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Radiographic Testing (RT)


Introduction
Radiation
Sources
Attenuation
Recording

RT Procedures & Safety

Title 1Page

ME 538 Welding Design, Fabrication & Quality Control

Principles of Radiographic Testing


Radiation
Source

Test Object: Absorbs,


scatters and transmits
th radiation
the
di ti
Recording Film
The shadow
of the thin section
ME 538 Welding Design, Fabrication & Quality Control

The shadow
of the discontinuity
Introduction

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Examples
Pores

Transverse &
Longitudinal
Cracks

Lack of
Penetration
ME 538 Welding Design, Fabrication & Quality Control

[http://www.ndted.org/EducationResources/
CommunityCollege/Radiography]

Introduction

The Electromagnetic Wave Spectrum


High
Energy

Ionizing Radiation
(Health Hazard)

Low
Energy

The energy of a photon (unit [J] or [eV]) is given by : E = h . f = h . c/ =1.24 / (1 eV = 1.602E-19 J)


where the number 1.24 has the dimension [eV m]
h ... Plancks constant (6.626x10-34 J . s),
f ... the frequency of the photon,
c ... the speed of light (3.0x108 m/s) and
... the wavelength [m]
ME 538 Welding Design, Fabrication & Quality Control

The Radiation Source

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Generation of X-rays

X-ray source from


g
g
Golden Engineering,
5.4 kg with battery,
36 cm long
[www.tedndt.com]

[ASM Handbook, Vol. 17, Nondestructive Evaluation and Quality Control, 1989]
ME 538 Welding Design, Fabrication & Quality Control

Radiation Sources

X-ray Radiographic Testing


HV Power Supply

X-ray Film
X-ray Generator

ME 538 Welding Design, Fabrication & Quality Control

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X-ray Source Spectra


at max intensity 1.5 min

min

min = 1.24 /E
Radiation Sources
ME 538 Welding Design, Fabrication & Quality Control

[ASM, Vol.17, Nondestructive Evaluation and Quality Control, 1989]

Effect of X-ray Tube Settings

High filament
heating current

Intensity

Intensity

High
acceleration
voltage

Wavelength

Wavelength

Radiation Sources
ME 538 Welding Design, Fabrication & Quality Control

[ASM Handbook, Vol. 17, Nondestructive Evaluation and Quality Control, 1989]

3/10/2009

-rays
Gamma-rays are emitted during the radioactive decay (disintegrating)
of unstable atomic nuclei and are at discrete wavelengths.
Commonly used radioisotopes:
Cobalt 60 (emits -rays at 1.17 and 1.33 MeV)
Cesium 137 (at 0.66 MeV)
Iridium 192 (at about 0.31 and 0.47 MeV)

There is a continuous reduction in activity


(the number of decays in a radioactive isotope sample):
Nt = N0 exp(-t)
where Nt, and N0 are the number of atoms at t = t and 0, is the decay constant.

Half-life constant = t (when Nt = 0.5 N0) = - ln 0.5 /


ME 538 Welding Design, Fabrication & Quality Control

( - ln 0.5 = 0.693 )

Radiation Sources

Radiation Sources

10

Gamma--ray Source
Gamma
Hand crank

ME 538 Welding Design, Fabrication & Quality Control

[ASNT CT-6-6, Radiographic Testing]

3/10/2009

Gamma--ray Spectrum of Iridium


Gamma
Iridium--192
Decay of Ir-192
100

Relative Intensity

80

60

40
[R Nath,
[R.
Nath Yale Univ.,
Univ 2005 AAPM Summer School]

20

0
0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Energy (MeV)
ME 538 Welding Design, Fabrication & Quality Control

[L. Cartz, Nondestructive Testing, 1995]

Radiation Sources

11

Characteristics of -ray Sources

Radiation Sources
ME 538 Welding Design, Fabrication & Quality Control

[ASM Handbook, Vol. 17, Nondestructive Evaluation and Quality Control, 1989]

