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Course No.: ME 404

Course Title: Power Plant Engineering Sessional

Experiment No.: 02
Name of the Experiment: Study of a Boiler

Name: Mohammed Naimul Hoque

Student No.: 0910089
Department: Mechanical Engineering
Group: B14

Date of Performance: 05.05.2015

Date of Submission: 19.05.2015


To study the different accessories & mountings of a boiler.

To study the operations of a boiler.
To study the boiler capacities.
To study the water treatment operations for boiler.
To study the thermal balance of the boiler.

Brand Name: Philipp Loos GmbH
Model: Rekord-1600
Country of Make: Germany
Capacity: 1600 Kg/Hr
Maximum working pressure: 14 bar
Type of Burner: Dual Fuel Burner (Natural Gas/Diesel)
Fuel/fuels used: Natural Gas

Boiler Mountings & Accessories:

Boiler Mountings:
These are different fittings and devices necessary for the operation and safety of a boiler. Boiler
mountings are generally mounted over the boiler shell. The following mountings are usually
installed on a boiler1. Water level indicator
2. Pressure gauges
3. Pressure relief valves
4. Steam stop valve
5. Feed check valve
6. Blow down valve
7. Low water alarms
8. Fusible plug
9. Man and mud holes covers, etc.

Boiler Accessories:
These are auxiliary plants and devices required for the proper and efficient operation of boilers.
Commonly used accessories are1. Air pre-heater,
2. Economizer,
3. Super heater,
4. Feed pump,
5. Injector, etc.

Schematic Diagram of a Boiler:

Figure: Schematic Diagram of a Fire Tube Boiler

Function, Location and Working Principle of Mountings and Accessories:

Water Level Indicator: The function of
the water level indicator is to ascertain
constantly and exactly the level of water
in the boiler shell. It is fitted in the front
of the boiler from where it is easily visible
to the operator. The water gauge is
needed to ascertain the water level of a
boiler two water gauges should be fitted
for each boiler in such a place that the
water level can be constantly seen.
The unit consists of a strong glass tube
whose ends pass through stuffing boxes
consists of heat resisting rubber packing
to prevent leakage steam and water. The
Figure: Water Level Indicator
flanges are bolted to front end plate of
the boiler, the upper flange being fitted
to the steam space and the lower to water space in the boiler. There are two cocks namely
steam cock and water cock which communicate the boiler shell spaces to the gauge glass tube.
When the handle of the cocks are vertical, they are in operation and the water level in the tube
corresponds to water level in the shell. A red mark on the glass tube indicates the safe water

Pressure Gauge
A pressure gauge is fitted in front of boiler in such a
position that the operator can conveniently read it. It reads
the pressure of steam in the boiler and is connected to
steam space by a siphon tube.
Elliptical spring tube (also called Bourdon tube) is made up
of special quality Bronze. Plug (P) is provided for cleaning
the siphon tube. Siphon is filled with cold water to prevent
the hot steam entering into the bourdon tube and spring
tube remains comparatively cool.

Fig: Pressure Gauge

Pressure relief valves: The pressure relief valve is used in a boiler to

relieve the pressure of steam when it is above the working pressure. It
is also called the safety valve. Its function is to discharge a portion of
the steam from the boiler automatically when the steam pressure
exceeds the normal limit. It is mounted on the top of the shell. As per
boiler regulation two safety valves are required to be fitted in each

Fig: Safety Valve

Stop Valve: The function of the steam stop valve is to shut

off or regulate the flow of steam from the boiler to the
steam pipe or from the steam pipe to the engine. When
used for the former purpose, it is called junction valve.
Usually the junction valve means a regulating valve of
larger size and a stop valve refers to a regulating valve of
smaller size.
The junction valve is mounted on the highest part of the
steam space of the boiler and is connected to the steam
pipe, which carries the steam to the engine.

Figure: Stop valve

Feed check valve:

The feed check valve is used to control the supply
of water to the boiler and to prevent the escape of
water from the boiler when the pump pressure is
less or the pump is stopped. It is fitted over the
shell slightly below the normal water level of the

Fig: Feed Check Valve

Blow-Off Cock: The blow of cock serves to drain out the

water from the boiler periodically for any one of the
following reasons:
1) To discharge mud, scale and other impurities which
settle down at the bottom of the boiler.
2) To empty the boiler for internal cleaning and
3) To lower the water level rapidly if the level becomes
too high.
The unit is fitted at the lowest portion of the boiler. It
may be mounted directly to the boiler shell or through an
elbow pipe, which is fitted to the boiler shell.

Fig: Blow-off Cock

Fusible Plug: The function of the fusible plug is to extinguish the

fire in the event of the boiler shell failing below a certain specified
limit. We know that when the water on heating transforms into
steam, the level of water in the boiler falls down. If the water is
not replenished and the steam generation continues then the
parts, which have been uncovered by water uncovered by water
may get overheated and subsequently are melted. To safeguard
against this eventuality we use fusible plug.
The fusible plug is inserted at the box crown or cover the
combustion chamber at the lowest permissible water level.
Figure: Fusible Plug

Man Holes: These are door to allow men to enter inside the boiler for inspection and repair

Air Preheater: Air heater or air pre-heater is
waste heat recovery device in which the air on
its way to the furnace is raised in temperature
by utilizing the heat of the exhaust gases. Air
pre-heater are classified into the following two

Recuperative Air heater

Regenerative Air heater

Figure: Air preheater

Economizer: The economizer is a device, which serves to recover some of the heat being
carried by exhaust flue gases. The heat thus recovered is utilized in raised temperature in feed
water being supplied to the boiler. If the water is raised and thus there is a saving in the
consumption of fuel.

Figure: Economizer

The economizer unit is installed in the path of the flue gases between the boiler and the

Steam Super Heater:

It is a heat exchanger in which heat of combustion products is used to dry the wet steam,
pressure remains constant, its volume and temperature increase. Basically, a super heater
consists of a set of small diameter U tubes in which steam flows and takes up the heat from hot
flue gases.

Figure: Super heater

Superheating results in increased efficiency and economy of the steam plant.

Feed Water Pump:

It is used to feed the water at a high pressure against the high pressure of steam already existing
inside the boiler.

Water Flow Circuit:

Fuel Flow Circuit:

Capacity of Boiler:
Tonnage Rating:
It is the amount of water evaporated from feed water at 100 C and formed into dry and
saturated steam at 100 C at normal atmospheric pressure. Each kilogram of steam would then
have received 2.257 kJ of heat from the boiler. Shell boilers are often operated with feed water
temperatures lower than 100C. Consequently the boiler is required to supply enthalpy to bring
the water up to boiling point
KW Rating:
Some manufacturers will give a boiler rating in kW. This is not an evaporation rate, and is
subject to the same Tonnage Rating. To establish the actual evaporation by mass, it is first
necessary to know the temperature of the feed water and the pressure of the steam produced,
in order to establish how much energy is added to each kg of water.

3600 ( )

( ) = ()


Boiler hp rating:
Boiler horsepower is a function of the heat transfer area in the boiler, and a boiler horsepower
relates to 17 ft of heating surface, as depicted in equation:
= ( ) ( 2 )
In the USA and Australia the readily accepted definition of a boiler horsepower is the amount of
energy required to evaporate 34.5 lb of water at 212F atmospheric conditions.