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SecondandForeignLanguageTeachingMethods
Free

Thismoduleprovidesadescriptionofthebasicprinciplesandproceduresofthemostrecognizedand
commonlyusedapproachesandmethodsforteachingasecondorforeignlanguage.Eachapproachor
methodhasanarticulatedtheoreticalorientationandacollectionofstrategiesandlearningactivities
designedtoreachthespecifiedgoalsandachievethelearningoutcomesoftheteachingandlearning
processes.

JillKerperMora
Thefollowingapproachesandmethodsaredescribedbelow:
GrammarTranslationApproach
DirectApproach
ReadingApproach
AudiolingualApproach
CommunityLanguageLearning
TheSilentWay
TheCommunicativeApproach
FunctionalNotionalApproach
TotalPhysicalResponseApproach
TheNaturalApproach
Clickhereforalinktoanoverviewofthehistoryofsecondorforeignlanguageteaching.

TheoreticalOrientationstoL2Methods&Approaches

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Therearefourgeneralorientationsamongmodernsecondlanguagemethodsandapproaches:
1.STRUCTURAL/LINGUISTIC:Basedonbeliefsaboutthestructureoflanguageanddescriptiveor
contrastivelinguistics.InvolvesisolationofgrammaticalandsyntacticelementsofL2taughteither
deductivelyorinductivelyinapredeterminedsequence.Ofteninvolvesmuchmetalinguisticcontent
or"learningaboutthelanguage"inordertolearnthelanguage.
2.COGNITIVE:Basedontheoriesoflearningappliedspecificallytosecondlanguagelearning.
Focusisonthelearningstrategiesthatarecompatiblewiththelearnersownstyle.L2contentis
selectedaccordingtoconceptsandtechniquesthatfacilitategeneralizationsaboutthelanguage,
memorizationand"competence"leadingto"performance".
3.AFFECTIVE/INTERPERSONAL:Focusesonthepsychologicalandaffectivepredispositionsof
thelearnerthatenhanceorinhibitlearning.Emphasizesinteractionamongandbetweenteacherand
studentsandtheatmosphereofthelearningsituationaswellasstudents'motivationforlearning.
Basedonconceptsadaptedfromcounselingandsocialpsychology.
4.FUNCTIONAL/COMMUNICATIVE:Basedontheoriesoflanguageacquisition,oftenreferredtoas
the"natural"approach,andontheuseoflanguageforcommunication.Encompassesmultipleaspects
ofthecommunicativeact,withlanguagestructuresselectedaccordingtotheirutilityinachievinga
communicativepurpose.Instructionisconcernedwiththeinputstudentsreceive,comprehensionof
the"message"oflanguageandstudentinvolvementatthestudents'levelofcompetence.

TheGrammarTranslationApproach
ThisapproachwashistoricallyusedinteachingGreekandLatin.Theapproachwasgeneralizedto
teachingmodernlanguages.
Classesaretaughtinthestudents'mothertongue,withlittleactiveuseofthetargetlanguage.Vocabulary
istaughtintheformofisolatedwordlists.Elaborateexplanationsofgrammararealways
provided.Grammarinstructionprovidestherulesforputtingwordstogetherinstructionoftenfocuseson
theformandinflectionofwords.Readingofdifficulttextsisbegunearlyinthecourseofstudy.Little
attentionispaidtothecontentoftexts,whicharetreatedasexercisesingrammaticalanalysis.Oftenthe
onlydrillsareexercisesintranslatingdisconnectedsentencesfromthetargetlanguageintothemother
tongue,andviceversa.Littleornoattentionisgiventopronunciation.