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Penetrating Ability

X-rayy tube
voltage, kV

Thickness
limitation of
steel for
inspection, mm

X-rayy
min, m
1.24x10-2
0.62x10-2
1.55x10-3
1 24x10-3
1.24x10
0.62x10-3

100
200
800
1000
2000

8
25
110
125
200

Approx.
pp
-rayy
equivalent

Ir-192, 0.31 MeV


Ce-137
Ce
137, 0.66
0 66 MeV
Co-60, 1.17 MeV

Radiation Sources

ME 538 Welding Design, Fabrication & Quality Control

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Comparison of XX- rays and -rays


-rays

X-rays
Advantages:

Variable/changeable
wavelengths

Fixed wavelengths with high


penetrating power

Usable for all materials

Usable for all materials

Good radiographic contrast &


sensitivity

Intensity decays with time

Adjustable Penetration

Low initial cost & maintenance

Can turn it on & off

Small, portable and provides


access into small cavities

it's a disadvantage

Advantages

High
g initial cost
Disadvantages:
g

Requires power source


Disadvantages

Constant radiation hazard,


Can not turn it off,
can only shield it
Requires intensity calibration

Less portable and more fragile Generally less contrast


High voltage electrical hazard
ME 538 Welding Design, Fabrication & Quality Control

Penetrating power is not


adjustable

[AWS Handbook, 9th ed., Vol. 1, Table 14.4]

Radiation Sources

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Attenuation of Electromagnetic Radiation


z

z
z

There is a reduction of intensity of a beam of X-ray or -rays


as it passes through matter due to interaction between the
beam and the material.
material
Attenuation characteristics of materials depend on:

Type (Electromagnetic? Ultrasonic? ... )

Radiation intensity and energy (frequency)

Density and atomic structure of the material

Decrease in intensity from I0 to I depends on thickness, t ,


of material, i.e., I = I0 exp ( - t )
Material constants

[cm-1] ... linear absorption coefficient of the material

m= / [cm2/g] ... mass absorption coefficient ( ... material density)

ME 538 Welding Design, Fabrication & Quality Control

Attenuation

15

Atomic Attenuation Processes


z

Thomson/Rayleigh

The photoelectric effect

Same
energy
photon

electron

electron

Compton scattering
photon

Pair production

positron

electron
[www.ndt-ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/Radiography/Physics/radmatinteraction.htm]
ME 538 Welding Design, Fabrication & Quality Control

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Mass Attenuation Coefficients

[ASM Handbook, Vol. 17,


Nondestructive Evaluation ]
and Quality Control, 1989]

Attenuation

ME 538 Welding Design, Fabrication & Quality Control

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Mass Absorption Coefficients

ME 538 Welding Design, Fabrication & Quality Control

[L. Cartz, Nondestructive Testing, 1995]

Attenuation

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Mass Absorption Coefficients (cont'd)

ME 538 Welding Design, Fabrication & Quality Control

[L. Cartz, Nondestructive Testing, 1995]

Attenuation

19

Half--Value Thickness and Subject Contrast


Half
Half-value Thickness (HVT) or half-value layer (HVL):
the thickness that decreases the radiation intensity by
one-half
one
half

Subject Contrast:
ratio of transmitted
radiation intensities at two
locations of the workpiece
Affected by:
nature of the specimen
energy of the radiation
intensity and distribution of the scattered radiation
Not affected by:
time, distance, characteristics of the radiographic film
ME 538 Welding Design, Fabrication & Quality Control

Attenuation

20

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Experimental and Calculated HVT

Attenuation

ME 538 Welding Design, Fabrication & Quality Control

21

Subject Contrast
I0
Pb

Cu

Steel

Al

It
Film
Contrast due to
Differences in
Specimen Thickness
ME 538 Welding Design, Fabrication & Quality Control

Contrast due to
Differences in
Specimen Composition
Attenuation

22

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Absorption Edges and Subject Contrast

[L. Cartz, Nondestructive Testing, 1995]


