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THE

BROSS

LECTURES

PREVIOUS

BROSS

LECTURES

The Bible of Nature. By J. ARTHURTHOMSON,


M. A.,
Regius Professor of Natural History, University
of Aberdeen. Crown 8vo, price 4s. 6d. net.
SUMMAEY OF CONTENTS i-The

Wonder

of the World-The

History of Things-Organisms and their Origin-The


Evolution

of Organisms-Man's

Place in Nature.

" For such a task as he has here essayed, Professor Thomson is peculiarly fitted alike by his eminent scientific acquirements,
his profound
sympathy with religious feelings and values, and his gifts as an expositor.
The scientific interest is the leading one throughout,
but the
bearings of scientific truth upon religion are never lost sight of, and
tbe real harmony between Christian theism and the doctrine of evolution is brought out in a most convincing
fashion."-Glasgow
Herald.

The Bible: Its Origin and Nature. By Principal MAKcus Does, D.D., Edinburgh. Crown 8vo, price
4s. 6d. net.
" The very book on the Bible

that

multitudes

of thinking

people

are asking for in order to meet the questions that are now pressing
upon them.
The subject is here treated with the lucidity and frankness, the firmness of handling and force of expression, which characterize all its author's writings."-Review
of Theology and Philosophy.

EDINBUEGH:T. & T. CLARK, 38 GEORGESTREET

COMMUNION

LOAF

OR OBLATION

OF THE

HOLY

ORTHODOX

(MUItC

THE BELIGIONS OE
MODEBN SIEIA AND PALESTINE
LECTURES

LAKE
ON

THE

DELIVERED

FOREST

BEFORE

COLLEGE

FOUNDATION

OF

THE

LATE

WILLIAM

BY

FREDERICK

JONES BLISS, PH.D.


AUTHOR OF

" EXCAVATIONS AT JERUBALEM, 1894-1897 '*


"THB DEVELOPMENT OF PALESTINE EXPLORATION," ETC.

: T. & T. CLARK, 38 GEORGESTREET


1912

"Copyright.1912,by The Trusteesof Lake ForestUniversity


for the UnitedStatesof America
Printed by the ScribnerPress
NewYork, U. S. A.

TO
PRESIDENT-EMERITUS
WHO,

DANIEL
OP THE

BLISS

DURING

MORE

SYRIAN
THAN

SPENT AMONG THE


THE

MANY

RELIGIONS

PURE

AND

FIFTY

FOLLOWERS

OP SYRIA

HAS MANIFESTED
RELIGION

PROTESTANT

AND

IN" HIS OWN


UNDEPILED,

FILIAL
BY

HIS

REVERENCE
SON

YEARS
OP
PALESTINE,
LIFE

THIS BOOK

IS DEDICATED
WITH

COLLEGE

PREFACE

THIS volume 5san expansionof the Bross Lectures delivered at Lake Forest CollegeIn 1908. In order to collect
material two journeys were made from the United States

to Syriaand Palestine,one beforeand oneafter the delivery


of the lectures. For a large part of his life, moreover,the
author lias beenresidentIn theselands,Syria, indeed,being
his birthplace. While many books have beenconsulted,
It is in human

documents

that the richest

material

has been

found. The Greek liturgies have been studied, but the


manualactsof the masswereexplainedto me in the sittingroom of a kindly parish priest whosewife had baked the
communionloaf which he reverently used in illustration.
Learned books on the dervishes have been consulted, but

it was tlirough the quaint tales of a gentle-eyedsheikhin


Jerusalem,who left his humble task of scouring pots and
kettlesto make me a visit, that I learnedpastall forgetting
that, in spite of the.*wild demonstrations which travellers
witness for a fee in Constantinople and Cairo, the controlling motive of the dervish life is the hunger and thirst

after righteousness.EverywhereI was receivedwith kindness. I had interviews with the Orthodox patriarchs of
Antioch, Jerusalem, and Alexandria.

Members of the hier-

archiesof other Easternchurches-Greek Catholic, Syrian,


Muronite- imparted valuable information. Missionaries,
Roman Catholic and Protestant,gave of their knowledge
und experience. Moslemsof all classesspoke freely of
their religion. To the students and graduates of the
Syrian Protestant College at Beyrout I am greatly indebted. A list of thosefrom whom I have receivedhelp
would swell to cataloguedimensions. Such a list, indeed,
would be sadly incomplete,for 1 know not even the names
of many who courteouslyansweredmy questions as we
chancedto travel together. Without inviuiousness1 may
zi

xil

PREFACE

mentionthe Orthodox Bishop of Beyrout; the Reverend


J. Stewart Crawford, Professor of Biblical

Studies at the

f Syrian ProtestantCollege; the ReverendDr. Hoskins, of


Beyrout; the ReverendJ. E. Hanauer,Missionary of the
London Jews*Society, at Damascus; Mr. Serapion Murad,

of Jaffa; Dr. Taufiq Sallum and the ReverendAbdallah


Mess&h, of Hama; Mr. A. T. Gelat, Mr. E. A. Gelat,

and Mr. GeorgeSaid,of Jerusalem;Mr. GeorgeYanni, of


Tripoli; Mr. Hanna Khubbaz, of Hums; Mr. Gibran
Luts and Mr.

Amln

Fans,

of Damascus.

I have also

received information from that Intrepid traveller, Miss


Gertrude Lowthian

Bell, author of "The

Desert and the

Sown." Valuable use has been made of the original

Syrianjournalsof the late Dr. SamuelIves Curtiss. Some


of thesewere loaned to me by the authorities of the Chicago

Theological Seminary. The latest journals, which Dr.


Curtissneverlived to usein literary work, wereconfidedto
my care by the late Professor Scott of the same Institution,
whose property they were. After his death his family

generouslypermittedme to continueusingthem.
A certainlack of proportionmaybe observedin the space
here devotedto the different cults respectively. For example, there are no chaptersdealing exclusivelywith the
Jews or with the secretreligions, the latter being briefly
treated as hereticaloffshootsof Islam. In order to adapt
the great amount of material which had been collected to

the spaceallotted to a volume of the BrossLibrary, both


condensationand elimination becameimperative. The
final form was determinedby a numberof reasonswhich It
Is not necessary
to detail. I hopeto developIn the future
the material already gatheredbut not here used,material
relating to the Jews,Druses,Nuselriyeh,and Isma'illyeh.
F. J. B.
ROCHESTER,
N. Y.,
January, 1912.

CONTENTS
IIAPTKK

I.

PAGK

THE HISTORIC SETTING:


INTRODUCTORY NOTE

**.

I. Developmentof the Cults


II.
II

HI.

IV.

THE

Iritcr-Ilelations

22

7
.

CONSTITUTION OF THE EASTERN CHURCHES:

I. The Orthodox
II.

........

35

Church

39

The Recent National


Orthodox Church

Movement
.

in the
(50

III.

The Jacobite or Old Syrian Church

IV.

The Uniat.es

81

V. The Maronites

90

VI.

The Monasteries

.........

74

113

RITUAL OF THE KASTKKN CHUKCHKS:


INTRODUCTORY NOTE

........

I. The EasternLiturgies .......


II. Baptism,Marriage, and Burial
III. The Church, Year
THE

of the Culls

INTRODUCTORY NOTE

THE

........

123

....

128
140
155

FIVE Pi LIARS OF ISLAM:


INTRODUCTORY NOTE

........

171

I. Confession of the Creed

177

II. Prayer .
III. Fasting arid Legal Alms
IV. Pilgrimage . . * *

199
210
217

xiii

xiv

CONTENTS

CHAPTER

V.

PAGE

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OF ISLAM:


INTRODUCTORY

NOTE

........

225

I. The MohammedanHagioiogy . . . . . 227


II. The Dervish Organization
234
III.
VI.

The Dervish Life

255

OTHER FEATURES OF ISLAM:


INTRODUCTORY

NOTE

291

294

I. Woman and Marriage........


II.

Death

III.
VII.

and

Burial

The Ski'ah Sect

276

278

THE INFLUENCE OF THE WEST

313

APPENDIX

337

INDEX

345

THE

MODERN

RELIGIONS

SYRIA

AND

OF

PALESTINE

I
HISTORIC

SETTING

INTRODUCTORY NOTE

TWENTY-FIVE hundred feet above the Mediterranean*

and

within soundof its waves,there is an irregular line of five


villages stretchingfor about two miles along the seaward

slopeof theLebanon. This smallgroup,takenalmostat


random from the hundreds of mountain towns, may serve

to illustrate the scopeof this volume. The largestvillage,

S&q-el-Gharb,
or theWesternMarket,is peopledmainlyby
membersof the GreekOrthodox Church, though it contains
alsoa numberof familiesnow Protestant. Separatedon the
north from the WesternMarket by no perceptibleboundary
runs out Mekkin, with its large convent belongingto the
Greek Catholics, or Greeks now united to Rome.

Below

Sftq-el-Gharband a little to the south, partly concealedby


a groveof ancientoaks,nestles*Ait&t, inhabitedalmost entirely by Druses,followersof a religion of secrecyand mystery, oneof the hereticaloffshootsof Islam. Higher up on
the range is planted the hamlet of K6fdn, which contains
nothingbut Mohammedans,not OrthodoxSunnis,like those
residentin the city of Beyrout, which gleamson the plains
below, but Metawileh Shi'ahs, of the sect of Islam that rules

in Persia. And, last of the group, to the south is Shemlan,


whereare found practically none but Maronites, proud of
their membershipin the National Syrian Church of the
Lebanon; like the GreekCatholics,Easternin rite and practice, and, like them, giving allegianceto a Westernpope.
Thus segregated
by groupsin the compassof a few hundred
yards,we find examplesof all the religionsto be here discussedat length,exceptthe SuxmiMoslemsand the Jacobite
and CatholicSyrians.
3

THE

HISTORIC

SETTING

Beforeshowinghow andwhenthesevariousbodiesfound
a homein Syria and Palestine,we may dwell for a moment
on the hold which religion itself,apart from any particular
form, hason the wholeSyrian people. The religiousconsciousness,
everywhereand at all times,is the consciousness
of the relation of the individual to God, whatever the idea of

God may be. Apart from the quality of the conception,


I assertthat the ideaof Godis presentto the commonconsciousnessin Syria and Palestine with a vividness lacking to
the common

consciousness

in Western

Protestant

lands at

thepresenttime. Rain, in the Holy Land, not only falls on


the just and the unjust, but the just and the unjust unite in
believingthat God sendsit. Suchbelief is morethan a religious tradition: it is actual, potent. "Inshallah" ("If
God will") is often utteredmerelyas the equivalentof "I
hope so," but the stereotypeduse of the phrasehas not
usurpedits real meaning. The languageof daily life is
permeatedwith similar religious phrases. Sometimesa
gesturesuffices. While writing this book, I questioneda
statementmadeby an Egyptianpeddlerat a summerresort
in the United States. Instantly his fat, jolly face became
solemn. Not a word he uttered; he only pointedupward.
God was there,and readyto witness. Owing to this paramountinstinct of religion,aswell as to otherconditionsthat
will presentlyappear,a Syrianis alwayslabelledwith the tag
of the particular faith which he follows. Asking the details
of a murder,you mayreceivetheanswer: " A Moslem killed
a Jew" or "A Christianshot a Druse." You are likely to

describe
yourservants,
for example,
as"Two Orthodox,one
Maronite, and a Greek Catholic."

How common is this

formof category
maybeillustratedby thequestiona person
mayaskwhenwishingto knowthe composition
of a tasty
dishor of any inanimateobject. "Shu dfnu?" he saysin
colloquialArabic,"What is'its religion?"
All Syrians
of whatever
faithhavea knowledge
of theoutwardformsof their religion,whichis rareamongthelaity
of theUnitedStates. In the SyrianProtestantCollegeat
Beyroutmay be found followersof nearlyall the faiths
mentionedin this work. rphe information in regardto the

INTRODUCTORY

NOTE

detailsof belief and practisewhich I obtainedfrom under-

graduates
usuallystoodthetestwhenlaterI soughtfor ver-

ification from other sources. These, it may be objected,


were picked men. Listen, then, to the following tale.
Someyearsago my father stoppedfor lunch by a fountain
in northern Syria, and had this conversationwith a shepherd lad who held his horse:

"What is your religion?" was the lad's first question.


"I will not tell you directly," answeredmy father.,"but
I will answerany questionsyou ask about it."
"Do you believein God?" said the lad.
"Yes," said my father.

"Then you are not a heathen/" said the boy. "Do you
believe in Christ?"
"I do."

" Then youarea Christian. Whatsectdo youbelongto ?"


"I won't tell you that yet/' was the answer. "Go on
askingme questions."
The lad paused,lookedpuzzled,suddenlybrightened,and
then said:

"Do you believethat the Holy Ghost proceedsfrom the

Father

and the Son or from

the Father

alone?"

Recallingthe ancient theologicalformula of the West,my


father said that his church believedin the processionfrom
the Father

and the Son.

"Then you are a Maronite!" said the boy triumphantly.


The Maronites, it may be added, differ from the Greek
Churchin acceptingthe Westernformula, with, which Protestant theologyis in accord. What explanationmy father
made does not concern us here. The point for us is
that this Syrian peasant,barefoot,unlettered, untruvelled,
had it on the tip of his tongue to name the controversy
that had split the church universal eight hundred years
before.

This is not the placeeven to enumeratethe reasonswhy


the conceptionof God is more vivid and more all-pervading
amongOriental peoplesthan it is in the West,but in justice
to ourselvesa few wordsmay beaddedin partial explanation
of the difference. There has l)eenno more important mo-

THE

HISTORIC

SETTING

ment In the history of religion than whenthe greatHebrew


prophetsunveiledthe truth that as far as He is related to
human life God is pre-eminentlya God of righteousness.
Since the time of that vision, for all who have true spiritual

apprehension,
religionwithoutmorality hasbeeninconceivable. This union of religion and morality hascontinuedto
be the ideal of Judaism,and sincetheir inceptionhas been
alsothe ideal of Christianityand in a lesserdegreethe ideal
of Islam. But in the actual practiceof thesethreereligions
the ideal has sufferedchange. In Islam and in Eastern
Christianity this conceptionof the vital relation between
morality and religion is far from clear at the presenttime.
In WesternChristianity the ideal, which had grown dim,
was rekindled by the Reformation.

Since then it has gov-

erned the Protestantworld. Freedomfrom superstition,


however,was bought with a price. Personalreligion has
beenenormouslybenefited,but, in the very processof purifying the individualconception,whatmaybecalledthe common

consciousness

of God has suffered

loss.

The

strict

Puritan theory,logicallycarried out, tendsto the following


position: If man'srelationto God mustof necessityinclude
an acknowledgeddesire to fulfil all moral obligations,it
follows that thosewho deliberatelystifle conscience
end in
having no personal relation to Divine Providence. Shut out
from their moral world, God is shut out from their entire

cosmos. Protestantismtendsto divide the sheepfrom the


goatsin this world. To the unethicalman it offers no religious consolation;it expectsfrom him, remainingunethical, no religiousduties. That the converseis practically
true in the Easternchurchand in Islam explainsboth the
strengthand weaknessof thesecults. For the "unconverted" Protestant,then,religionis in eclipse, Sucha condition reactson the " converted." Living in a world where
by the majority God is disregardedas a vital factor of the
commonlife of work and play, they are subtly affectedby
the envelopingatmosphere. Their own relation to God,
beingprivateand individual rather than objective,is definitely realizedonly in momentsof directspiritual communion. These momentsnaturally form the exception,not

DEVELOPMENT

OF

THE

CULTS

the rule, of their daily life, for we are speaking of aver-

age Christians,not of the saints. Providencein all of Its


common manifestations is largely relegated to the realm of

the theoretic. Intellectually, the idea is acceptedand, if


questioned,would be stoutly defended; but as a matter of
experienceit is imperfectlyvitalized.
That such a tendency exists in Protestant Christendom

cannotbegainsaid. That historicallyit had its inceptionin


a nobler conceptionof God than had hitherto prevailedwe
have already indicated.

That it is far less widely operative

amongthe simplepeoplethan amongthe intellectualis true.


That it has been nourished by many other influences is

probable. But that it hasbeenincidentalratherthan necessary to the developmentof the nobler conceptionmay be
confidently asserted. What we need is a synthesisof the
ideas of the Orient

and of the Occident.

If ever the East

and the West consent to learn the best from each, other, the

Oriental conceptionof God will becomepurer, moreethical,


moreeffective,while the Westernconceptionwill grow more
vivid, will touchthe commonlife of the religiousman at a
thousandnewpoints,and will appearus a vital force to those
whom

now it influences
I.

not at all.

DEVELOPMENT

OF THE CULTS

Whenon the dayof Pentecostthe Apostleswere inflamed


with the purposeof preachingthe new religion, later called
Christianity, they did not foresee that this was to take root

and to flourish chiefly among the Gentilesor heathen. In


the beginningtheir message
was deliveredexclusivelyto the
Jews. At that time the populationof Syria was betweensix
and seven millions of souls, of whom about one million were

Jews. In Palestinewherethe populationwas less,the Jews


numbered

about

seven hundred

thousand.1

The

Christian church of Jerusalem, thus, was Jewish.

earliest

But as

a practical result of the great revelation of the universal


1 Professor Harnack Is authority for these numbers. This section is
further indebted to his "Expansion of Christianity/' vol. XIX of "The

TheologicalTranslation Library " (New York, 1004).

THE

HISTORIC

SETTING

characterof Christianity,vouchsafedfirst to Peterand then


to Paul, the gospelwas soonpreachedto the Gentilesalso.
With Peterthe ideaof fellowshipwith the Gentileswho had
becomeChristianswaslargely theoretic. His failure to put
it into practice at Antioch brought him into sharp collision with Paul.

For with Paul the idea had become vital,

paramount,controlling. It altered his whole career. He


was pre-eminentlythe Apostleto the Gentiles. And Paul,
historically speaking, laid the foundationsof Christian
empire. The Jewishconvertscountedfor little or nothing
in thesubsequent
historyof the church. Numericallythey
were always weak. The mother church of Jerusalem dis-

appearedcompletelywhen Hadrian prohibited all circumcisedpersonsfrom enteringthe town of Aelia Capitolina,


which he had built on the ruined site of the Holy City sixty
years after its destruction by Titus. In the nineteenth year

of Hadrian'sreign,the Bishopof Jerusalem


wasoneMarcus,
a Greek Gentile. From him the presentGreek patriarch
claims

ecclesiastical

succession in unbroken

chain.

In the

secondcenturya large part of the Jewishchurch became


Hellenizedand wasmergedin themainbodyof Christendom,
So alienateddid the unimportantremnantgrow that about
the year 180 A. D. the Catholic Church branded Christian

Jewsas heretics. In the courseof the agesthe Jewishpopulation of Palestinealmost disappeared. It is quite possible that the remoteancestorsof the eightythousandJews1
now residentin the Holy Land proper were numbered
among the Jews of Palestine in the time of Paul, but in the

majority of casestheir immediateprogenitorscame from


Spain, Russia,Poland, Roumania,or Arabia. The sixty
thousandJews,however,at presentdwelling in Syria, at
Damascus,Aleppo,and in other placesare, in all but religion, native Syrians, following the customs,sharing the
superstitions,and speakingthe native Arabic languageof
the land. It is not improbablethat the ancestorsof many
1 It may be acknowledged at once that all statements as to the num-

bersof any given sectin Syria and Palestineare, at best,only approximate, and often mere guesswork. The total population is probably
between three and three and one-half million.

DEVELOPMENT

OF THE

CULTS

of thesehavelived in Syria continuouslysincethe time of the


Diaspora.
For the ancestorsof the various Christian peoplesnow liv-

ing in Syria and Palestinewe mustlook, then, in the main*


to the Gentiles or heathen to whom Paul and his fellow-

missionariespreached. Though divided into many bodies,


the modernChristiansmay be roughly classedtogether,but
at the timewhenChristianitywasfirst preachedthe heathenism of Syria and Palestinewas in no sensea unit. In the
cities the Greek forms of worship prevailed; in the country the local cults were followed. Someof thesehad survived from the earliestdays,having neverbeen.stampedout
by Judaism. Others were of later origin. Especially in
Syria there had been developedwhat may be called synthetic or eclecticcults, by grafting borrowed ideas on the
local religions. Againstthe gospelpropaganda,which flourished in an extraordinary manner, notwithstanding the
fierce governmentpersecutions,all the old religions made
stout resistance. Even after the Emperor Constantinorecognized Christianity officially, the proud cities of Ascalon
and Gaza werestrongly pagan. While the coast towns of
Phoeniciawere nominally Christian, inland placescontinued to be homogeneously
heathen. "Pagan" (rural) arid
"heathen" becamesynonymousterms. During the pagan
reaction under Julian, called "the Apostate/' Christians
were savagely tortured in the centres of the old cults.

The

edicts of Theodosius, the last of which was issued in 390,

closedthe temples,confiscatedthe religious property, and


abolishedthe privilegesof heathenpriests. Then, indeed,
paganismcrumbledaway. Gibbon speaksof the phenomenon as "the only example of the total extinction of any
ancient and popular superstition." "The generationthat
arosein the world after the promulgation of the imperial
laws," so he goeson, "was attractedwithin the pale of the
CatholicChurch, and so rapid, yet so gentle,was the fall of
paganism,that only twenty yearsafter the death of Theodosiusthe faint and minute vestigeswere no longer visible
to the eyesof the legislator."l
1"Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire/' chap. XXVIII,

10

THE

HISTORIC

SETTING

A foot-noteto this passagestatesthat the youngerTheodosiuswas afterwardsatisfiedthat his judgmentwassomewhat premature. He did well to look deeper. Vestiges
thereare to-day of the old cults,and neither faint nor minute,thoughfifteenhundredyearshavepassedawaysincethe
edictsof Theodosiusthe Elder. As an organism,paganism
indeed crumbled, but its soul continued to hover over the

Holy Land. Thereis no religionafter the Orderof Melchizedek, without father, without mother, without descent. In its

localizedworshipof saintsand martyrs Christianityhad an


immediatelegacyfrom Polytheism,with its god for every
place and its god for every need. This legacywas later
sharedby Islam. The Cult of the Shrines,commonto-day
to Moslems, Christians, and Jews, is essentially the old Cult

of the High Places. In monasterieswherethe Christians


vow to Elijah or to Saint George,there the Moslemsvow
to the mysteriousKhudr, the Ever Green or Ever Living
One,whomtheyidentifywith both. At theMoslemShrines
of the Khudr ChristiansinvokeSaint George. At Jobar,
nearDamascus,the Arabic-speakingJewspay vows at the
Shrineof Elijah, whom theytoo call Khudr, and take part
In a nature dance, the men separatelyfrom the women.1
Persistence
of someof the detailsof heathenworshipamong
the fastnesses of the mountains north of the Lebanon doubtless accounts for some of the elements still found in the re-

ligions of the Nuseiriyehand of the Isma'iliyeh. The survival of the spirit of paganismaround the roots of Mount
Hermon may explain the ready acceptanceby the inhabitants of the strangedoctrinesof the Druses,brought to
1The late Dr. Samuel Ives Curtiss, whose latest note-books I have

had the privilege of studying (seePreface),is authority for this statement.

He also gives examples of the contradictory stories related of

Khudr. SomeMoslemsaccept the double identification with Elijah


and Saint George. Some accept the first but not the second. Others

claimthat Elijah and the Khudr weredifferentpersons. Baldensperger


(seehis article, "Orders of Holy Men in Palestine," "Quarterly Statement of the PalestineExploration Fund," 1894,p. 25) givesa prayer
usedat a Dervishinitiation in which Elias (Elijah) and Khudr are called
brothers.

DEVELOPMENT OF THE CULTS \':i

11

them from Persiaby way of Egypt early In the


tury. Traces of old sacrificial ideas may still be found inthe colloquialArabic phrases* Once, when campingunder
the ancient cedarsof the Lebanon, my father was taken
ill. His recoverywas rapid, but the next day my beautiful
horse fell sick and died, notwithstanding the care of the
faithful Christian muleteers. " Fedahu ! " " It is his redemp-

tion1" they said, regretting the loss of the horsebut rejoicing in my father's recovery,

Christianity in Syria and Palestinedevelopedalong two


parallel lines, following two parallel lines of civilization:
Hellenic in the cities, Syrian in the country* The new religion took root in both zonesof civilization and was colored
by eachtype. Thus two typesof churchesarose: the Hellenic, using in their servicesthe Greek language,and the
Syrian,usingthe Syriacor Aramaic. In Palestinethe Greek
type was representedalmost exclusively,though in a few
churchesserviceswere conductedin both languages. In
Syria the two typesoperated,but from differentcentres. In
courseof time Antioch cameto be the hea'd-quartersof the
Greektype and far-awayEdessathe head-quartersof the
Syrian type. The line of cleavagebetween the zoneswas
not definite. Undoubtedly,in the Greek zoneof influence,
especiallyin the villagesout of touch with the great cities,
there werecongregationsthat long continued to follow the
Syrian type of worship,conductedin their own Syrian language. The two typeshavesurvivedto the presentday, the
Greek type beingrepresentedby the Greek Orthodox, and
the GreekCatholicMelchites,who split off from the Orthodox as late as 1724. The Syrian type is representedby the
Syrian Jacobites,by the Syrian Catholics(a comparatively
modern body), and by the Maronites, who constitute the
National Church of the Lebanon.

The term Melchite, re-

adopted
bythatbranchof theGreekChurchwhichaccepted
the allegianceof Rome, is chargedwith, the memoriesof a
storm that camenear to wrecking Catholicismin the fifth,
sixth, and seventhcenturies. Orthodoxyin thosedays was
maintained by imperial power. Christians in Syria who

clungto the heresies


relatingto the personof Christ con-

12

THE

HISTORIC

SETTING

dernnedby the Councilof Ephesus(431),by the Councilof


Chalcedon(451),and the Third Councilof Constantinople,
(680) came to be known as Mardaites or Rebels. In turn

they applied the nicknameMelchitesto thosewho bowed


to the imperial will in mattersof belief. Melchites,then,
signifiedRoyalistsor King's Men. In Syriathe Monophysite heresy took deep root among those who followed the

Syrian forms of worship. It seemsneverto have infected


the churchesof Palestine.1The first definitesplit with the
CatholicChurchin Syriawas effectedby the monk James,
or JacobusBaradaeus,who died in the year 578. Suchof
the Syrian clergy as held Monophysiteviews he organized
into a regular hierarchy, with their own Patriarch of Antioch.

Membersof the new organizationcame to be knowrnas


Jacobites. The seatof the patriarchwas later transferred
to Mesopotamia,whereit still is. At one time the Syrian
churches,including the Nestorian (which does not fall
within the paleof our discussion),threatenedto outrank the
Orthodoxbody,but after the eleventhcenturytheir decline
was assured. The Jacobitecommunionto-day plays no
important role among the Christian churches of Syria,

thoughit continuesto be a powerin Mesopotamia. Even


there,however,the portion that hasseceded
to Rome,under
the nameof Syrian Catholics,threatensto overshadowthe
old Syrian communion.
Far moregermaneto our presentdiscussionis the origin
of the LebanonMaronites,who to-day form the largestand
most compact Christian body in Syria. The form of heresy

which thesewarlike inhabitantsof the Lebanonfinally entertainedwas really the inventionof that imperial opportunist of the seventhcentury,the EmperorHeraclius. As a
compromisebetweenOrthodoxy and Monophysitism,he
proposedto substitutea doctrinethat cameto be knownas
Monothelitism.2

This was condemned at the Third Council

of Constantinople(680),but the Syriansof Lebanonindignantly refusedto giveup the doctrine,imperialin inception,


1To this day no native churchflourishesin Palestineproper but the
Orthodox, though others are represented.
2Seefoot-noteon p. 35.

DEVELOPMENT

OF

THE

CULTS

13

but now imperially repudiated,and therebyearneda fresh


title to the name Mardaites or Rebels, in which they gloried.

In 685, five yearsafter the council, they organizedthemselvesinto a separatebody, electingas their patriarch one
John Maro.

The Maronites of to-day, however, derive their

namefrom an allegedSaint Martin, who is supposedto have


establisheda monasteryat the sourceof the OrontesIn the
fifth century,gatheringabout him three hundred and fifty
monks. Originally a Syrian church in language and in
ritual, the Maronite body underwent little alteration even
after its submission to the authority of Rome in 1182. Its
tendency to conform to Roman practice dates from com-

paratively modern times. When in the next chapter we


follow the fortunes of the Maronites more closely, we shall

note that they claim to have always formed a part of the


Roman Catholic Church, stoutly denying all chargesof
former heresy.

It is clear,thus, that from the earliesttimesto the present


day the liturgical languageof the Jacobitesand Maronites
has been Syriac. The Greek Orthodox and the Greek
Catholics,the modernrepresentatives
of the old Melchites,
have long used the Byzantine liturgies and other Greek
forms of service,though at the presentday Arabic*translations of all these are used in the Syrian churches.1 The

Byzantine liturgies of Saint Chrysostomand Saint Basil,


now universally used in the Orthodox Church in all lands,

date from the eighth century. Just when, these were


adoptedby the Orthodox Churchesof Syria is not known,
thoughthey probablywere in useby the end of the twelfth
century. It is quite conceivable that before that time considerable latitude was allowed among the Melchites in the

useof theliturgies. We have seenthat purely Greek types


of worship characterizedthe Syrian towns, but in country
districts such churchesas remainedloyal to the king's party
probably continuedto retain for some time their form of
* JacquesdeVitry, Bishop of Acre in 1217,informs us that the Syrian
Orthodox of his day used Greek servicesnot understoodof the people
who spoke Arabic. See his "Historia Hierosolymitana," LXXIV,
found in the "Gesta Dei per Francos/7edition of Bongara.

14

THE

HISTORIC

SETTING

worship,sometimesin the Syriaelanguage,sometimesin


Greek

translation.1

While the churchof the ByzantineEmpire wasbeingrent


by the questionswhether Christ had one nature or two
natures, one will or two wills; while its subjects were rang-

ing themselves
either as King's Men or Rebels; while, in
the passionfor correct thinking about Christ, the idea of
right living in the nameand after the exampleof the meek
and lowly Jesuswas fast disappearing,in far-awayArabia
a great religiousgeniuswas burning with the passionto
make known, by persuasionor' by force, the simple truth
that God is One. In the spiritual lifelessnessand the
doctrinal divisions of Christianity lay the opportunity of
Islam. Mohammed'sflight from Mecca to Medinah with
a few faithful followersdatesthe beginningof the Moslem
era at 622. Ten yearslater, Islam, by the powerof tongue
and of sword, had conqueredArabia, and under Khaled,
theSwordof God,wasattemptingthe conquestof Palestine.
It was a holy war. Empirewas soughtovermen'ssoulsas
well as over men's bodies.