TheDirectApproach
Thisapproachwasdevelopedinitiallyasareactiontothegrammartranslationapproachinanattemptto
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integratemoreuseofthetargetlanguageininstruction.
Lessonsbeginwithadialogueusingamodernconversationalstyleinthetargetlanguage.Materialisfirst
presentedorallywithactionsorpictures.ThemothertongueisNEVER,NEVERused.Thereisno
translation.Thepreferredtypeofexerciseisaseriesofquestionsinthetargetlanguagebasedonthe
dialogueorananecdotalnarrative.Questionsareansweredinthetargetlanguage.Grammaristaught
inductivelyrulesaregeneralizedfromthepracticeandexperiencewiththetargetlanguage.Verbsare
usedfirstandsystematicallyconjugatedonlymuchlateraftersomeoralmasteryofthetarget
language.Advancedstudentsreadliteratureforcomprehensionandpleasure.Literarytextsarenot
analyzedgrammatically.Thecultureassociatedwiththetargetlanguageisalsotaughtinductively.
Cultureisconsideredanimportantaspectoflearningthelanguage.

TheReadingApproach
Thisapproachisselectedforpracticalandacademicreasons.Forspecificusesofthelanguagein
graduateorscientificstudies.Theapproachisforpeoplewhodonottravelabroadforwhomreadingis
theoneusableskillinaforeignlanguage.
Thepriorityinstudyingthetargetlanguageisfirst,readingabilityandsecond,currentand/orhistorical
knowledgeofthecountrywherethetargetlanguageisspoken.Onlythegrammarnecessaryforreading
comprehensionandfluencyistaught.Minimalattentionispaidtopronunciationorgainingconversational
skillsinthetargetlanguage.Fromthebeginning,agreatamountofreadingisdoneinL2,bothinandout
ofclass.Thevocabularyoftheearlyreadingpassagesandtextsisstrictlycontrolledfor
difficulty.Vocabularyisexpandedasquicklyaspossible,sincetheacquisitionofvocabularyisconsidered
moreimportantthatgrammaticalskill.Translationreappearsinthisapproachasarespectableclassroom
procedurerelatedtocomprehensionofthewrittentext.

TheAudiolingualMethod
Thismethodisbasedontheprinciplesofbehaviorpsychology.Itadaptedmanyoftheprinciplesand
proceduresoftheDirectMethod,inpartasareactiontothelackofspeakingskillsoftheReading
Approach.
Newmaterialispresentedintheformofadialogue.Basedontheprinciplethatlanguagelearningishabit
formation,themethodfostersdependenceonmimicry,memorizationofsetphrasesandover
learning.Structuresaresequencedandtaughtoneatatime.Structuralpatternsaretaughtusing
repetitivedrills.Littleornogrammaticalexplanationsareprovidedgrammaristaughtinductively.Skills
aresequenced:Listening,speaking,readingandwritingaredevelopedinorder.Vocabularyisstrictly
limitedandlearnedincontext.TeachingpointsaredeterminedbycontrastiveanalysisbetweenL1and
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L2.Thereisabundantuseoflanguagelaboratories,tapesandvisualaids.Thereisanextendedpre
readingperiodatthebeginningofthecourse.Greatimportanceisgiventoprecisenativelike
pronunciation.Useofthemothertonguebytheteacherispermitted,butdiscouragedamongandbythe
students.Successfulresponsesarereinforcedgreatcareistakentopreventlearnererrors.Thereisa
tendencytofocusonmanipulationofthetargetlanguageandtodisregardcontentandmeaning.