Attenuation

ME 538 Welding Design, Fabrication & Quality Control

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Subject Contrast

Void
ME 538 Welding Design, Fabrication & Quality Control

Dense Inclusion
(e.g., W)
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Subject Contrast

ME 538 Welding Design, Fabrication & Quality Control

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Viewing or Recording Medium


Film Radiography
Exposing a sheet of film to unabsorbed radiation
Two-dimensional
T di
i l llatent
t t iimage ffrom th
the projected
j t d
radiation
Subsequent development of the exposed film to
convert the latent image into a fixed, visible image
Real-time Radiography (radioscopy)
Unabsorbed radiation converted into an optical or
electronic signal, which can be viewed immediately or
can be processed in near real time with electronic and
video equipment
ME 538 Welding Design, Fabrication & Quality Control

Recording

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Photographic Films
Thin, transparent plastic base with emulsion Cross sectional view of industrial x-ray film
Emulsion consisting mainly of grains of
silver bromide (AgBr) dispersed in gelatin
Exposure to X-rays or daylight reduces
AgBr to silver, forming a latent image (which
cannot be detected visually or by ordinary
physical measurement)
Developing
D l i th
the exposedd fil
film
Selective chemical reaction converts the exposed AgBr
grains in the latent image into black metallic silver. The
metallic silver remains suspended in the gelatin, blackens
(part of) the developed (visible) image.
Recording

ME 538 Welding Design, Fabrication & Quality Control

27

Film Characteristic Curve


D

D1

G = tan
= dD / d(log E)

D2
Fog
level
Film speed

Log (E)

ME 538 Welding Design, Fabrication & Quality Control

Measure of the dose of radiation


exposure (E):
the radiation intensityy ((I))
multiplied by time (t)
Measure of film blackening
Radiographic density (D)
D = log (Iin/Iout)
I
Iout
depends on E and film in
development
film
Film gradient (g): slope of
characteristic curve
Average gradient (G)
(e.g., for D from 1.5 to 3.5)
G = (D1-D2) / log (E1/E2)
Recording

28

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Radiographic Contrast, CR
CR is determined by the subject contrast I1/I2 and film
gradient G
CR = D1 - D2 = G log (I1/I2) = 0.4343 G ln (I1/I2)
For example, when an inclusion is present of thickness i
and with a linear absorption coefficient, i, in a matrix with
linear absorption coefficient, M, the contrast due to the
presence of the inclusion is CR = 0.4343
0 4343 G (M - i)i .
A minimum of CR = 0.2 is desired in radiography even
though the eye is sensitive to contrast changes as low as
0.05 of photographic film blackening
ME 538 Welding Design, Fabrication & Quality Control

Recording

29

Intensifying Screens
Used to improve image contrast and reduce
exposure time, particularly when the radiation
intensity is low or when the radiation energy
(frequency) is high
Metal foil intensifying screens (such as lead), when
irradiated by X-rays, emit electrons that affect the silver
halide grains.
Fluorescent salt intensifying screens emit visible light
photons when irradiated by X-rays. Photographic
emulsion
l i iis muchh lless sensitive
iti tto X-rays
X
photons
h t
th
than
to visible light photons.

A second lead screen is also added at the back of


the film to reduce back-scattered X-rays affecting
the film.
ME 538 Welding Design, Fabrication & Quality Control

Recording

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Metal Foil Intensifying Screens

0.05

[ASM Handbook, Vol. 17, Nondestructive Evaluation and Quality Control, 1989]
ME 538 Welding Design, Fabrication & Quality Control

Recording

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Factors Affecting Quality of Radiographic Image


[AWS Welding Handbook, 8th ed.,
Vol. 1, 1987]

ME 538 Welding Design, Fabrication & Quality Control

Recording

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Radiographic Definition
Radiographic Definition is the sharpness of the edge of the image
(resolution)