The leaders of the movement,

'Omar, Khaled,Abu 'Obeidah,weremenof greatfaith. It


waswith much the samepurpose,accordingto the Hebrew
narrative, and with much the same methods of war that Caleb

andJoshuahadled the forcesof Israel overthesameground


two thousand years before. Bosrah, "on the other side of

the Jordan," was the first town to fall, betrayedby its governor,who publicly acceptedthe religion of his conquerors
with the declaration: "I chooseAllah for my God, Islam
for my Faith, Meccafor my Temple.'3 Six yearsafter this
first victory,the wholeof Syria and Palestinehad comeunder the Moslemsway. And under this sway,savefor the
brief period of crusadingrule, theselands have remained
for thirteencenturies. No previousdomination of which
we haveany clearchronologicalaccount-Jewish, Persian,
Greek, Roman, Byzantine-has lasted as long. The de1For a discussionof this question seeLammens,in "Al Machriq"
(published at the Jesuit Press at Beyrout), March 15, 1900. Also
K. P. Vailh6 in the "Echos d'Orient," tome VI (1903),p. 143.

DEVELOPMENT

OF

THE

CULTS

15

scendantsof Khaled are prominent in the life of Jerusalem


to-day. Among them I have counted as friends meo of
noble character and keen wit.

To the tomb of Khaled at

Hums still flock thousandsat oneof the great local festivals


of the year.

When the Moslem conquest of Syria and Palestinebegan, the population was nominally Christian. To-day the
Christians number less than half as many as the Moslems.

The conquerorsoffered to the inhabitants the choice of


acceptanceof Islam, tribute, or death. Great numbersof
the Christians were killed

in actual battle.

In the fierce

fight on the plain betweenEleutheropolis(Beit Jibrin) and


Ramleh,fifty thousandChristiansaresaid to haveperished.
The Christians of to-day are descendantsof those who chose

to pay tribute to conquerors. The continuedsurvival of so


greata numberthroughall the subsequent
persecutionstestifiesto a vitality of the faith which all the dry-rot of theological
speculationhasnever destroyed. As to the ancestryof the
presentfollowersof Islam,only a guesscan be made. The
greaternumbermust be descendantsof such Christiansas
acceptedthe faith of the conquerors.1 These probably Includedmany whoseChristian belief was hardly more than
a veneerover a never-eradicated
Pagan basis. Following
manyof the immemorialreligiouscustoms,keeping the old

feastsunderothernames,worshipping
at theold shrines,a
changeof allegiancefrom Christianity to Islam made little
differenceto them. This, however, is merely conjecture.
Certain it is that the great noble Moslem families to-day
trace their pedigreeto Arabia, through the early heroesof
Islam. Many Moslemsof the humbler classare doubtless
the descendants
of the commonsoldiersof the Arab army,
who formed alliances with the Syrian women.

It would be

a task, both interestingand fruitful, to go through the historical

records in search of such chance clews as would

throw

morelight on the obscurequestionof the ethnic relations of


the presentinhabitants of Syria and Palestine.
*Dr. Harvey Porter, professor of history in the Syrian Protestant
College at Beyrout, states that from his general reading he has formed
the impression that* about one-half the population became Moslems at
the time of 'Omar.

16

THE

HISTORIC

SETTING

Throughthe victoryof Islam, organicChristianityin these


lands received a terrible set-back, from which it has never

recovered. Bright spots,however,illuminate the dark picture of the conquest. Accordingto the view of Gibbon, the
tolerationprevailingat Damascusthroughthe gentlercounselsoAbu 'Obeidahaccountsfor the presentlargeChristian
population. The superb arroganceof Sophronius,Patriarch of Jerusalem,who, after the Holy City had beenbesiegedfour monthsby Abu 'Obeidah,refusedto maketerms
with any onebut the Caliph'Omar himself(forcedto travel
from Arabia for the purpose),securedfor the Christiansof
the city a Covenantor Bill of Rightswhichhasbeenratified
by all the subsequentMoslem dynasties. Writing three
and a half centurieslater the Moslem historian Muqaddasi ("the Jerusalemite")complainsthat in his native city
"everywherethe Christiansand the Jewshave the upper
hand." To this day the relations betweenMoslemsand
Christians in Jerusalem are more harmonious
than in other
towns of the same size. When there resident I used to

patronizea barber'sshopwherea Christiananda Mohammedanworked in partnership.


After the deathof Sophronius,however,no patriarchwas
resident in the Holy City for sixty years. The See of
Antioch wasvacantfor over a century, thoughthe line was
kept up by a Patriarch of Antioch, residentat Constantinople. EverywhereChristianchurcheswereconvertedinto
mosques. The speechof the conquerorscameto be the
speechof the conquered. The Syriaclanguagefledinto the
mountain recesses. The only traces of it to-day are found

in three small villages,Ma'Iula, Bukh'a, and Jeb'adtn,in


the hill ranges,north-eastof Damascus,wherea hybrid
Aramaic,stronglyimpregnated
with Arabic formsandwords,
is still spoken,though it is neverwritten.
Evenwhile,with an apparentlyunbrokenfront, the MoslemswereinvadingSyriaand Palestine,the seedsof discord,
plantedat the death of Mohammed,werepreparingto germinatein the soil of Islam. The storyof the schismwhich
resulted

in

the main

division

of the Moslem

world

into

Sunnisand Shi'ahswill be sketchedin a later chapter. It is


touchedon heresimply that we may understand,at the be-

DEVELOPMENT

OF

THE

CULTS

17

ginningof ourstudy,whythereexistto-dayIn Syriatwodistinct bodies of Mohammedans, bitterly antagonistic, the one

toward the other. The Syrian Shi'ahsgo by the local name


of Metawileh, Moreover, in consequenceof this schism
werelater developedthe secretreligionswhosefollowers today inhabit the Lebanon and the mountains to the north,
being known under the name of Druses, Nuseiriyeh, and
Isma'iliyeh.

Schismin Islam was originally causedby the questionof


the Caliphate,or the successionto Mohammed. One party
rallied around Abu Bekr, the prophet's father-in-law, and
the other around *Ali, his nephew and the husband of his

favorite daughter,Fatima. At first the party of Abu Bekr


prevailed,and succeededin electingnot only him but the
two succeedingcaliphs, 'Omar and 'Othman. "AH, indeed, became the fourth caliph, twenty-three years after the

death of Mohammed,but the revolt of the contrary party


provokeda long and.bloody conflict. *Ali was killed. He
was succeededby his eldest son, Hasan, who soon abdicated

in favor of Mo'awiyah,the candidateof the other party, and


founderof the 'Omayyad Dynastyof Caliphs. In the conflict that continuedto rage, Hosein, the brother of Hasan,
was killed on the field of Kerbela, which ever since has been

sacredground to the Shi'ahs or partisansof the family of


'AIL The split then becamefinal. The Sunnis-the socalledTraditionalists-and the Shi'ahs,thus, agreeon two
caliphsonly: *Ali and Hasan. With the Shi'alis the term
Imamatetakesthe placeof the Sunni term Caliphate. The
main body of Shi'ahsbelievein a hereditary line of twelve
Imams. The first was 'AH, the last was the child of Hasan-

el-'Askari, Mohammed, who disappeared from, sight in


878, but who is still supposedto be living in the world in
a disguisewhich is revealedonly by exception.
But amongthe Shi'ahsthemselves
was produceda schism
by this veryquestionof the Imamate. On the death of this
sixth imam,Ja'afar-es-S&diq,
oneparty recognizedas imam
his second son,.Mttsa-el-Qasiin, while the other turned to
Mohammed-el-Habib, the son of Ja'afar's eldest son, Is-

ma'fl, who had predeceased


his father. Hence arose the

IS

THE

HISTORIC

SETTING

sectof the Isma'IIiyeh,whoseesotericdoctrinesweredestined


to wield such baneful influences.

From this sect was de-

rived the Order of the Assassins,which filled Europe with


terror at the time of the Crusades.

From his castle fortress

north of the mountains of Lebanon, Rash!d-ed-Din Sin&n,

Grand Prior of the orderfor Syria3knownto the Crusaders

as the Old Man of the Mountains/ sentforth his white-robed

emissariesto plungea secretdaggerinto the heart of any


prince who had incurred his anger. Under their generic
nameof Isma'ilfyeh the descendants
of theseAssassinsstill
live to the number of ten or twenty thousandnear their
old Syrian haunts, sendingfrom thencea yearly tribute to
Bombay, where lives the successorof the Old Man of
the Mountains.

The sectknownas Drusesseparatedfrom the main body


of the Isma'ilfyeh about the sametime as the Assassins.
Both sectsthus resulted from a triple schism in Islam.
The Fatimite Dynasty of Caliphsor Imams was founded
by the Shi'ahsof Egypt in the year969A. D. Theserulers
held themselves

to be incarnations

of the Divine

Reason*

One Darazi, a leadingmissionaryof the Btini sectionof


the Isma'iliyeh, encouragedin his pretensionsto divinity
the third caliph knownas El-Hkim, who beganto rule in
985. This extraordinarypersonappearsto have been a
mixture

of monster

and buffoon.

One fancies

that

both

Dickens and Stevensonmust have been reading Gibbon


when they inventedQuilp and CaptainTeach. Certainly
his mad pranks can be paralleledonly in fiction.2 It is
from Darazithat theordinarynameof theDrusesisderived.8
Accordingto a disputedtradition he preachedthe divinity
of the mad caliph to the inhabitantsof the Wady-et-Teim.
at the foot of Mount Hermon. At any rate this placewas
1This title was rightly the prerogativeof the Grand Master of the
orderliving at Alamut, in the mountainsof Persia,but it seemsto have
beenassumed
by Sinan, who aimedto rival his superior.
2For his strange career, see chap. LVII of Gibbon's " Decline and

Fall of the Roman Empire."


3In Arabic "Dura" signifiesone; "Druz," two or more members
of this sect.

DEVELOPMENT

OF

THE

CULTS

19

the cradle of the Druse cult in Syria. It is quite possible


that the inhabitants were already indoctrinated with the

peculiarvagariesof the Isma'illyeh,which werewide-spread*


This

would

account

for their

readiness

to swallow

the latest

developments. The Druses, however, who acknowledge


no name but that of Unitarians, execratethe memory of
Darazi as heartily as they revere the name of Hamzehj,
another missionaryof the Isma'iifyeh, who becameinfluential with El-H&kim, and whom they claim to be the
author
tained

of most of the one hundred and eleven treatises conin the six volumes
that enshrine their secret doc-

trines. There are about one hundred and fifty thousand


Drusesto-day, mostly grouped in the southernpart of the
Lebanon, and also in the Haur&n, where they are in fre-

quent feud with the Arab tribes and in frequent revolt


against the Turkish authorities.

A recent rebellion was

"crushed" in the spring of 1911.


The Nuseiriyeh in the mountains north of the Lebanon,

though strongly impregnatedwith the doctrine of the Isma'iltyeh, claim to believe in the twelve imams of the main

body of the Shi'ahs. According to some estimatesthey


outnumberthe Druses; other guesseswould make them a
smaller body. Membersof all thesesecretreligionsclaim
to be Moslemswhen it suits their convenience,and repudiate this allegiancewith equal ease. In this they are following a tenet of conformity sharedby all Shi'ahsand explicitly emphasizedby the Ismailian teaching.
We have now accountedfor the origin of the main cults
to-day found in Syria and Palestine. The Samaritans,indeed,probablyrepresenta longer unbrokenreligioustradition, still followed at the centre of worship, than doesany
other cult, but they are now reducedto a merehandful-a
hundred plus or minus. The Beh&is,or Babis, represent
the verylastschismof theoft-split Shi'ahs. 'Abb&sEffendi,
their head, now dwells at Acre with a few Persian followers.

But the Beh&ishave neversought to extend their cult by


propagandain Syria, which they enteredmerely as exiles.
The main body of Behftis is still in Persia,wherethe Bb,

20

THE

HISTOEIC

SETTING

or Door, held to be the forerunner of Beha Allah5 was mar"

tyred in 1852,though they claim that their convertsin the


United Statesand elsewhereare very numerous. It may
be noticedin passingthat 'Abbas Effendi, while preaching
thedivinity of his late father,BehaAllah (whodied at Acre
in 1892),hasnow definitelyrepudiatedthe doctrineas persistentlyappliedto himselfby manyof his followersall over
the world " 'Abdul Beha/5he says,referring to himself,
iis the servant of the word of the BlessedBeauty [i. e.9
BehaAllah] and the manifestationof absoluteservitudein
the thresholdof the Lord. He hasno otherstation,grade*
class,or power. The greatManifestationwas fulfilled and
consummated
in the BlessedBeautyof Abha, and his Holinessthe Supreme(the great B&b) was the Herald of the
Blessed Beauty."1
It

is with

reluctance

that

we omit

all but

the briefest

referenceto that most dramatic episodein the religious history of the Holy Land, the domination of the Crusaders.

This, however,had very little Influenceon the subsequent


religious life of the land, which is our thesis. Probably a
certain portion of the native Latins or Roman Catholics,

now residentin Jerusalemand otherparts of Palestine,descendfrom the Pullani (fellahln), or offspringof the Crusadersby the native women; though it is definitely known
that the ancestorsof many of the presentLatins wereonce
Maronites. The lasting influenceof the Crusaderswas
social rather than religious,as they introduced into the
Holy Land thosefeudalideasthat controlledthe life of the
Lebanonuntil the year I860.2
As it has beena political tradition, now happily on the
wane,after a changeof party in our National Government,
to make a clean sweepin all public offices,so when the
Crusaderssupersededthe Saracensthe ecclesiastical
positionsheld by the GreekChristians,under thesupervisionof
their Mohammedanmasters,werefilled by Latins. Each
party regardedthe otherwith contempt. Jacquesde Vitry,
consecrated
Latin Bishop of Tyre in 1217,calls the Syrian
1 See "The Behai Bulletin"
2 See pp. 104-108.

(New York), December, 1908.

DEVELOPMENT

OF

THE

CULTS

21

Orthodox " doubledealers,cunning foxes,liars, turn-coats,


traitors3open to bribes^deceivers,thieves,and robbers.35*
But therewasno real break in the Greekhierarchy. Greek

patriarchsof Jerusalem
and Antiochkept up the ancient
lines at Constantinople,and sometimesevenattemptedto
residequietly in their sees. The last Latin Patriarch of
Antioch was killed at the altar by the Saracensin 1268.
We gather from Jacquesde Vitry that the Greek bishops
continued

in their

own dioceses to wield

actual, if un-

official,powerovertheir people. " As for the Latin prelates,"


hewrites," In whosediocesesthey dwell, they obeythem in
word but not in deed; and only in outward show they say

that theyobeythem,-outof fe*arof their mastersaccordingto


theflesh,for theyhaveGreekbishopsof their own and would
not fear excommunication or any other sentence from the

Latins in theleast . . . for theysay among themselvesthat


all Latins are excommunicated, wherefore they cannot give

sentence
on anyone." 2 No wonderthat the worried bishop
felt sore and called

names.

Whenthe Crusaderslost their final footholdin Syriain the


year 1292,all membersof the Greek hierarchyhad slipped
back into their places. Sincethen the ecclesiastical
changes
havebeenchiefly thoseof allegiance. The Maronites had
abjured heresyand had joined themselvesto the Roman
Church in 1182. In consequence
of persistentmissionary
effort,in connectionwith the RomanPropaganda,the Greek
CatholicMelchite Communitywasformed,the definite split
with the Orthodoxdating from 1724. The Syrian Catholics
had separatedfrom the Jacobitessometime before. The
ten thousand Protestants now numbered among the native

Christiansare dueto the work amongthe old churchesconducted by foreign societies,beginningwith the American
Board

in 1821.

1"Historia Hierosolymitana," op. cit., LXXIV.

This quotation is

from the English translation in vol. XI of the " Palestine Pilgrims' Text
Series."
2 Ibid.

22

THE

EL

HISTORIC

SETTING

INTER-RELATIONS OF THE CULTS

The inter-relationsof the cults in Syria and Palestinecan


be better understood after the relation of each to the Turkish

Government is made clear. When, in 1453, the first Ottoman sultan, Mahmtid II, mounted the throne of his Byzan-

tine predecessors,
he was made to realizethat the Shari'a,

or SacredLaw of Islam, which makes no distinction between

matterscivil and religious,couldnot from the verynatureof


thingsbe appliedin all its bearingsto the large numbersof
his conqueredsubjectswho wereChristians.1 The Shari'a
impliesdutiesand privilegeswhich only the followersof the
Prophetcanobserveand enjoy. Moslemlegislationrespectingmarriage,divorce,inheritance,etc.,couldnot beadapted
to the circumstances

of Christians.

The Sultan

Manmftd

had forcedupon him the alternativeof creatingan especial


codeor of permittingthesepeoplesto follow their own regulations.

The

latter

alternative

was chosen.

In

all

cases

wherethey could not be treatedon the samelegal footing


with the Moslems,Christianswerein the eyeof the law separated into groups,accordingto the religionswhich they
professed. At first, the Moslem authorities,not comprehendingthe theologicaldistinctionsthat kept the churches
apart,or the differencesin their rites, confoundedall Christianstogetheras GreekOrthodoxor Roum. Little by little,
however,as thesedistinctionscameto be recognized,separatecommunities
wereformed. Eachgroupbecamea millet
or nation,really a statewithin a state. A man waslabelled
by his religion. This arrangementwassolemnlyconfirmed
by a berat,or firman, grantedto eachpatriarchor accredited
head of the community. By virtue of thesefirmans the
headsof sectsor nationsarestill regardednot only as religiousbut as civil authorities. At the episcopalcourtscertain
civil as well as religiouscasesaretried. The GreekOrthodox first obtainedand havealwaysenjoyedmore extended
1 The authority on this subject; whom we closely follow, is the Count
van den Steen de Jehay, in his careful work, " De la Situation Le'galedes
Sujets Ottomans non-Musulmans " (Bruxelles, 1906).

INTER-RELATIONS

OF

THE

CULTS

23

privileges than any other community. The last of the


firmans was Issued in favor of the Jews In 1864, recognizing

their right to be representedat the Sublime Porte by the


Grand Rabbi. The Protestantswereorganizedasa distinct
body,undera waMl,or agent,residentat Constantinople,by
virtue of two firmans dated 1850 and 1853, respectively.
Alone

of

the Christian

actual firman.

churches

the Maronites

have

no

The fact that ever since 1516 they have

enjoyedall the privilegesof a " nation/' recognizedby the

sultans,Is considered
to be sufficient. Precedent
takesthe
placeof formal authorization.
Much stress Is laid by Western students of religious affairs

in Turkey on one feature of the Tanzimat, or Corpus of


Reforms, provoked by the Great Powers,beginningwith
the famous Hatti Sherif of Gulhang, 1839, and culminating

in theHatti Houmaytinof 1856. This latteris oftencalled


the Magna Charta of religiousliberties In Turkey, having
beenregarded,at its Issue,to be a guaranteeof full religious
liberty to all Turkish subjectsof any creed or faith. The
Count de Jehay,however,points out that it is a mistaketo
think that the Tanzimtlt had fundamentallythe aim of extendingthe privilegeswhich had beengranted to the Christian communities.Indeed,thevery principlesof equalityfor
all Turkish subjects before the law, which they advocated,

logicallyentailedthe curtailing of certainespecialprivileges,


not strictly involving religious questions,which had been
longenjoyedby the Greeks. Amongother rights the Patriarch of Constantinoplehad full power to condemn those
underhim to exile,to sendthem to prison,to levy taxeswithout government interference.

But that was not all-

He

couldactuallydemandthe assistance
of governmentofficials
In carryingout his desiresby force. In the broadinterests
of justicethe Hatti Houmaytinordainedthat eachChristian
or non-Mussulmancommunity should have its immunities
re-examinedby a commissionappointedIn its midst. The
statusof the Greek community was thus readjustedon a
basiswhichIn generalstill controlsIt. In 1879,however,the
Porte madeanotherattempt to curtail the privilegesof the
Greek Orthodox. The hierarchy stoutly resisted. Two

24

THE

HISTORIC

SETTING

patriarchsresigned,In 1884and 1890respectively. At one


time, the patriarchalthrone beingvacant, the Holy Synod
of Constantinoplerequestedall Greek churcheswithin
the empire to closetheir doors and suspendservices,as
a demonstrationagainst the government. This religious
strike

lasted

for a month.

In

1891 a modus vivendi

was

agreedon. The patriarch is now allowed jurisdiction in


matters relating to marriage, divorce, and, with certain
restrictions,to inheritance. No priest can be arrestedby
the governmentexceptthroughthepatriarchor bishop,who
actsas intermediary. A priest cannotbe put in the common prisonunlesshe hasbeenunfrocked,after havingbeen
convicted

of actual

crime.

At the time of the Moslemconquestit was ordainedthat


Christiansshouldbe excludedfrom the army, but in lieu of
military serviceeach malewas obliged to pay a poll-tax.
Theoretically,this systemwas abolishedby the Hatti Houmayun,whicharrangedfor draftingChristiansoldiers. This
change,however,was not carriedinto effectuntil after the
revolutionof 1908. In themeantimethepoll-tax continued
to bepaid, thougha certainchangewasmadeIn themanner
of imposingit. On the march to Constantinoplein the
springof 1909,whenthecounter-revolution
of 'Abd-el-Hamid
wascrushed,for the first time Turkish generalsled a mixed
army of Moslems,Christians,and Jews. Sincethensoldiers
havebeenregularlydraftedirrespectiveof creed,thoughthis
radicalchangeis beingintroducedwith somecaution. The
newly createdparliamentis open to membersof all faiths,
but naturally Moslemsgreatly preponderate.
The Hatti Houmayungrantedsomeleewayto members
of the samenon-Moslemcommunityconcerningthe matters
whichmay be brought beforethe especialtribunals. To a
certain extent, thus, recourseto theseconstitutesa right
ratherthanan obligation. For example,shouldtwomembers
of theGreekOrthodoxChurchbeaboutto goto law concerningsomeminormattersnot explicitlydeclaredto beunderthe
exclusivejurisdiction of the patriarch,and shouldtheyhave
somereasonfor avoiding the ecclesiastical
courts, the tribunalsof theempireareopento them. In all criminal cases,

INTER-RELATIONS

OF THE

CULTS

25

of course, these government courts have sole jurisdiction.


Also

before

them

alone are tried

and a non-Moslem,

cases between

or between non-Moslems

a Moslem

of different

religiouscommunities.
For aboutfour centuriesafter the Mohammedanconquest
the Turkish courtsfollowed but one procedure,that of the
Shari'a,or SacredLaw. During the reign of *Abd-el~Me]fd,
side by side with these courts were establisheda set of
tribunals,criminal, civil, and commercial,under the general
nameof 'Adliyeh, or Courts of Justice,all closelyfollowing
the CodeNapoleon. The developmentof his new system
appearsto havebeenslow, but it was firmly establishedin
Jerusalem,for example, about forty years ago. These
tribunals have no jurisdiction over matters pertaining to
wills and minors, which must be taken before the Shari'a

court. In other matters the accused may choose before

which court he may be tried. As a matter of fact, in many


placesthe businessof theShari'a courtsis limited to Moslem
religiousaffairs. Moslems,of course,try their bestto have
their cases with Christians tried according to their sacred

law. The proclamationof the Sultan 'Abd-el-Hamfd, in


his last desperatestruggle to recoverhis lost power, containedthisphrase,intended,undercoverof its non-committal
diction, to inflame Moslem fanaticism: "The Shari'a is to
be honored!"

The Qadhi, or Moslemreligiousjudge,hasauthority over


both the Shari'a and the 'Adltyeh tribunals, except the
criminal court of the latter. The heads of the 'Adltyeh
tribunals must always be Moslems, but the judges may be
half Moslems and half Christians.

In Jerusalem, where this

proportion exists,the head-quartersof the 'Adltyeh are at


the Ser&ya,or Government House, and those of the Shari'a

are at theold Ma&kamy,or Placeof Judgment,near the

Temple Court.
The widely circulated statementthat the testimonyof a
Christian as against a Moslem is not valid in Moslem law
is literally true. It, however, createsa false impression.
"Testimony"

is "shehadi," ami no Christian can bear she-

faadiagainsta Moslem. But shehadi is a technical term

26

THE

HISTORIC

SETTING

applyingmerely to witnessbornein or referredto the Shari'a courts. In an Adliyehtribunal any one, irrespective
of creed, can give " akhbar "

or

" information,"

which is, to

all intents and results,witnessor testimony. In the large


centresof Syria and Palestine,a Christianis thus under no
legal embarrassment in the matter of testimony, save as he

is obliged to enter the Shari'a courts, if his litigation involvesminors,or someoneof a fewotherquestionsin which
it has sole jurisdiction. Practically, however, there are
many ways in which a Christianwho has no backing,can
be embarrassed
in this as well as in other regards.
It is clear that such divisionsas exist among the cults
of Syria and Palestine must be accentuated by the official

groupingswhich havejust beenreviewed. This holdstrue


not only of the main divisionsinto Christians,Jews,Mohammedans,
Druses,andNuseirfyeh,but of the subdivisions
as well.

The relations of a man to his sect being not only

religiousbut secular,he is neverallowedto forgetthat he is


Maronite,

Greek, Jacobite, or Protestant.

The distinction

of religion is a controllingforce in political life. The Lebanon, for example,is divided into districts, eachgoverned
by a qaimaqdm,who belongsto that sect which predominatesnumerically. Thus, in Zahleh the qaimaqdmmust
be a Greek Catholic; in the Kfira, Greek Orthodox; in the
Shuf, a Druse;

in the Kesrouan, a Maronite.

The other

districts are ruled by Drusesor Maronitesaccordingto the


samelaw. A similar law has regulatedexactly the proportion of minor officeswhich eachsectcan claim,down to
the very positionof sweeperin the GovernmentHouse!
The segregation
of cultsin villages,alreadytouchedupon,
or in differentquartersof the sametown, fostersthe sense
of division which led to its adoption. One speaksof a
Christianvillage or a Moslem village. Every casualtravellerto Palestine,wheresuchsegregationappearsto be the
rule, must havenoted that Bethanyis Moslemwhile Bethlehemis Christian, Jerusalemhas its Christian quarter,
its Moslemquarter, its Jewish quarter. To a certain extent this systemapplies to the businesssection. On a

INTER-RELATIONS

OF THE

CULTS

27

Saturdayyou may passfrom a crowdedstreet, wheretrade


Is brisk at all the little shops, to another street where all the
doors are closed: one Is the street of the saddlers, who are

mostlyMoslems,the otheris devotedto generalretail trade,


now largely in the handsof the Jews. Even in " Christian
Street" half the shopsare closedon the Jewish "Sabbath."
The numberof antagonismsamongthe cults of Syria and
Palestineis bewildering. First we find Moslems ranged
against each other: Orthodox Sunni bitterly hating Shi*ah Metawali. Feuds betweenNuseiriyehand Isma'iliyeh
have been constant. Christians despiseJews. Strife betweenDrusesand Christians(political rather than religious),
which had blazedup in civil war in 1845and I860, resulted
In the completereconstructionof the LebanonGovernment
at the last-mentioned date.

Since then the mutual relations

have been peaceful. And finally, the Christian bodiesare


often in disputeamong themselves. But beforeglancingat
the painful detailsof thesedivisions,we may refer again to
the commonfund of superstitiousbeliefsin which all share.
That

some of these have

been inherited

from, an ancient

form of worship antedating them all has been already


hinted. Christians,Moslems, Jews, and Nuseiriyeh visit
each others9 shrines. The Moslems take their insane, or

"possessed,"to get rid of their evil spirits in the cave


of Saint Anthony, belonging to the Maronite convent of

Qoz&ayya,in the Lebanon. Christiansgo on a similar


errand

to the well

at the shrine

of Sheikh

Hasan

er-Ra*i

(the Shepherd) near Damascus. Dr. Curtiss reports instances

of

Christians

who

vow

"sacrifices"

to

Moslem

saints turning the head of the sheeptoward Mecca while


they kill it. During the processionon GoodFriday, barren
Moslem womenpassunder the cloth on which is stamped
the figure of Christ, in hopesthat they may bear children.
Christian women in Hums consult Dervish diviners.

The

Nuseirfyeh observe Christmas, though they subordinate


Jesusto *Ali. A Greek priest told me of a Druse who recently had his child carried through the sanctuary of the
Church of the Virgin in the Palm Sundayprocession,that,
through blessingreceived,he might not die as had all the

28

THE

HISTORIC

SETTING

other children. Instancesof Moslemsseekingbaptism for


their children as a sort of charm havebeenreportedfrom
all parts of Syria and Palestine,from Es-Salton the south
to Ras-Bafalbek

on the north.

A Mohammedan

of Zahleh

hashad all his children baptized,though the priest insists


on a Christian god-father. At Jaffa a *Moslem woman
beggeda Protestantmissionaryto baptize her sick baby.
Learning that shehad no ideaof rearingit as a Christian,
he refused,andsheappliedto the Greekpriest. Dr. Curtiss
heardof a Moslem'sbaptismwherethe priestperformedthe
act with "maimed rites," omitting to use the consecrated

oil of baptism. Baldenspergermentionssecret baptisms


among the fellanin, and ascribes this desire to the belief of
the Moslems that the rite destroysa certain odor, peculiar
to themselves, which attracts ghosts!1 This falls in line
with information

I have received from Christians.

Once,

in speakingwith a Maronite peasantabout the frequent


ablutions of the Moslems, I remarked on the fact that the

Christians have no such ceremonies. "No,"

he replied,

"the Moslemswere never cleansedin baptism as we are,


and are alwaystrying to get rid of their natural evil odor
by washing themselvesall over, but without success.
Thank God, I havehad no needof a bath sinceI wasbaptized." It is hardly necessaryto add that for this physical
theory of baptism the Maronite Church cannot be held
officially responsible.
The relations

between

Moslems

and Christians

varies in

different centresof Syria and Palestineaccordingto the


ratio which they bear to each other. This ratio takes account

of wealth

and influence

as well

as of numbers.

In

placeslike Beyrout,wherethe Christiansnot only preponderatenumerically,but controlbusiness,the Moslemstend


to be antagonistic. In Damascus,on the other hand, the
Moslems,who form the bulk of the well-to-dopopulation,
canafford to feelfriendly towardtheir Christianneighbors.
Moreover, they have never forgotten how Moslemswere
1 See article, " Birth, Marriage and Death among the Fellahin of
Palestine/' by P. J. Baldensperger, found in the "Quarterly Statement

of the PalestineExploration Fund" for 1894,p. 127.

INTER-RELATIONS

OF THE

CULTS

29

hung in the streetsfor the massacreof Christians when


fanaticism was arousedby the eventsof I860. A foreign
resident declared in my hearing that the Christians are

overbearingtoward the Moslems,who show a courteous


demeanor.

But even at best, between followers of the two

religionsthereruns a sharpline of cleavage. The Moslems


are ever consciousthat theirs is the religion of the race that
conqueredSyria. The Christians can never forget that
theirs is the faith that was conquered. On the one side are

often found hatred,arrogance,and contempt; on the other,


hatred, fear, and suspicion. The smoulderingembersare
liable to be fannedinto flame by any suddenevent. After
months and years of apparently peaceful relations, the
murder of a Moslem by a Christian or of a Christian by a
Moslem may provoke a seriesof reprisals, which, if not
checkedby the governmentwith a strong hund, contain
the possibilitiesof massacre.
This fundamental antagonism between the two cults has

provedto be not incompatiblewith real friendshipbetween


individual

Moslems and Christians.