HintsforUsingAudiolingualDrillsinL2Teaching
1.Theteachermustbecarefultoinsurethatalloftheutteranceswhichstudentswillmakeareactually
withinthepracticedpattern.Forexample,theuseoftheAUXverbhaveshouldnotsuddenlyswitchto
haveasamainverb.
2.Drillsshouldbeconductedasrapidlyaspossiblysoastoinsureautomaticityandtoestablisha
system.
3.Ignoreallbutgrosserrorsofpronunciationwhendrillingforgrammarpractice.
4.Useofshortcutstokeepthepaceodrillsatamaximum.Usehandmotions,signalcards,notes,etc.to
cueresponse.Youareachoirdirector.
5.UsenormalEnglishstress,intonation,andjuncturepatternsconscientiously.
6.Drillmaterialshouldalwaysbemeaningful.Ifthecontentwordsarenotknown,teachtheirmeanings.
7.Intersperseshortperiodsofdrill(about10minutes)withverybriefalternativeactivitiestoavoidfatigue
andboredom.
8.Introducethedrillinthisway:
a.Focus(bywritingontheboard,forexample)
b.Exemplify(byspeakingmodelsentences)
c.Explain(ifasimplegrammaticalexplanationisneeded)
d.Drill
9.Dontstandinoneplacemoveabouttheroomstandingnexttoasmanydifferentstudentsaspossible
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tospotchecktheirproduction.Thusyouwillknowwhotogivemorepracticetoduringindividualdrilling.
10.Usethe"backwardbuildup"techniqueforlongand/ordifficultpatterns.
tomorrow
inthecafeteriatomorrow
willbeeatinginthecafeteriatomorrow
Thoseboyswillbeeatinginthecafeteriatomorrow.
11.Arrangetopresentdrillsintheorderofincreasingcomplexityofstudentresponse.Thequestionis:
Howmuchinternalorganizationordecisionmakingmustthestudentdoinordertomakearesponsein
thisdrill.Thus:imitationfirst,singleslotsubstitutionnext,thenfreeresponselast.

CommunityLanguageLearning
Curran,C.A.(1976).CounselingLearninginSecondLanguages.AppleRiver,Illinois:AppleRiver
Press,1976.
ThismethodologycreatedbyCharlesCurranisnotbasedontheusualmethodsbywhichlanguagesare
taught.Rathertheapproachispatterneduponcounselingtechniquesandadaptedtothepeculiaranxiety
andthreataswellasthepersonalandlanguageproblemsapersonencountersinthelearningofforeign
languages.Consequently,thelearnerisnotthoughtofasastudentbutasaclient.Thenativeinstructors
ofthelanguagearenotconsideredteachersbut,ratheraretrainedincounselingskillsadaptedtotheir
rolesaslanguagecounselors.
Thelanguagecounselingrelationshipbeginswiththeclient'slinguisticconfusionandconflict.Theaimof
thelanguagecounselor'sskillisfirsttocommunicateanempathyfortheclient'sthreatenedinadequate
stateandtoaidhimlinguistically.Thenslowlytheteachercounselorstrivestoenablehimtoarriveathis
ownincreasinglyindependentlanguageadequacy.Thisprocessisfurtheredbythelanguagecounselor's
abilitytoestablishawarm,understanding,andacceptingrelationship,thusbecomingan"otherlanguage
self"fortheclient.Theprocessinvolvesfivestagesofadaptation:
STAGE1
Theclientiscompletelydependentonthelanguagecounselor.
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1.First,heexpressesonlytothecounselorandinEnglishwhathewishestosaytothegroup.Each
groupmemberoverhearsthisEnglishexchangebutnoothermembersofthegroupareinvolvedinthe
interaction.
2.Thecounselorthenreflectstheseideasbacktotheclientintheforeignlanguageinawarm,accepting
tone,insimplelanguageinphrasesoffiveorsixwords.
3.Theclientturnstothegroupandpresentshisideasintheforeignlanguage.Hehasthecounselor'said
ifhemispronouncesorhesitatesonawordorphrase.Thisistheclient'smaximumsecuritystage.
STAGE2
1.Sameasabove.
2.Theclientturnsandbeginstospeaktheforeignlanguagedirectlytothegroup.
3.Thecounseloraidsonlyastheclienthesitatesorturnsforhelp.Thesesmallindependentstepsare
signsofpositiveconfidenceandhope.
STAGE3
1.Theclientspeaksdirectlytothegroupintheforeignlanguage.Thispresumesthatthegrouphasnow
acquiredtheabilitytounderstandhissimplephrases.
2.Sameas3above.Thispresumestheclient'sgreaterconfidence,independence,andproportionate
insightintotherelationshipofphrases,grammar,andideas.Translationisgivenonlywhenagroup
memberdesiresit.
STAGE4
1.Theclientisnowspeakingfreelyandcomplexlyintheforeignlanguage.Presumesgroup's
understanding.
2.Thecounselordirectlyintervenesingrammaticalerror,mispronunciation,orwhereaidincomplex
expressionisneeded.Theclientissufficientlysecuretotakecorrection.
STAGE5

