacing b by bf.
bf
Df Xu Cu =0.36 fck bf
N.A.
d (d – 0.42 Xu )
bw
= Tu
(bf – bw)/2 (bf – bw)/2
0.446 fck
0.446 fck
Df Df/2
0.42 Xu Cuf
Xu Cuw N. A. N. A.
N. A. N. A. d
d
( d – 0.42 Xu ) + Astf Mu,flange
( d – Df/2)
Astw Mu,web Tuw Tuf
bw = 0.446 fck
(bf – bw)/2 (bf – bw)/2 0.446 fck
yf yf/2
0.42 Xu Df
Cuf
Xu Cuw
N. A.
d
N. A.
( d – 0.42 Xu )
+ N. A.
d
N. A.
( d – yf/2)
Astw Mu,web Mu,flange Astf
Tuw Tuf
A
10 m
SECTION AA
5m
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 158
Imposed load on slab = 12.5 kN/m2
Assumed
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
beam depth 1200mm
Civil Engineering,
IITB 159
Self weight of beam web = (1.2
0.15)*0.5*25
= 13.125
kN/m
Total load = (81.75+13.125) kN/m
= 94.875 kN/m
Factored load =1.5*94.875 = 142.3
kN/m
Maximum sagging moment at span
(Mu)= 593 kNm
For T beams, from
Cl 23.1.2(a)
bf=L0/6+bw+6Df page37
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 160
142.3 kN/m
Fixed
10 m Beam
1186 KNm
S.F.D
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 161
bf=L0/6+bw+6Df
L0=Distance between points of zero
moments=5.78 m
bw=500 mm
Df=150 mm
bf=5.78/6+500+6*150=2360 mm
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 162
2360
150
1200 1000
500
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 165
Compression
steel
Doubly Reinforced Section
Tension
Steel
¾ If high bending moment exists over a relatively short length of the beam
only (e.g. over supports of a continuous beam.)
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 166
Properties of Doubly Reinforced Section
b
dc εcu = 0.0035
Depth of N.A. ( Xu) εsc
Cu2
Asc Cu1
xu
Equating total compression ( in concrete and d
compression steel) with total tension (in steel) , D N.A.
Cu = Tu d – 0.42 Xu
(d –dc)
Ast
0.36 fck b xu + (fsc – fcc) Asc = 0.87 fy Ast Tu
εs
Cu1 Cu2 Tu d’
fsc = stress in the compression steel corresponding to εsc. It can obtained from the strain diagram, and is given
by : εsc = 0.0035(1dc/xu)
For mild steel (Fe250), fsc = εsc Es =< 0.87 fy
For HYSD bars, the values of fsc are obtained from stressstrain diagram of HYSD Bars
corresponding to values of εsc for different ratios dc/d.
Stress in compression reinforcement fsc N/mm2
in doubly reinforced section with HYSD Bars
fy, dc/d
N/mm2 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20
415 355 353 342 329
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering, 500 424 412 395 370
IITB 167
Properties of Doubly Reinforced Section
Moment of Resistance (Mur):
The ultimate moment of resistance is obtained by taking
moments of Cu1 (concrete) and Cu2 (compression steel) about
centroid of tension steel.
b
dc εcu = 0.0035
Cu2
Asc εsc
xu Cu1
N.A. d
D
d – 0.42 Xu
(d –dc)
Ast
Tu
εs
d’
Mur = Mu1 + Mu2
= 0.36 fck b Xu (d – 0.42 Xu) + (fsc – fcc) Asc ( d – dc)
Note: In design, the section is kept balanced to make full utilization of
moment of resistance of concerte. Therefore, Mu = Mur = Mu1 + Mu2
where, Mu1 = Mur,max (ie Mu,lim) of a singly reinforced balanced section
Prof. A. Mukherjee, and Mu2 = Mu – Mur,max , this moment will be resisted by
Civil Engineering,
compression steel. 168
IITB
Properties of Doubly Reinforced Section
Area of holes = Asc
1.Area of tension steel Ast:
dc
Mu = Mur = Mu1 + Mu2 Asc Asc
xu
For section I resisting moment Mu1, N.A.