It is a well-authenti-

catedfact that during periodsof massacreMoslems,at the


risk of their own lives, have often sheltered their Christian

neighbors. Good men of both religionshonor and respect


one another.
Christians

suifer

Owing to the general march of civilization,


much

less from

the Moslem

domination

in

Syria than they did a hundred yearsago. Then sumptuary laws were in force. As late as 1820 no Christian in

Damascuscould wear anytiling but black or could ride a


horse.1

The lack of harmonybetweenthe variousChristian sects


is not only bad religion; it is bad policy. From any point
of view it is lamentable.

In face of the overwhelming

strengthof Islam it is sheerfolly. In passing,one may be


permittedto notethat the samecriticismappliesto different
Protestantmission bodiesworking at cross-purposes
anywherein the world of Islam. Happily, in this case such
criticism is lessneededthan formerly. The lines of cleavage among the Syrian churchesare sometimescurious and
1See''Fifty-three Years in Syria/' vol. I, p. 28, by Dr. If. II. Joaaup.

30

THE

HISTORIC

SETTING

puzzling. The antagonismbetweenOrthodoxGreeksand


Maronitesis natural. The former repudiate,the latter acceptthe papal claims. It is alsonatural for the Orthodox
to feelbitterly toward the papalGreeks,who, after a fierce
quarrel, separatedfrom them in 1724. A century and a
quarter after the split, accordingto Churchill, " the Greek
Catholic bishop in Beyrout was violently assaultedat the
altar by the Orthodox bishop'sparty, ... his robeswere
torn from his back, and he was driven ignominiouslyinto
the street."* But in someplacesthe papal Greekshate
the papalMaronitesmore than theydo their formerOrthodox brethren. With the Maronites they have nothing in
commonbut ecclesiasticalallegiance; with the Orthodox
they share a common inheritance of tradition and ritual.

Such elementsof discord among the different Christian


sectsalwaysexist, but, it should be added with emphasis,
they are by no meansconstantlyactive. As Moslemsand
Christiansmay live side by side in harmony, even to a
greater degreeamong the antagonisticChristian bodies
there may be long periods of peaceful intercourse. In
the ordinary villages and towns the normal relations are

friendly. For hot-bedsof strife, ever threateningto break


out, or at bestrenderingecclesiastical
life an armed truce,
one must turn to the holy placesof Palestine.
It is in the Church of the Nativity at Bethlehem,and in
the Church of the Anastasis, or Resurrection, at Jerusalem

(popularly calledthe Church of the Holy Sepulchre),that


the antagonismamongChristianbodiesdevelopsinto positive scandal. In the Bethlehemchurch, wherea quarrel
betweenGreekand Latin priestsprecipitatedthe Crimean
War, Moslem soldiersare always on guard. A friend of
mine askeda Turkish soldier why he stoodexactlyin one
place. " It is to watch that nail," he said, pointing to the
wall. "The Armeniansdrove it in, boastingthey would
hang a picture on it. The Greeksthreatenedto prevent
them. It is my business to stand here and seethat no one

touchesthe nail. If the Armeniansget at it, theywill hang


l" Mount Lebanon/' vol. I, p. 185, by Colonel Churchill (London,
1853).

INTER-RELATIONS

OF

CULTS

31

their picture and crow over their victory. If the Greeks


comenearit, they will pull it out and claim that they have

wontheir pointagainstthe Armenians.SoI must guard


the nail till I am relieved by another soldier/5

Every pilgrim or travellerwho would visit the alleged

Sepulchreof Christ must passthe low platform, just within


the entrance^whereloungethe superciliousMoslemguards
who keep the keys of the Anastasis. As a matter of fact,
they are the safestcustodiansthat could be found in Jerusalemunder the presentconditions. ArchdeaconDowling
declaresthat the real proprietor of the Holy Sepulchreis the
sultan.1 I haveheard this questionviolently disputed,pro
and con, by prominent citizensof Jerusalem,Greeks and
Latins.

Practically, the different bodies-Latins,

Greeks,

Armenians,and Syrians-have no more than the right of


custody of different parts. Such an arrangement,which
follows the minutest regulations,is imperative. Whoever
maybe the actual owner of the building, the Turkish Governmentis ultimately responsiblefor its care. Should the
Latins, Greeks,and Armeniansfail to agreeto makesome
needfulrepairs of the pavementaround the tabernacleover
the tomb, which they guard in common,this must be done
at the expenseof the municipality.
A few yearsago there was a dispute betweenthe Greek
and Franciscanpriests as to the right to sweepthe steps
leadingup from the court-yard to the Latin Chapel of the
Agonyof Mary. Membersof both partieswaitedfor hours
at the foot of the stairway for the decisionof the Turkish
governorand of the French consul,who werein communication regardingthis weighty mutter. Doubtless,old documentswereransackedfor precedent. Meanwhile, crowds
collectedin the court and on the roofs of the surrounding
buildings. Stoneswere thrown at the monks and priests,
quite likely by partisansof both factions. In the fight that
was precipitatedthe Latins got the worst of it. Leading
Greekpriestsand monks,in whosegarmentshatchetswere
found concealed,were arrested, tried, and condemned before
1Seehis pamphlet, "The Patriarchate of Jerusalem,"p. 22 (London,
1908).

32

THE

HISTORIC

SETTING

the Turkish courts. Eventually thesewere pardonedby


the sultan.
From these scenes of strife

it is a relief

to turn

to one

of the most extraordinarysocialand religiousphenomena


chronicledin history. For a month, beginningwith July
24,1908,whenthe suspended
constitutionof 1877wasagain
proclaimed,the variouscults of the Turkish Empire forgot
their differences
in whatmaybecalled,withoutanyexaggeration, a prolongedlove-feast. In an ecstasyof relief at deliverancefrom theInhumanautocracyof 'Abd-el-Harnid,the
antagonisticpeoplesfound an unlooked-forbond. As victims of a commonoppressiontheyhad sufferedapart; they
now cametogetheras sharersin a commonjoy. Stirred to
its very bottom, human nature in Turkey for once brought
only its best elements to the surface. Among foreign on-

lookers,optimistsweretriumphant; pessimistswerefor the


momentsilenced. In the universalshoutsof liberty, equality, and fraternity,the accentwasat first on fraternity. The
manifestationswere too natural and gay to be hysterical.
Everyonewassimplyhappy. Speakinggenerally,this carnival of joy was no epidemic. Rather it was manifested
by spontaneous
outburstsoccurringall over the empireat
thesametime. At Constantinoplepeopleof all nationalities
fell on eachothers5necksin the streets. Moslemsjoined
Christiansin decoratingthe gravesof massacred
Armenians.
Bannersanddraperieswerestretchedoverthe narrowstreets
of theold townof Beyrout; the pavements
werestrewnwith
rugs; shopsweretemporarilysuppliedwith furniture from
home, as an invitation to hospitality. In his exuberance,
onemerchantpubliclyexhibitedthepicturesof his children.
Different districts vied with eachother in entertainingthe
restof the city. Amongthe hugecrowdstherewasnothing
but good-nature. No one wasdrunk. Pickpocketsforgot
their trade. Rowdies becamepolite. A knot of people,
discussingthe new spirit of religiousequality at the street
corner, would hail two passers-by,a Greek priest and a
Moslem sheikh, and make them kiss each other, in dramatic

illustration of the subject. The Moslemroughsof the old


city, who had beenin deadlyfeudwith the Christiantoughs

INTER-RELATIONS

OF

THE

CULTS

33

of the suburbs, Invited their former enemies to a feast in

a public square,serving them with their own hands. In


Jerusalem the Greeks gave an entertainment where the

patriarch sprinkled the Jewswith rose-water. The Armenians invited the whole city to a receptionat their convent,
especialattention being paid to the Moslems. Not to be
outdone, the Latins hired the theatre and offered free dra-

matic exhibitions to the entire community. Nine months


later, at a public meetingat Damascus,orators prophesied
an era of humanity, justice, and brotherhood in the Turkish

Empire, in which membersof all racesand creedswould


dwell togetherin harmony. The speeches
were loudly applauded by the audience,which includedthe Turkish governor, the Orthodox patriarch, Jewish rabbis,and Moslem
sheikhs.

This meeting, which has been describedby Mr. James


Creelman,1occurred in the early summer of 1909, soon after
the terrible

massacres of Armenians

at Adana, which to

the superficialobserverseemedto give the lie to the protestationsof the summerbefore.2 It is manifestlyunfair to indict a wholepeoplefor eventshappeningin onedistrict. But
I would go further than mere generalstatements. To me
the assertionseemsquite legitimatethat the counter-revolution, of which the massacres
formedan incident,provedthat
belowthe froth of the summer'ssentimentthere lay sonicthing moresolidwhich later preventedthespirit of massacre
from spreadingovera wide area. After the eventsof Adana
storieswereeverywhereafloat in the towns of Asia Minor,
Syria, and Palestine,telling of ordersfrom, the reactionary
party at Constantinoplefor the massacreof Christians,
which weresetasideby the authorities,civil or military, as
the casemight be. Thesestorieshavebeenneitherauthenticated nor disproved. That someof them havea basisin
truth is morally certain.

It is a fact that no more massacres

occurred. But had the Moslemswanteda generalmassacre,


no authority at that time, civil or military, could havepre1 See his article, entitled "After the Great Massacre," in Pearson's
Magazine, October, 1009, p. 454^1 (New York).
8Compare with pp. 192-3.

34

THE

HISTORIC

SETTING

ventedit. The inferenceis that the peopledid not want it.


Why, then, shouldwe hesitateto ascribetheir reluctanceto
memories-acting consciouslyor unconsciously-to memories of the strange,glad days when they declaredtheir
new-bornlove for their Christian neighbors? Those, indeed,weredaysof prophecy. The completefulfilment may
be far in the future, but surelya foretastehasbeenalready
vouchsafed.

CHAPTER
CONSTITUTION

II
OF

EASTERN

CHURCHES
INTRODUCTORY NOTE

FROMthe point of view of their origin* the Eastern


churches fall under four categories. In the first is the Holy
Orthodox

or Greek Church, whose claim

to be the most

linealrepresentative
of the primitive churchmaybeconceded.
In the secondare the national churches, which arose during
the fifth and sixth centuries in protest to the decisions of the

Councilsof Ephesusand Chalcedon,arid which are moreor


less taintedwith the so-calledheresiescondemnedby those
councils. These are the Nestorian, Gregorian or Armenian,

Copticor Egyptian,Abyssinian,and Old Syrian or Jacobite


Churches.1In the third categoryaresuchportionsof all the
above-mentioned

churches

as have submitted

to the author-

ity of Rome, and are thus known as the Uniate, Uniat, or


1The Nestorian heresy of the two persons in Christ was condemned
at the Council of Ephesus, 481 A. D. Its followers constituted the
Nestorian Church. The Monophysite doctrine, which maintained the
existence of a single nature in Christ, was condemned at the Council of
Chalcedon, 451 A. D. In consequence of this the churches of Syria,
Egypt, and Armenia broke away from the Orthodox Church, forming
the Jacobite, Coptic, and Gregorian National Churches. The Copts,
however, alone held to the purely Monophysite view, that the divinity
and humanity make up one compound nature in Christ. The Gregorians, and later the Jacobites, embraced the Eutychian form of the doctrine that the divinity constitutes His sole nature. In the seventh
century, the Emperor Heraclius sought a common ground for agreement
between orthodox and heretics in the expression, " One divinely human
mode of working and willing in Christ."
This doctrine became known as
Monothelitism.

It was condemned

at the Third

Council

of Constanti-

nople in 680, but was adopted by the Maromte or National Syrian


Church

of the Lebanon.
35

36

CONSTITUTION

OF

EASTERN

CHURCHES

United bodies. These are governedby a local hierarchy


under the controlof the Papal See,but preservealmostIntact the ritual, discipline,and customsof the churchesfrom
which theyhaveseverallyseceded. Thesechurchesare the
Greek Catholic Melchite

Church, the Chaldean or United

NestorlanChurch,the ArmenianCatholic,Coptic Catholic,


AbyssinianCatholic,and SyrianCatholicChurches. In the
fourth categorythe Maronlte or the ancientnationalchurch
of theLebanonstandsalone. Resemblingthe Uniate bodies in the terms of its submission to Rome, it differs from

thesein beingthe onlyexampleof a hereticalnationalchurch


that has thus submitted in its entirety. There are Grego-

rian Armeniansand United Armenians,Copts and Coptic


Catholics,and so forth throughthe list; thereare no nonunited

Maronites.1

In our presentstudy we are concernedwith only five out


of these thirteen churches, namely, the Holy Orthodox or
Greek Church, the Greek Catholic Melchite

Church, the

Maronite Church, the Old Syrianor JacobiteChurch, and


the Syrian Catholic Church. Six of the remaining eight
arequitebeyondourgeographicalpale: the Coptic,the Coptic Catholic, the Abyssinian, the Abyssinian Catholic, the

Nestorian,and the Chaldeanor United Nestorians. Copts


and Abysslnians have a foothold in Jerusalem, and a share

in the cult of the Holy Sepulchre,but they are practically


strangersin Syriaand Palestine. In a somewhatmodified
sense

the

same

holds

of the Armenians

and

Armenian

Catholics. It Is true that many thousandArmenians,both


Gregorianand United, are domesticatedin the northern
part of Syria, but only as an overflow,as it were,of the
Armenians of Asia Minor;

it is also true that the Armenian

conventat Jerusalem,with its residentpatriarchaccredited


to the Holy City, Isrich andinfluential,playingan Important
role in the affairs of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre,as
well as In the Churchof the Nativity, at Bethlehem,but the
1This .list of thirteen bodies covers only the Eastern churches of
Turkey, Egypt, and Abyssinia. On page 95 may be found the names
of other ecclesiastical bodies following Eastern rites in Europe and
recognized by Rome.

INTRODUCTORY

NOTE

37

numberof Armenians,Gregorianand United^actually resident in or near the Holy City amounts only to about twelve

hundred. In otherpartsof theland^exclusiveof theextreme


north, theremay be found about four thousandmore. The

picturesquely
situatedMonasteryof B'zummarbecamea
centre for the Armenian

Catholics, who fled to the Lebanon

from governmentpersecutionin Aleppo about the middle


of the nineteenthcentury,beingfor sometime the residence
of their chief, styledthe Patriarch of Cilicia.1 This dignitary now residesat Constantinople.
Of the five Eastern churches which claim our attention

in Syriaand Palestineproper,the Maronite is the strongest


numerically,with about thirty-six per centof the total Christian population of about nine hundred thousand, but the
Greek Orthodox Church follows closely with about thirty-

four per cent.2 The Greek Catholic communionhas less


than half as many followersas the Greek Orthodox. Subtracting the Latins or Roman Catholicsand the Protestants,
who, takentogether,amountto severalthousand,the rest of
the Christian inhabitants, amounting to about five per cent
of the whole number, is divided

between the Jacobites or

Old Syriansand the Syrian Catholics,with somenineteen


thousand of the former and some twenty-four thousand of the

latter. The Greek Orthodox are spread all over Syria and
Palestine;the GreekCatholicsarestrongestin CentralSyria;
the Maronitesare largely concentratedin, the Lebanonand
in Beyrout; while the Syrians(both Jacobiteand Catholic)
are mainly confinedto northern Syria.
Thesefive churcheshavemany things in common,both
among themselvesand with Rome. From a Protestant
point of view, thesematters in which there is agreement
1See"Mount Lebanon," vol. I, pp. 22 and 93, by Colonel Churchill
(London, 1853). "The Turkish Empire/7 vol. II, p. 147,by E. R. Madden (London, 1862).

2Thesestatistics,basedon Baedeker'slist (edition of 1906),shouldbe


taken with caution, as should all the greatly varying estimatesof the
population of Syria and Palestine,their being no scientific government
censusfor these lands. The figures, however, probably indicate with
approximatecorrectnessthe relative numerical strength of the various
Christian

bodies*

38

CONSTITUTION

OF

EASTERN

CHURCHES

must overshadowthe points of difference. In the same


mannerthe divisionsof non-episcopalProtestantismmust
be a constantpuzzleto Roman Catholics,who must recognize in all

denominations

one main

trend

of doctrine

and

practice. Sharingin common,among other things, a belief in the seven sacraments, these iBve Eastern churches all

hold to baptismalregeneration,confessionand absolution,


the sacrifice of the mass, apostolicsuccession,the three
ecclesiasticalorders, intercessionof the Virgin and the
saints,as well asto the underlyingpointsof theologyproper.
This basicunity of doctrineand practiceexplainsthe ease
with which large bodiesfrom all the churcheshave been
receivedinto communionby Rome,with hardly any alteration in church services and ecclesiastical customs.

But,

taken together,thesefive Eastern churchesshow several


points of differencefrom the Roman Catholicor Western
church, apparentin all, though, in someparticulars,distinctly lessemphasizedin the united bodies,and especially
less in the Maronite, the most ultramontane of all.

These

will appearclearlyin our detailedtreatment,but it may be


wellto grouptogethersomeof themin this introductorynote.
Thus we mayspecifythe more democraticcharacterof the
Eastern churches, illustrated in the non-united bodies by

the people'spart in the choiceand electionof patriarchs


and bishops; a free use of the vernacular in the church

services,in contrastwith the generaluseof Latin by the


Romans; the emphasislaid on the massas a mystery,by
screeningthe sanctuaryand altar from the view of the
people, a practice common to all the Eastern churches, ex-

cept the Maronite; the number and rigidity of fasts (relaxedin the united communions);the ordainingof married
men as parishpriests; the wearingof beardsby the clergy;
communion of the people in both kinds and the confirmation

of infantsimmediatelyafter baptism,both practicescommon


to all but the Maronites.

THE

I.

ORTHODOX

THE

CHURCH

ORTHODOX

39

CHURCH

That great branch of the church universal, variously

known as the Orthodox, Eastern, or Greek Church, has

itself many branches. Though independent in control.,


one of the other, these members acknowledge one common

head, the Lord Jesus Christ, believing that He has no


vicar on earth, and one common doctrine and practice^
which indissolubly bind them together. The fullest form
of the title

of this church

is:

"The

Church

of the Seven

Councils, Ecumenical, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic."


Claim is thusofficially laid to the term Catholic. Sincethe
separationof the churchesin the eleventhcentury,however,
the Eastern church has been ordinarily contented with the

title, "The Holy Orthodox Church," which distinguishes


it from the Westernchurch,especiallydesignatedas Catholic.

When a member of the Orthodox Church in Syria

to-day speaksof a Catholic, he usesthe term as equivalent to papal. Nor is the Easternchoiceof a badgewithout vital significance. The Orthodox Church is one as the
Roman Catholic Church is one, but with a different bond

of unity. With the latter this bond is expressed,in the last


analysis,by a personalloyalty to the Popeof Rome; with
the former it is expressed
by an impersonalloyalty to orthodoxy, as laid down by the EcumenicalCouncils,representing the different branches of the whole church.

Greek

theologianshold that since the last of the seven great


councils,the term ecumenicalcan no longer be applied
technically to the councils of the church, but from time to

time suchgeneralassembliesmay be summonedunder the


name of local councils. The last was called in 1872 by

the Patriarch of Constantinople,to settle the status of the


Bulgarianchurch,delegatesbeingpresentfrom all branches
of the Orthodox Church, except that of Russia,which, as
an interestedparty, had no representation.1
The pointsof beliefand practice,which essentiallydiffer1This reasonwas assignedto me by a prominent ecclesiasticof the
Jerusalem Monastery.

40

CONSTITUTION

OF EASTERN

CHURCHES

entiate the Orthodox communionfrom the papal, were in


1895summedup as follows by Anthimus, then Patriarch
of Constantinople:(1) Processionof the Holy Ghostfrom
the Father alone. (2) The necessityfor triple immersion

in baptism. (3) Theuseof leavened


breadin themass,
as
over againstthe azyma,or unleavened
bread. (4) The
form of the epiclesis,or invocationof the Holy Spirit upon

theworshippers
anduponthesacramental
gifts. (5) Com-

munion of the peoplein both kinds. (6) The denial of


indulgenceand purgatory,though disbelief in the latter is
held to be consistentwith prayersfor the dead.1
It is a fundamental

axiom of the Orthodox Church, in-

herited from the ByzantineEmpire, that whereverthere is


an independentstate, there also must be an independent
church. Thus, as far as Greek orthodoxy is concerned,

temporalandspiritualauthorityhavethesamegeographical
limits. While coextensive,they are not necessarilycoincident, hence an autonomous Greek church can exist in an

autonomousMoslemstate.2 As a corollary to this general


proposition,whenevera givencountrybecomes
independent
the Orthodox

Church

within

its borders should

become

not

only self-governing,but autocephalous:that is, having the


right to elect its chief or the members of the synod which

directsit without the necessityof obtainingconfirmationof


the election from any other patriarch or synod. At the

presentday the onehundredmillion membersof the Orthodox Church are groupedin at least fifteen of theseautocephalouschurches. In the following list the elatesindicatethe year whenthe independence
of a given churchwas
either claimedor acknowledged. From a study of these
datesit will beat onceapparentthat manyof thesechurches
owetheir independence
to the comparativelyrecentlopping
off of territory from EuropeanTurkey. In somecasesthe
independence
of the churchis almostsynchronouswith that
1This list is found in an encyclicaland synodiealletter, dated 1895,
addressedto clergy and people. Quotedby Comte do Jchay, " Be la
Situation Le*galedes Sujets Ottomansnon-Musulmans,"p. 91.
2The state religion of Turkey is Islam, but the sultan claims a certain

control of all the churches. Comparewith page43.

THE

ORTHODOX

CHURCH

41

of the state; In others,the full Independence


of the church
In relation to the See of Constantinoplefollows after a
longer or a shorter interval. Thus the supremacyof the
Holy Synod of Belgradeover the Servian churchfollowed
almost Immediately on the recognition of the Independence

of the kingdom at the Congressof Berlin. On the other


hand, though GreeceachievedIndependencein 1833, the
independenceof the Church of Greecewas not recognized
by the Patriarch of Constantinopletill 1850. In the following list, the fifteenself-governingbranchesof the Orthodox Church are placedin order of acknowledgedrank/
(1) The EcumenicalChurch, which has for its chief the
Patriarch of Constantinople. (381 A. D.) The extent of
his jurisdiction, pastand present,is referredto later,
(2) The Patriarchateof Alexandria. (About 67 A. D.)
(3) The Patriarchateof Antioch. (53 A. D.)
(4) The Patriarchateof Jerusalem. (451 A. D.)
(5) The Church of Russia. This body, consisting of
some ninety million communicants, is now directed by the
Most Holy Governing Synod, which sits at Saint Peters-

burg. The independenceof this church dates from 1589,


with the universalrecognition of the patriarchate,which,
however, lasted only until 1700, when Peter the Great re-

placedIt by the synod. The organizationof this body remains unchanged, with a membership of bishops and
priests appointed,by the czar, under the presidencyof the
Metropolitan of Saint Petersburg. The function of the
high procurator, a layman, who sits with the body, is to
securea conformity between the ecclesiasticaldecisions and

the laws of the empire.


(6) The Metropolitan Church of Cyprus. (431 A. D.)
This church still stoutly assertsits independence,established at the Council of Ephesus. In 1900, when It was
impossiblefor the synodto agreeon the electionof a metropolitan archbishop,the offer of the Patriarch of Constantinople to nominatethe candidatewas refusedas militating
againstautocephalous
rights.2
1Seethe work of de Jehay, op. tit., p. 82.
2Seede Jehay, op. cit.t p, 142.

42

CONSTITUTION

OF

EASTERN

CHURCHES

(7) The Church of Greece,directedby the Holy Synod


of Athens. (1850; but seeabove.)
(8) The Archbishopric of Mount Sinai. (About 1775
A. IX) The archbishopreceivesconsecrationfrom the
Patriarch of Jerusalem,,
but claimsindependence
over this
Conventin the Desert, constituting what is probably the
smallestchurch in the world. This claim is recognizedby
Russia,but not by Constantinople;1
but theologianswho
acknowledge
it giveSinai the eighthrank.
(9) The Church of Servia,governedby the Holy Synod
of Belgrade. (1879 A. D.)

(10) The Church of Roumania,governedby the Holy


Synod of Bucharest

(1885.)

(11) The Churchof Montenegro,whosehead is the Vladika or Chief Bishop,of Cettigne. (1766.)
(12) The Patriarchateof Karlowitz,in Croatia-Slavonia,
Hungary. (Foundedin 1743; re-established
in 1S4S.)
(13) The Metropolitan Church of Hermannstadt,in
Transylvania,Austro-Hungary. (1868.)
(14) The Metropolitan Church of Cernowitz,capital of
Bukowina, Austro-Hungary.

(1873.)

(15) The BulgarianChurch,whoseheadis calledExarch.


The imperialfirman grantingthe Bulgariansa right to possesstheir own exarchateindependentof the Patriarch of
Constantinoplewas issuedin 1870. This right was naturally contested
by the patriarch,aslongas Turkey continued
to havea shadowof authority in Bulgaria. The continued
residence
of the exarchin Constantinople,
sincethe complete
independence
of the kingdom, is merely in the interests
of the large number of membersof the Bulgarian church
who live in Macedonia.
To these fifteen
churches

should

now

be added

the

churchesof Bosnia and Herzegovina,2


which indeed have
beenpractically independentsincethe Congressof Berlin,
althoughnot formally annexedto Austria till the autumn
of 1908. When any one of the autocephalouschurches
2It may be noted that the Patriarch of Constantinopleseldomgives
up his control without protest and struggle.

ORTHODOX

CHURCH

43

electsa new head, "letters of peace/' to announcehis election, are sent to the heads of all the other churches.

It will be noticed in the above list of autoeephalous


churches, that the first four-namely, the Ecumenical Church

underthe Patriarchof Constantinopleand the Patriarchates


of Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem-are

all in the Turk-

ish Empire, for in theory Egypt is still a dependancyof


Turkey. Thus the generalrule of ecclesiastical
government
in the Orthodox Church, accordingto which temporaland
spiritual jurisdiction have the samegeographicallimits, is
so far modifiedin the Turkish Empire that the ecclesiastical authority is divided among four independentbranches.
The reasonsfor this exception,havingtheir rootsin primitive
churchhistory,do not concernus here. Independentthough
they be, the four patriarchateshave two central points of
contact: one in the personof the sultan of the empire,who
in a manner inherits the ecclesiasticalprerogativesof his
Byzantinepredecessors,
and without whosefinal sanctionno
patriarchmaybe enthroned;1the other in the holy placesof
Palestine,which belongto the wholechurchas found in the
empire,and the control of which is sharedby all the patriarchs. This completeindependence
of the four seesis not
generallyrecognizedby the outsideworld, or evenby many
Western scholars, who maintain that the Patriarch of Con-

stantinople exercisessupreme authority over the Greek


Churchthroughoutthe empire. Thus in his recenthistory,
Adeneystatesthat when Constantinoplecameunder Turkish rule the patriarch " was set over all the Orthodox Christians in the Ottoman Empire, including thoseof the three
other Patriarchates of Antioch, Jerusalem, and Alexandria."2
1De Jehay (op. tit.} asserts that Mohammed II assumed not only the
right of investiture but also employed the very Greek formula used by
the Byzantine emperors, though this included the phrase "The Holy
Trinity that has given me the empire!" (p. 90). On page 52 we give

an illustration of imperial power,wherebya Greekecclesiasticwasexiled


for refusing to recognize a patriarch confirmed by the sultan. All
patriarchs must be Turkish subjects.
2" The Greek.and Eastern Churches/' by W. F. Adeney, " Internation-

al TheologicalLibrary," 1908,foot-note 1 to p. 312. The author in an

44

CONSTITUTION

OF

EASTERN

CHURCHES

Againreferringto Siibernaglas authority,he calls the present ecumenicalpatriarch " the spiritual head of the whole
Orthodox Church (sic) and the secularhead of the Greek
Church in the Turkish dominions." * Adeney acknowl-

edgesthe presentrights of the Patriarchsof Antioch and


Jerusalemto choosetheir own patriarchswithout reference
to the Ecumenical Church, but adds that " the Patriarch of

Alexandria is still subject to the Patriarch of Constantinople/'2 Similar generalizations


are madeby Tozer.3
Sucha view of the supremacyof the Patriarch of Constantinopleoverthe other three,mistakenthough it is, rises
not unnaturallyfrom the misinterpretationof certain facts.
The title Ecumenical is itself misleading. It seemsto have
misled the Turks themselves. Since the taking of Constan-

tinople in 1453,the residentpatriarch has been regarded


as head of the Orthodox in Turkey, by the government,
which has attributed to him the title of Miilet-Bassi,

or Chief

of the (Greek)Nation.4 As a matterof fact, he is supreme


over by far the larger part of the empire. His seeto-day
includes Asia Minor, the ^Egean Isles, Crete, and all of
European Turkey, though in portions where the sultan has

but nominalsway,theswayof the patriarchis alsobut nominal. Subject to him there are eighty-eightmetropolitans
and bishops(not including suffragans),over against fortytwo in the combined Patriarchates of Antioch, Alexandria,

and Jerusalem,most of the prelatesof the last-namedsee


beingmerelytitular. Moreover,his seeto-dayis materially
shrunkenfrom its formerproportions. In themiddle of the
last centuryit also includedGreece,Bulgaria, Servia, and
Roumania,then parts of the empire. Supremacyover the
RussianChurch,which had lasted,with ever-lessening
grip,
for six centuries,came to an end formally only with the
establishment of the Russian Patriarchate

in 1587.

In the

earlier chapter (p. 136), dealing with patristic times, states that "in
the last resort each patriarch is independent in his own sphere."

1Ibid., p. 336.
*Ibid., p. 337.
3"The Church and the Eastern Empire," p. 47, by H. F. Tozer
(1904).

4For the significanceof this title seepage46.

THE

ORTHODOX

CHURCH

45

palmydaysof thePatriarchateof Constantinople,


thoseof
Syria, Palestine,and Egypt were, by comparison,mere
country parishes. But apart from geographicalextent this
patriarchatehas always enjoyed many evident advantages
over theotherthree. While theselatter fell under the blightinginfluencesof Islam from its earliestdays,Constantinople,
the seatof the former,remainedthe capital of the Byzantine
Empire till 1453, whencea certain imperial glamour has
never ceasedto hang about the Ecumenical Church.

It was

in Constantinoplethat the Patriarchsof Antioch and Jerusalem found exile when their throneswere usurpedby Latin
prelates,and in Constantinoplewere their lines kept up
for over a century and a half of crusading domination in their

own sees. In the imperial city they wereunder the wing,


as it were, of the Ecumenical patriarch, until he, in his turn,

was temporarilyforcedfrom his throne by the establishment


of the Latin Empire, which lastedfrom 1204to 1261. For
more than two centuriesprevious to 1843the Patriarchs of
Jerusalemwere usually resident at Constantinople,thus
acknowledgingit to be the practical centrefor ecclesiastical
affairs. Becauseof his nearnessto the imperial throne the
Ecumenicalpatriarch has often acted as intermediary between the sultan and the other patriarchs. From their
brother at Constantinopletheseprelatesto this day, under
normal

conditions/

receive the chrismatic

oil.