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1.Sameasstage4.
2.Thecounselorintervenesnotonlytooffercorrectionbuttoaddidiomsandmoreelegantconstructions.
3.Atthisstagetheclientcanbecomecounselortothegroupinstages1,2,and3.

TheSilentWay
Gattegno,C.(1972).TeachingForeignLanguagesinSchools:TheSilentWay.NewYorkCity:
EducationalSolutions.

Procedures
ThismethodcreatedbyCalebGattegnobeginsbyusingasetofcoloredrodsandverbalcommandsin
ordertoachievethefollowing:
Toavoidtheuseofthevernacular.Tocreatesimplelinguisticsituationsthatremainunderthecomplete
controloftheteacherTopassontothelearnerstheresponsibilityfortheutterancesofthedescriptionsof
theobjectsshownortheactionsperformed.Tolettheteacherconcentrateonwhatthestudentssayand
howtheyaresayingit,drawingtheirattentiontothedifferencesinpronunciationandtheflowofwords.To
generateaseriousgamelikesituationinwhichtherulesareimplicitlyagreeduponbygivingmeaningto
thegesturesoftheteacherandhismime.Topermitalmostfromthestartaswitchfromthelonevoiceof
theteacherusingtheforeignlanguagetoanumberofvoicesusingit.Thisintroducescomponentsof
pitch,timbreandintensitythatwillconstantlyreducetheimpactofonevoiceandhencereduceimitation
andencouragepersonalproductionofone'sownbrandofthesounds.
Toprovidethesupportofperceptionandactiontotheintellectualguessofwhatthenoisesmean,thus
bringinthearsenaloftheusualcriteriaofexperiencealreadydevelopedandautomaticinone'suseof
themothertongue.Toprovideadurationofspontaneousspeechuponwhichtheteacherandthe
studentscanworktoobtainasimilarityofmelodytotheoneheard,thusprovidingmelodicintegrative
schematafromthestart.

Materials
Thecompletesetofmaterialsutilizedasthelanguagelearningprogressesinclude:
AsetofcoloredwoodenrodsAsetofwallchartscontainingwordsofa"functional"vocabularyandsome
additionalonesapointerforusewiththechartsinVisualDictationAcolorcodedphonicchart(s)Tapes
ordiscs,asrequiredfilmsDrawingsandpictures,andasetofaccompanying
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worksheetsTransparencies,threetexts,aBookofStories,worksheets.

TheCommunicativeApproach
Whatiscommunicativecompetence?
Communicativecompetenceistheprogressiveacquisitionoftheabilitytousealanguagetoachieve
one'scommunicativepurpose.

Communicativecompetenceinvolvesthenegotiationofmeaningbetweenmeaningbetweentwoor
morepersonssharingthesamesymbolicsystem.

Communicativecompetenceappliestobothspokenandwrittenlanguage.

Communicativecompetenceiscontextspecificbasedonthesituation,theroleoftheparticipantsand
theappropriatechoicesofregisterandstyle.Forexample:Thevariationoflanguageusedbypersons
indifferentjobsorprofessionscanbeeitherformalorinformal.Theuseofjargonorslangmayormay
notbeappropriate.

Communicativecompetencerepresentsashiftinfocusfromthegrammaticaltothecommunicative
propertiesofthelanguagei.e.thefunctionsoflanguageandtheprocessofdiscourse.