Mu1 = 0.87 fy Ast1 ( d – 0.42 Xu)
d
= + d dc
Solution
Assume overall depth of beam=800 mm (To calculate self
wt of beam)
Loading:
Superimposed Load = 85 kN/m
Slab Load = 25 x 0.12 x 3.0 = 9 kN/m
Beam load= 25 x (0.8 – 0.12) x .450 = 7.65 kN/m
Total 101.65 kN/m ~ 102 kN/m
Factored load = 1.5*101.65 = 152.5kN/m ~ 153kN/m
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 170
153 kN/m
Cantilever
10 m Beam
1275 kNm
2.11 m
637.5kNm
B.M.D
656 kN
765 kN
d = 0.72 m
510 KN
S.F.D
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering, 171
IITB
Material Grade:
Concrete M20 and Steel Fe415
Maximum B.M. at support = WL2/12 =153
x 102/12
= 1275 kNm
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 173
bf = 2133 Mu,flange = 0.36 fck bf Df (d – 0.42 Df )
= 1284.7 kNm > Mu
Df =120
Hence N.A. lies in flange and section
acts as a rectangular section.
800
747.5 Ast ,req =
0.5 f ck 1 − 1 − 4.6M u2 bd
fy f ck bd
0.5 × 20 4.6 × 637.5 ×106
450 × 747.5
Ast ,req = 1− 1−
415 20 × 450 × 747.52
bw =450 Ast ,req = 2872.20mm 2
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 174
Design of doubly reinforced section (at support) : Mu= 1275 kNm
For M20 and Fe415 , Ru = 2.76 and Pt = 0.96
D = 800 mm , b = 450 mm
As we need doubly reinforced section, higher effective cover will be
assumed. Say d’ = 80 mm
Effective depth d = 800 – 80 = 720 mm
Mu,lim = Rubd2 = 2.76 x 450 x 7202 = 643.82 kNm < Mu
631 .18 × 10 6
Ast 2 =
0 .87 × 415 (720 − 50 )
Ast 2 = 2609 .2 mm 2
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 176
Calculation of compression steel Asc:
0.87 f y Ast 2
Asc =
f sc
fsc = stress in compression steel which can be calculated from (dc/d)
dc/ d = 50 / 720 = 0.0694 fsc = 354 N/mm2 Refer Table F of SP
 16
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 177
Curtailment of Support Reinforcement
As per Clause 26.2.3.4,
At least onethird of the total reinforcement provided for negative
moment at the support shall extend beyond the point inflection for a
distance not less than the effective depth of the member or 12Ф or
onesixteenth of the clear span whichever is greater.
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 178
Design for Shear
Factored Shear force at critical section Vu= 656 kN Clause 22.6.2.1
ζcmax = Vu/bd = 2.023 N/mm2 < 2.8 N/mm2 Clause 40.2.3
Percentage of tension reinforcement,
Ast 5880
Pt = ×100 = × 100
b×d 450 × 720
Pt = 1.8%
Therefore, τc = 0.758 N/mm2 Clause 40.2.1
Hence
Prof. A. Mukherjee, shear reinforcement is required.
Civil Engineering,
IITB 179
166.8 x 10
Design shear Vs = Vu – Vc
= 655.5 – 245.6
= 409.9 KN
3) A sv ≥ 0.4
Clause 26.5.1.6
bs v 0.87 f y
Provision 26.5.1.6 need not be complied with when the maximum shear
stress calculated is less than half the permissible value and in members
of minor structural importance such as lintels.
Percentage of tension steel in midspan,
Ast 2940
Pt = ×100 = ×100 = 0.87%
bw d 450 × 745.5
τc =0.589 N/mm2 Table 19
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 183
Check for Deflection Clause 23.2.1
span = 10 m
Basic Value = 26
Modification Factor = 1.1
Refer Fig. 4 of
(Depends on area and stress of steel
IS 456:2000
in tension reinforcement)
Reduction Factor = 0.8 Refer Fig.6
Clause 23.2.1e)
( Depends on ratio of bw/bf )
Modified Basic Value = 26 x 1.1 x 0.8 = 22.88
L / d = 10 / 0.745 = 13.42 < 22.88
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 184
Reinforcement Details
400
A B
6# 25 4# 25
2655
6# 25
6# 25
800 680
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering, 6# 25 6# 25 Section BB185
Section
IITB
AA 450
Slabs
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 186
Distribution of loads
P=2Px+2Py
Px L3x Py L3y
δ = 24 EI
= 24 EI
Lx < L y
→ Px >> Py
Ly P
Lx
= 2
→ Px = 8
y
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering, Py
IITB 187
Classification of Slabs
Ly
Ly
slab
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 188
12000
5000 5000 5000 5000
Slabbeam arrangement.