In com-

parativelyrecenttimes(from 1724to 1850)the Patriarchate


of the Holy Synodof Antioch, at Damascus,by reasonof
internal weaknessdelegatedthe electionof its own patriarchsto the Holy Synodof Constantinople. To the outside
world, such voluntary delegatingof inherent rights might
well appearto be an acknowledgmentof superiorcontrol.
In view of what hasseemedto me to bea generalmisapprehensionof a somewhatdelicatematter-namely, the interrelations of the four patriarchs-application was made to
the Bureau

of the Patriarchate

of Alexandria

for official

answersto a number of questionscovering the points at


1 During the recent dispute between the Sees of Antioch and Constantinople, the former received the chrism from the chief metropolitan
of the Russian Church.

46

CONSTITUTION

OF

EASTERN

CHURCHES

issue. Thesequestionsof mine with theanswersare given


fully in the Appendix,but it maybe well hereto presentthe
gist thereof, evenat the risk of somerepetition of facts
alreadystated.1
The four Patriarchatesof Constantinople,
Antioch, Jerusalem,and Alexandriaare equal and independentin administration one of the other, although they share one
doctrine,that of orthodoxy,and are governedby the same
rules, those of the Ecumenical Councils. Whenever it is

evidentthat, in any oneof thesisterchurches,the orthodox


doctrine or the rules of the whole church are imperilled,
everyotherchurchhas,of itself,the right to interfere. Each
patriarchatehas the right to communicatewith thegovernment at Constantinople,either by direct correspondence
or, mediately,throughsuch representatives
as it may have
at Constantinople. The Patriarchof Constantinoplemay
act as intermediarybetweenthe other patriarchs and the
government,but neverwithout their directrequest. In the
sameway the Ecumenicalpatriarch may intervenein the
internal affairs of the other patriarchates,but only at their
especialinvitation. Shouldsuchinterventionappearto prejudice their recognizedprivilegesit would be refused. The
title of Ecumenical, bestowed on the Patriarch of Constanti-

nople,for local reasons,in the year 588A. I).,2and enjoyed


by all his successors,
carrieswith It no especialprivileges;
this patriarch being, relative to the other patriarchs, as
well as to all bishopsnot immediatelysubject to the throne
of Constantinople,merely Primus inter fares. The title
" Millet-Bassi," or Chief of the (Greek) Nation/attributed
to him sincethe Turkish conquestof Constantinople,gives
him no spiritual dominationover the membersof the community in the other patriarchates,which are in everyway
independentof the Seeof Constantinople.The Ecumenical

patriarchdistributestheholychrismto theotherpatriarchs
for two reasons,both purelypractical,and in no way involv1SeeAppendix,where questionsand answersare given in French.
2The title wasassumedby John IV in summoninga synod to settle
the affairs of the Churchof Antioch. Adeney,op. dt.} p. 140.
3See page 44.

THE

ORTHODOX

CHURCH

47

log the Idea of supremacy;first, its preparationis extremely


costly, and, second,this ceremonyrequiresthe presenceof
at leasttwelveprelates,the assemblingtogetherof whom is
often a difficult matter in any oneof the other patriarchates,
where the entire number of prelates is smaller. The reason

why all the patriarchsshare the right to control the affairs


of the Holy Sepulchrein Jersualem,is that the holy places
and the shrines of pilgrimage constitute properties belong-

ing to the entire nation of Greek Orthodox, said properties having but one agent, the Brotherhood of the Holy
Sepulchre,whosechief is the Patriarch of Jerusalem,and
whoseprincipal mission is to guard the holy places,and
to keep them in a goodand securecondition, by meansof
the offeringsof Orthodox pilgrims, and of all other contributors.

Attention may be called to a few points in the above


authoritativestatements,as they may serveto explain the
misapprehension
that has arisen in regard to the relative
positionof the Ecumenicalpatriarch. In the first place it
becomesclear that the title of " Millet-Bassi," or Chief of the

Nation, attributed to the Patriarch of Constantinople,indicatesa point of view from which the governmentregards
this functionary,and not the point of view from which he
is regardedby his fellow-patriarchs. During the first years
of Turkish rule in Constantinople,all the Christian sects
(Greeks,Armenians,Syrians,etc.) wereconfoundedunder
the generaltitle of Roumi (Greek), being,from' the government point of view, submitted to the Orthodox patriarch.
Moreover,the governmentpoint of view has becomepurely
theoretic, for, as shown above, the sultan now treats with

eachpatriarchatedirectly, unlessthe friendly officesof the


Patriarch of Constantinoplehas been sought for practical
reasons.1No betterproof couldbe adducedconcerningthe
differencebetweenthe points of view of the sultan and the
churchitself than the statusquoof the Patriarchsof Antioch
and Jerusalemin the year 1909; both thesepatriarchswere
1 For about two centuries previous to 1843 the sultan's firman confirming the Patriarch of Jerusalem was transmitted through the Patriarch of Constantinople.

48

CONSTITUTION

OF

EASTERN

CHURCHES

recognizedby the sultan'sgovernment,though,for two entirely different reasons,they were not recognizedby the
Ecumenicalpatriarch. Anotherillustrationof this difference
of point of view is furnishedby the split in the early part of
the eighteenthcentury, which led to the establishmentof
the two lines of patriarchs,existingeversince,eachclaiming
to be Greek Patriarch of Antioch, one Orthodox,

the other

Catholic. For overonehundredyearsthe Turkish Governmentignoredthedivision,treatingmembersof both churches


as belongingto one communionand recognizingonly the
Orthodoxpatriarch.
The secondstatementcalling for notice is as follows:
"Whenever it is evident that, in any one of the sister
churches, orthodox doctrine or the rules of the whole

church are imperilled, everyother church has of itself the


right to interfere." In case of such interferencebeing
attempted,it is evident that friction might easilybe caused
by a differenceof opinion betweenthe churchcriticisedand
the church criticising as to what constitutes a menace to

orthodoxdoctrine or practice. Such friction would naturally be exaggerated if the interference came from that

patriarchwho enjoysthe title primus inter pares,and who


residesin the imperial city. Ambitious motives might
be attributed. It is conceivablethat they might be entertained. An assertionof supremacywould be suspected.
As a matter of fact it often hasbeensuspected. In the recentcontestfor the possession
of the Patriarchateof Antioch
(to be detailed later), betweenthe native Syrian and the
so-calledIonian or foreign elements,the former bitterly accusedthe Patriarchof Constantinopleof an unwarrantable
attempt to usurp authority in the internal affairs of a sister
patriarchate. "We will have no pope to rule over us!"
cried the excitedDamascenes."Nothing can control us
but

a General

Council!"

Leaders

of the Ionian

faction

vehementlydeny this charge. Oneof these,himselfa prelate of the See of Alexandria, declared to me that "

never,

never,never," had the Ecumenicalpatriarchattemptedsuch


arbitrary interferencein any oneof the sisterpatriarchates:
he was thefirst to makewar againstthe ideaof the papacy;

ORTHODOX

CHURCH

so he would be the last to claim it for himself.1

49

If the

Damascenes accused the present Patriarch of Constanti-

nople of the attempt to usurp authority over their affairs,


they misunderstooda merely kindly warning. aln no
sense/' added this prelate, "can the Ecumenicalpatriarch
be called the head of the Orthodox Church in Turkey."

Speakingto me in the same line, a member of the Holy


Synod of Jerusalemconfirmed the statementthat the title
"ecumenical3"signifiesno more than a theoreticdifference.
The Patriarch of Jerusalem is independent in internal
matters,but shouldhe be calledupon to makean important
decisionconcerningthe faith he must consultwith the other
patriarchs. Finally, among the official statements, we
may note still one other, which suggeststhat conditions
might arise appearingto justify an outsider in ascribing
a certain supremacyto the Ecumenicalpatriarch: namely,
the statement that all four patriarchs share in the control

of the Holy Sepulchreand other shrinesof Palestine. Assertionof his rights in this matter might easilybe misinterpreted, not only by outsiders,but evenby the Orthodox in
the See of Jerusalem. The recent quarrel in that see,to
be touchedon later, had some of its roots in thesevery
conditions.

The hierarchy of the Greek Church includes the three

main ordersof bishops,priests,and deacons. Theoretically


themetropolitan(who corresponds
to a Westernarchbishop)
is the bishopof the chief city of a district, with supervision
over the other bishopstherein,but under the presentstraitened conditions of Syria and Palestine, the distinction be-

tweenthe two gradesis merelya matter of title, not only in


the Greek, but in all the churches. As a matter of fact,
1 It would appear, however, that before the papal claims were definitely made, the Patriarch of Constantinople had entertained similar
ambitions. "In the year 550 Justinian conferred on the Patriarch of
Constantinople the privilege of receiving appeals from the other patriarchs. By this time, backed by the power of the autocrat, the bishop
of the chief city of the empire was threatening to become a veritable

pope,in ourlater sense


of thetitle." (SeeAdeney?
op,at, p, 139.)

50

CONSTITUTION

OF

EASTERN

CHURCHES

membersof both gradesarecommonlyreferredto in Arabic


as mutarin' (singular: midran', the equivalentfor metro-

politan),the term is'qof (ordinarybishop)being rarely


heard. The patriarch,on the other hand, is in a very real
sensechief bishop of all, exercisingsupremesupervision
and disciplineover his see. The first chapterhas touched
on conditionsin the Turkish Empire by reasonof which
the powerof the prelatesof the differentchurcheshas been
differentiatedfrom thosepertainingto correspondingoffices
in the Western cliurch. The differencesmay be here
summedup by the statementthat the patriarchis the civil
as well as the religiousheadof his flock throughoutthe see,
and that the bishops, subject to him, occupy similar rela-

tionsto their own dioceses. The patriarchis assistedin his


dutiesby the Holy Synod,a clerical body whoseconstitution differs in the several sees. Thus the Holy Synod of

Jerusalemincludes the patriarch,,nine metropolitans,ten


archimandrites,1
and an archdeacon.3The Holy Synodof
Antiochconsistssolelyof all the bishops. The Holy Synod
of Constantinoplehas only twelve members,though the
numberof bishopsof the seeamountsto eighty-eight. Accordingto de Jehay,3the Holy Synodof Alexandria,consisting of four metropolitans,exists only in name, but 1
found it in session in the summer

of 1909.

At Constanti-

nople certainchurch affairs are also regulatedby a mixed


assembly,clerical arid lay. A similar body existsat Alexandria, at least in theory, and demandsfor the creationof
one at Jerusalem,formulated by the Syrian or National
party, weregrantedin 1910.
The rulesgoverningthe electionof patriarchsdiffer in the
four sees. In our presentwork weare especiallyconcerned
with those of Antioch and Jerusalem. However, as the
1A title of honor given a priest occupying a prominent administrative
position, as head of school or monastery, and corresponding in a general
way to the title of canon.

2See"The Patriarchateof Jerusalem,"p. 12,by ArchdeaconBowling.


(London, 1908).

8See"De la Situation Le*galedesSujets Ottomansnon-MusuhnanH,


par le comteF. van den Steende Jehay," p. 129jf. (Bruxelles,1006).

THE

ORTHODOX

CHURCH

51

democraticspirit of the Greek Church hasa better illustration in the electionof the patriarchsof Constantinopleand
of Alexandria,we may briefly touch on thesealso. In the
electoral assemblyat Constantinoplethe lay element Is
decidedly preponderant. While the clerical voters range
from twelve to twenty membersonly5 the laymen should
number seventy-threeand representa great variety of in-

terests.1
Final confirmation
of the election
ceived from the Porte.
For centuries
after

must be rethe Turkish

occupation,most of the patriarchsof Alexandriawere appointedby the Patriarch of Constantinople,but the present
incumbent was elected in a truly democratic fashion. The

presentprocedureis as follows: In the cathedral church


there meet delegatesfrom all over Egypt, chosenas their
representatives
by membersof thevarioustradesandprofessions,who nominatean indefinite number of clergy. The
list of names, thus chosen, is then transmitted to Constan-

tinople for revisionby the Porte, representingthe suzerain


power,and then issentbackfor confirmationby the khedive,
who may create further delay while he consults with the
Porte.

From

this revised

list the electors then choose three

names,which are submitted to the above-namedauthorities


as before. Finally, from this trio of names one man is

elected. At the electionof the presentpatriarch, Photios,


by an overwhelmingmajority, therewere onehundred arid
sixty-nineelectors,including two bishopsand many priests,
the rest beinglaymen. His beatitudeis one of the promi1The constitution of the Electoral Assemblyat Constantinopleis as
follows:

I. Clerical members. 1. The twelve members of the Holy Synod.


2. The Metropolitan of Hcraclius, who may be a member of the Holy

Synod. 3. Other metropolitanswho may be found in the capital


II. Lay members. 1. The three highest dignitaries of the patriarchate. 2. The eight lay membersof the Mixed Council. 3. Eight
state functionaries, civil and military.

4. The governor of Samos or

his representative. 5. Three representativesfrom the Danubian principalities. 6. The four most distinguished men of learning: as doctors,
lawyers, professors, etc. 7. Seven merchants. 8. One banker. 9.
Ten representatives of the most esteemed corporations. 10. Two dele-

gatesfrom the parishesof the capital and the Bosphorus. 11. Twentyeight delegatesfrom the provinces. (Seede Jehay, pp. 99-100.)

52. CONSTITUTION

OF EASTERN CHURCHES

nentfiguresin theEasternchurchto-day. Still of imposing


and erect carriage,,with a rare combinationof dignity and
charm, he has a stormy and romantic past behind him.
He was elected Patriarch of Jerusalem in 1882, while still

only archimandrite/ but failing to receiveimperial confirmation, he rightly refusedto recognizethe rival patriarch,
electedand enthronedover his head, until his own resignationshouldbe accepted. The refusalof the government
and his quiet persistencein holding to the validity of his
electionproduceda deadlock,which was terminatedby the
decision of the Porte to exile him to the monastery-fortress

of Saint Catherine. Here, among the desolaterocks of


Sinai, he studied Russian that he might be able to preach

to the pilgrims in their own tongue. It was the privilege


of Rcndel Harris and myself to observe the magic effect of

his eloquenceupon the rapt and awed facesof the simple


peasants,
whom he welcomedto the Chapelof the Burning
Bush. At Sinai, too, we heard him read, the Kucharlstic
discourse of our Lord in the sonorous Greek, as well as

passages
from the great tragedians. When his "captivity
was turned/' in consequence
of the electionof a new patriarch, friendly to himself,he resumedhis positionof secretary to the Jerusalemmonastery. At the time of his election as Patriarch of Alexandria, he was Bishop of Nazareth,
but in the meantime he had once more been an unsuccessful
candidate
for the throne of Jerusalem.
His full title is:

"The most BlessedPopeand Patriarchof the greatcity of


Alexandria,Lybia, andPentapolis,Ethiopiaandall theLand
of Egypt."
The Rev. Henry FanshaweTozer3 speaksof the Orthodox

Church of Alexandriaas "practically extinct" A statistical table preparedby my requestat the secretary'soffice
of the Patriarchateof Alexandriasuggests
a moreoptimistic
view* The population,is acknowledged
to be floating, and,
1It is of interestto notethat his famousnamesake,Photios,wasa layman when appointed Patriarch of Constantinople in 857, but in a few

dayspassedthrough the orderswhich led up to the patriarchate.


2See"The Churchand the EasternEmpire,77p. 82, a volumeof the
seriesentitled "Epochs of Church History."

THE

ORTHODOX

CHURCH

53

in absenceof a census,impossibleto estimatewith full accuracy; but the compiler suggests


onehundred thousandas
a fair estimate of the Orthodox in the see, including three
thousand

in Khartum.

Of

this

total

number

about

one-

tenth are Arabic-speakingSyrians,the rest being of Hellenic origin.1 The Episcopal seesare eight, five of which
had bishopsin 1908. The list of towns or villageswhere
churchesexist showsa total of thirty-three. In fourteen
of thesethere are schools. At the patriarchatein the city
of Alexandria there is a printing-press,from which are
issued two theological periodicals,one monthly and one

weekly. The formeris called'EiK/ckTja-iacrTttcds


<^apo9.

Since 1875 the election to the throne of Jerusalem fol-

lows, theoreticallyat least, a fixed order of procedure.2


Before this date much irregularity prevailed. From the
time of the PatriarchTheophanes(1608-1641)up to 1843,
the Patriarchsof Jerusalemwerenon-resident,occupyinga
palacein thePhanar,on the GoldenHorn,at Constantinople.
It becamethe customfor eachpatriarch to designatea successorduring his activelifetime, subject to the approval of
that powerful organization,the Brotherhood of the Holy

Sepulchre-ofwhichhe was president,and whoseheadquarters were then at Constantinople-and apparently

withoutreference
to theHoly Synodof Jerusalem
assuch,
whosecanonicalrightswerethuspassedover. The Ecumenicalpatriarchhadno part in theelection,but through
him the Porte transmittedthe firman confirming eachnew
patriarch.

This state of affairs lasted till the death of the

Patriarch Athanasius,in 1843, which was followed by a

bitterecclesiastical
dispute,involvingthe retirementof the
appointedsuccessor,
and resulting"in the electionof one
1The native Egyptian church is the Coptic,with a patriarch resident

at Cairo. TheGreekCatholic(UnitedGreek)communityof Egypt is

underthe chargeof a patriarch, residentat Damascus,who since1838


has borne the triple title of Patriarch of Antioch, Alexandria, and

Jerusalem.Occasionally
he residesin Egypt.
of the native Syriansto-daythat their
^ 2It is oneof the complaints

rights of representationat the patriarchal election, recognizedin 1875,

arepracticallyignored. Compare
with noteto page70."

54

CONSTITUTION

OF

EASTERN

CHURCHES

Cyril directly by the Holy Synodof Jerusalem,which thus


reassumedits lawful prerogatives. After this the patriarchs
once more resided in Jerusalem, though for some time each
continued to nominate his successor,subject to the confir-

mation of the Holy Synod.1 The regulationsof 1875are


in substance as follows:

On the death of the patriarch the Holy Synod electsa


locum tenens,calleda Qaimaqam. He sendsletters to the
headsof the monasteriesin all parts of the see, bidding
them notify the peopleto sendto Jerusalemas their representativesa certain numberof marriedpriests. Theseassembleat the Holy City, and with the membersof the Holy
Synod,togetherwith sucharchimandrites2
as maybe found
present,nominateby written ballot an indefinite number
of candidates.

These names are transmitted

to the Porte

through the local government. Whenthe revisedlist is returned, the assembly reunites, and, by a majority of votes,

choosesthe three most eligible candidates. Then, following an ancient custom, the membersof the Holy Synod,
who are the sole electors in this final stage, enter the Church

of the Holy Sepulchre,and, by closedballot, but in the


presenceof the people,chooseone. Before the patriarchelectcan be enthroned,imperial confirmationis necessary,
as in the case of all patriarchal sees. According to the
canon governing the election of bishops,this should be
madeby voteof laymenand clergy. It is one of the complaints of the Syriansto-day that the peopleare no longer
givena voicein the matter. Of the eighteenmetropolitans
and bishops of the see,only three ordinarily reside in their

dioceses:the Metropolitanof Nazarethand the Bishopsof


Bethlehemand Ptolemais(Acre). Of the rest, many are
now only titular; but the peopleare demandingthat such
bishops as have a flock should become resident.3

The full official title of the patriarch is: "The most


1For a detailed account of this matter see"The Holy City," vol. II,
pp. 541 ff., by George Williams (London, 1849).
2This would include the priests belonging to the Brotherhood of the
Holy Selpuchre, all of whom have this title.

3For a list of the dioceses;seeAppendix.

THE

ORTHODOX

CHURCH

55

Blessedand Holy Patriarch of the Holy City Jerusalem,


and all Palestine,Syria, Arabia beyond Jordan, Cana of
Galilee,and Holy Zion." The presentpatriarchateextends
from Egypt on the south to the dioceseof Acre on the north
(which it includes): from the Mediterraneanon the west
to the desert on the east. Widely differing estimatesare
made of the number of the Orthodox in the see, from sixteen

thousand,quoted in Baedeker,to sixty thousandor sixtyfive thousand,madeby a leadingOrthodoxcitizenof Jerusalem. The figuresof the Count de Jehayagreecloselywith
the larger estimate.1 The Orthodox of the Holy City number four or five thousand.

These different

estimates

of the

population may be comparedwith the careful statement


(approximatebut tabulatedby townsandvillages)issued,by
the command of the patriarch, in 1838, which gives sixteen
thousand six hundred and ninety souls for the whole seeand
six hundred souls for the Holy City.2 Allowing for the nor-

mal increasein population,wejudgethat the higherestimate


of the presentpopulationof the wholeseeis probablynearer
the mark

than

the lower.

The

increase

in the number

of

Orthodoxresidentin the city of Jerusalemitself is striking.


Besides

common

schools

in Jerusalem

and

the towns

and

villages of the see, the Greek Church maintains a large


boarding-schoolfor boys(now almost exclusivelyIonian or
foreign Greeks)within the walls, and a theologicaltrainingschool,with preparatorydepartment,at the ancient Convent of the Cross, one and one-half miles to the west of the

city. Syrians,with but oneor two exceptions,are excluded


from the theologicalcourse,which is open to Hellenic students from all parts of Turkey, Greece,and Cyprus,who
usually return to their native districts. The collegehasits
library and museum. ArchdeaconDowling givesthe number of studentsfor 1908as thirty-five;3 in 1909I was told
that they numberedsixty. The Greek ecclesiasticsmaintain a city hospitalwith accommodationfor forty beds. In
1 Seehis work, op. cit, p. 141.

2SeeWilliams's "The Holy City," vol. I, pp. 490-495.


3Seehis pamphlet, "The Patriarchate of Jerusalem/' op. tit, pp.
19-20. Other interesting particulars are given.

56

CONSTITUTION

OF

EASTERN

CHURCHES

the patriarchate Is a printing-pressfrom which liturgical


publications are issued. A Greek theological magazine
called"Nea 2w&z>"
("The New Zion"), which beganto appear in January, 1904, as a bimonthly, is now issued
monthly. To the great Monasteryof Constantine,which
dominates the Greek Church in Palestine, we shall refer
later.

The Patriarchate of Antioch includes the Diocese of Sidon

and Tyre on the south, and that of Adana on the north;


extendingfrom the Mediterraneanon thewestto Diabekron
the east.

It includes

both

the Lebanon

and the Haunin.

The presentpatriarchinformedme that he would,estimate


the number of his flock at about four hundred thousand.

This is not far from the estimate of the Imperial Russian

Societyquotedby deJehay,1
but is far in excessof someother
estimates,alsoquotedby him. The residenceof the patriarch,whois ex officioMetropolitanof Antiochwith episcopal
jurisdictionover the city of Damascus,1msbeenin the latter
city since1531,when Antioch was ruined by earthquake.
Of the sixteen bishops, who alone constitute the Holy Synod,
fourteen are resident in their sees. The Bishops of Kdessa

and Eironopolis,beingin partibuff,shouldresideat Damascus, but thesepostsare now vacant. At present all the bish-

opsare calledby courtesymetropolitans.2The electionof


the patriarchshasnot followedofficially recognized
rules,but
recentlyproposalshavebeensubmittedto the Porte for confirmation, asking that the electoral body shall consist of all

the bishops,the laity to be represented


by threeelectorsfrom
the city of Antioch,eightfrom Damascus,and threefrom its
Faubourgof the Mid&n: all thus being from the episcopal
dioceseof the patriarch. In the electionof bishopsthe
synodalonehas the voting power, but the laity of a given
dioceseare often in practicalcontrol. A few yearsago the
Orthodoxinhabitantsof Beyroutinsistedon thesolenomination of their candidate(the presentbishop) instead of the
canonicalthree,thuscreatinga deadlockbetweenthemselves
1See Ms work, op. cit., p. 133. This estimate is 350,000.
2 This I have from

seeAppendix.

one of their

number.

For a list of the dioceses

ORTHODOX

CHURCH

57

and the electoral body of bishops. The peopleboycotted


the churches and threatened to secedeto the Anglican Com-

munion. The resident chaplainof the Anglican bishop in


Jerusalemrefusedto receivethe dissidentsas a body, but
while leaving them to settle their dispute he profferedhis
friendly officesin the generalinterestsof peace. The deadlock was finally relievedby the agreementof the synod to
recognizethe nominationof two dummies; thus the canonical demandswere satisfied while the people securedthe
electionof their admirable candidate,whosepopularity has
beenamply justified by a wiseand brilliant administration.
He has begunthe constructionof a large building which is
destined to be a college. At present the Greeks of Syria
have no university, but almost forty per cent of the students

of the Syrian Protestant College are Orthodox, including


near relations

of the Patriarchs

of Antioch.

and Alexandria.

There are Orthodox high-schools at Hums, Tripoli, and


Damascus, the last being under the direct control of the

laity. Many of the commonschoolsin the seewereestablishedand areconductedby the Imperial RussianSocietyof
Palestine,of which we speaklater. The theologicalcollege
is at the Monasteryof Bellament(Belmont),in the district
of the Kura, sometwelvemiles inland from Tripoli. This
wasopenedby theabbott, in the earlyhalf of theseventeenth
century, for the higher educationof the Syrian youth, in
secularas well as theological,studies,but wasclosedby the
Ionian Patriarch Methodius(died 1850)as part of his antiNational programme.1It wasreopenedasa training-school
for Syrian aspirants to higher clerical rank, as archimandrites or bishops,by Malatios, the first Arab patriarch of
Antioch in modern times, who was enthroned in 1899.

The

schoolis financedby the patriarch,who sendsasmanypupils


as he pleases,while the bishopsmaynominateone or two
boys each. The clerical graduatesremaining unmarried
cannot hear confessions

after ordination.

The course covers

six years,including theology,church history, exegesis,and


philosophy. All teachersare native Syrians,but not necessarily in holy orders.
1See pages 64 ff.

58

CONSTITUTION

OF

EASTERN

CHURCHES

It is the rule that the Orthodoxparishpriestsof Syriaand


Palestine

should

be married

before

ordination

to the diaco-

nate, marriageafter ordinationbeinguncanonical. A second marriageIs prohibited. A bishop must be a celibate


at the time of his ordination, but he may be a widower. The

casehasbeenknownof a patriarchwho waslater succeeded


in officeby his legitimateson. As the servicebooksareall
translatedinto Arabic, the parish priestsdo not require a
knowledgeof Greek,exceptfor a fewwordsand phrasesof
peculiarsanctity. As a rule they havelittle educationbeyond the most elementary. The priestof a given parishis
oftenchosenfrom thesamefamily fromgenerationto generation, the officebeingthusquasi-hereditary. This tendency
is said to militate againstan educatedpriesthood,especially
in the rural

districts.

The

hair is not cut:

when

mass is

celebratedandduring someotherservicesit hangsdownover


the shoulders; ordinarily it remainscoiled up under the
headdress,which resemblesa collegecap with enormously
elongatedcylindrical base. The soutane,or cassock,is of a
dark color,but not necessarily
black. With exceptionsto be
noted,the parishpriestshaveno regularsalary,but arepaid
out of the fundsof the Church,a sum ranging(in the town
churches)from twentyto eighty-twocentsfor eachmasssaid
on Sundayor on a feast-day. Daily massis almost unknown

exceptin the cathedralchurches.1In addition thereare the


prices of massesfor the dead and feesfor baptisms,marriages,funerals,etc. In Jerusalemthe parishpriestshavea
fixed salaryof twelvedollarsa month (threenapoleons),paid
by the convent,besidestheir ordinaryfeesfor baptisms,etc.
In some of the Orthodox cathedral towns of the East,

wheretherearea numberof churches,thereobtainsa regular


circuit system, not unlike that of the Methodists, only more

localized. This is not recognizedby the canons,but is mere


custom,obtaining,however,in placesaswidelyseparatedas
Alexandria,Jerusalem,Beyrout,Hums,and Constantinople,
It is not practisedin Latakia, which has five Orthodox
churches,nor yet in Mersine, both cathedraltowns. The
1In the Cathedral Church at Alexandria there Is no daily mass.
Dailv mass is said in the Great Convent at Jerusalem.

THE

ORTHODOX

CHURCH

59

systemhasdifferentmodifications
at differentcentres,but

Is everywherebasedon a commondemocratic principle,


which recognizesthe parity of the parish clergy and their
commonright to share the ecclesiasticalemolumentsof a

givencity. In Beyrout,for example,


thereareninepriests
and nine churches,including eight "parish" churchesand
the cathedral Church of Saint George.. In the vicinity of
each church lives a married priest, who during the week
attendsto the generaldutiesof the "parish," hearingconfessions,visiting the congregation,sprinkling the houses
with holy water monthly, conductingbaptisms,marriages,
funerals,etc. He has, however,Sunday duty in his own
church but oneSundayout of ten. Accordingto the rules
of the circuit he says Sunday mass in a different parish
church for eightweeks,coming on the ninth Sundayto the
cathedralchurch,wherehe beginshis dutieswith high mass,
for which he receives an especial fee. For a week, then, he

is calledMaster of the Circuit (Sa'hibed Dowr) or Master of


the Week (Sa'hib ej Jim'a: Greek, E^/xepto?),receiving
a fixed salary of two Turkish dollars (about $1.65)for saying daily mass. He has the right to demand a Turkish
dollar for every funeral or church wedding which he attendsduring that week in any part of the entire city, or to
demanda quarter of that sum in casehe remainsabsent.
On the second Sunday, after saying early mass in the
cathedral church, he gives place to his successor, who in
turn becomes Master

of the Week.

The tenth week is a sort

of vacationfor the retiring priest.1 Tins systemappearsin


some casesto affect the solidarity of the parishes. The
priestresidentat Ras-Beyrouttells me that in no strict sense
hashis churcha people,his " parishioners" feelingat liberty
to attend massanywhere. It is interestingto note that the
Orthodox point to the origin of this circuit in the " orderof
the courSe"of priestly service,which Zachariasfulfilled.2
1The exact carrying out of this system at Beyrout would appear to
require ten priests. In Hums, where a similar system obtains, there are
only four churches with the cathedral, while the number of priests is
seven. In this city it would appear that each priest would remain
periodically without duty.
2 The word in Luke

1:58

is

60

CONSTITUTION
The

Arabic

word

OF

EASTERN

for deacon

CHURCHES

is slicmmas'.

The

Ortho-

dox Church in Syria recognizes,theoreticallyat least, four


gradesin the diaconate: archdeacon,deacon,subdeacon,
and anagnost,or reader. Practically, however,the term
archdeaconis hardly more than titular, and the minor orders are rarely filled. The only Greek archdeaconthat I
ever heardof is CleophasKikilides, the learnedlibrarian of
the Convent of Jerusalem.. He is a member of the Holy

Synod,althoughnot in priest'sorders. For it is to be noted


that.,unlike the Anglican archdeacon,the Greekdignitary
is but the chief of the deacons.

The office of the mass con-

tains a full service for the deacon, but as a matter of fact this

is generallytaken by the priest or omitted. There is no


deacondefinitely attachedto the Beyrout Cathedraleven.
The diaconateis merelya stepping-stone
to priestlyordination,whichrequiresno definitelyprescribedinterval between
itself and the previousadmissionto deacon'sorders. During the actualinterval, thedeaconmayattend on the bishop
of the diocese. With the bishop there are usually also a
certain number of celibate deaconswho are looking forward

to becomingarchimandritesor bishops. A deaconmust


marry before ordination or remain celibate. The single

canonthat would appearto sanctionthe contraryhasnever


been put in practice. In a, later section will appear the
contrasting conditions of the diaconate in general in the
Syrian Church, where all grades play an important and
practical part in the life of the church.
II.