Communicativecompetencerequiresthemasteryoftheproductionandcomprehensionof
communicativeactsorspeechactsthatarerelevanttotheneedsoftheL2learner.

CharacteristicsoftheCommunicativeClassroom
TheclassroomisdevotedprimarilytoactivitiesthatfosteracquisitionofL2.Learningactivities
involvingpracticeanddrillareassignedashomework.

Theinstructordoesnotcorrectspeecherrorsdirectly.

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Studentsareallowedtorespondinthetargetlanguage,theirnativelanguage,oramixtureofthetwo.

Thefocusofalllearningandspeakingactivitiesisontheinterchangeofamessagethattheacquirer
understandsandwishestotransmit,i.e.meaningfulcommunication.

Thestudentsreceivecomprehensibleinputinalowanxietyenvironmentandarepersonallyinvolvedin
classactivities.Comprehensibleinputhasthefollowingmajorcomponents:

a.acontext
b.gesturesandotherbodylanguagecues
c.amessagetobecomprehended
d.aknowledgeofthemeaningofkeylexicalitemsintheutterance
Stagesoflanguageacquisitioninthecommunicativeapproach
1.Comprehensionorpreproduction
a.Totalphysicalresponse
b.Answerwithnamesobjects,students,pictures
2.Earlyspeechproduction
a.Yesnoquestions
b.Eitherorquestions
c.Single/twowordanswers
d.Openendedquestions
e.Opendialogs
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f.Interviews
3.Speechemerges
a.Gamesandrecreationalactivities
b.Contentactivities
c.Humanisticaffectiveactivities
d.Informationproblemsolvingactivities

FunctionalNotionalApproach
Finocchiaro,M.&Brumfit,C.(1983).TheFunctionalNotionalApproach.NewYork,NY:Oxford
UniversityPress.
Thismethodoflanguageteachingiscategorizedalongwithothersundertherubricofacommunicative
approach.Themethodstressesameansoforganizingalanguagesyllabus.Theemphasisisonbreaking
downtheglobalconceptoflanguageintounitsofanalysisintermsofcommunicativesituationsinwhich
theyareused.
Notionsaremeaningelementsthatmaybeexpressedthroughnouns,pronouns,verbs,prepositions,
conjunctions,adjectivesoradverbs.Theuseofparticularnotionsdependsonthreemajorfactors:a.the
functionsb.theelementsinthesituation,andc.thetopicbeingdiscussed.
Asituationmayaffectvariationsoflanguagesuchastheuseofdialects,theformalityorinformalityofthe
languageandthemodeofexpression.Situationincludesthefollowingelements:
A.Thepersonstakingpartinthespeechact
B.Theplacewheretheconversationoccurs
C.Thetimethespeechactistakingplace
D.Thetopicoractivitythatisbeingdiscussed
Exponentsarethelanguageutterancesorstatementsthatstemfromthefunction,thesituationandthe
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topic.
Codeisthesharedlanguageofacommunityofspeakers.
Codeswitchingisachangeorswitchincodeduringthespeechact,whichmanytheoristsbelieveis
purposefulbehaviortoconveybonding,languageprestigeorotherelementsofinterpersonalrelations
betweenthespeakers.