Width of beam = 300 mm,
Live load = 5 kN/m2 , Floor finish Load = 1 kN/m2
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering, Design slab and show reinforcement details.
IITB 189
Lx = 5000 mm ( Shorter dimension of slab )
Ly = 12000 mm ( Longer dimension of slab)
Ly/Lx = 12000 / 5000 = 2.4 > 2.0 , Hence one way slab.
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 190
Calculation of Loads:
Dead Load = 25 x 0.175 = 4.375 kN/m2
Finish Load = 1 kN/m2
Total Dead Load = 5.5 kN/m2
Live Load = 5 = 5.0 kN/m2
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 191
Influence lines for continuous
beams
BM at Penultimate Support
BM at end span
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 192
Calculation of B.M. (Refer Table = 12 , Clause 22.5.1)
D. L. = 8.1 kN/m2 (1/12) x 8.1 x 52 (1/16) x 8.1 x 52  (1/10) x 8.1 x 52  (1/12) x 8.1 x 52
= 16.88 kNm/m =12.65 kN m/m = 20.25 kN  m/m = 16.88 kN  m/m
L. L. = 7.5 kN/m2 (1/10) x 7.5 x 52 (1/12) x 7.5 x 52  (1/9) x 7.5 x 52  (1/9 x 7.5 x 52
= 18.75 kN m/m = 15.62 kN m/m  20.83 kN m/m
= = 20.83 kN  m/m
Depth ‘ d ‘   122 mm 
from BM < 150 mm
Ast, reqd
( Ref Table 41 , 12 @ 150 mm c/c 12 @200 mm c/c 12 @ 130 mm c/c 12 @ 140 mm c/c
SP16)
ζc ( Table 19) 0.36 N/mm2 0.50 N/mm2 0.50 N/mm2 0.49 N/mm2
Hence,
Prof. A. Mukherjee, Shear reinforcement is not required.
Civil Engineering,
IITB * Half steel is curtailed. 194
Distribution Steel: (Clause 26.5.2.1)
For deformed bars 0.12% (of total C/S area) reinforcement
shall be provided.
Ast = 0.12 x 1000 x 175 /100 = 210 mm2
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 195
Check for Deflection Clause 23.2.1
span = 5 m
Basic Value = 26
Modification Factor = 1.25 Refer Fig. 4 of
(Depends on area and stress of steel IS 456:2000
in tension reinforcement , Pt =0.5)
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 196
Symmetrical
about
1500 1500 1500 CL 1500
500
750 750 750 750
c d e e d h i i h
a b b g f f g 175
5000 5000
Distribution steel
PLAN SHOWING TOP REINFORCEMENT DETAILS
a – 12 dia @ 300 c/c b – 12 dia @ 300 c/c g – 12 dia @ 400 c/c f – 12 dia @ 400 c/c 8 dia @ 230 c/c ( top &
bottom )
Simply Supported
Restrained Slabs
Slabs
(Corners of a slab are
prevented from lifting) (Corners of a slab are not
prevented from lifting)
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 198
Restrained Two Way Slabs ( D1 , IS 456:2000 )
D11 The maximum bending moments per unit width in a slab are
given by the following equations:
Mx = αxwLx2 and My = αywLx2
Where,
Mx, My = moments on strips of unit width spanning Lx
and Ly respectively.
w = total design load per unit area.
Lx and Ly = Lengths of the shorter span and longer
span respectively.
αx and αy are coefficients given in table 26 ( IS 456:2000)
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 199
Restrained Two Way Slabs
Provision of Reinforcement:
• Slabs are divided in each direction into middle strips and edge strips. The
middle strip being threequarters of the width and each edge strip one
eight of the width.
Ly Ly
For Span Ly
Ly/8 ¾ Ly Ly/8
For Span Lx
• Maximum moments calculated as per clause D11 apply only to
Prof.the middle strips and no redistribution shall be made.