THE

RECENT NATIONAL MOVEMENT


ORTHODOX CHURCH

IN THE

A traveller,interestedin the GreekChurch,passingfrom


the Patriarchate

of Antioch

to the Patriarchate

of Jerusalem

to-day, would be sensibleof a suddenchangeof ecclesiastical

atmosphere. In the former seehe would find a truly national church,with nativeSyrianclergy,includingpatriarch
and bishops,all speakingthe Arabic languageas a mothertongue. Especially noticeablewould be the scarcity of
monks, so few that he might not meet a singleindividual.
In the Patriarchate of Jerusalem, however, while he would

find native Syrian parish priests, he would at oncelearn

RECENT

MOVEMENT

IN

ORTHODOX

61

that these are dominated by prelates of an alien race* This


Ionian control would confront him most vividly in the Patriarchal

Palace., the Great Convent, and the Church of

the Holy Sepulchre. Here, indeed,lie might find Syrians,


but only among the worshippers. As he wanderedover
the bewildering congeries of courts that form the convent,

swarmingwith priests and monks, he would hear spoken


nothing but Greek, except when, with a marked foreign
accent, an order was addressed to an Arab servant.

Our

strangerwouldemphaticallyget the ideaof a GreekChurch,


Greek in languageas well as in control. Had the dateof
his visit fallen in 1909,he would havefound all the parish
churches closed, and might even have chanced on a native

Syrianpriest holding a service,with a fewfollowers,in the


cemetery.

In order to understand these contrasting conditions, we

must study for a momentthe origin of the famousmonastic


Brotherhood of the Holy Sepulchre, which at present
dominates the Greek Church in Jerusalem, and which has

only recently lost control of the Greek Church in the Patriarchate of Antioch. According to ecclesiastical tradition,
the

establishment

of

the

brotherhood

which

has

for

its

chief function the care of the holy places of Palestine, dates

from the erection of the Church of the Resurrection,by


order of Constantino, early in the fourth century. It, however, represented a development from an earlier monastic
order, originating in very early days at Caesarea. By the
year 494 A. I), its members were everywhere recognized by

the name ^7rovBaloi9


or Zealots. The organizationunder
the present rules dates from the Patriarchate of Dositheus,
which began in the year 1GG2. According to these rules,

the patriarch, who is ex officiopresidentof the brotherhood,


must be chosen from the members;

custom has also re-'

stricted the choiceof bishopsto membersof the order, who


must be Ionian Greeks-that is, Greeks in race and language

though Turkish subjects.1 At the present time, native


Syriansare refusedmembership,but for about one hundred
*Many members of the order who are merely in priest's orders bear the
honorary title of Archimandrite.
The only Syrian archimandrite is resident in the monastery at Tiberias.

62

CONSTITUTION

OF EASTERN

CHURCHES

and fifty yearsafter the enthronementof Dositheusthis exclusiondid not extendto Syriansfrom the Patriarchateof
Antioch, two at least of whom rose to the dignity of Patriarch of Jerusalem.

The

local natives, however,

whose

grievances
havebeensummedup in a fiery tract/ date their
exclusionfrom the brotherhood,and thus practically from
the possibilityof attaining episcopalrank, as far back as
the Patriarchate of Germanus, which began in 1534, the

year of the inceptionof the Order of the Jesuits. Up to the


time of the enthronementof this Peloponnesianmonk, so they

maintain by a somewhatnaive historical argument,all patriarchs,bishops,priests,and monkshadbeennativesof the


see. Thus, from primitive times genuine natives of Pales-

tine had been the lawful custodiansof the holy places.


After the Arab occupation,their rights were confirmedby
the famousCovenantof 'Omar, preservedto this day in the
dependancyof the JerusalemConventat Constantinople.
Theserights,temporarilyin abeyanceduring the crusading
period,were severallyconfirmed,and always to the native
church, by the Eyyubite and Mameluke dynasties, and

finally by the Turkish conquerors. With theusurpationof


authority by Germanus, as the native Orthodox deem it,

the churchof Jerusalemlost its natural independence


and
self-control. During a patriarchateof forty-five years,he
filled up all the episcopalseeswith his fellow Grecians.
With the independenceof the native Syrians went their
guardianshipof the holy places. This loss of legitimate
control, so goeson the native argument,logically involved
the furtherdivisionof the holy places,whichsoonfollowed,
among Latins, Armenians, and other foreigners, for the

original Greek usurperswere themselvesforeigners! Attempts,they say,havebeen madeby the lonians to prove
that from the beginningsof Christianity the Orthodox of
-JLl|

aussLb*

UJf
(Historical Glanceat the Brotherhoodof the Holy Sepulchre.) This
was issued in 1893 under the pseudonym of Sheikh 'Abd-eI-Ahad~esh-

Shafi,which covereda compositeauthorship. It was broughtdown to


date and reprinted in 1909.

RECENT

MOVEMENT

IN ORTHODOX

CHURCH

63

Palestinewereall of their race, but they themselveshelp to


disprovetheir ownargumentby excludingthe nativeSyrians
of to-day from the brotherhood, thus acknowledgingthemselvesto be aliens. This confession,so triumphantly add
thenativeapologists,is clearly involvedin oneof the prayers
of the Order in commemorationof the patriarchs, which
beginswith the name of Germanus,to the exclusionof the
line of Arab patriarchs who went before. The motives

assignedfor this usurpation is a greedydesire to hold the

purse-strings
of theHoly Sepulchre. The annualincome,
estimatedby the native party at over a million Turkish
dollars/ accruesfrom the gifts of pilgrims, as well as from
the dependencies
of the convent at Constantinople,Moscow,
Smyrna,Athens, Crete,etc. The accountsare open to no
one but the monks. The income is not usedfor the good
of thenativeSyriansof thesee. Charity is withheld from the
native poor, while the monks themselvesbecomerich.
Syriansare debarredfrom a higher education. The school
at the Conventof the Crosswas establishedin 1845,chiefly
for the Ionian students,euphemisticallycalled nephewsof
the monks, who alone are allowed to take the theological
course,the nativesbeing confined to the preparatorystudies. Common schools have been opened and again closed,
Were it not for the foreign schools no native Orthodox

child would be able to read or write in his own language.


It wasto defendthe pilgrims againstthe Ionian monks that
the Imperial Society of Russia was formed. Previously
they had sold indulgences,contrary to Orthodox doctrine,
and had even taken money for baptizing dead children.
Chargesof grosspersonalimmorality are hurled at all the
Ionian clergy and monks. In fact, the languageof the
Syrian apologistsbecomesso sweepingand bitter that the
reader

of

the

indictment

is

driven

to

ask

whether

the

brotherhood,too, may not have a sideto maintain.


1It Is allegedthat the figures(equal to about eigl.ithundred thousand
dollars) were copied by the secretary of the Imperial (Russian) Society
of Palestine

from

the accounts of the Jerusalem

Patriarchate

In 1890.

Compare this with the semi-official statement made to the writer (p, 73)
placing the annual income at about two hundred and forty thousand
dollars.

64

CONSTITUTION

OF EASTERN

CHURCHES

Before attempting,however,to show the point of view


of the Brotherhoodof the Holy Sepulchrein this unhappy
quarrel,wemustturn to reviewbriefly the relationsbetween
this organizationand the Patriarchate of Antioch. Accordingto the native chroniclersthis patriarchateremained
independentof Ionian controluntil the eventsfollowingthe
Catholic schism of 1724. Before the death of Athanasius,

the last of the line of Arab or local patriarchs,he recommendedthe Holy Synod of Damascusto choosefor patriarch one Sylvestre,of the Ionian clergyof Constantinople,
who might be able to give dignity and authority to their
weakenedcausein the eyesof the Turkish Government, and
also, if possible, to heal the breach. Thus Sylvestre was

elevatedto the See of Antioch, by appointment from the


Holy Synodof Constantinople,at the official requestof the
Holy Synod at Damascus,who had elected him. This
practicewas kept up for onehundred and fifty yearswithout infringement on the real independenceof the See of
Antioch.

Instead of healing the breach, however, from his

first entry into the see,Sylvestreso antagonizedthe people


that many followed the seceders into the Greek Catholic

Church,just organizedunder a rival patriarch.1 His five


successors,one or another, are accused of simony, neglect

of native educationalinstitutions, filling up the bishoprics


with lonians, exploiting the seefor the use of their relatives

abroad,intriguing with the Brotherhoodof the Holy Sepulchre,andpersecutingthe GreekCatholics. Summingup,


the indictmentdeclaresthat insteadof realizingthe hopes
of the Orthodox,and thuspreventingthe spreadof schism,
thesesix patriarchs, from 17282 to 1850,through their abuse
and cruelty, were the direct means of driving many of the

Orthodoxinto the fold of the papacy,thusprecipitatingthe


official recognitionby the Turkish Governmentof theGreek
Catholicsas membersof an independentchurch.
The line of patriarchs, who besidesbeing lonians were
also membersof the Brotherhoodof the Holy Sepulchre,
beganin 1850. Accordingto custom, the Holy Synodat
1See page 91.

2Date of the recognitionof Sylvestreby the Porte,

RECENT

MOVEMENT

IN

ORTHODOX

CHURCH

65

Damascus,on the death of the patriarch, requestedthe


Holy Synodat Constantinopleto appointa certainGregory,
or failing him, any otherdesirableperson. Thus Erotheos,
a memberof the brotherhood,who was reported to be of
enormouswealth,was chosenby the Constantinopleclergy,
and acceptedby the Holy Synod at Damascus,consisting
at that time chiefly of lonians. The contemptuousnative
account of the long rule of Erotheos, which lasted from 1850
to 1885, accuses him of all the faults and vices of his six

Ionian predecessors,
as well as of personalimmorality. In
fact the obviously exaggerated indictment overreachesitself
in the final statement that during his patriarchate the Church
of Antioch was disgraced, irreligion and immorality flourished everywhere, churches and schools were razed to the

ground. "Had he lived longer/5 so the campaigndocument excitedly winds up,

" the utter

destruction

of

the

church would have been certain." Stripped of its exaggeration,the account certainly revealsa very seriouscondition of misrule.

Before the death of Erotheos, the laymen

of Damascus,backedby the national party throughout the


see,had determinedto get rid of foreign control by working
for a restorationof the slat/usquoante, with a purely native
hierarchyfrom the patriarchdown. Evenin the worst clays
of Ionian rule, the Holy Synod had never lacked for one or

two native bishops. In the struggleto securethe nextpatriarch, the native or "national"

element, was beaten, so it

alleges,by an intrigue, headedby Nicodemus,Patriarch of


Jerusalem,assisted,by his brother of Constantinople and by
theGreek Government successfullysupporting the candidacy

of Gerasimos. This prelate was a cultivated man of graciousbearingand good scholarship,but his Greek blood,
togetherwith his membershipin the brotherhood,madehim
persona
non gratato the natives. The objectof this intrigue
was to persuadethe SublimePorte that the native element
was working in the interests of Russian influence in the see.

Russiahasalwaysbeenthe bogie-manto danglebefore the


eyesof Turkey. To this clay the cry of "Wolf! Wolf!" (if
one may thus call the Russianbear) is the final resource
employedto down an opponent. In 1891,Nicodemusfell

66

CONSTITUTION

OF EASTERN

CHURCHES

victim to this same cry. This time, however, it was raised

againsthimself, forcing him to resignhis see. Gerasimos


was translated from the Seeof Antioch to that of Jerusalem,
but from his new throne was instrumental In securing the

electionat Damascusof one Spiridon,alsoa memberof the


Brotherhoodof the Holy Sepulchre.The " Constantinople/'
a Greekjournal, exulted in the defeat of the " hot-headed
Syrians/' who,it maintained,actuatedby prideand avarice,
had tried to usurp the spiritual power. The Syrians,in
turn, declaredthat Spiridonhad bought the Patriarchateof
Antioch cheapby a bargainwith the noblesof Damascus.
The chargeof workingin the interestof Russiathey vehemently deny. There wasno mistaking the note of genuine
conviction in the voice of the Damascene gentleman who,

in relatingthe eventswhichI am about to chronicle-events


in which he was a principal actor-repudiated the idea of
subserviencyto Russia. "Why change the rule of the
lonians for that of the Russians?"he asked. "Why run
from the rain to seek refuge under the water-spout? We

have made use of Russia,in permitting her to establish


schoolsfor our benefit,but with the exceptionof allowing
oneRussianpriest to makean annual visit to confessand
communicate members of the Russian church in our see,

we do not allow a single Russian ecclesiasticor monk to set


foot in the patriarchate!"

From the enthronementof Spiridondatesthe final struggle betweenthe two parties. It began immediatelyin a
quarrel for the control of the "wakf,"

or church revenues.

At first theTurkish Governmentstoodbehindthe patriarch.


At one time the peopletook to the old resortof boycotting
the churches,assemblingfor servicein the cemetery,which
beingconsecrated
groundwas moresuitablethan a private
house. Increasingin courageand solidarity, the national
party held out againstthe strongcombineof Greek Church
and Turkish State, until, in 1896,some of the demands were

granted. Two or three yearslater the laymen persuaded

thegovernor
(nowbrought
overto theirside)topermitthe

assemblingof the Holy Synod to impeach the patriarch.


The actualcrisiswasprecipitatedby an unwiseact of Spiri-

RECENT

MOVEMENT

IN ORTHODOX

CHURCH

67

donhimself. In thesummerof 1898he grantedto oneof


his flock,who wasinterpreterto thegovernor,a decreeof
divorcewhichappearedto the indignantOrthodoxto be
irregular.Thelong-smouldering
rebellionbrokeintoablaze.
The followingday thepeoplecrowdedinto the cathedral,
shouting:"We won't havea patriarchwhogivessuchdivorces!" Men seizedon theropesandtolledthegreatbell
asfor a funeral,whilethecrowdshouted:"Our patriarch

is dead! Ourpatriarch
is dead! Wemusthaveanother!"

Hardby in his palace,Spiridonheardthedeath-knell


of his
sovereignty.Theuproarspreadthroughthecity, reaching
theearsof thecivil governorand themilitarycommander,
who immediatelyinferredthat a revolutionagainstthe
government
hadbrokenout. Revolutionindeedit was,but
ecclesiastical,
not political. Togetherthe two pachashurried to the cathedral,entering,however,with no showof
force. Thecivil governor
demanded
to knowwhatwasthe
matter,but was answered
only by renewedcries: "Our
patriarchis deadl He is againstour religion!" Finally
grasping the situation, he attemptedto mediate between

patriarchand people,hasteningfrom cathedralto palace,


from palaceback to cathedral. Not until he gavehis per-

sonalguarantee
thatthedecreeof divorcewouldbeannulled
werethe peoplewilling to disperse.But not yet did the
patriarchunderstand
their temper. With a fatuousstubbornnessthat predictedhis downfall,he threatenedto arrest
two native priests who had omitted his name in the com-

memoration
of themass. Theyfledto thesanctuary
of the
cathedral,
asit wereto theveryhornsof thealtar. To the
cathedralat midnightcamethepatriarch'screatures,
with
a guardofTurkishsoldiers;theformerbrokedownthedoor
and entered,the soldiersremainedtentatively passiveout-

side. A parleyensued,resultingin the surrenderof the


priests. "The sanctuarymust not be defiledby Turkish
soldiers,"theysaid. " Ratherwewill gowith you." At once

the entireChristianquarterwasaroused.By two o'clock


six hundredOrthodoxhad gatheredin the cathedral;by
dawnthecrowdnumbered
four thousand,
includingChristiansof allsects,all shoutingat thetopof theirvoices. This

68

CONSTITUTION

OF EASTERN

CHURCHES

time they werenot to be quieted,evenwhen the governor


broughtback thepriestswho had beendetainedin the commander's room. Soon his excellency realized how far this

ecclesiastical
revolutionhad spread. His officewas flooded
with telegramsfrom the bishops,wantingto know what the
matter was,demandingpermissionto come to settle it in
conclave. This permissionbeing received,one by one the
bishopsassembled
in Damascusfrom the limits of thesee.
As a conditionof his officialsupportof the popularparty,
the governordemandedand receivedfrom the leadersthe
promisethat they wouldelect,as new patriarch,Germanus,
Bishop of Tarsus, one of the four Ionian bishops,even
thoughthe Syriansby that time held a majority of the sees.
That the national leadersknew what they weredoing soon
transpired. In the game of diplomacy that followed they
scored at each turn, though candid admiration must be

seasoned
by candidacknowledgment
of pretty sharppractice.
The first business
of thesynodwasto getrid of Spiridon,who
in the meantime had fled to the Convent of Sedanaya to

escapethe dreadedexaminationof accounts. He, however,


presentlyeliminatedhimself,proceedingto Constantinople,
under the adviceof the Patriarchsof Constantinopleand
Jerusalem,who, countingon the people'spromise,felt sure
in any case of the continuance of Ionian control.

The

synod,then, resolvingitself into an electoralbody, named


as patriarchal vicar, Germanus, upon whom the mantle of

the fatuousSpiridonappearsto havefallen. Now, in default


of a recognizedcodeof procedurefor the electionof patriarchsthe national party had receivedofficial permissionto
follow in principle the Constantinopleregulations. This
was the first strategicgain,for, in the first place,it gavethe
laity a goodly number of votes,and, in the secondplace,
it disqualifiedas candidatesthe threeother Ionian bishops,
whosetenure of their seeshad not reachedthe required
numberof sevenyears. Angeredat the trap in which they
had allowedthemselves
to be caught,the three bishopsleft
the conclave,followedmoststupidly by Germanus,the presiding officer, who by sticking to the generalIonian cause
threw awayhis own chancesfor the patriarchate. For, by

RECENT.

MOVEMENT

IN

ORTHODOX

CHURCH

69

leaving the conclaveon account of his objections to the


officially endorsedregulations,he not only becamepersona
nongrata to the government,but by persistingin his refusal
to return,after repeatedwarningsand requests,he accepted
the positionof forcing the only too-delightedconclave,now
homogeneously
Syrian, to elect another presiding officer,
who was soon confirmed by the sultan!
Ionian

control

of the Patriarchate

of Antioch

was not

abandonedwithout a sharpstruggle. The other patriarchs,


led by the Ecumenical patriarch, succeededin blocking the

proceedingsat Damascusby presentingone technical objection after another to the Porte at Constantinople. As
to the validity of their objectionsI claim to be no judge. It
is sufficientto chroniclethe triumph of the national leaders,
who, after waiting for monthsfor an authorizationof candidatesfrom Constantinople,executeda coupd'etatby electing
as patriarch one Malatios, a Syrian bishop, a man praised
by his fellow-countrymen as being devoted to the interests
of the church, but neither clever nor learned. The Porte
was notified, and in four months the official confirmation

arrived (1899). According to custom, the new patriarch


wrote "letters of peace/' announcinghis election to the
headsof the independentchurches,receivingfriendly answers from Russia, Servia, and Roumania,

but none from

Athensor the threeother patriarchates. The official reason


givenfor this refusalof recognitionwasthat the electioncontravenedthe ecclesiastical
canonsas well as the prevailing
customsof theSeeof Antioch. That racial feeling,however,
played the strongestpart was proved by the refusal of the
samechurchesto recognizethe electionof Malatios's successor,which took place on June 5, 1906. That this was
technicallylegal I have beenassuredby one of the Ionian
prelates. Terms of reconciliation between the Seeof Anti-

och and the three patriarchates,sought as early as 1908,


werefinally agreedupon in 1910. The presentPatriarchof
Antioch, Gregorios, is a native of the Lebanon, said to be a

preacherof eloquenceand well versedin Arab history and


the Moslemreligion. An Americanmissionary,for almost

forty yearsresidentin Syria, regardsthe successful


out-

70

CONSTITUTION

OF EASTERN

CHURCHES

comeof the long struggleof the nativesto recapturethe

Seeof Antlochasthefruit of thegrowingindependence


and

self-confidenceof the Orthodox people,who, in the early


daysof his residence,did not considertheIonian domination
as pure evil, but freelyacknowledged
their needof someoutside power to keepthe church from disintegratingthrough
the disputesof local factions.
The struggle betweenthe native and Ionian parties in
the See of Jerusalemdid not reach an acute stageuntil
the autumn of 1908,when the newly revived constitution
awakenednew hopes of independenceand liberty in all
branchesof the people over the Turkish Empire. The
native Syrians formulated a demand for certain church re-

forms, including the organizationof a mixed assembly,lay


and clerical, Ionian and native, authorizedby the constitution

of

1877

to

control

ecclesiastical

affairs.1

A similar

bodyhasbeenin operationat Constantinoplefor someyears.


To press their claims, the Orthodox natives elected a com-

mittee of forty. -Pendinggovernmentaction upon these,


the whole community of some five thousand souls went on a

religious strike., boycotting the churches,which remained


closed, while their priests conducted an occasional service

in the Cemeteryof Zion. The splendidrites of Holy Week


and of Easter of 1909and 1910were unattended, saveby the

lonians and foreigners. Meanwhile the patriarch, Damianus,having becomepersonanon grata to the Holy Synod,
wasdeposedby that body, who accusedhim, unofficiallyat
1 Their demands, found in an open letter, published as an Arabic
leaflet, were briefly as follows:
1. That the law should be enforced, giving the representatives of the
people votes at the election of the patriarch. (They claim that for a
long period their representatives have simply been allowed to be pres-

ent, with no vote.) 2. That the regulationsregardingthe electionof


bishops be enforced. 3. That the native Syrians be granted admission
to the Brotherhood of the Holy Sepulchre, and thus be eligible to the

higher ranks of the hierarchy. 4. That a mixed assemblyof clergy,


secular and regular, and of laymen be appointed to regulate temporal
and spiritual affairs. 5. That all bishops be resident in their sees.
6. That Syrian pilgrims be entertained in the convent. (They admit
that this last had been conceded, but they want "all or nothing.")

RECENT

MOVEMENT

IN

ORTHODOX

CHURCH

71

least,of favoringthe native Syrians. These,then, espoused


the deposedpatriarch'scause,not becausethey believedhe
was any morefavorableto themselvesthan was the synod,
but becausethey held his deposition to be an Infringement of

their constitutionalrights, as theyhad not beenconsultedIn


the matter. In the spring of that year there was presented
in the Holy City a condition as topsy-turvy as It was scanda-

lous. On oneside of the narrow lane,crossedby the bridge


connectingpatriarchate and convent, were stationed two
hundred armed Orthodox natives, assistedby a posseof
Turkish soldiersin guardinga patriarch whom they refused
to commemorate In their prayers. On the other side of the
lane, the convent was picketed by a body of armed monks,
reinforced by two hundred Turkish soldiers, and-so the

story goes-by one hundred Cretans,dressedup as monks


and armed to the teeth. For nine days the peaceof Jerusalem was seriously disturbed by this recrudescenceof
the Middle Ages. A number of murders occurred. Investigation by a commission,headedby the governor of
Syria, and sent by the Porte to inquire Into the legality of
the deposition of Damianus, resulted In his re-establish-

ment on the throne. Patriarch and people, with great


shoutingand firing of guns,marchedin processionto thank
the pacha at his hotel. The prelatical ringleadersof the
Ionian opposition were sent Into exile, amid the execrations

of some over-excited

native

Orthodox

assembled

at

the station to witnesstheir departure. The Holy Synod,


perforce, accepted the ruling of the commission. The
Patriarchsof Constantinopleand of Alexandria dissented.
Thus, at the close of the year 1909 the Orthodox Church

in Syria and Palestinepresentedthe following combinations: A Patriarch of Antioch not recognizedby the Patriarchs of Constantinople,Jersualem,and Alexandria; a
Patriarch of Jerusalemnot acknowledgedby the Patriarchs of Constantinopleand Alexandria; a native Orthodox peopletriumphant in the Seeof Antioch^ and, finally,
a native Orthodox peopleIn the See of Jerusalemstill on
religiousstrike, with closedchurches,still demandingtheir
sharein the financial and spiritual control, still distrusting

72

CONSTITUTION

OF

EASTERN

CHURCHES

the patriarch,whomthey had helpedto reinstate,and who,


they declare, had not helped their cause one whit.

The report of the governmentcommitteeat Constantinople in answer to the demandsof the Syrianswas made
during the first half of theyear 1910. On the faceof it this
was favorableto the national party, as it sanctionedthe
formation of the mixed assembly,and appearedalso to
sanction the admission of Syrians to the Brotherhood of the

Holy Sepulchre,and thus to higher clerical rank. The


Syrians,however,by continuing to boycott the churches,
evinced their scepticism as to the real intentions of the

lonians in control of the brotherhoodto throw open the


doorsfor their admission.1On the other hand, they began
to feel some hope that by means of their influence in the

newly constitutedassemblythe educationalrights of their


children might now at last be recognized. While thus *in

the summerof 1910the Ionian and Syrian factionswere


still at variance in the Patriarchate

of Jerusalem, the four

Greek Patriarchs of Constantinople,Antioch, Jerusalem,


and Alexandria had again become reconciled.

We must not leave this unhappy ecclesiasticalquarrel,


which naturally evokesconsiderablesympathyfor the national party in Jersualem,without stating the contentionof
the leadersof the Ionian faction, which, in turn, presents
its plausibleside.2 The Brotherhoodof the Holy Sepulchre,
they declare,was foundedfor the preservationof the holy
places:this is the burdenof their wholeargument. Native
Syrians were at first admitted to its membership, thus
becomingeligible to higher clerical rank; but later their
exclusionwas found to be necessary,becausetheir loyal
co-operationin the preservationof the holy placeswassus1 The churches at Jaffa and, I understand, at some other places which,
though in the patriarchate, are not in the patriarch's own Episcopal See
of Jerusalem, had been reopened before this. In such churches it is not
necessary at the liturgy to commemorate the patriarch, but only the
bishop of the diocese. In Jerusalem the people objected to commemorate their patriarch-bishop, whom, as president of the brotherhood, they
regarded as responsible for their exclusion.
2 The Ionian position was stated by a dignitary of the convent in a
private interview in 1909.

RECENT

MOVEMENT

IN ORTHODOX

CHURCH

73

pected. Couldtheir loyalty be assured,theywouldbe readmitted at once. They have, however, shown in several

ways that they cannot be trusted. Holy places,formerly


turned over to them, were either neglected or given to the

Latins. When appointed to the higher positions in the


church, their ecclesiasticshave intrigued with Russia, whose

programme,in chargeof the Imperial Societyof Palestine,


is to get control of the holy places. To this end it stirred
up national feelings which had not been active before.
Russia,they still declare,made the first Syrian Patriarch
of Antioch.

Another

reason for the exclusion

of the natives

from control is that they might yield to the temptation of


appropriatingmoneysof the church for the benefitof their
relatives living on the spot, a temptation far less strong in
the caseof foreign monks, who neverthelesshave sometimes

yielded to it. They acknowledgethat the convent, which


is the head-quartersof the brotherhood,hasoften failed in
performing its duties, and this for many reasons,notably
suchas naturally arisefrom governmentconditions. They
are eagerto establisha modusmvendiby which the natives
might enjoy their just rights, but thesecan never include
financial control. The reasonfor withholdingthis is simple
but cogent;theSyrianscontributenothing toward the revenues of the see,which, coming from foreign sources,should

beunderforeigncontrol. Amongthemonksarerepresentatives of all the lands

from

which

the revenue

comes.

On

the contrary, while the natives contribute nothing, they receive much. Of the revenue of the convent, which is only

sixty thousandnapoleons(two hundred and forty thousand


dollars) annually, one-quarteris spent on the care of the
holy places,etc., three-quartersbeing devotedto the good
of the see. Seventeenthousand napoleons (sixty-eight
thousanddollars) a year arespenton the Orthodoxin Jerusalem, who receive bread twice a week gratis, house rent

(rangingfrom ten to thirty napoleons),the amount of their


military taxes, the salaries of their priests, and the education of their children. The balance of the forty-five thousand napoleons is spent on the rest of the see.
In regard to this matter of education, as in other dis-

74

CONSTITUTION

OF EASTERN

CHURCHES

crepantstatements,we must point the readerback to the


contention of the Syrians, who declare that, as a matter of

fact, their ownchildrenareexcludedfrom thehigherschools.


As to the incomeof the convent,they maintain the whole
financial systemto be so rotten that no oneknows whence
it comesor whither it goes. The controversyplainly has
two sides. It is in effecta controversybetweena wealthy
corporation,determinedto keepcontrol of the fundswhich
it hasbeenthe meansof collecting,but alsousingits power
to control ecclesiasticallegislation outside of its own imme-

diate jurisdiction, and the peoplewho undoubtedlybenefit


by it, but who, as undoubtedly,have lost many of their
rights becauseof its dominatinginfluence.
III.

THE JACOBITE OR OLD SYRIAN CHURCH

The ecclesiasticalbody which we are now about to


consideris known to the outside world by two names:
the JacobiteChurch and the Old Syrian Church; but the
members

themselves

dislike

the former

title.

Both

names

serve to distinguish it from the Syrian Catholics. Its head-

quartersareat themonasteryDeir-ez-Za'fer&n,
nearMardfn,
which became the seat of the Jacobite Patriarch of Antioch,

in the eleventhcentury.1 The bulk of the old Syriansinhabit Mesopotamia,only about one-tenthbeing found in
Syria. Of the total number in the Turkish Empire widely
varying estimatesare made. Parry notes the ignorance of

the patriarchin regardto the numberof his flock,2but estimates the Turkish subjects under his control as being
somewherebetweenone hundred and fifty thousandand
two hundred

thousand.3

With

this estimate

that of Tozer

agrees.4 Parry states, however, that the number of Jaco-

bites in Syria proper,"in the villagesscatteredabout Hums


and Damascus,"is ten thousand,5which is only about half
*"Six Months in a Syrian Monastery," p. 300, by O. H. Parry
(London, 1895).

2Ibid., p. 67.
* Ibid., p. 346.
4"The Churchand the Eastern Empire," p. 80, by H. B. Tozer.
8 Vide supra, p. 345.

THE

JACOBITE

OR

OLD

SYRIAN

CHURCH

75

the estimateof nineteenthousandgiven at the beginningof


our chapter. On the other hand, Huber3as quoted by
de Jehay,1places the total number in the Turkish Empire
at only one hundred thousand. At Hums I was told there
are four

thousand

or five

thousand.

At

Hama

there

are

but four hundred or five hundred. Parry placesthe old


Syrian population of Sudud (the ancient Zedad, the northern
boundary of the Promised Land) at three thousand. In
Damascus the Syrians are mostly Catholics. There, some
years since, I had an interview with the well-known scholar,
the late Joseph David, Syrian-Catholic bishop, in the wellstocked library of his spacious mansion, which later I was
able to contrast with the meagerly furnished upper room

occupiedby the shabbily dressedpriest of the Jacobite


Church, who bitterly declared that the Syrian Catholics, in

goingover to the pope,had stolenall the churchpropertyof


the Jacobites! Conditionsare similarat Aleppo, wherethe
JacobiteChurch is said to be a poor affair in comparison
with the churchesof all the other communions. In Mesopo-

tamia itself,povertycharacterizes
the community. Schools
are of the most primitive type. The Jacobites are represented in Palestine by one hundred and fifty to two hundred
householdsin Bethlehem, and by some ten householdsin the

Holy City. Most of the men in both placesare masons.