Geometrical Unsharpness occurs because the radiation source is


not a true point source but has a finite size

Spatial Resolution of the image-detecting system


Film unsharpness Uf - film grain size, development process, radiation
energy level (worse at higher energy level)
Screen unsharpness - grain size and thickness of the screen, detection
efficiency and the energy and intensity of the radiation

Scattered Radiation - back scatter and forward scatter


Recording

ME 538 Welding Design, Fabrication & Quality Control

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2009/03/16 - Start

Radiographic Definition
The loss of image outline sharpness/definition is a function of focal spot
size of the source, source-to-film distance, and specimen-to-film distance.
Unsharpness ( or Ug) = Source Focal Spot Size b/a
High definition requires a small focal spot size of the radiation source,
the source-to-film distance be as large as practical and specimen-to-film
distance should be as small as practical.

ME 538 Welding Design, Fabrication & Quality Control

[NDT Resource Center]

34

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Maximum Geometric Unsharpness Allowed

Ug

Recording
ME 538 Welding Design, Fabrication & Quality Control

[CSA W59-M1989 Welded Steel Construction (Metal Arc Welding)]

35

Effect of X
X--Ray Voltage on Uf

Uf [mm]

As the radiation strikes the film, free


electrons are released which affect
the film in the surrounding areas.
This type of unsharpness cannot be
avoided.

X-ray generator voltage [MV]


ME 538 Welding Design, Fabrication & Quality Control

[L. Cartz, Nondestructive Testing, 1995]

Recording

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18

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Three Types of Scattered Radiation

Side Scatter

Internal Scatter

Back Scatter
Recording
ME 538 Welding Design, Fabrication & Quality Control

[ASM Handbook, Vol. 17, Nondestructive Evaluation and Quality Control, 1989]

37

Effects of Scatter & Solutions


Effects of
Scatter

Solutions

ME 538 Welding Design, Fabrication & Quality Control

38

19

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Scattered X-rays
Scattered X-rays give rise to a general fogging of the film,
thereby reducing the sharpness and contrast
Methods to reduce scattering effects on the X-ray film:
Increased object-to-film distance reduces scattered
rays reaching the image
Secondary X-rays are of lower energy (frequency) and
can be filtered ((absorbed)) byy a thin metal screen in
front of the film
The edges and holes scatter X-rays very badly, fogging
the film unnecessary. Blocking materials or masks can
be used reduce this problem.
Recording
ME 538 Welding Design, Fabrication & Quality Control

39

Image Quality Indicator (IQI) or Penetrameters


ASTM-ASME
Standard

Wire Penetrameters

Hexagonal
Standard
ME 538 Welding Design, Fabrication & Quality Control

Recording

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Penetrameter Designs

Recording
ME 538 Welding Design, Fabrication & Quality Control

[CSA W59-M1989 Welded Steel Construction (Metal Arc Welding), p. 48]

41

Standard Penetrameter Thickness

Recording
ME 538 Welding Design, Fabrication & Quality Control

[CSA W59-M1989 Welded Steel Construction (Metal Arc Welding)]

42

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IQI Location on Approx. Equal Thickness Joints

Recording
ME 538 Welding Design, Fabrication & Quality Control

[CSA W59-M1989 Welded Steel Construction (Metal Arc Welding)]

43

Radiographic Exposure
X-rays
X-ray tube voltage
X-ray tube amperage
exposure time
source-to-film distance

-rays
wavelength
l
th
radioisotope activity
exposure time
source-to-film distance
ME 538 Welding Design, Fabrication & Quality Control

Recording

44

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Exposure Charts
Provide an estimate of the exposure in terms of X-ray tube
current (resp. -ray activity) multiplied by time (e.g., mA-s or Cimin) for radiographs of aluminum and steel,
steel depending on the
thickness of the specimen and on the applied voltage (X-ray).
Usually provided for a particular X-ray generator, using
specified film-source distance, X-ray film type, film developingprocessing.
E
Exposure for
f other
th materials
t i l can be
b derived
d i d using
i equivalent
i l t
thickness factors.
Intensifying screens are used to shorten the exposure time, but
affect the unsharpness.
Recording