A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 200
Restrained Two Way Slabs
Provision of Reinforcement contd..
• Tension reinforcement provided at midspan in the middle strip shall
extend in the lower part of the slab to within 0.25L of a continuous
edge, or 0.15L of a discontinuous edge.
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 202
Reinforcement Detailing for restrained two way slab
Annexure D , D1.22 to D1.10 ,
IS 456:2000
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 203
Simply supported Two Way Slabs ( D2 , IS 456:2000 )
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 204
Design Example
Design a R.C. slab for a room measuring 6.5m x 5 m. The slab is to
be cast monolithically over the beams with corners held down. The
width of the supporting beams is 200mm. The slab carries
superimposed load of 3kN/m2. Use M20 grade of concrete and Fe415
steel.
200mm
6.5 m
200mm
5.0 m
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 205
Effective span, Lx = 5000 + 200/2 + 200/2 = 5200 mm
Ly = 6500 + 200/2 + 200/2 = 6700 mm
Note: Effective span = c/c distance between support or clear span + d , whichever is
smaller. ( Clause 22.2 a )
Here effective span is taken as c/c distance between support.
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 206
Calculation of Loads:
Consider 1m width of slab ie b = 1000 mm
Dead Load = 25 x 0.225 = 5.625 kN/m
Live Load = 3 x 1 = 3.0 kN/m
Total Load = 8.625 kN/m
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 207
Ly / Lx = 1.29 , Four edges discontinuous
( Refer table 26 , IS 456:2000)
‘ d ’ from
Span α M BM Ast
consideration
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 208
Distribution Steel: (Clause 26.5.2.1)
For deformed bars 0.12% (of total C/S area) reinforcement shall be
provided.
Ast = 0.12 x 1000 x 225 /100 = 270 mm2
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 209
Check for Shear:
(a) Long discontinuous edge
Vu,max = wu Lx [β / (2β + 1)] where β = Ly/Lx=1.29
= 24.25 kN
ζu= 0.12 N/mm2
Area of tension steel = 385 mm2
Pt= 0.1925 %
ζc, perm = 0.32 N/mm2 > ζu
Hence shear reinforcement is not required.
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 210
Check for Deflection Clause 23.2.1
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 211
Torsion Steel:
All the edges are discontinuous edges.
Area of steel @ midspan=Astx = 385 mm2
Torsion reinforcement = 0.75Astx
= 289 mm2
This reinforcement shall be provided in the form
of grid and should be extended from the edges
for a distance Lx/5 =1040 mm
Using 8 dia bars.
Spacing = 50 x 1000/289 = 173 mm
Provide 8 dia bars at 170 c/c.
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering, 212
IITB
Reinforcement Detailing
520
520 Note: Reinforcement along shorter
span (Lx) shall be provided @
bottom.
225
225
1040
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering, Plan showing Bottom Plan showing Top 1040
IITB Reinforcement Reinforcement 213
Clear cover = 20 mm
Design of Compression members
600
425 φ
450 420 φ
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 218
Here Ag=600*450 mm 2 (steel neglected)
Now steel provided
425 φ at corners : 4 *491 = 1964 mm 2
420 φ additional : 4* 314 = 1256 mm 2
Total longitudinal steel provided = 3220 mm 2
Since P0 = fccAg+(fscfcc)Asc
Po=).446*20*600*450 + (0.79*415
0.446*20)*3220
=3435
KN
This is the factored capacity. Hence load
carrying capacity of this column is 4260 KN.
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 219
Code requirements for reinforcement and detailing
Clause 26.5.3.1
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 221
Transverse Reinforcement
Clause 26.5.3.2
All longitudinal reinforcement in a compression
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 223
Helical reinforcement
Pitch – Helical reinforcement shall be regular
formation with the turns of the helix spaced evenly
and its ends shall be anchored properly by
providing one and a half extra turns of the spiral
bar.
The diameter and pitch of the spiral may be
e
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Axial loading
Civil Engineering, Uniaxial eccentric loading Biaxial eccentric loading
IITB 225
Design of short columns under
compression with uniaxial bending
5
e=infinity Tension
e=eb Xu,b
4
εy Xu, min
3
εc,min
2 e=eD Compression
1
e=0, x=infinity Pivot εcu=0.002
D
Xu=D
εcu=0.0035
Xu>D
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB Strain Profiles 227
Strain Profiles 1. The strain corresponding to e=0
(Mu=0) is limited to εcu=0.002 at the
limit state of collapse in compression.