In Jerusalema Jacobite bishop presidesover a convent,
with

four

resident

monks.2

In communion

with

the Jaco-

bite Church,and thusunderthe nominalcontrol of its patriarch, are the non-Catholic Syrians in Malabar and Ceylon,

Nestorianin origin, estimatedat three hundred and thirty


thousandsouls. Of thesewe shall speaklater.
The official title of the Jacobitepatriarch is: "Exalted
Patriarch of the Apostolic See of Antioch and of all the
Jacobite Churchesin Syria and the East." It has been
stated that the patriarch must be elected by unanimous
vote of all the people. However,a young man who has
1 "De Ja Situation Le*galedes Sujets Ottomans non-Musulmans, par
le comte de Jehay," p. 37.
2 Seearticle, "The Syrian (Jacobite) Patriarch in Jerusalem," by the

Jerusalemcorrespondentof "The Living Church/' September26, 1908.

76

CONSTITUTION

OF

EASTERN

CHURCHES

actedas secretaryto the presentpatriarchinforms me that


the electionis now solelyin the handsof the bishops. The
patriarchalwaysassumesthe nameIgnatius. Tozer says:
" Though this custom aroseat the end of the sixteenth cen-

tury? there can be little doubt that the name is derived


from that of the saint who was the first bishop of Antioch." * When chaplain to his predecessor,
the present
patriarchvisited England,wherehe was cordially received
by Archbishop Benson and other Anglican dignitaries.
On state occasions
he wearsa black silk robe over a purple soutane,two heavy gold chains, one with pectoral
cross,rubiesand diamondsmassivelyset, and one with a
medallion.2

The JacobiteChurch recognizes


a uniquedignitary called
'Mafrian,theoreticallya sort of suffragan-patriarch,
to representthe patriarchin the Far East, Persia,and Arabia, as
primate or catholicos. The title has becomepurely honorary,3but in early times the mafrian consecrated
bishops,
blessedthe chrismor holy oil, and enjoyedother patriarchal
privileges. According to Parry the designationsMutran'
and Is;qof (properly applying to metropolitanandbishop,
respectively)havea curioususein the SyrianChurch. He
statesthat the bishopsare divided into two classes,those
chosen from among the monks, called mutrans, and those

chosenfrom the parish priests who are widowers,called


isqofs. Theselatter rank belowthe mutrans,and are not
eligible to the patriarchate.4 This puts a premium on
celibacyin the Syrian Church, which is not found in the
Orthodox Church, where, as we have seen,a widower may

becomepatriarch. The Syrian bishopsweara large round


head-dress,upon a card or canvasframe, covered with
black cloth in five folds.5 The Maronite clergy,including
the parish priests, used to wear a similar head-gear,but
it is now ratherout of fashion. The Syrian bishopswear
1 "The Church and the Eastern Empire," op. at., p. 81.
2Article in "The Living Church/' op. tit.
8 At present no one holds it.
4 "Six Months in a Syrian Monastery," op. tit., p. 318.
6Ibid., p. 318.

THE

JACOBITE

OR

OLD

SYRIAN

CHURCH

77

neither mitre nor rlng3 but carry a staff topped with two
serpents.1
The parish priests must be married before they can be
ordained. Those who become widowers are usually ex-

pectedto retire to a monastery,as the servicesof a celibate


are not wanted by the people. In striking contrastto the
long-hairedGreek clergy, the Jacobitepriests should keep
their headscloselyshaved,but a beardmustbe worn. The
title of Chorepiscopus,or Country Bishop, which disappearedin the Westearly in the Middle Ages,survivesamong
the lower clergy of the Syrian communions, including the
Maronites. Among the Jacobites to-day it is usually given
to the leading priest of a town, whose position is something
like that of an Anglican rural dean.2 He outranks the other

priests, but is subordinate to the bishop of the diocese.


Khuri, the ordinary term for parish priest in Arabic, is
supposedto be an echoof the term chorepiseopus.
Among the Syrians, the term Shemmas (deacon) is com-

monly appliednot only to thearchdeacon,the deaconproper,


and the subdeacon,but also to the singersand readers.3
This practiceappearsto be a survival from primitive times
when no emphasis was laid upon the distinction between
the "Ordines Majores" and the "Ordines Minores."4
All play an important part in the active life of the Syrian

churchesto-day, both Jacobiteand Catholic. All proudly


refer to themselvesas deacons. No city should contain
more than one archdeacon,but a large church may possess
(say) eight deacons,six subdeacons,and somefifty readers
and,singers. The two lower orders may be held by mere

boys.5 In caseof all but the lowest (singers),ordination


1For a list of the episcopalseesconsult Appendix.
2 This comparison is made by Parry, p. 325.
3 The lower orders appear to be filled in the Coptic Church also.

young Copt told me that he had beenregularly ordained,at the ageof


ten, as an acolyte, under the general name of shemmas, or deacon.

4Seearticle, "Ordines," in the new SehafT-Herzog


Encyclopedia.
6My information in regardto this is conclusive,the numbersquoted
beingan estimatefor the churchesof Mardin and Mosul. Parry, however, declares (page 326) that the lower orders of the " Psaltes, the reader
and the hypodiaconus, are almost obsolete."

78

CONSTITUTION

OF

EASTERN

CHURCHES

must be administeredby the bishop,who clips off a bit of


hair from the candidate,returning it to him in a paper.
Though not in priest'sorders,thearchdeaconmaysaymass
by especialorder of the bishop. However,this order appearsto be lapsingin the JacobiteChurch,and is not recognizedby theSyrian Catholics. The deaconproperis called
in Arabic Shemmas'Anji'li, as he readsthe Gospels. He
may marry before his ordination to this degree,but is
"unfrocked," as it were, by marriage afterward. Many
remain full deaconsall their lives, without passingto the
priesthood,but during the week carry on their ordinary
business. The ShemmasAnjili figuresprominentlyin the
church services. He preparesthe holy bread, swingsthe
censer,passeson the kiss of peaceto the peoplefrom the
sanctuary,1communesin both kinds separately,drinking
from the cup, and sometimesgivesthe holy elementsfrom
the priest's hands to the people. During thecelebration
all "deacons," including the singers,wear white surplices,
with gayly decorated stoles. These are worn "with a
difference"; thus the archdeaconwearshis over the right
shoulder, the reader, in the form of a cross.

All who take

part in the sanctuaryor chancel should wear a girdle.


"The celebrantwears a specialalb, with coloredgirdle,
and over this a chasublesplit down the front and fastened
at the neckby large silver buckles. Over the sleevesof this
alb he wearslong richly embroideredgauntlets,and over
his head he draws from time to time the top part of a veil,
that hangs over his back like a kind of amice. He has on

his head besidesthis only a skull-cap of the samesort as


generally worn under the turban, but more richly embroidered with white crosseson black ground. Under the

chasuble
he wearsan undividedstole,like a scapular,and
on his feet the yellow shoesalwaysexchangedwithin the
sanctuary for the usual black or red ones." 3

A large number of Syrians, estimatedat about four


hundred and forty thousand,have their head-quartersat
St. Thomas,on the Malabar coast,being found also in
1 See page 137
2 Parry's "Syrian Monastery/' op. cit., p. 346.

THE

JACOBITE

OR

OLD-

SYRIAN

CHURCH

79

Ceylon.1 They owe their existenceto the missionaryzeal


which distinguishedthe Nestoriancommunionin the sixth
century,whena portion of the native population of Malabar was assimilated.

One-quarter of these now acknowl-

edgepapal supremacy. The old party may be said to be


linked with our subject,as their bishopsnow receive ordination from the Jacobite Patriarch of Antioch,

or from his

representatives.2This practice began in 1665, when, cut


off from

communion

with

their

own

Nestorian

Catholicos

in Mesopotamia,they turned to the JacobiteMetropolitan


of Jerusalem,who opportunely appeared among them.
As a matter of fact, in many cases ordination continued

to be irregularly conducted, often without reference to


the Jacobite

Patriarch

of Antioch.

About

the

middle

of

the last century the question of supremacyof this prelate


over the Syrian Church of India gave rise to ten years of
litigation, ending in the triumph of the suzerain power.3
The question,however, has been recently reopened,one
party in the Malabar church (which contains somehighly
educatedmen) demanding"home rule/3 As this volume
goesto pressthe Jacobite patriarch has not yet returned
from a long visit to Malabar, where he went to asserthis
authorityin person. Two yearsbeforethe early submission
to the Jacobites,in 1665,therewasa split amongthe Malabar
Syrians,a large number, under the name of Palayacoor,
or the Old Community,definitely refusing to submit any
longerto the claimsof the Roman See,which were as definitely acknowledgedby the minority under the name of
Puthencoor, or the New Community.

The descendants of

the papal adherentsto-day are said to number someone


hundred and ten thousand,or only one-third as many as
the Palayacoor. They do not form an organic part of the
1 See "The Greek and Eastern Churches," p. 530, by W. F. Adeney,
a volume of the International Theological Library.
2 See also article in "The Living Church," September 26, 1908, "The
Syrian (Jacobite) Patriarch in Jerusalem." " In his suite were also . . .
Syrian monks from Malabar, southern India, who receive episcopal
consecration at the hands of the patriarch."
8 W. F. Adeney, op. cit., pp. 530-533.

80

CONSTITUTION

OF EASTERN

CHURCHES

Chaldeanor United Nestorian Church, but are governed


directly by threeapostolicvicars.
The Nestorlansof the near East do not comestrictly under our purview,as they have no connectionwith Syria or
Palestine. They do not now use this name^but call themselves Chaldeans, Syrians, or simply Christians. They are

found on the easternconfinesof Turkey, but are chiefly


grouped in the mountainsof Kurdistan, In Persiaproper,
and on the plains north of Mosul, with coloniesIn Mosul
Itself and In Diarbekir. As they represent,however, a
most primitive form of Christianity, we may add a word
about them. Their head-quartersare a remoteand rugged
valley in Kurdistan, on the banks of the Greater Zab.1
Here in a village calledKochannesdwells their patriarch.
Their

numbers

are estimated

at

one hundred

thousand.

The Persianbranch,estimatedat from twenty-fivethousand


to thirty thousandmembers,formally joined the Orthodox
Church of RussiaIn 1898.2 Since1450the patriarchaldignity has been hereditary,passingfrom uncle to nephew,
not accordingto age,but following the choiceof the family.
The candidatemust be a celibate. Not only should he
never have eaten meat, but his mother should have followed

a vegetariandiet during her pregnancyand nursing. The


episcopate,too, is quasi-hereditary,and Nestorianbishops
of twelve yearsand youngermay be found. Priests may
marry even after ordination. It is clear that the Roman
Church, in forming a united branch under the name of
Chaldeansout of this communion, found much to "reform"
in faith and practice.
1See"The Church and the Eastern Empire," op. cit., p. 77. Com" Be la Situation Le*gale
desSujetsOttomansnon-Musulmans,
par

pare

le comte de Jehay," pp. 32-33.

2Seearticle, " Nestorians,"in the " NewInternational Encyclopedia/"


Accordingto other estimatesthe number of pervertsis muchless.

UNIATES

IV,

THE

81

UNIATES

In any survey of the divisions in the church universal


three crucial centuries stand out clearly: the fifth, the
eleventh,and the sixteenth. The fifth century saw the
entering wedgeof schism,affecting, however,only outlying portions of the church, though affecting thesepermanently. The eleventhsaw a definite cleavageIn the main
body, betweenthe Eastern and Western branches. The
sixteenthsaw the split in the Westernchurch, resulting in
the formation of the various Protestantbodies. The early
unity of the church, which, In spite of many heresiesand
someminor temporary schisms,had remainedpractically
intact, was Impairedin the fifth centuryby the secession
of
the Syrian-Nestorianbody,the first organizedof the heretical churcheswhich split off by reasonof dissentfrom the
decisions of the Councils of Ephesus and Chalcedon. In

the next centuryfollowed the Syrian-Jacobite,Coptic, and


Armenian schisms,while the Monothelite Maronites appearto havebeenwell organizedby the closeof the seventh
century. The two Syrian churches, alone, at one time

threatenedto outrank the main body of Christians, in


numbers If not in influence, but any fear of such rivalry

was allayedby the declineof the powerful Nestoriancommunion in the eleventh century. IE the meantime the

original church had remainedunited, though forming two


branches,one in the East, with the four independent
Patriarchatesof Constantinople,Antioch, Jerusalem,and
Alexandria,and the other in the West, under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome. In the eyesof the Eastern
prelatesthe Roman dignitary was but the patriarch of the
West (a title still borne by the holy father), primus inter
pares in relation to themselves. Such, indeed, was their

theory,as over againstthe claims to papal supremacy,advancedas earlyas the fifth centuryand growing more arrogant, thoughstill vague,until theyweredefinitelyformulated
in the pontificateof NicholasI (858-867),who recognized
as genuine the celebrated false decretals,asserting the

82

CONSTITUTION

OF EASTERN

CHURCHES

doctrine on the testimonyof forgeddocuments,purporting


to be letters and decisionsof the early bishopsof Rome.
Notwithstandingtheir theoreticattitude of independence,
the Patriarchsof Constantinople,often rivals of the popes,
did in sporadiccases,when it suitedtheir convenience,
lend
countenance
to the papalclaimsby appealsto the judgment
and authorityof the occupantsof the RomanSee,especially
in regardto the iconoclasticcontroversy,which threatened
to split the Easternchurchbetweenthe years726 and 842*
The final breachbetweenthe Eastand theWest,seriously
threatenedin the ninth century under the leadershipof
Photios, Ecumenical patriarch, became actual in 1054,

when Leo X was popeand Michael Cemlariuswas Patriarch of Constantinople. The councilthenheld at the Eastern capital by requestof the emperor,ConstantlneMonomachus, and intended to adjust differences, which by that

time includedmany mattersbesidesthe papal supremacy/


cameto nothing. The patriarchdefinitelyrefusedto submit to the pope'sauthority, while the papal delegates,before departingin anger,laid upon the altar of Haint Sophia a terrible sentenceof anathemaon Michael and his
followers. The definite nature of the split is illustrated in

the crusadingperiod by two contemporarylines of patriarchs over the Seesof Constantinople,Antioch and Jerusalem,respectively,the one Greek, the other Latin. On
the other hand,this period witnessedthe beginningsof one
permanent return to Rome, when in 1182 the Monothelite

Maronitesacknowledgedtheir errorsto the Latin Patriarch


of Antioch. Variousattemptsat reconciliationbetweenthe
two mainbranchesof the churchweremade,with only brief
results.

The

last found

voice

at the Councils

of Perrara

and Florence,held in 1438-1439. At the closingscenesof


the Council

of Florence

an act of union

of the Eastern

and

Westernchurcheswas signed, notwithstandingthe fierce


oppositionof the party led by Mark, Bishop of Ephesus.
1Besidesthe chief points of difference-the processionof the Holy
Spirit or filioque clause,the papal supremacy,the azyma, purgatory,
and the enforced celibacy of the clergy-such
beards of the priest? were included,

minor matters as the

THE

UNIATES

83

But Rome scoredonly a paper victory. It was nevercarried into effect. The documentwas not evensignedby the
Patriarchs of Antioch and Alexandria, prelatesintimately
concernedin the matter. Papervictory though it was,the
Council of Florence furnished a powerful argument for
the Roman propagandato recover portions of the lost
adherents.1

Roman Catholicmissionaryactivity among the Eastern


churches was stimulated by the failure of the Council of

Florence, was further increasedby the founding of the


Societyof the Jesuits in 1543, and was definitely organized under the Propagandaof the Faith, established in
1622by PopeGregoryXV. The work of proselytizing,or,
from theRomanpoint of view?the work of restoringto the
mother church, was directed not only toward the "schismatical"

Greek Church,

but toward

the "heretical"

na-

tional churches, whose dissent from the decisions of one or

anotherof the generalcouncilsplaced them in a different


categoryfrom that of the Greek Church, which accepted
them all. The policy adoptedin all caseswas by preaching Catholic doctrine to honeycomba given church until,
through individual conversions,a sufficient number of adherents,lay and clerical,warrantedthe formation of a separatebody,with thenameCatholicaddedto theoriginal name.
Such churches share the general name of Uniats or Uniates.
It has always been assumed that any given union with Rome
constitutes an actual reunion, a return to an early allegiance

that hadbeenforswornwhenthe original schismwaseffected.


This was strongly brought out in 1599 at the Synod of
Diamper,which was convened" for the increaseof Catholic
faith among the Syrians of Malabar," and which claimed

to put an end to a separationwhich had lastedover a thousand years.2 The basis of union has ever been submission

to papalauthority and acceptanceof Catholicdoctrine. In


1Before the Turkish occupationin 1453nine ruptures and renewals
of relationsbetweenthe Seesof Rome and Constantinoplehave been
counted.

The first lasted ninety-three years, from 489 to 582; it was

concernedwith matters of jurisdiction, not of dogma.


2"The Greekand EasternChurches/'by W. P. Adeney, p. 529,

84

CONSTITUTION

OF

EASTERN

CHURCHES

return for this doubleallegiance,the followingconcessions


haveusually beenmadeby Rome, with such modifications
as the main basisof union necessitated:governmentby
the local hierarchyunder papal supervision;retention by
a given church of its ritual in the sacred language or
vernacularof that church, together with its ecclesiastical
customsand traditions; permissionfor a married priest-

hood.

This last-named

concession

is not inconsistent

with

the historic attitude of Rome toward the celibacyof the


clergy. This is not a matter of doctrine, which is immutable, but of discipline,which is subject to regulation.
While maintaining that continenceis a more holy state
than matrimony, and that celibacyis especiallydesirable
for the clergy, the Roman church has not felt herselfabsolutelybound to imposeit on her ministersat all times
and places,nor has shealways done so. As early as the
fourth century attemptsweremade in the Westernchurch
to securean unmarried clergy; but even as late as the
eleventh century synodsfound it necessaryto pronounce
the marriageof personsin holy orders not only unlawful
but invalid.

Toleration

toward

the Uniats

in this matter

is thus justified by a similar toleration toward the Western


clergy in earlier days.
As a rule eachunited churchis governedby its own local
hierarchy, under the supervisionof an apostolic vicar or
delegate,representingthe Congregationof the Propaganda.
Since 1890the ApostolicVicar of Aleppo hasbeenresident
in Beyrout, bearingalso the title of Apostolic Delegatein
Syria for the Orientals. Under his general jurisdiction,
thus, are placed the Maronites,the Greek Catholics, the
Syrian Catholics,and the Armenian Catholics found in
Syria. His position as betweenthe local ecclesiasticson
the one side and the Turkish

Government

on the other

is

delicate. Being necessarilya foreign subject,he doesnot


share with the Oriental patriarchs, nominally under his
care, the privilegeof direct communicationwith the Porte,
nor

can he exercise

the civil

or administrative

functions

which they enjoy. His duties technically require him to


be presentat the actual election of the Greek Catholic

THE

UNIATES

85

patriarch,but asthePorteobjectsto this on thegroundof


foreign interferencein a matter over which it exercisesa
certainamountof control, he must practically contenthimself with attendingthe ceremonies,precedingand succeeding. The election of any united patriarch must have the
confirmation

both of the Porte and of Rome.

Members

of the united churches may, for their own advantage, play

patriarchand delegateoff againsteach other. In the


latter part of the nineteenthcentury the Maronite monks of
the Congregation,
of the Libnaniyeh or Beladiyehwithdrew
from the jurisdiction of the patriarch, placing themselves
under the protectionof the delegate. It is said, however,
that repentancesoon followed this change of allegiance
when the delegateattemptedto dictate in the electionof
the abbott-general. The power of the delegateappears
to havegreatlygrown since1852,when Churchill wrote of
his influenceamong the Maronites as being slight, and referred to the despoticauthority of the patriarch, against
which therewasno appeal. Every Maronite enjoysto-day
the right of final appealto Rome. A long-standingquarrel betweenthe nobles and people of Rishmaya, in the
Lebanon, arising from the insistence of the sheikhs on

their allegedrightsto bury their dead In the parish church,


was settledat Romein favor of the people.
Papal authority in Jerusalemand Palestineis exercised
by a line of Latin patriarchs,re-establishedas a local Institution in 1847. As the united bodies are very sparsely
representedin the Holy Land proper, the jurisdiction of
the patriarchis chiefly extendedover the Latin community
of a few thousandmembers,consistingof Europeans,of
native descendants of the Crusaders, and of other natives

whoseancestorswereMaronites. The custodyof the holy


placesof Palestine is in the hands of the Franciscans, whose
Immunities, granted by the Mameluke sultans, are honored
by the Ottomans.

The first papal missionarywork on a large scaleamong


the Easternchurchesappearsto havebeen that conducted
among the Nestorians of Malabar, to which reference has

86

CONSTITUTION

OF

EASTERN

CHURCHES

beenmadein this and in the previoussection. In its early


laborsthe papalseemadecertaindemandsof conformity to
Romanpracticewhich it learnedlater to abandon. Thus,
at the Synod of Diamper (1599), not only was celibacy
madebinding on the Malabar Catholicclergy, but priests
alreadymarriedwererequiredto divorcetheir wives. The
Malabar Catholic Church is at presentgoverneddirectly
by three residentapostolic vicars, sent from Rome, and
thus is not organically connectedeither with the Syrian
Chaldean Church, formed by a split among the Nestorians
of the near East, or with the Syrian Catholic Church, derived from the Jacobite Church, to which the non-united

Syriansof Malabar are now nominally subject. The term


Chaldeanwasappliedto individual convertsfrom this body
as earlyas 1445,soonafter the Councilof Florence. At this
councila closerpapalunion with the Maroniteswaseffected.
The presentline of Nestorian Catholic or Chaldeanpatriarchs of Babylon began in 1681, but previously there
had been individual patriarchs who acknowledgedpapal
authority. The beautiful Armenian Catholic Conventat
Venicewitnessesto the zealof Mechitar, a pervertfrom the
ArmenianChurch,who becameactiveat the very beginning
of the eighteenth century in trying to reconcile the Arme-

nian Church to the papal see. The establishmentof the


ArmenianCatholic Communityat Constantinoplewas not
accomplishedwithout a bitter strugglewith the old Gregorian

Armenians.

The

Porte

took first

one side and then

the other, issuingdecreesof banishmentagainst the papal


missionaries
and the old Armeniansalternately. For many
yearsthe new communitywas under the spiritual jurisdiction of a Latin archbishop,but owing to pressurefrom the
French Governmentthe Porte in 1829finally authorized
ecclesiasticalautonomyunder a chief styled Patriarch of
Cilicia.1 The Coptic CatholicChurch,formedin 1782,has
a patriarch resident in Alexandria. The united Abyssinians

aresubjecttoa Latin apostolicvicar, residentamong them.


1A valuable

account

of the formation

of the Roman

Catholic Arme-

nian community may be found in the "Turkish Empire," vol. II,


pp. 133-152,by R. R. Madden (London, 1862).

UNIATES

87

Of the Uniat bodies represented in Syria, the Syrian


Catholics,, the Greek Catholic Melchites, and the Maronites^

the two last are practically local churches,with centresin


Syria itself. The head of the Syrian Catholics,however,
though styled Patriarch of Antloch, has his residenceat
Mardin. The presentline of patriarchs beganin 1783,as
a result of the Roman propaganda which had been going

on amongthe Jacobitesfor sometime.1 The Syrian Catholic patriarchis electedby the bishopsalone. Before he can
be enthroned he must be confirmed first by the Porte and

then by Rome. How the Syrian Uniat community overshadowsthe Jacobite,both at Damascusand Aleppo, has
been alreadyindicated. In the heart of the Maronite district, Kesrouan, in the Lebanon, is the Syrian Catholic mon-

asteryof Deir-esh-Sherfi,the seatof a theologicaltrainingschool.

A similar

school

for

the instruction

of candidates

for the SyrianCatholicpriesthoodis under the chargeof the


Benedictinemonastery,situated on the so-calledMount of
Offence, east of Jerusalem.

The split in the Orthodox communionwhich gaverise to


two contemporarylines of patriarchs of Antioch, each following the Greek rite, the one called Greek Orthodox, the
other Greek Catholic
definite

Melchite,

dates from

schism was but the culmination

1724.

of a Roman

This

Catholic

propagandawhich beganas early as 1583,when the pope,


Sixtus V, sent a delegate to the East to seek for terms

of union which might be more successfulthan thoseproposedalmost a century and a half before at the Council of
Florence. This embassy was a failure. But what direct

diplomacy could not effect was brought about, at least


partially, by the quiet and persistent work of Roman
Catholicmissionaries,thoroughlyorganized,by the middle
of the seventeenthcentury. Jesuit and Capuchinfathers,
highly trained for the work, were domiciled among the
simpleSyrians,whom they gradually acquaintedwith the
ideasand principlesof the Roman Church. By force of a
1A sketchof the papal propagandaamong the Syriansmay be found
in "Six Months in a Syrian Monastery," by O. H. Parry, pp. 301jf.
Comparewith page75 of this presentwork.

88

CONSTITUTION

OF

EASTERN

CHURCHES

genuineconvictionof the righteousness


of their cause;by
assuming authority to relax the system of Greek fasts,

whosenumberand rigidity far exceedsWesternpractice;


by throwing their Influenceat the right moment,this way
or that, in local disputes concerning the election to ec-

clesiasticaloffice; as well as by any meanswhich a sufetle


knowledgeof human nature might suggest,they succeeded
in converting or perverting to Rome numbers of laity
and clergy. The seebecamehoneycombed
with papal adherents. Even patriarchs connived at the propaganda,

while by 1686four bishopshad actually sentin their submission

to Rome.1

The ecclesiastical
history of the half century preceding
the schismof 1724showspassages
of genuinemelodrama.
Here is a bewildering succession of intrigue and counter-

intrigue: two rival patriarchsof Antioch, Cyril and Athanasius, backed in turn by the Porte, alternately ousting each

other from the see; popesof Rome,Circassianjanissaries,


membersof the Holy Synodat Constantinople,all taking a
hand in the game; bribery freely used and acknowledged;

suddenimprisonmentfollowed by dramatic release; and,


finally, a cynical compromisebetweenthe two prelates,now
both advancedin years,by which Cyril keepsthe throne,
sharingits revenueswith Athanasius,who is promisedthe
right of succession.Out of this welter of events a few
facts emergewith tolerableclearness.2The papalseehad
but a singleaim, namely,to get controlof thePatriarchate
of Antioch, and thus favored alternately both of the rival

claimants,accordingas eachmight showability to further


the cause. Both Cyril and Athanasius were determined to
1SeeDr. Wortabet's chapter on the Greek Catholic Church in his
" Religion in the East" (London, 1860).
2 The story of this stormy period is told in a highly partisan spirit
In two separate sets of chronicles (found in Arabic MSS. in the library
of the American Presbyterian Mission at Beyrout). The Orthodox
chronicler is one Bureik, who brings his account down to 1792.^ The
Greek Catholic chronicles are dated 1758, and are by the Rev. Yuhanna
Ajaimeh, who calls his work "The Book of the History of the Sect

[Tayyafeh]in Explanation of the Affairs of the Patriarchate of Antioch,"

UNIATES

89

hold the throne at any price. Each was controlled by am-

bition rather than by conviction. Each vacillatedbetween


Orthodox and Catholic allegiance. Cyril, indeed, after the

compromise
whichgavehim the thronefor life, formally
presented
his submission
to the popein a letter sent to

Rome along with his crozier, but apparently he never


frankly declaredin Damascusfor the Catholic position.
The tergiversations of Athanasius were even more remarkable. BeforeCyril's death, in 1720,lie had appeared
to be the more-Catholic of the two, but finding himself once

more patriarch, he proceededto Constantinople,where he

put underthebanthewholeWesternchurch,andpromised
the Holy Synodto persecutethe Catholicson his return to
hissee. Onceback in his old domains,however,he repudiated the Constantinoplepromises,at the sametime defending theseas the only meansby which imminent dangerwas
averted from the Catholics themselves. And yet on his

death-bed,four yearslater, he refusedto make a Catholic


confession to the Jesuit fathers.

The deathof Athanasiusgavethe Catholicparty a chance


to elect a candidate whose adhesion to the cause was un-

equivocal. About the sametime membersof the Orthodox


party, doubtlesssuspiciousof the fidelity of any local candidate, sought to strengthentheir greatly enfeebledcause
by delegatingtheir rights to the Synod of Constantinople,
which elected as Patriarch of Antioch one Sylvestre, an

"Ionian'5 Bishop of Cyprus, Greek by blood and speech.


How this intrusion of a foreign element changed the whole

complexionof the hierarchyof the OrthodoxSeeof Antioch


for about one hundred and seventy-five years, when the
native element again came into full control, has been shown

in a former section. Of the electionof SeraphimTanas,


the GreekCatholic candidatefor the throne, two widely
differing accountswereearly circulated. The Greek Catholics declarethat it was conductedwith perfect legality by
order of the governor of Damascus,and that Seraphim
was ordainedas Cyril IV in the DamascusCathedralby
threebishops,oneof whomhad beenespeciallyconsecrated,
so that the canonicalnumber of three might be present.

90

CONSTITUTION

OF

EASTERN

CHURCHES

The Greek chronicler assertsthat the governor was bribed,


while the ordination was most irregularly and informally

conductedby a Capuchin father. The tale of the same


writer regarding the manner of the consecrationof Seraphim as bishop, which took place at sometime previous,
appearson the face of it to be widely improbable,even
for those feudal times, though the cautious Dr. Wortabet
credits it "with a considerable appearance of historical

veracity/'1 Accordingto this legend,thepriest Seraphim


engagedthe powerfulinterestof the Emir Heidar Shehaab,
a Mohammedan

chieftain

of the Lebanon,

who coerced

three bishopsof Catholicproclivities to take Seraphimoff


for consecration. The party was driven by storm into a
cave,whereall wereplied with wine by the emir's servants,
who threatenedto kill the bishopsunlessthey carried out
the chief'sordersthen and there. Whereuponthe prelates,
terrifiedandhalf intoxicated,proceeded
to consecrate
Tanas,
addressinghim at the sametime with the extra-canonical
words: "O thou excommunicate! Abhorred of God, and
full of evil I"

Such a story, whatever its basis, serves to indicate the


fierce and bitter nature of the controversy between the

Orthodoxand Catholicpartiesin the Seeof Antioch. Dis-

credit is thrown

on the consecration

of other Greek

Catholic

(bishopsby further talesof the Greekchronicler,who would


thusseekto disprovethe validity of the rival priesthoodin
general. The stragglefor the throne of Antioch between
Cyril VI and Sylvestre followed many of the methods of the

previouscontestbetweenCyril V and Athanasius,but differed from it in that the contestantsnow unequivocally


represented
the two rival parties. It wouldbeidle to follow
the detailsof the struggle. The outcomewas the recognition of Sylvestreby the Porte in 1728,and the consequent
exile of Cyril from Damascus, where he had held the throne

for over three years, Sylvestresignalizedhis triumph,by


a violent persecutionof the Catholics,which led to his own
expulsionfrom the see. This was only temporary,and in
1731 he seems to have been secure on the throne.
1 "Religion in the East," foot-note on pp. 82-83.