FunctionalCategoriesofLanguage
MaryFinocchiaro(1983,p.6566)hasplacedthefunctionalcategoriesunderfiveheadingsasnoted
below:personal,interpersonal,directive,referential,andimaginative.
Personal=Clarifyingorarrangingonesideasexpressingonesthoughtsorfeelings:love,joy,pleasure,
happiness,surprise,likes,satisfaction,dislikes,disappointment,distress,pain,anger,anguish,fear,
anxiety,sorrow,frustration,annoyanceatmissedopportunities,moral,intellectualandsocialconcerns
andtheeverydayfeelingsofhunger,thirst,fatigue,sleepiness,cold,orwarmth
Interpersonal=Enablingustoestablishandmaintaindesirablesocialandworkingrelationships:Enabling
ustoestablishandmaintaindesirablesocialandworkingrelationships:
greetingsandleavetakings
introducingpeopletoothers
identifyingoneselftoothers
expressingjoyatanotherssuccess
expressingconcernforotherpeopleswelfare
extendingandacceptinginvitations
refusinginvitationspolitelyormakingalternativearrangements
makingappointmentsformeetings
breakingappointmentspolitelyandarranginganothermutuallyconvenienttime
apologizing
excusingoneselfandacceptingexcusesfornotmeetingcommitments
indicatingagreementordisagreement
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interruptinganotherspeakerpolitely
changinganembarrassingsubject
receivingvisitorsandpayingvisitstoothers
offeringfoodordrinksandacceptingordecliningpolitely
sharingwishes,hopes,desires,problems
makingpromisesandcommittingoneselftosomeaction
complimentingsomeone
makingexcuses
expressingandacknowledginggratitude

Directive=Attemptingtoinfluencetheactionsofothersacceptingorrefusingdirection:
makingsuggestionsinwhichthespeakerisincluded
makingrequestsmakingsuggestions
refusingtoacceptasuggestionorarequestbutofferinganalternative
persuadingsomeonetochangehispointofview
requestingandgrantingpermission
askingforhelpandrespondingtoapleaforhelp
forbiddingsomeonetodosomethingissuingacommand
givingandrespondingtoinstructions
warningsomeone
discouragingsomeonefrompursuingacourseofaction
establishingguidelinesanddeadlinesforthecompletionofactions
askingfordirectionsorinstructions

Referential=talkingorreportingaboutthings,actions,events,orpeopleintheenvironmentinthepastor
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inthefuturetalkingaboutlanguage(whatistermedthemetalinguisticfunction:=talkingorreporting
aboutthings,actions,events,orpeopleintheenvironmentinthepastorinthefuture
talkingaboutlanguage(whatistermedthemetalinguisticfunction:
identifyingitemsorpeopleintheclassroom,theschoolthehome,thecommunity
askingforadescriptionofsomeoneorsomething
definingsomethingoralanguageitemoraskingforadefinition
paraphrasing,summarizing,ortranslating(L1toL2orviceversa)
explainingoraskingforexplanationsofhowsomethingworks
comparingorcontrastingthings
discussingpossibilities,probabilities,orcapabilitiesofdoingsomething
requestingorreportingfactsabouteventsoractions
evaluatingtheresultsofanactionorevent

Imaginative=Discussionsinvolvingelementsofcreativityandartisticexpression
discussingapoem,astory,apieceofmusic,aplay,apainting,afilm,aTVprogram,etc.
expandingideassuggestedbyotherorbyapieceofliteratureorreadingmaterial
creatingrhymes,poetry,storiesorplays
recombiningfamiliardialogsorpassagescreatively
suggestingoriginalbeginningsorendingstodialogsorstories
solvingproblemsormysteries

TotalPhysicalResponse
Asher,J.C.(1979).LearningAnotherLanguageThroughActions.SanJose,California:AccuPrint.
JamesJ.AsherdefinestheTotalPhysicalResponse(TPR)methodasonethatcombinesinformation
andskillsthroughtheuseofthekinestheticsensorysystem.Thiscombinationofskillsallowsthestudent
toassimilateinformationandskillsatarapidrate.Asaresult,thissuccessleadstoahighdegreeof
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motivation.Thebasictenetsare:
Understandingthespokenlanguagebeforedevelopingtheskillsofspeaking.Imperativesarethemain
structurestotransferorcommunicateinformation.Thestudentisnotforcedtospeak,butisallowedan
individualreadinessperiodandallowedtospontaneouslybegintospeakwhenthestudentfeels
comfortableandconfidentinunderstandingandproducingtheutterances.
TECHNIQUE
StepITheteachersaysthecommandsashehimselfperformstheaction.
Step2Theteachersaysthecommandasboththeteacherandthestudentsthenperformtheaction.
Step3Theteachersaysthecommandbutonlystudentsperformtheaction
Step4Theteachertellsonestudentatatimetodocommands
Step5Therolesofteacherandstudentarereversed.Studentsgivecommandstoteacherandtoother
students.
Step6Theteacherandstudentallowforcommandexpansionorproducesnewsentences.