5
e=∞ 5. This is equivalent to pure flexure
e=eb Xu,b (Pu=0) and at the limit state of collapse
4
εy Xu, min the strains is specified as εcu=0.0035.
3
εc,min 2 e=eD 3D/7 Strain profile for within above limiting
1
e=0, x=∞ Pivot cases is nonuniform and assumed to
Xu=D be linearly varying across the section.
Xu>D
2. This occurs when the entire section
is in compression and NA lies outside
4. This refers to ultimate limit state the section (Xu>D), the code limits the
wherein the yielding of the outermost strain as εc==0.00350.75εc,min
steel on tension side and the attainment
3. This limiting condition occurs when
of maximum compressive strain in
the resultant neutral axis coincides
concrete (0.0035) at the highly
with the edge farthest removed from
compressed edge of the column occur
the highly compressed edge, i.e.
simultaneously. (e=eb)
Xu=D, correspondingly e=eD.
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 228
AxialLoad Moment Interaction
The design strength of uniaxial eccentrically loaded short
Column depends on axial compression component (Pur) and
Corresponding moment Component (Mur= Pur* e).
Pur = Cc+ Cs and Mur= Mc+ Ms
Thus given an arbitrary value of e, it is possible to arrive at the
design strength but only after first locating NA which can be
achieved by considering moments of forces Cc and Cs about the
eccentric line of action of Pur, but the expression for Cc and Cs in
terms of Xu are such that, in general, it will not be possible to
obtain a closedform solution in terms of e. The relation is
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
highly nonlinear,
Civil Engineering, requiring a trialanderror solution. 229
IITB
Interaction Envelope
Concrete crushes
before steel yields
Note:
Prof. Any combination
A. Mukherjee, of P and M outside the envelope will cause failure.
Civil Engineering,
IITB 231
Analysis for design strength
XU <= D XU >D
Centriodal axis Centriodal axis
Highly compressed edge
D D
Neutral axis
Xu 3D/7

εsi
+
0.002
0.0035 εcu
Csi 0.0035
Cc
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB x x 233
By simple integration, it is possible to derive
expression for a and x for case (a) Xu<=D
and for the case (b) Xu>D
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering, 40
IITB 237
500 6 – 25 φ
300 8 φ ties
40
0 . 0 0 3 5* (5 0 0  6 0 . 5)
x u, b = = 2 1 0 . 0 6 m m (< D / 2 = 2 5 0 m m )
0.0035+ 0.003805
Strains in steel
εs1=() εy= 0.003805 (tensile)
εs2=  0.0035*(250210.3)/210.6=0.000655 (tensile)
εs3=0.0035*(210.660.5)/210.6=0.002495 (compression)
>0.002
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 239
Similarly calculating stresses in steel:
Mub,x = Mc + Ms
Mc = Cc (0.5 D – 0.416 xu )
= 571.8*(250.416*210.6)=92.85 kNm
Ms = Σ Csiyi
=(360.9)*(189.5)+(131)*0+(345
0.447*25)(189.5)]*982=129.3 kNm
Mub,x = Mc + Ms
= 92.85+129.3=221.15 kNm
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 241
Example  Design Problem
Using the interaction diagram given in SP 16,
design the longitudinal reinforcement in a
rectangular reinforced concrete column of size
300*600 subjected to a factored load of 1400
kN and a factored moment of 280 kNm with
respect to the major axis. Assume M 20
concrete and Fe 415 steel.
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 242
As D=600 mm, the spacing between the
corner bars will exceed 300 mm, hence
inner rows of bars have to be provided to
satisfy detailing requirement. Assume
equal reinforcement on all four sides.