His ar-

THE

UNIATES

91

roganceand tactlessness
did much to widen the breach
which it was hopedhe might heal. Cyril, who had settled
in Lebanon, was acknowledged as rightful Greek Patriarch

of Antioch by the popein 1730,receivingthe pallium from


Rome three years later.1 Before his death, in 1760, he had

organizedthe Greek Catholics,who by this time werevery


numerous,into a separatecommunity,with a distinct hierarchy of their own. In the eyesof the Porte, however,the
sect continued to be under Orthodox jurisdiction till 1831,

whenit wasofficiallyassociatedwith the ArmenianCatholic


community. Since 1848 the governmenthas recognized
the Greek Catholic patriarch as representinga separate
body. The full name of the communion,Greek Catholic
Melchite, is due to the revival of an early title applied in
the fifth centuryto that party in the Patriarchateof Antioch,
which acceptedthe decreesof the Council of Chalcedon,
promulgatedby the Emperor Marcion. Melchites, then,
constitutedthe king's party, as over againsttheMardaites,
or Rebels,who persistedin heresy. After the Arab conquest the term was usedto describethe Syrian Greeksin
general,but later becameobsolete.
By the schismof 1724 the Orthodox community of the
Patriarchate of Antioch was greatly weakened. Writing
of the Greek Catholics as late as I860, Dr. Wortabet

de-

clared: "In Aleppo, Damascus,Sidon,and Tyre they decidedlypredominateoverall otherChristiansectsin number,


wealth, and influence. The most intelligent men in Syria,
those whose views are most liberal, are found in this com-

munion." 2 In the last fifty years the status of the Greek


Orthodox and of the Maronites

has risen, so that such a

comparisonno longer holds true, but the Greek Catholics


continue to form a body of much influence in the Lebanon
and elsewhere.

The two Greek communionsin Syria take two diametrically opposedviewsof churchhistory. Though eachcalls
the other schismatic,eachregardsits own patriarch as the
direct descendant of Saint Peter, the founder of the see*
1Jehay (op. a.) datesthe sendingof the pallium at 1744.

2"Religionin theEast/' pp.84-86.

92

CONSTITUTION

OP

EASTERN

CHURCHES

througha chain whichis identicalup to 1724. The Orthodox hold that before the great schism of 1054, notwithstandingthe growing pretensionsof the Bishop of Rometo
supremacy,the four patriarchsof the East had remained
independentof the patriarch of the West, as well as of
eachother. This independence
was naturally accentuated
by the great schism. Accordinglythey maintain that the
split of 1724was causedby the desertionof suchmembers
of the Orthodox Church as yielded to the unlawful claims
of the Roman

See.

The

Greek

Catholics

declare that from

the riseof the churchto the middle of the ninth century,the


entire Greekcommunionwas perfectly Catholic,acknowledging the pope as its head. The schismaticmovement
which beganwith Photiosin 848, which culminatedin the
definite schismof 1054, and which continued to persist,
notwithstandingthe attemptedreconciliationat the Council of Florencein 1439,at no period preventedmany individuals in the Orthodox Church from acknowledging
their allegianceto Rome. Thus there has always beena
distinctly Catholicparty in the Seeof Antioch, which from
time to time hasincludedevenpatriarchsamong its numbers. The open submissionof Cyril VI to the pope was
but the official acknowledgment
of a claim which had ever
been valid, but which had been denied for many centuries

by the Patriarchateof Antioch as a whole. Thus from


the GreekCatholicpoint of view the schismof 1724effected
the restoration to Rome of the ancient church founded at

Antiochby Saint Peter.


By this assumptionthe Greek Catholicsclaim a unique
positionamongthe Uniat bodies. They regardthe Syrian
Catholicand Maronite Patriarchsof Antiochas possessing
merely courtesytitles. "National dignitaries, recognized
as such by Rome/* so a learned Greek Catholic archimandrite

described

them

in a recent

conversation.

This

contentionhasdoubtlessbeenresponsiblefor the conservatism shownby the sect in refusingto adopt most of those
Western

customs

which

in late times

the Maronites

have

so easily assimilated,although the Maronite Church was


not only purely Easternin origin, but continuedto remain

THE

UNIATES

93

so for some centuries after the union with Rome.

For

almost a century and a quarter after the submissionof


their patriarch to the pope, the Greek Catholicscontinued
to follow the Eastern calendar, thus observingthe fixed
feaststwelvedayslater than the Romanchurch,with which
they were supposedto be in full communion,and, celebrating Easter also at a different date, saveon such rare
occasionswhen the movable feastsof the paschal week
happenedto coincide. The sudden order issuedby the
patriarch in 1857 to his bishops, commanding them to

enforce the celebration of Easter at the same time with the

Latins, threatened to disrupt the Greek Catholic communion. This order involved the adoption of the whole Roman

calendar. Two partieswere at once formed: one in support of the patriarch, the other in defiant rebellion. This
controversy troubled the peace of the Greek Catholic
Church for a number of years. The seceders
securedtwo
churchesin Beyrout and Damascus,with the intention of
establishinga new rite under the name of Oriental Greeks,
but in 1865theydecidedto follow the exampleof the Syrian
and Armenian Catholicsand of the Maronites, and joined
the patriarch'sparty in celebratingEasterof that year according to the Roman calendar.1
This concessionto Western practice, however,has not
altered the essential Eastern

character

of the Greek

Catholic

Church. Membersof the local hierarchy jealously guard


against attempts at encroachmenton their rights which
they suspectthe Jesuits and other Latin orders of entertaining. Their theology is tridentine, but not so their
discipline and ritual. The two Greek communionsuse
practically the sameservice books, though the Greek Catho-

lics have slightly altered someof the prayers. A Roman


Catholicwould find it hard to detectany difference,as betweenthe two Greekcommunions,in the interior arrangement of churches, in the conduct of services, and in the

ordinary appearanceand ecclesiasticalvestmentsof the


clergy. Differencesthere are, but covering minor matters
1 See de Jehay (op. at), p. 274, and "Religion in the East/1 by DrJohn Wortabet, pp. 98-100.

94

CONSTITUTION

OF EASTERN

CHURCHES

of detail. For example,during the larger part of the services, the Orthodox draw curtains before ail the entrancesto
the ikonostasis, which in the Eastern churches screens off

the sanctuaryfrom the bodyof the church,or closethe entrance with actual doors; in the Greek Catholic churches

the entrancesare kept open,savethat in somecasesa curtain is drawn acrossthe central openingbefore the high
altar. Again, the Orthodoxclergynevercut the hair, while
the Greek Catholic priests are permitted to wear it short,

though theyare at liberty to follow the old customif policy


so directs.

Eastern though the Greek Catholic Church essentially


remains, the influenceof Rome can be traced in many
ways. At presentthe patriarch is electedby the bishopsin
conclave(subject to confirmationfrom Rome, as well as
from the Porte), thus following the methodusedin papal
elections, as over against the more Eastern method of elec-

tion by popularvote of the chief men of the see,which appears to have been followed by the sect as late as I860.1
Again, in the matter of a married priesthood,a right reservedto the Uniat bodies,there may be observedamong
the Greek Catholics (thoughnot as strongly as amongthe
Maronites)a growing tendencyto conformto the Western
practiceof a celibateclergy. This appearsto be the result
of examplerather than of direct precept. A French father
in the theologicalseminaryconductedin Jerusalemunder
the supervisionof the WhiteFathersof Africa, for the training of the GreekCatholicpriesthood,informedme that no
pressurewhateverwas brought to bear on the studentsto
influencethem againstmarrying beforeordination, though
as a matter of fact no graduateever had married. In this
matter of education by which the parish clergy of the
Greek Catholicsare superiorto thoseof the Orthodox,may
also be traced the influence of Rome.

Besides the Jerusalem

training-school,the Greek Catholics have a theological


collegeat the Propagandaat Rome under the care of the
Benedictines. The patriarchalcollegeat Beyroutprovides
a generaleducationfor boys. One of the first printing1 See Dr. Wortabct'B "Religion in the East," p. 86.

UNIATES

95

presses
everusedin Syriawasestablished
by this sectat

Shwelr,a village in the heart of the Lebanon. Before the


secondhalf of the last century many very valuable books
had beenissuedfrom this modestestablishment.1Among
their patriarchs,the Greek Catholicscan rightfully boast
of at least one man unusually distinguishedin talent and
learning: Maximus IV, commonly known as Maximus
Muzlum, who died in 1856.

The Greek Catholicshave held four generalcouncilsor


synods.2 The acts of the first, summonedin 18063were
cancelledby Pope GregoryXVI. The canonsenactedby
the second,held during that same year, were confirmed.
Thesecontinuedto regulatethe churchtill 1909,as the acts
of a third council, held at Jerusalem in 1849, had been

annulled by Rome. At Whitsuntide, 1909,the patriarchs


and bishopsagain met in generalcouncil at Ain Trez, a
monasteryin the Lebanonwhich had been the seatof the
patriarch till this was moved to Damascus.3 At this time
all the canons of the church were overhauled.4

The papalpropagandaamongthe membersof the Greek


Church in Turkey-in-Asiawas concentratedin the ancient
Patriarchateof Antioch, whereit was practically confined.
The Greek Catholic Church has a bishop resident at Acre,
in the north of the Orthodox

Patriarchate

of Jerusalem,

but the Greeks of the district are mostly Orthodox.


bodies of Greek

converts

to Rome

Small

in the See of Constan-

tinople wereorganizedin 1861under the name of " Greco


Puro," subject to an apostolic delegateresident at the
capital. There are also bodiesof united Greeks in Russia, Austria, and Bulgaria.5 There is a Greek Catholic
colonyin Calabria,said to consistof descendantsof those
1 See Dr. Wortabet's "Religion in the East," p. 85.
2 Ibid., pp. 88-96. Also de Jehay, p. 277.
3 The patriarch at present occasionally takes up his residence in Egypt,
where his church has a considerable following.
4 Confirmation from Rome had not yet been received up to the summer of 1911.

5Consult"La GerarchiaCattolica" (year-bookof the Catholicclergy),


pp. 26-27 (Roma, Tipographia Vaticana).

96

CONSTITUTION

OF EASTERN

CHURCHES

whoimmigratedfrom Albaniaat thetimeof Scander-beg,


about the middle of the fifteenth century. Thus? in Italy
istelf,in theveryshadowof Rome,thereexistsa community,
fully loyal to the pope and yet possessing
a married clergy.
V,

THE

MARONiTES1

Amongthe Uniatesthe Maronitesoccupya distinct place.


Alone of all these bodies they represent an Eastern church

which hasgiven its allegianceto Romein its entirety. The


GreekChurchin Syriaand Palestineis only one-thirdpapal.
The Maronite Church of the Lebanon,though more truly
. national,both by reasonof its historyand of its presentcondition, is wholly ultramontane. It is a strict tradition that
the Maronite patriarch, as lord of the Lebanon, should
never leave his mountain rocks, but this tradition
set aside

if

a summons

conies

from

Rome.

must be
With

the

Maronites,the elementsof home rule and imperial loyalty


havebeen,for the most part, firmly united. It is not too
muchto say that wisdom,tact,adaptability,and diplomacy
have never worked more successfullythan they have in the

dealingsof the Seeof Romewith the proudand independent


mountaineers,who as late as 1850cried,"Our patriarchis
our sultan!"

when the Turkish

Government threatened to

interfere in their internal, affairs. Thoroughly Eastern in

origin, the Maronites are to-day more Western,than any


other united body, but Romehas neverforced innovations
upon them.2 When in 1584a Maronite theologicalseminary wasestablished
at Rome,the ritual and practiceof the
Maronite

Church

differed

little from

the Jacobite.

One hun-

1In preparing this section, which contains considerable new material,


I have used freely my more elaborate article entitled "The Maronites/'
printed in the Quarterly Statement of the Palestine Exploration Fund
for 1892. The paper has the following sub-sections: I. The Maronites and the Lebanon. II. The Clergy, Churches, and Schools. III.
The Monasteries.

IV.

The Ritual.

V. The Calendar.

Material

from

the article is also used in the next section and chapter.


2 Note on p. 102 the statement that Pope Paul V, in 1610, actually
requested the Maronite patriarch to restore certain ancient Eastern
practices that had been abandoned.

THE

MARONITES

97

dred and fifty yearslater at the Maronite Council of the


Lebanon It was enacted that resident students should be forbidden to receive the sacraments of confirmation and ordina-

tion by any rite except their own, while all thosewhose


loyalty to their own churchwas doubtedshouldbe instantly
sentbackto the Lebanon.1The especialreference,of course,
was to the temptation,ever before the students,to become
Latinized. The actsof this councilwereratified by the papal
see. But already in the century and a half which had
elapsedsince the founding of the college, the Maronite
Churchitself had beenbroughtinto closerharmonywith the
Latin, through the influenceof graduatesof this very institution, returning to positions of ecclesiasticalauthority at
home. Rome had rightly calculatedon the subtleinfluence
of her environment. The Gregorian calendar was adopted

in 1606. Other changesfollowed. How far this Romanizing


tendencyhas proceededcan be illustrated to-day by a comparisonbetweenthe interiors of a Roman Catholic and a
Maronite Church in the same city, where no essential difference between the two can be observed.

In both churches

mass is said in full view of the congregation. Certain


ruined Maronite Churchesin Batrun, where the typically
Easternikonostasis(or screendividing the sanctuaryfrom
the nave) remains,emphasizes
the differencebetweenpast
and present. While the use of old liturgies is freely per-

mitted,the daily massnow usuallyemployedis a Syriac


adaptationfrom the Latin mass. On the other hand, the
Eastern services for baptism, marriage, burial, as well as

for feast-days,are largely retained. Further signsof conformity to Roman practice are shown by the use of the
unleavened wafer in communion; in the abandonment of

triple immersion in baptism; and in the administration


of the sacramentof confirmation in later years, instead
of causingit to follow immediatelyafter baptism. This
Romanizingprocessdistinguishesthe Maronites from all
otherUniatebodies. With the Syrian Catholicsthe present
11 was recently informed by the head of the school In Rome that
this rule is still in force.

98

CONSTITUTION

OF

EASTERN

CHURCHES

tendencyis to restoresuchfew ancientpracticesas theyhad


abandoned.

And yet with all their conformity to Homesthe Maronites are proud of their national church; proud of their
Syriac and Arabic ritual; proud of such ancient practices
as they still retain. Marun, their alleged founder, and

Mar YuliannaMarun, their first patriarch,are still their

patron saints, though neither has been canonizedby the


holy see. This very confidenceof solidarity may account
for the easewith which they haveadoptedcertain Western
ways. Abandonmentof establishedritual and practiceon
the part of united Greeksor Syrianswould tend to a loss
of identity; would advertisea visible departurefrom traditions still observed by the Jacobite and Orthodox bodies,

from whom they respectivelyseparatedmerely on the


ground of ecclesiasticalallegiance,and a few points of
theology,while professingto differ from them in no other
way. No outward conformityon our part, the Maronites
may be conceivedto say, can alter the fact that we are the
Maronite Church, we are the Maronite nation.

It is asa nation,thoughasa nationrepentantof "heresy"


and desirous of reunion with Rome, that the Maronites

first clearly emerge into history, through the pagesof


William, Latin Archbishopof Tyre, who beganhis famous
work on the Crusades about the year 1183, while the

Franksstill held the Holy City. That their annalsprevious


to this are for the most part obscure,a fact plain to the
impartial student, was acknowledgedto me even by a
Maronite ecclesiastic prominent in the work of education!
It is clear, however, that toward the end of the seventh
century the warlike Syrian Christians of the Lebanon

were called Mardaitesor Rebels,thus being distinguished


from the Melchites, or Royalists, whosedescendantsare the

presentmembersof the Greekcommunions. Thesemountaineerswere further calledMaronites,but it is a question


whetherthey owetheir nameto oneAbbott Mardn, who is
said to havedied in the year 400,or to their first patriarch,

Yu&annaMarun (John Maro),whomtheyclaimto have


1Seefoot-note 1 to p. 135,regardingthe origin of this doctrine.

THE

MARONITES

99

beenchosenIn the year 685,and who died In 707'.* Most


Maronites trace their name to this abbott, whosememory is
still connected with the remains of a monastery near the
source of the Orontes, which is said to have been erected on

the spotwherehe oncelived.3 While it is quite possiblethat


the "abbott" is mythical, it maybe taken to be a matter of
history that Yuhanna Marun was the first patriarch of the
Maronites. The learnedJosephusAssemanus(to use the
Latinized form of Yusif es~Sim'any), in his "Bibliotheca

Orientalis," a ponderouswork in four tomes(1719-1728),


not only defends the first Maronite patriarch from the
chargeof heresy,but declaresthat " he cultivated the vine
of the Lord so faithfully in the shores of Phoenicia as to

bring into obedienceto the Church of Rome many Monophysitesand Monothelites."3 This is not the place to discussin detail a purely academicquestion,which my Maronite clericalfriend acknowledgedcould be defendedby good
argumentson both sides; for the Maronites,whateverthey
may haveonce believed,have been loyal to Catholic doctrine for oversevenhundred years. The argumentsrelative
to the questionwhetheror not they ever held the Monothelite idea of the nature of Christ have been elaborately
presented,in accordancewith the given point of view, both
by the late Joseph Dibs, Maronite Bishop of Beyrout^
naturally maintaining "perpetual orthodoxy," and by the
late JosephDavid, Syrian Catholic Bishop of Damascus,
antagonizingthe claim.4 The Maronite partisansare able
to quote the authority of PopeBenedictIV, who declared
JDr. Wortabet argues that the name Maronites was used prior to
the name Hardaites, as the Lebanese were called Rebels in consequence
of their persisting in the heresy of Marun. ("Religion in the East/'
p. 104.)
2Dr. Robinson describes these remains in his famous "Researches,"
vol. Ill, p. 539.
3"Bibliotheca Orientals," torne I, cap. 43, pp. 496 ff. Cf. my
article on "The Maronites/' op. tit., p. 129.
4 See "La Perpetuelle Orthodoxie des Maronites/' translation by
T. Vazeux of an Arabic work by Dibs, Arras, 1896; also an Arabic work
by Joseph David, with the subtitle in French: " Recueil de documents
et de preuves centre la pr^tendue orthodoxie perpetuelle des Maronites.'' (For sale in Cairo.)

100 CONSTITUTION OP EASTERN CHURCHES

(1774)
thatneartheendof theseventh
century
whenthe

Monothelite
heresythreatened
to overwhelm
thePatriarch-

ateof Antioch,theMaronites
secured
theelection
^ofa

patriarchwhowasconfirmed
in officefromRome,receiving

thedignityofthepallium.1Butevengranting
whatis de-

cidedlyopento doubt,namely,thatthispopewascorrect
in his statement
regardingthe papalconfirmation
of the
electionof John Maro, which took placemore than one

thousand
yearsbeforehe wrote,thecontemporary
testimonyof William of Tyre to the conditionof the Maronites
in the twelfthcenturyprovesthat the nationhad long been

in a stateofheresy
andschism.Hereisatranslation
of the

passage
from the prolix Latin of the period.
"In the meantime,while the kingdom[the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem]rejoicedin temporalpeace,as we have
said before*a certain nation of Syriansin the province

of Phoenicia,
dwellingin the regionof the heightsof the
Lebanon,nearthecity of Byblos,experienced
agreatchange
in their condition. For while theyhadfor almostfive hundred yearsso followedthe error of a certainarch-heretic,
named Maro, as to be called Maronites; and, being es-

trangedfrom the church of the faithful, had maintained


a separate
worship,returningnow,throughdivineinfluence,
to a soundmind, by shakingoff their lethargy,theyjoined
themselvesto the Patriarch of Antioch, Aimericus, who was
1Quotedby Pere S. Vailhg in his recent article, " OriginesReligieusesdesMaronites," found in the "Echos d'Orient," tome IV (1901).

TomesVI and VII containarticles by the sameauthor, dealingwith


different phasesof the question;that in the former being an answer
to Dibs's work, above mentioned. The Maroniteliteratureregarding
the subjectis considerable.As early as 1679FaustusNaironpublished
in Romeanelaboratetreatiseentitled"De Origineac ReligioneMaronitarum." Other works are by Gabriel Sionita, StephenEdenensis,
AbrahamEchelensis,G. Notain Der'auni, etc. The work of the lastnamed author entitled "Cerenici Storici sulla Nazione Siro-Maronita,"

publishedin Livorno (Leghorn)in 1890,attempts to prove that the


true succession
to the chair of Antioch is exclusivelyin the line of
the Maronitepatriarchs. In the prints of YunannaMarun,found,in
the ecclesiastical
books,he is representedas a patriarchin full canonicals, treadingunderfoot a half-nakedman,representingheresy,who
graspsan openbookfrom which a serpentis crawling.

THE

MARONITES

101

the third Latin prelate to presideover this church; and

abjuringtheir error,whichhad all too longand dangerouslyboundthem,they revertedto the unity of the Catholic

church,accepting
theOrthodoxfaith,preparedtoembrace
and observe with all reverence the traditions of the Roman

church. Now, thiswasno small-bodyof people,but was


said to exceedthe number of forty thousand,who, as we
havesaid before,inhabited the diocesesof Byblos,Botrys,
and Tripolis, on the heightsand slopesof Mount Lebanon;
they weremighty men, and strenuousin arms, very useful
to us by reasonof the important engagements
which they"
veryoften had with the enemy; hencealsotheir conversion
to the pure faith gaveus the greatestjoy. Now, the error
of Maro and his followersis and was, as is stated by the
Sixth Synod, . . . that in our Lord Jesus Christ there is

and has beenfrom the beginningbut one will and operation."

In this return

to Rome, so adds our somewhat

long-windedarchbishop,the peoplewere led by the patriarch and somebishops.1


This testimony from one who should be an authority
on church matters is almost contemporary with the event
chronicled. William of Tyre beganhis "History" in 1183,

and the alleged conversionmay be dated at about 1182


by comparing the context with the "Life of Saladin,"
by Beha ed Dfn, where contemporaryeventsare dated.
Jacquesde Vitry, consecratedBishop of Acre in 1217,
repeatsthe story. He, however, testifiesin detail to the
addictionof the Maronites to Roman practice in his day,
and statesthat their patriarch was presentat the Lateran
Council

of 1216.3 The

union

quotation is from book XXII,

with Rome was further


cap. viii, of the "History

of

William of Tyre," found on pp. 1021 and 1022 of the collection of


Bongars,called "GestaDei per Francos," etc. (Hanover, 1611). The
full title of William's work is: "Incipit Historia B-erum in Partibus
Transmarinis Gestarum a Tempore Successonun Mahumeth, usque ad
Annum Domini MCLXXXIV.
Edita a venerabili Willermo Tyrensi,
Archiepiscopo."

2Seehis "Historia Hierosolymitana,"LXXVII, found in the "Gesta


Dei per Francos,"op tiL English translation in vol. XI of the works
of the Palestine Pilgrim's Text Society.

102 CONSTITUTION

OF

EASTERN

CHURCHES

strengthenedat the Councilof Florence,in 1439,when the


Maronitesacknowledgedthe supremacyof Rome in ecclesiasticaldiscipline. After the middle of the sixteenthcentury the papal seekept careful watch on the Maronites.
In 1562PopePius IV grantedauthority to the patriarch to
absolve certain heretics of the Maronite

nation.

In 1577

GregoryXIII sent to the patriarch an Arabic translation


of the decrees and canons of the Council

of Trent.

Paul V

in 1610wrote the patriarch concerningthe restorationof


certain Maronite rites, not contrary to Catholic doctrine,

"which the latter had changed. In 1713 ClementXI declared the depositionof the patriarch null and void commandingthe bishopsto yield him subjection. In 1736the
Maronites held a general council in the Lebanon, author-

ized by Clement XII.1 No wonder, in view of such an


accumulationof documentaryevidenceas to the relations
of the Maronites with the holy see, that members of the

nation,almostwithout exception,sturdily maintain the historical position of "perpetual orthodoxy" of their church
from the earliest times, evenin the face of the testimony
of William of Tyre, which to impartial students,including many Catholics,appearsto offer proof positive to the
contrary.

No historicquestioncouldbe morecomplicatedthan that


of the ethnic relations of the presentinhabitants of Syria
and Palestine. It is, however,almostuniversallyacknowledgedthat the Maronites are the descendantsof the early
dwellerson the slopesof the Lebanon,with but little admixture

of other

strains

of blood.

The

Maronites

them-

selvesbelievethat their race acceptedChristianity at its


first teaching. Renan appearsto stand alonein the position that "the Lebanon is truly the tomb of an old-world

gone-by,which has disappearedbody and soul. A total


substitutionof race,language,and religionhastakenplace*
Maronites, Greeks, Metawileh, Druses, Moslems, Arabs,
1 These references are to documents reproduced at the end of the
Latin

version of the acts of the Lebanon

Council.

THE

MARONITES

103

and Turcomans are all there of recent date." f Echoes of

the old Syriac or Aramaic speechare heard in the broad


Arabic vowels soundedin the Maronite villagesnear the
cedarsof Lebanon. The fair complexionsand blue eyes
common among the Greek Christians are seldom seen

amongtheMaronitesof the KesrouandistrictaboveBeyrout. The typical face of this thickly populated region is
round rather than oval; the eyes are well-set, almondshaped,and black or brown in color; the noseis inclined
to be broad; the teethare white and regular; the complexion is a healthy olive with almost no red color; the stature is medium.
In the cedar district in the north of the
Lebanon the women are handsome, with round faces and

pink-and-whitecomplexion.

About three hundred thousand Maronites

now live in the

Lebanon,formingabout three-quartersof theentire population. They are mainly concentratedin the northern half,
beyondthe Dog River, but they arescatteredaswell through
the southern half, which is sometimes called the Mountain
of the Druses.

One

hundred

thousand

more

are

found

in Beyrout2 and the other maritime cities of Syria, in


Aleppo, Damascus,Cyprus, Egypt, and in foreign lands.
For someyears there has been a considerableMaronite
floating populationin the United States,Brazil, Australia,
etc. A few hundred Maronites live in Nazareth, Jerusalem,

and elsewherein Palestine,but at presenttheir hold on the


Holy Land proper is feeble. After the expulsion of the
Crusadersthey had possessions
in the Church of the Holy
Sepulchre,but it is said they wereforced to sell theseto the
Franciscans. About the middle of the eighteenthcentury
they still had several churches in Jerusalem, with a con-

siderable following, but owing to a double persecution


from the government on the one hand, and from the Fran-

ciscanson the other, their property was taken over by the


Greeksand the Franciscans,while the majority of the people
becameLatins, that is to say,Roman Catholicsproper. In
the sameway the native Latins of Nazareth are said to be
1 Seethe "Mission de Phdnicie," by E. Renan, p. 335.
2The Maronite population of Beyrout is 50,000.

104 CONSTITUTION

OF

descendants of Lebanon

EASTERN

Maronites.

CHURCHES

Since the re-estab-

lishment of the Latin patriarchate in 1847?at each Latin


mission station on either side of the Jordan, in accordance

with a friendly agreementbetweenthe Roman Catholicand


Maronite

authorities,

there have been in residence- two

priests,one in chargeof the mission,ordainedaccordingto


the Latin rite, though he may be a native, the other ordainedas a Maronite, who usuallydoesthe actualparochial
work, saying mass, baptizing, preaching,hearing confessions, etc., all according to the Maronite rite.

In 1895 the

sectagainsecureda footholdin Jerusalem,building a hospice and chapel,under the direction of a priest who represents the patriarch. I was officially informed that this
move was forced on the Maronites by the failure of the
Franciscansto provide for Maronite pilgrims, accordingto
the agreementmade when they took over the property.
The parallel chronicles of the Druses and Maronites
contain the last chaptersin the history of feudalism. This
institution, which was organized on an international basis

in the Holy Land at the time of the Crusaders,took deep


root in Syria and Palestine,surviving in theselands long
after it had disappearedfrom Europe. Its last refugewas
in the Lebanon Mountains,

where it received its death-

blow but a half century ago. The constantrivalry for political

control

of the Lebanon

between Maronite

and Druse

chieftains, which had caused the civil wars of 1845 and

1860,provoked,in the latter named year, the interference


of NapoleonIII, who sent an army of occupationto the
Syrian coast. As a result of this foreign interventionthe
Lebanon government,feudal for centuries,was reorganized under a Christian governor,to be nominatedby the
sultan and confirmedby the great powers. The Lebanon
continuesto be a sort of imperium in imperio, the status
of which was unaffectedby the revival of the Turkish constitution in 1908. The governorshave been appointed
from the Christian pachasin serviceof the Turkish Empire, and have included Armenians and an Italian, but
never a Syrian. The local nobility, thus, have been relegated to subordinatepositionsin the government.

THE

MARONITES

105

- Amongthe Drusesthe hereditaryfeudalrite of


to commandthe servicesof the peopleof a given
Christiansas well as Druses,was unquestionedup to this

.,.

time. Peasants were expected to haul stone from the

quarry and firewoodfrom the forest,receivingas their only


: pay a mealfrom the sheikhat the end of the day.1 A year
or two before the massacresof I860, my father, then resident

at S&q-el-Ghurbin a housebelongingto a well-to-doProtestant of Orthodox extraction,hearda cry wafted up from


the roof of a house in 'Aitat, a village of Druse sheikhs on

the slopebelow. " Ya Nasif Machail!" soundedthe voice.


" Ya Nasif Machail! He has spoken!" Nasif Machail, who

knew that by this phrase his presencewas commanded,


immediatelydropped his work, .hasteneddown the slope,
and, humbly saluting, entered the presenceof him who had

"spoken," his liege lord, the head of the house of Talhuk. " Take this letter at onceto Baqlln," briefly said the
sheikh. Now, Baqlin is not far from 'Aitat as the crow
flies, but for man or beastit wasin thosedaysa wearyjourney of many hours along a stony path that twice dipped
down to the bottom of deepvalleysand mountedthe steep
slopebeyond. Without questionthis ProtestantChristian
delivered

the letter

of the Druse chief tain and re turned

along the same weary route.

home

I myself remember well a

benignand statelyold sheikhof this samefamily of Talhuk


who in the earlier

times had ordered

his servants

to beat a

man simply becausehe had failed to rise from his seaton


the waysidewhen his lord was passingalong anotherpath
further up the sameslope.
Accordingto unvarying feudal law, in return for such
servicesthe peasants received protection, leadership in
war, and unboundedhospitality. Churchill statesthat the
Emir (Prince) Beshir Shehaab' would entertain for days
together two or three thousand footmen and five or six

hundred horsemen. The Earl of Carnarvon,writing of a


visit made in 1853, testifies to similar hospitality among
the Druse sheikhs,who impressedhim with their dignity
1"Mount Lebanon/' vol. I, p. 285, by Colonel Churchill (London,
1853).