TheNaturalApproach
TheNaturalApproachandtheCommunicativeApproachshareacommontheoreticalandphilosophical
base.TheNaturalApproachtoL2teachingisbasedonthefollowinghypotheses:
1.Theacquisitionlearningdistinctionhypothesis
Adultscan"get"asecondlanguagemuchastheylearntheirfirstlanguage,throughinformal,implicit,
subconsciouslearning.Theconscious,explicit,formallinguisticknowledgeofalanguageisadifferent,
andoftennonessentialprocess.
2.Thenaturalorderofacquisitionhypothesis
L2learnersacquireformsinapredictableorder.Thisorderverycloselyparallelstheacquisitionof
grammaticalandsyntacticstructuresinthefirstlanguage.

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3.Themonitorhypothesis
FluencyinL2comesfromtheacquisitionprocess.Learningproducesa"monitoring"oreditorof
performance.Theapplicationofthemonitorfunctionrequirestime,focusonformandknowledgeofthe
rule.
4.Theinputhypothesis
Languageisacquiredthroughcomprehensibleinput.IfanL2learnerisatacertainstageinlanguage
acquisitionandhe/sheunderstandssomethingthatincludesastructureatthenextstage,thishelps
him/hertoacquirethatstructure.Thus,thei+1concept,wherei=thestageofacquisition.
5.Theaffectivehypothesis
PeoplewithcertainpersonalitiesandcertainmotivationsperformbetterinL2acquisition.Learnerswith
highselfesteemandhighlevelsofselfconfidenceacquireL2faster.Also,certainlowanxietypleasant
situationsaremoreconducivetoL2acquisition.
6.Thefilterhypothesis
Thereexistsanaffectivefilteror"mentalblock"thatcanpreventinputfrom"gettingin."Pedagogically,
themorethatisdonetolowerthefilter,themoreacquisitioncantakeplace.Alowfilterisachieved
throughlowanxiety,relaxation,nondefensiveness.
7.Theaptitudehypothesis
Thereissuchathingasalanguagelearningaptitude.Thisaptitudecanbemeasuredandishighly
correlatedwithgenerallearningaptitude.However,aptituderelatesmoretolearningwhileattitude
relatesmoretoacquisition.
8.Thefirstlanguagehypothesis
TheL2learnerwillnaturallysubstitutecompetenceinL1forcompetenceinL2.Learnersshouldnotbe
forcedtousetheL1togenerateL2performance.AsilentperiodandinsertionofL1intoL2utterances
shouldbeexpectedandtolerated.
9.Thetextualityhypothesis

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Theeventstructuresofexperiencearetextualinnatureandwillbeeasiertoproduce,understand,and
recalltotheextentthatdiscourseortextismotivatedandstructuredepisodically.Consequently,L2
teachingmaterialsaremoresuccessfulwhentheyincorporateprinciplesofgoodstorywritingalongwith
soundlinguisticanalysis.
10.Theexpectancyhypothesis
Discoursehasatypeof"cognitivemomentum."Theactivationofcorrectexpectancieswillenhancethe
processingoftextualstructures.Consequently,L2learnersmustbeguidedtodevelopthesortofnative
speaker"intuitions"thatmakediscoursepredictable.
Source:Krashen,S.D.,&Terrell,T.D.(1983).TheNaturalApproach.Hayward,CA:TheAlemany
Press.

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