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 243
Assuming an effective cover d` =60 mm
Therefore d`/D = 60/600=0.1
pu=Pu/fck bD=(1400*103)/(20*300*600)=0.389
mu=Mu/fck b2=(280*106)/(20*300*600)2=0.130
300
4  28 φ 4  22 φ
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 246
Short columns under axial
compression with biaxial bending
Mu = M 2u x + M 2u y
The resultant eccentricity e=Mu/Pu may be obtained
as
e= e2 u x + e2u y
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 247
Resultant moment
Y
Y
Pu Muy
Muy Mu = M 2u x + M 2u y
Pu
Mux
X Mux
X
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 248
Interaction envelope for biaxially
loaded column
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 249
Interaction curve for Biaxial Bending
and Axial Load
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 250
Interaction between uniaxial moments:
αn αn
M ux M uy
+ ≤1
M
ux1 M uy1
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 251
αn depends on the Pu . For low axial
loads it is 1 and for high loads it is 2. In between it is
related as
where,
Puz= Pu normalized with the maximum axial load
capacity
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 252
Design of biaxially loaded column
Example
A column of 400 X 400, in the ground floor of
a building is subjected to factored loads:
Pu=1300kN, Mux=190kNm and Muy=110kNm
The unsupported length of the column is
3.5m.
Design the reinforcement in the column,
assuming M25 concrete and Fe 415 steel.
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 253
Here,
Dx=Dy=400 mm, l=3500 mm, Pu =1300 kN,
Mux=190 kNm, Muy=110 kNm
Assuming an effective length factor k=0.85 (table 28)
Effective length can be calculated as,
lex=ley=0.85*3500=2975 mm
Eccentricity= lex/Dx=ley/Dy
=2975/400=7.44 <12 (Clause 25.1.2)
Hence the column is a short column.
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 254
Checking for minimum eccentricities
ex=190000/1300=146 mm
ey=110000/1300=84.6 mm
Minimum eccentricity:
As,reqd=3.5*4002/100=5600 mm 2
which is greater than Mux = 190 kNm & Muy = 110 kNm
Calculating Puz and αn ,
Puz = 0.45 f ck Ag + (0.75 f y  0 .45 f ck ) Asc
Pu z = (0 . 4 5* 2 5* 4 0 0 2 ) + (0 . 7 5* 4 1 5  0 . 4 5  2 5) *5 8 9 2 = 3 5 6 8k N
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 258
Check under biaxial loading
400
12 – 25 φ
400
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
40 mm
Civil Engineering,
IITB 261
Euler buckling load
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 263
Effective Length (clause 25.2 )
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 264
Code recommendations for k factor for
various boundary conditions (Annex E  3)
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 266
Code requirements on slenderness limits
Clause 25.4
All columns shall be designed for
minimum eccentricity,
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 268
Design of short column under axial loading
Under pure axial loading conditions, the design strength of a
short column is obtainable as,
P0= CC+CS
= fccAc+fscAsc
=>P0 = fccAg+(fscfcc)Asc
P0 = fccAg+(fscfcc)Asc
Pu = 0.447fckAg+(fsc 0.447fck)Asc
fsc = 0.870 fy for Fe 250
0.790 fy for Fe 415
0.746 fy for Fe 500
Where
Ag = gross area of crosssection = Ac+Asc
Asc = total area of longitudinal reinforcement = ΣAsi
Ac = net area of concrete in the section= Ag  Asc
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 269
As explained earlier code requires all
columns designed for “minimum
eccentricities” in loading. When the
minimum eccentricity as per clause
25.4 does not exceed 0.05 times the
lateral dimension, the member may be
designed by the following equation
(clause 39.3):
Puo = 0.4fckAg+(0.67fy 0.4fck)Asc
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 270
More about spiral columns
In spiral column substantial ductility is
achieved prior to the collapse of the
column. The concrete in the core remains
laterally confined by the helical
reinforcement even after outer shell of
concrete spalls off. Hence code permits 5
% increase in the estimation of strength
beyond Puo provided the following
requirement is satisfied by the spiral
reinforcement.
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering, ρS > 0.36(Ag/Acore1)fck/fsy 271
IITB
ρS > 0.36(Ag/Acore1)fck/fsy
where,
ρ S= Volume of spiral reinforcement / Volume of
core (per unit length of the column)
Acore = total area of concrete core, measured outer
toouter of the spirals
Ag = gross area of cross section;
fsy = characteristic (yield) strength of spiral
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 272
Design of short column under axial loading
Example:
Design the reinforcement in a column
of size 450 mm X 600 mm, subjected
to an axial load of 2000kN under
service dead and live loads. The
column has an unsupported length of
3.0m and is braced against sideway
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
in both direction. Use M20 concrete
Civil Engineering,
IITB
and Fe 415 steel. 273
Check for slenderness
lx = ly=3000 mm
Dy = 450mm, Dx = 600 mm
Slenderness ratiox = lex/Dx = kx*3000/600=5kx
Slenderness ratioy = ley/Dy = ky*3000/450=6.67ky
Since the column is braced in both directions, kx
and ky are less than unity, and hence the column
is short column in both direction.