ME 538 Welding Design, Fabrication & Quality Control

45

Typical X-ray Exposure Charts


Andrex 160-kV directional X-ray machine, AA film (Eastman Kodak), 2.0 density, no screens,
910mm source-to-film distance, PIX developer (Picker), 7 min manual developing time

Aluminum

Steel

[ASM Handbook, Vol. 17, Nondestructive Evaluation and Quality Control, 1989]
ME 538 Welding Design, Fabrication & Quality Control

Recording

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Exposure Curves for -Ray Sources

A - Iridium-192 source, lead screens,


500 mm source-to-film distance;
B - Cobalt-60, copper screens,
500 mm source-to-film distance;
C - Ytterbium-169, lead screens,
200 mm source-to-film distance;
D.7 film, 2.0 density, 5 min
development in Agfa-Gevaert
VC developer at 20oC,

Aluminum
ME 538 Welding Design, Fabrication & Quality Control

Recording
[ASM Handbook, Vol. 17, Nondestructive Evaluation and Quality Control, 1989] 47

Equivalent Radiographic Absorption

[ASM Handbook, Vol. 17, Nondestructive Evaluation and Quality Control, 1989]
ME 538 Welding Design, Fabrication & Quality Control

Recording

48

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Estimated Exposure if Source Distance Changes


The far-field intensity varies inversely
with the square of the distance from
the source,, mathematically,
y,

Newton's Inverse Square Law

I1 : I2 = (d2)2 : (d1)2

where I is the intensity of radiation


at a given distance, d, from a source

Equivalent exposure can be estimated


using :

t . mA
A = constant,
t t

[www.ndt-ed.org]

t ... exposure time, mA ... tube current (X-rays) or source strength (-rays)

Combining the above two equations, we have


(mA1 . t1 ) : (mA2 . t2 ) = (d2)2 : (d1)2
ME 538 Welding Design, Fabrication & Quality Control

Recording

49

X-ray,
ray, -ray Radiation Safety
Ionizing Electromagnetic Radiation
can damage human blood cells and tissues resulting in acute or
long-term health effects.

Licensing

The use of -ray inspection is controlled by the Federal


Government through the Atomic Energy Control Board.
The use of industrial X-ray machine is controlled by the Provincial
Ministry responsible for the respective Industrial and Occupational
Health and Safety Act.

Controlling
C t lli Exposure
E

Increase distance - doubling the distance from a source reduces the


radiation by four times (inverse square law)
Reduce exposure time - using faster film speed
Shielding - heavier materials (such as lead or depleted uranium)
absorb more radiation

ME 538 Welding Design, Fabrication & Quality Control

Safety

50

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Radiation Safety
Detecting and Measuring Radiation Exposure
Radiation Survey Meter
Personal Dose Meter

TLD
Thermoluminescent Dosimeter (TLD) traps radiation energy which can
later be released by slow heating and the released energy is measured
and recorded.
The monitoring of radiation exposure is controlled by the Federal
Government through the Department of Health and Welfare. The TLDs
are issued and read and a lifelong history of radiation doses received is
maintained by the Bureau of Radiation and Medical Devices.
Devices
Direct Reading Dosimeter (DRD) contains a charged quartz fibre which
moves when struck by radiation.

Warning Signs
"CAUTION, X-RAYS : NO UNAUTHORIZED USE"
"ATTENTION, RAYONS X: UTILISATION NON AUTORISEE"
Safety

ME 538 Welding Design, Fabrication & Quality Control

51

Radiography: Advantages and Limitations


Advantages
Can detect internal discontinuities
Provides a physical record of inspection
Film can be viewed by others for repair, review,
etc., and can be evaluated later
Suitable for all weld geometries

Disadvantages

Radiation hazard
Less sensitive to cracks
Requires highly trained inspectors
Relative high capital cost
Sensitivity decreased on thicker test pieces
Two-side access needed

ME 538 Welding Design, Fabrication & Quality Control

Summary

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