Check for minimum eccentricity
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 274
Now,
0.05Dx=0.05*600=30.0 mm > exmin = 26.0 mm
0.05 Dy=0.05*450=22.5 mm >eymin = 21.0 mm
Hence, clause 39.3 can be used for short axially
loaded members in compression.
Factored load PU= 2000 * 1.5 = 3000kN
Pu = 0.4fckAg+(0.67fy 0.4fck)Asc
3000*1000 = 0.4*20*(450*600)+(0.67*415
0.4*20)Asc
=>Asc = 3111 mm2
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 275
Hence provide,
425 φ at corners : 4 *491 = 1964 mm 2
420 φ additional : 4* 314 = 1256 mm 2
Total steel provided = 3220 mm 2
=> P =
(100*3220)/(450*600)=1.192>0.8
(minimum reinforcement)
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 276
Lateral ties
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 277
Detailing of reinforcement in short axially loaded column.
600
425 φ
450 420 φ
8 φ@
300 c/c
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 278
Footings
Definition
Footings are structural members used to support
columns and walls and to transmit and distribute
their loads to the soil in such a way that the load
bearing capacity of the soil is not exceeded,
excessive settlement, differential settlement,or
rotation are prevented and adequate safety
against overturning or sliding is maintained.
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 279
Types of Footings
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 280
Types of Footings
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 281
Types of Footings
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 282
Distribution of Soil Pressure
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 283
Isolated Footings
Column
Footing
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
q, assumed soil
Civil Engineering,
IITB
pressure 284
Eccentric Loading
Column
Footing
qmin qmax
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 285
Design Considerations
Footings must be designed to carry the column loads
and transmit them to the soil safely while satisfying
code limitations.
1. The area of the footing based on the allowable
soil bearing capacity
2. Twoway shear or punching shear.
3. Oneway shear
4. Bending moment and steel reinforcement
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
required
Civil Engineering,
IITB 286
Size of Footings
The area of footing can be determined from the actual
external loads such that the allowable soil pressure is
not exceeded.
Total load (including self weight )
Area of footing =
allowable soil pressure
Strength design requirements
Pu
qu =
area of footing
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 287
Design of twoway shear
1. Assume d.
2. Determine b0.
b0 = 4(c+d) for square columns
where one side = c
b0 = 2(c1+d) +2(c2+d)
for rectangular
columns of sides c1
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
and c2.
Civil Engineering,
IITB 288
Design of twoway shear
3. The shear force Vu acts at a
section that has a length
b0 = 4(c+d) or 2(c1+d) +2(c2+d)
and a depth d; the section is
subjected to a vertical downward
load Pu and vertical upward
pressure qu.
Vu = Pu − qu ( c + d ) for square columns
2
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 289
Design of oneway shear
The ultimate shearing force at
section mm can be calculated
L c
Vu = qu b − − d
2 2
If no shear reinforcement is to be
used, then d can be checked
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 290
Flexural Strength and Footing
reinforcement
The reinforcement in oneway footings
and twoway footings must be
distributed across the entire width of
the footing.
Reinforcement in band width 2
=
Total reinforcement in short direction β +1
x x b
load
P Mc
pmin = − P Mc
y A I pmax = +
A I
h
Tensile stress cannot be transmitted between soil and concrete.
P
e a 1 2P
R= (3ab )pmax = P pmax =
2 3ab
where a = h/2  e
R pmax
3a
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 293
FOOT_08
Wall Footings
w
Uniformly loaded wall
w
Wall
Bending deformation
Footing
1m slice on which
design is based
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 294
FOOT_12
Critical Section for Moment in Isolated Footings
b/2 b/2
b/4 s/2
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 295
FOOT_13
Moment and Shear in Wall Footings
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 297
FOOT_18
TwoWay Action Shear (punchingshear)
On perimeter around column at distance d/2 from face of column
c1 + d
P
d/2
c2 + d c2
b0
c1
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 298
FOOT_19
Combined Footings Centroid of load resultant and footing must coinside
P1 P2 P1 P2
property line
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
If P2/P1 < 1/2, use strap combined footing
Civil Engineering,
IITB 299
FOOT_31
Centroid of Combined Footings
P1 R P2
n m
n = P1s / ( P1 + P2 ) = P1s / R
qe
(2) Footing area
s
L=2(m+n)
b = R / ( qe L )
C
b qe = allowable soil pressure
m
n
L/2
Prof. A. Mukherjee, L/2
Civil Engineering,
IITB 300
FOOT_32
c1 c2 b2 3(n + m ) − L
=
b1 2L − 3( n + m )
C
b1 b2 2R
(b1 + b2 ) =
qe L
L(b1 + 2b2 )
n c1 =
m 3( b1 + b2 )
L L(2b1 + b2 )
c2 =
3(b1 + b2 )
2(n + m ) − L2
b1 =
L1(L1 + L2 )
C
b1 b2
R Lb
b2 = − 1 1
qeL2 L2
m R
Prof. A. Mukherjee, n L1 b1 + L2 b2 =
Civil Engineering,
qe
IITB
L1 L2 301
Reinforcement in Combined Footings P2
A
b
pu
Section AA
A Transverse reinforcement
L
P1 P2
h
pu
Vu
Prof. A. Mukherjee, Mu
Civil Engineering,
IITB 302
FOOT_34
Transverse Reinforcement
B
P2
Transverse steel
Perimeter of
bottom of 45o 45o
b failure surface
b
Section BB
c d/2
c+d
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 303
FOOT_35
PROBLEM
Design and detail a square isolated R.C. footing of uniform thickness for
400mm square R.C. column carrying an axial load of 2100 KN including self
weight of column.
Take safe bearing capacity of soil 150 KN/m2 at 1.5m below the existing
ground level.
Use M20 grade concrete and Fe 415 steel for design.
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 304
1.8m 0.4m 1.8m
Net upward soil pressure on the base of footing = 2100/16 =131.25 KN/m2
< 150 KN/m2 (Hence O.K.)
For 1m width of the footing the net upward loading intensity of the footing
base (w) = 131.25 KN/m = 131.25 N/mm.
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 305
2. CALCULATION OF DEPTH FROM FLEXURAL CONSIDERATION.
Maximum moment at face of column = M = (131.25 X 1.82)/2
= 212.625 KNm.
Ultimate moment = Mu = 1.5 X 212.625 = 318.9375 KNm.
Required depth (dreq) = √ (318.9375 X 106)/(2.76 X 1000) = 339.94mm
~ 340mm.
Since depth required from Two way shear consideration > depth
required from flexure consideration, hence Two way shear governs the
design.
Overall depth required = Dreq. = 500 + 50 + 20 +10 = 580mm.
[Assuming 50mm clear cover and 20f tor bars for reinforcement in both
top and bottom layer of reinforcement.]
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 307
To be on safer side so that footing does not fail in One way Shear check
let us increase the depth of the footing by 10%.
Dreq. = 580 + 58 = 638mm.
Let us provide D = 650 mm.
Effective depth provided for top layer of reinforcement
= dt = 650502010=570mm.
Effective depth provided for bottom layer of reinforcement
= db = 6505010=590mm.
4. CALCULATION OF REINFORCEMENT
A. For top layer
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 309
5. CHECK FOR ONE WAY SHEAR
The critical section for one way shear check is 570mm (dt) away from
the column face.
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 310
6. CHECK FOR BEARING
From Clause34.4, page65 of IS 456:2000 we get,
Allowable Bearing pressure = 0.45fck√(A1/A2) or 0.45fck X 2
whichever is lower.
A1 = (400+db)(400+dt)
= (400+590)(400+570)
= 960300mm2
A2 = 400 X 400 = 160000mm2.
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 311
FINAL DESIGN
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 312
REINFORCEMENT DETAILING
4000mm
650mm
50mm
4000mm
4000mm
20mm dia tor @ 175mm c/c 20mm dia tor @ 175mm c/c
PLAN ELEVATION
Prof. A. Mukherjee,
Civil Engineering,
IITB 313
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