106 CONSTITUTION

OF

EASTERN

CHURCHES

and social ease.1 The Shehaabs, descendants of a collateral

tribe of the Qureish,remainedentirelyMohammedanuntil


about the middle of the eighteenth century, at which time

theLebanonbranchbecameMaronites. The Hasbeyaand


Rasheyabrancheson the slopesof Hermonarestill Moslems.
The fame of the terrible and beneficent rule of the Emir

Beshir, who was at the height of his powera centuryago,


still lingers in the mountains.

Old men have told me tales

of his appearancewhich theyhad heard describedby their


fathers.

He was short of stature, but had the head of a

lion, with flaming brown eyesand a shaggybeard falling


to the waist, the hairs of which stood on end when he was

enraged. Once a man seekingto curry favor with the


prince said to him: "My lord, yesterdayon the fearsome
plain of the Buqa'a I met a woman whom I knew not,
walking alone and coveredwith jewels. 'How dare you
thus fare abroad alone1' I asked her. 'Know you not/
she answered, 'that

the Emir Beshir rules in Lebanon?'"

"Take the dogaway/3roaredthe emir, "and givehim forty


lashesfor speakingto the woman!"
The completedisappearance
of feudalismcan be no better illustrated than by the presentconditionof the numerous Shehaabemirs, someof whom are so impoverished
that they havebecomedrivers. One of theserecentlyhad
a "fare" who bargained to be taken to a certain Lebanon

village and back again. Impatient of the slownessof the


horses,the travellerhad beenloudly cursingthe coachman
all along the route, when, on approachingthe village, the
latter, who had been taking the verbal onslaught quite

passively,pulled in the reinsand leaningback said gently,


"Would your excellencymind leaving the rest of your
cursesfor the returnjourney? This happensto be my own
village,and I arn still princehere."
There is another family of Maronite emirsin the Lebanon, namely, the houseof Abu Lemm'a,originally Druse,
but turning Maronite Christian shortly after the "conversion" of the Shehaabs. These princeshad becomeso
1" Recollections

of the Druses of Lebanon

and Notes on their

ligion/' p. 37, by the Earl of Carnarvon (London, 1860).

Re-

THE

MARONITES

107

reduced In estate before the massacres of 1860 that Church-

hill declaredthat the presentationby the peasantsof fowls,


coffee, and sugar, according to immemorial custom on
the birth

of a son to one of the emirs, had come to be

"anticipated as a meansof existence,"whereasonceit had


been"acceptedas a mark of dependence."1 Unlike these
two families of emirs, the. three chief families of Christian

sheikhs,thoseof Kha'zin, Habeish',and Dandah7,arepurely


Maronite in origin. The houseof Habeish appearsto be
the oldest. Accordingto Churchill, sheikhsof this family
were allies of the Crusaders. The Khazins, by far the most

important of thesefamilies, becamepowerful in the Kesrouan toward the close of the sixteenth century.

Later

they made allianceswith the French kings.,who became


protectorsof the Maronite nation, a tradition that not
yet has lost all its power. In a similar way the Druses
still look to the English as their special friends. Sheikh
Naufal el-Khazin received as gifts from Louis XIV a sword

and a ring. At Ghosta,oncea centrefor the Khazins,there


may be seen,perchedboldly on top of a hill that slopes

Srecipitously
fifteen
hundred
feet
towith
theamethyst
of
uneh, an ancient
Maronite
Church,
a quaintbay
Latin
inscription that might have been edited by an ancestorof
Mrs. Gamp, with a turn for the dead languages: "Ex

LudovigiXV. Galliarum RegisMunifigentiaEdlfigium


hoc erctum [sic] est 1769."

The powerof the Khazins in the Kesrouan,though becoming somewhat abated, lasted till the year 1858, when

the peasants,
restiveunder the feudalyoke, rosein insurrection and drove out the nobles. Years later they returned,

but in the meantimethe reconstitutionof the government


had deprivedthem of all power as a family. Such traces
of feudalismas continuedto be manifestedin the ingrained
respect shown by the people to their nobility have been

wellnigh obliterated by the lessonsof personal independencelearned in the United States and brought back by re-

turned emigrants,who now fairly permeatethe Lebanon


1"Mount Lebanon/7op tit., vol. I, p. 97.

108

CONSTITUTION

OF

EASTERN

CHURCHES

as well as the rest of Syria*by no meansto the Improvement


of the national

manners.

The Maronite hierarchy is organized on the same lines


with those of all Eastern communions.

Peculiar national

conditions,however,have accentuatedthe powersof the


Maronite patriarch both in spiritual and in temporalmatters. The official title of this head of the Maronite Church
is Patriarch of Antioch and of the whole East. To his own

name the patriarch must add that of Peter, the Founder of


the Sea.

Since 1440 the official

seat has been the ancient

monastery of Qannubtn, in the gorge of the Qadisha River,

to be describedlater. In recent yearsthe patriarchshave


spent their summersin the monasteryof B'dlman, on top
of the cliff opposite to Qannubtn, and their winters at
B'kerky, in the Kesrouandistrict, a dozenmiles from Beyrout.

The duties and privileges of the patriarch are de-

tailed in the acts of the Council of the Lebanon, which was

held at the monastery of Lowaizy in the year 1736, The

acts of this only councileverheld by the Maronite Church


still regulateits affairs.1 At this time the power to depose
a bishopfor fault was taken out of the patriarch'shands,
but it was enacted that pending the decision from Rome

he could imprison the suspectedprelate in a monastery.


The patriarch may entertain appeals in regard to cases
tried by the bishops; he alone may permit marriages within
the forbidden degrees of relationship; he may establish
new fasts and feasts; he may make changes in the ritual

providedthat the substance


is unaltered; he is to consecrate
the chrismatic oil; in all grave matters he is to consult

thebishops,and certainquestionsmustbereferredto Rome.


The patriarchalrevenues,
which amountto severalthousand
poundsannually, accrue from the following sources: the
incomesfrom the patriarchal estatesand from affiliated
monasteries; tithes from the Maronite nation; large sums

of moneysentfrom Europe for masses;the price of masses


1The acts of the council are published both in Arabic and in Latin.

For an accountof this council, secmy article, "The Maronites/' above


quoted, pp. 77-79.

THE

MARONITES

109

from wealthy Maronites, etc. According to the laws of this

church each male adult is taxed three piasters,,or about


twelve cents, annually.

For many years, however, the tax-

gatheringhas not been strictly enforced. In some cases


thebishopsareallowedto retain a largeportion of the tithes,
and in others the parish priests may keep them.
Ten days after the death of a Maronite patriarch the

bishopsproceedto elect his successor. It is recommended


that the candidatebe a bishop,but a simple priestmay be
chosenfor elevation. In any casethe candidate must have

completedhis fortieth year. Six bishopsmay form a quorum.

According to a hereditary privilege the doors of the

churchwherethe electiontakesplacemay be guardedby a


sheikh of the house of Khazin.

The presiding officer, who

is the seniorbishop,writes his choiceon a bit of paper,-seals


it, and drops it in a cup on the altar. Whenall have thus
cast their votes, theseare countedby two of the bishops;
if they do not correspondwith the number of voters they
are thrown, unopened, in a brazier of coals near the door,
and a new vote is taken.
The successful candidate
receive two-thirds
of the whole number of votes cast.

must
Elec-

tion by acclamationis legalonly whenit is absolutelyunanimous. The first Sunday or feast day after the election

is appointed for the consecration,after which the new


patriarch writes a letter to the pope, professingobedience
and praying for confirmationof his electionand enthronement. Oneof the bishopsis sentas specialenvoyto Rome?
bringing back the pallium.
Like all other Oriental prelatesin the Turkish Empire,
the Maronite bishops exercise civil as well as ecclesiastical

jurisdiction over their people. The patriarch has the sole


authority in episcopal election and consecration, but he

shouldhavethe adviceand consentof his bishops. Moreover, the ancient Eastern customs of consulting the wishes

of the people,disregardedby the Greek Catholics,is kept


up by the Maronite hierarchy by sendingagentsto confer
with the priestsand chief men of the diocese. According
to the canons the nomination may be made either by the

patriarch or by the people. The candidate must be at


least thirty yearsof age, and shouldhave beensix months

110

CONSTITUTION

OF EASTERN

CHURCHES

in priest's orders. The patriarch usually consecratesthe


bishop-elect,but upon necessityhe may delegatethe duty
to three other bishops. Among the Maronite bishopsof
recent times there have been some fair scholars.

The

BishopNa'amtallah,of the noblehouseof Dahdah, toldme


somewhatnaively that he had studied fifteen languages,
including Chinese. The late Bishop Dibs, of Beyrout,an
author of somelocal note, establishedIn his city a large
college for boys and young men, with a seminary attached.

The episcopalrevenuesvary with the different dioceses.


They include the income from property belongingto the
dioceseand, In certain cases,a portion of the tithes. When

making a visitation a bishop often receivesthe prices of


masses from rich members of the see.1

We have seenthat the ecclesiastical


grade of Chorepiscopus (Country Bishop), which disappearedcenturiesago
from the Western church, still actively survives In the
Jacobite communion. This grade Is recognizedby the
canons of the Maronite Church, as is that of Periodeuta,
whose functions originally were to tour among the villages
of the dioceseexamining the general condition of churches

and monasteries.Until the patriarchateof the late Hannael-Haj, who was enthronedin 1890,thesegradeshad practically lapsed, though the honorary title "berdAt/" (the
Arabicized form of periodeuta) was occasionally held by

priestsrepresentingthe patriarch in distant parts. Under


Hanna-el-Hajand his successor,
the presentpatriarch,both
gradeshavebeensystematically
revived. Eachdiocesemay
now haveone periodeutaexercisingthe canonicalfunction
of itinerancy,with power to investigate. The number of
chorepiscopi
Is not limited. They act as representatives
of
the patriarch. Thus the priest in chargeof the Jerusalem
hospicewasfirst madea "berdftt" by patriarchalconsecration, and later wasconsecratedas chorepiscopus,
responsible to the patriarch.2
The Maronite parish priestsare electedby the people,
1For a list of the Maronite dioceses,see Appendix.

2TheArabicwordfor chorepiscopus,
ua&u^H ^ **>>, found

in

the canonsis a curiousand involvedinstanceof " falseetymology.'' The

THE

MARONITES

111

who usually choosea memberof their own town. In the


village of Hammana the families are divided into three

groups,
eachof whichhasa churchwith oneor morepriests
from its own members. In case of a number of priests
over onechurch, they divide the parish work. The parish

priestsreceivenoregularsalarybesides
thepriceof masses,
but may collect feesfor marriages,baptisms,funerals,etc.
In the growingtendencyto ordain unmarriedmen the subtle
influenceof Rome may be traced. Thus in the Beyrout
church of Mar Elyas, the three priests are all celibate.
The Maronite parish clergy is better educatedthan that of
any otherSyrianbody exceptthe Greek Catholicsand possibly the Syrian Catholics. Besidesthe theologicalschools
at Rome and at the Dibs College at Beyrout there are
seminaries at 'Ain Wa'raqa, Rumi'yeh, Reifun' and Mar
*Ab'da in the Lebanon.1

At these schools much is made of

Syriac, the original languageof the church, and still used


exclusivelyin the mass. A smattering of Syriac is even
taughtin the village schools. For the usuallack of preaching in the parishes,a certain compensationmay be found
in the itinerant visits of an order of regular clergy.
In a hollow of the hills openingtoward the seaabovethe
Bay of Juneh nestlesthe conventof missionerscalledDeirel-Kreim, with a bishop at the head. The priests may be
known by a small red crossat the top of the cap. At different seasons, but especially in Lent, members of this

order go from village to village,usually by twos,making at


eachplace a visit of eight days, beginning with Sunday.
The peopleare expectedto regardthis missionas a sort of
retreat,giving up their work as far as possiblein order to
attend the threedaily preachingservices,and keepingsilence
the rest of the time. The discoursesare occasionallycontroversial, if the local circumstancesappear to demand
colloquialArabic term for priest, khuri, is supposedto have beenoriginally an abbreviation of chorepiscopus. Accordingly, in seeking an
Arabic translation for this latter term, the secondpart of which plainly
meant "bishop," the phrase "khuri-el-isqof,)Jor "the bishop'spriest/'
which loosely defined the functions, was employed.

1Seemy article, "The Maronites," op. tit., p. 138.

112

CONSTITUTION

OF EASTERN

CHURCHES

it, but as a rule they deal with themesof practical conduct. Many who have not confessedfor years yield to
the persuasionof the priests. Truly the phenomenaof a
"revival season35
do not differ essentiallyin the different
faiths.

The powerof theMaronitehierarchy.,


so subtlyuniting

spiritual and temporal elements,has receiveda decided


blow in recentyears. It had partially recoveredfrom the
first attack made upon it during the administration of

Rustem Pacha, who becamegovernorof the Lebanonin


1873,when it was again threatenedby the activity of the
societies of Freemasons and other popular benevolent as-

sociationswhich havesprung up in the Lebanonsincethe


beginningof the century in consequence
of the liberal ideas
brought back from the New World by returnedemigrants.
These societiesare not anti-religious, but only anti-clerical,

in so far as the clergy has unduly attemptedto influence


legislationin the Lebanoncourts. Thus two partieshave
been lately formedamongthe Maronites: the one backing
the patriarch, who still openly claims territorial jurisdiction over the Kesrouan; and the other antagonizingthe
claim, with all that it involves. The popular party includessomeparish priests. The controversy,oncestarted,
waxedfierceindeed. Not only was a bitter pamphletand
newspaperwar waged,but the patriarchput under the ban
the Freemasons

and other societies.

On the death

of the

late governor,Muzuffar Pacha,a cablewith one thousand


signatureswas sent to Constantinople,protesting against
the appointmentof a gubernatorialcandidatewho might be
favorableto the clerical party. At one time the peopleof
Ghazir', a hot-bed of clericalism, boycottedthe church,
threateningto invite the Moslemsto build a mosqueunder
the very eyesof the patriarch. The issuesare by no means
yet settled,but it is claimedthat the popularparty has already underminedthe clerical influencein the government
courts.

This popular uprising among the Maronites against the


higher clergychronologicallyfollowedsimilar conditionsin
the Greekpatriarchateof Antioch,and is synchronouswith

MONASTERIES

113

the troublesin the patriarchateof Jerusalem. But between


the Maronite

and Greek movements there is one salient

difference. While the native Greeks have beenrebelling


against the domination of an alien Ionian hierarchy, the
Maronite peoplehavebeenendeavoringto curtail the privilegeswhich a Maronite hierarchy of their own flesh and
bloodhasexercisedunquestionedfor centuries.
VI.

THE

MONASTERIES

To call this section "The

Eastern Monastic

Orders"

would be misleading. Among the united bodiesof Syria


may be found, indeed, genuine orders whose members
follow the ancient monastic rules of the Easts preserved
since the time of Saint Anthony, but the co-ordination of

these rules into a rigid constitution, and the elaborate


systemof almost military control, culminating in a general of the order, was basedon Westernmodels. Among
the Orthodox, orders comparable to these are not to be
found.

Such communities

of monks as exist in the Greek

Church wereestablishedfor somepracticalpurpose. Thus


the original community of Mount Athos was foundedfor
the copyingof manuscripts,though it shouldbe addedthat
with the lapse of this function, consequentboth on the
lapseof learningin the Greek Church and on the discovery of printing, the monastic establishmentsof Mount
Athos

did

not

cease

to

flourish.1

The

Brotherhood

of

the Holy Sepulchreat Jerusalem,which ramifies all over


Palestine,and also extendsbeyondseas,has for its justification the preservationof the holy places. The Convent
of Mount Sinai exists for a similar purpose. Numerous
independentGreek monasteries,however,exist in Greece,
Asia Minor, the Lebanon,and elsewhere,eachbeingquite
unconnectedwith any other monastery. Such establish1In 1902 the monks of this place numbered some seven thousand

five hundred, divided among twenty monasteries,other smaller establishments,and hermit cells. The entire community is regulated by a
holy synod, an institution that appearsto be organi2;e4on thoroughly
democratic

lines.

114

CONSTITUTION

OF

EASTERN

CHURCHES

meets,which are under the control of the patriarch or of


the bishop of the diocese,have been usually foundedby
wealthy and charitable Greeks, with the understanding
that the surplus incomebe devotedto the maintenanceof
schoolsor hospitals. Orthodox monks follow the rule of
Saint Basil, with modifications differing In different estab-

lishments. Of the four ancientdivisionsof Jacobite-Syrian


monks, the Eremites, the Stylites, the Coenobites,and the
Inclusi, only the two latter remain. A few still live in cells.

All are under episcopaljurisdiction.1


Of the origin and developmentof the Brotherhoodof
the Holy Sepulchrewe have already written at length.
The head-quartersare in the very heart of the Holy City,
at the celebratedConventof Constantino,popularly known
as the Greek convent, or Deir-er-IIum.

In the bewilder-

ing jumble of Its open courts,dim, vaultedpassages,


quaint
little gardens,and steepstairwaysa strangermight easily
get lost. This massof buildings,which coversa largearea,
is joined on the north to the patriarchateby a bridge over
a narrow lane,and on the east to the Church of the Holy
Sepulchreby the roof of a coveredarcade under which
flows the life of the city alongthe so-calledChristian street.
Sincethe Middle Agesthe history of this Greekconventis
intertwinedwith the historyof Jerusalem. Oneis tempted
to trace, at least to a certain extent,the friendly relations
betweenChristiansand Moslemswhich distinguishesthe
life of Jerusalemto the dominatinginfluenceof this institution, which for centuriesnot only has givenemployment
to the poor of all classes,but which has extendedpatronage in return for protectionto the nobleMoslem families.
A similar tale might be told of the Franciscanconvent.
The Greek conventhas much property at differentpoints
within the city walls, as well as large and remunerative
agricultural estates,mainly on the south-westside of the
town.

The presidentof the brotherhoodis, ex officio,the patriarch, who thus must have been elected from the monks of

this order. In the Conventof Constantineareresidenteight


1"Six Monthsin a Syrian Monastery/' p. 325, by 0. II. Parry.

THE

MONASTERIES

115

bishopsandninearchimandrites,
all seventeen
beingmembers of the Holy Synod; twenty-oneother archimandrites,
twenty-sixordinary priests,nineteendeacons,and fifty-five
lay brothers, making a total of one hundred and thirtyeight.1 Someof the bishopsarein partibus,but othershave
been criticised by the native Syrians for not residing in
their sees. Seventy-sixmembersof the order are resident
elsewherein Jerusalemand vicinity, while the other holy
placesof Palestineareguardedby onehundredand seventyone other members,lodged in monasteriesor other establishments
from

east and west of the Jordan.

Jerusalem

to Jericho

should

turn

The

traveller

aside to look across

the deep canyonof the Wady-el-Kelt at the Monastery of


Mar Yuhan'na (Saint John), which clings to the opposite
cliff. He may also note the ladderswhich lead to the entrances of the cells of hermits, who still inhabit

caves in

this desolategorge. The convent also has establishments


in Constantinople,Athens, Cyprus, Crete, and Moscow.
The entire membershipof this closestof closecorporations
is over four hundred. How deeply the native Syriansresent their exclusion from the brotherhood, which is in the

handsof an Ionian hierarchy,we have seenalready. The


memberson enteringthe order take the vowsof obedience
and chastity, but not that of poverty. At death, however,
all propertiesin the possession
of monks lapseto the general fund.

The great convent containsthree churches,the largest


of which is dedicated to Saint Thekla,

hence the establish-

ment was called the Monastery of Saint Thekla, in 1400.

Contiguousto the Church of the Holy Sepulchreare the


churches

of Helena

and

of

Constantine.

In

the

former

mass is said daily, except on Good Friday and on the


two Sundayspreceding Lent. The convent library contains about three thousandmanuscriptsand ten thousand
printed books. Among the former are over one hundred
ancient Greek works on vellum, including the famous
Didache, or Teaching of the Apostles,found in the Jerusalem library at the Phanar, on the Golden Horn, Con1 See Appendix.

116

CONSTITUTION

OF' EASTERN

stantinople. The librarian is the learned and courteous


Archdeacon Cleophas Kiklides,

The receptionof pilgrims is one of the chief functionsof


the establishment, and of its ten sub-convents elsewhere in

the city. The pilgrims take their first meal in one of the
threesynodchambers(now no longer usedfor the original
purpose) containing a long stone table and stone seats.
Russianpilgrims aremainly cared for in the Russianbuildings^ north of the town walls, under the auspicesof the
Imperial Societyof Palestine.1
While the patriarchate of Jerusalemis thus honeycombed with Greek monastic establishments, all under the

control of the Brotherhoodof the Holy Sepulchre,among


the Greeks of the patriarchateof Antioch, the monastic
professionis followed to-day by scarcelysixty individuals,
scatteredamongthe followinguncoordinatedmonasteries:
Bellament(Belmont, nearTripoli); Mar Elyas' Shweiy'ya
(SaintElijah, nearBekfay'yain the Lebanon); Mar Jir'jius
(Saint George,between'Akkar7and Hums); and in five or
six smaller establishments in the Lebanon, as well as in the

Conventof Sedanay'ya,where there are sometwenty-five


nuns. The bold, rocky site for this convent of Our Lady
is said to have been indicated in a dream by a dove, which

apparentlyhas continuedto be the protector of the place.


Accordingto a recent tradition, when in 1860 the building
was packed with Christiansescapedfrom Damascusfor
fear of the massacres,
the Moslemswerekept awayby this
dove, which hovered around the massive walls.

The nuns

of Sedanayya
itinerate amongthe townsand villagesof the
land, collectingoil to be usedfor the Feastof the Virgin, as
well as for conventuseduring the rest of the year. At this
feastthousandscongregate
from all over the country,bringing no food, as this is suppliedby the convent. In many
featuresit differs in nowisefrom all popular religiousfestivals of whatevercreedin Syria and Palestine,though the
total abstinenceof the Moslemshappily rules out at their
1For other Interesting details in regard to the Greek convent, see
the valuable pamphlet of ArchdeaconBowling, entitled "The Patriarchateof Jerusalem." (London, 1908.)

THE

MONASTERIES

117

functionsthe drunkenbrawls,sometimesendingin murder,


which often disgracethe Christian feasts. In recent years
the crowdsat Sedanayyaare said to have been better behaved than formerly.
In the Lebanon there may be found some forty monastic establishments under the sole control of the Maronite

patriarch,falling thus,like the Greekestablishments,


under the categoryof the uncoordinated monasteries. Such
Maronite establishments, however, include fifteen nunneries,

the rest being episcopalseats,schools,etc. Where monks


are residentin thesemonasteriesthey belongindividually
to one of the three orders, which were organized on a
Westernbasisin the eighteenthcentury, out of the exist-

ing monasticunits. From the earlydaysof Christianity,


hermits and coenobites, following the rule of Saint An-

thony, dwelt in the Lebanon. Later veritable monasteries were founded.

When the first movement toward co-

ordination took placeI have not ascertained,but it seems


probable that it was well under way when the Maronite
scholar of the eighteenthcentury, Germa'nus Farhat', as
a monk in the monasteryof Mar Eltsha*organizedthe ancient rulesinto a constitution,later confirmedby the pope.
The first division among the monks of Saint Anthony was
madein 1700,when the sub-orderof Mar Isha'ya (Isaiah)
was formed. The original body continued to bear the
name of the monks of Mount Lebanon till 1768, when they

weredivided into the two ordersof Aleppines(Halabi'yeh)


and Lebanese(Libnani'yeh or Beladi'yeh),sometimescalled
the monks of Qozhay'ya, from their chief convent. The
monks

of the three orders

combined

are said now to num-

ber somefifteen hundred. In the year 1890 about sixty


per cent of the total of one thousand one hundred and

sixty belongedto the Libnantyeh,twenty-sixper cent to the


monks of Lsha'ya, and fourteen per cent to the Halabiyeh.1

Sincethe split in the Greek Church in 1724,the Greek


Catholicshaveorganizedthree orders of monkscalled the
Mukhallasi'yeh (from their chief establishment,Deir~el
1 Seemy article, "The Maronites/' op. dt., p. 322.

118

CONSTITUTION

OF

EASTERN

CHURCHES

Mukhal'lis, or Convent of Our Saviour), the Beladt'yeh


(local or national), and the Halabi'yeh (Aleppines),which
haveat presentsometwo hundredand fifty, one hundred
and eighty, and sixty membersrespectively. In their personal discipline the monks, like their Orthodox brethren,
follow the rule of Saint Basil, but as a corporatebody,with
mutual relationsamongthe members,eachorder is organized on lines similar to the Maronite. Among the Greek
Catholics, the nuns, who number about one hundred and

twenty, are all contemplative,that is, keepingwithin convent bounds. Thus among these two united churches,
Greek Catholic and Maronite, in the Lebanon alone,thereare

overtwothousandmonksand nuns,as overagainsta total of


sixtyamong.theOrthodoxof the wholepatriarchateof Antioch,of which the Lebanonis but a small part. From the
West the Maronite monks have borrowed the tonsure.1
As the three Maronite orders are controlled in much the

sameway, the followingsummary,basedon a study of the


rules of the order of Mar Isha'ya, may be takenas applying generallyto all three,as well as to the Greek Catholic
ordersorganizedalong the samelines,3 Controlling each
order is an abbot-general elected once in three years at a

general council. With the Halabfyeh and the monks of


Mar Isha'ya this meeting is opened and closedby the
patriarch; with the Beladiyeh,by the pope's delegate.
The abbot-generalis assisted in his duties by four generaldirectors, whom he is obliged to consult in some cases.

Groups of monasteriesare under the charge of district


directors. Eachmonasteryhasits superior,who is to choose
at

least

three monks

as advisers.

These

aid

but

cannot

controlhim. The temporalaffairs are in the handsof the


steward, who in his contact with the world is urged by the

rulesto try to improveit. He is to makeaccountswith the


peasantpartnersof the monastery. The revenuesof some
1When a Greek monk takes the vows, bits of hair are cut off from
the four sides of his head, but there in no regular tonsure.
2These rales have been printed at Rome in Karshflni (Arabic language In Syriac text). For a full analysis of this volume, seemy article,

"The Maronites,"op. ciL, pp. 146-153.

THE

MONASTERIES

of these establishments are considerable,

119

that of Deir-en-

Na'meh, near the mouth of the Damlir, aggregatingfrom

eightthousand
dollarsto tenthousand
dollarsyearly. Each
monasteryshouldalso haveits confessor,preachers,sacristan, librarian, readers-whose function is to read to the
monks while they eat-porter,
and steward of the sick.

steward of the store-room,

There is also a steward of the

clothes,who " shouldcare for them as for the poor of Jesus


Christ." This phrase reminds me of another on the lips

of a gentleold monkin therock-hewn


monastery
of Ellsha*
at the bottom of the gorge of the Qadisha. I asked him
what his function might be in the establishment. With a

deprecating
smileheanswered:"I pray in thefood"; thus
signifying
in hisOrientaleuphemism
touched
withmysticism
that he was the cook. Many of the minor officesjust mentionedappearto havelapsed.
The rangeof the Lebanonfollows the sea-coastfor about
one hundred and twenty miles from south to north, hav-

ing a maximum breadth of twenty-five to thirty miles.


The power of the Catholic orders in this region may be
gatheredfrom the statementthat from one-seventh
to onesixth of the land belongs to the monasteries of the different

churches,over four-fifths of this monastic property being


Maronite. Viewed from the harbor of Beyrout, the Kesrouan

district, whoseashenhills risealmost straight from the sea,


appearsto be dominated by the monasteries. These rise
from the bold summits, perch on the outstandingcrags,
hang against the sheer mountain walls, lie gently on the
lowerslopes. The majority are Maronite, but amongthese
are establishments belonging to the Syrian Catholics and

to the Armenian Catholics. Some occupy the veritable


heathen"high places" of old. Above the ravine of the
BeyroutRiver is the MaroniteDeir-el-Qula'a,or Conventof
the Castle, on the site of an ancient temple, whose massive

wallsand pillars may still be seenin ruins. In the nameof


the site of the Armenian Catholic monastery,B'zummar
(houseof singing), there may be an echoof someformer
Baal worship.

During the early days of monasticismin the Lebanon,

120

CONSTITUTION

OF

EASTERN

CHURCHES

however,the salientsites werenot chosen. Monks sought


rather the ravines and mountain clefts, not only because

theseweremorefitted for the solitarylife, but probablyalso


for prudentialreasons. Around the irregular plateauof the
cedars, which has an elevation of some six thousand five
hundred feet, mountains from three thousand to four thou-

sandfeet higher sweepin a vast half-circle. The plateau


terminatesabruptlyin a fallingprecipice,in thefaceof which
a cavern sendsforth a stream tumbling in a seriesof cascades

and soonentering the deep canyononce formed by itself.


This Is the gorge of the Qadlsha, or Sacred River, thus

named,probably,because
from the earliesttimes it wasthe
refugeof hermits. Indeed,a handful of thesemaybe found
here to-day, and also in the gorge of the Dog River. Near
the head of the Qadtsha canyon is the ancient Convent of
Mar Elisha*. While groping among its dim corridors and

musty cells,the visitor finds it hard to distinguishbetween


built masonry and the wall of the mountain.

From the win-

ter Isolationof this conventthe monksmay now escapeto


a fine new establishmentbuilt high up on the edgeof the
oppositecliff.
A few miles farther down wherethe gorgeis over fifteen
hundred feet deep,crouchingunder the cliffs somethree
hundred feet above the stream, is the famous convent of

Qannubln (dedicated to the Virgin), built accordingto


tradition by the EmperorTheodosiusin the fourth century.
The chapel,which is built into a cave,openson an irregular
court-yard surroundedby rooms,someof great antiquity,
somequite modern. The vaulted roof and walls of the
chapelwereoncecoveredwith frescoes,but at the time of
my visit in 1889the priestexplainedto me with somepride
that

in the interests

of neatness

he had

whitewashed

the

entire interior except the bit over the altar! This fresco
representsa companyof kneelingpatriarchs,with a number of violin-bearing cherubs hovering over them. Qannubin

has been

for centuries

the titular

residence

of the

patriarchs,who still in the summeroccupythe monastery


of B'dfman,on the top of the oppositecliff, wintering, as
we haveseen,at B'kerky, near Beyrout.

MONASTERIES

121

A few miles belowQannubina smallersidegorgeenters


the Qadisha Valley from the south. Under the eternal

frown of its mountain walls standsthe locally celebrated

monastery
of MarAntanius
Qozliay'ya.Thebestapproach
is from EhMen,which lies on the hills above. As the rough
and tortuouspath approachesthe convent,it passesbetween
two rock pinnaclesjoined above by an arch surmounted
by a cross. The presentmonastery,oneof the richestin the
Lebanon, was built in 1732,and contains over one hundred
monks. There is a printing-press, whence Arabic and

Syriac books have been issued. But the interest of Qozhayya centres in a cave, not far from the convent, which

piercesfar into the mountain above. Here, so runs the


legend, once slept Saint Anthony himself, when he came
from Egypt to visit the Lebanonhermits. Henceto this convent and caveare brought the " possessed" of all creeds,including Moslems and Druses, that Saint Anthony may drive

out the evil spirit. As we walked about the place together,


a priest told me that sometimesthe patients are cured by
simply passingunder the arch and cross,which are over
the approachingpath; others,when theyenterthe conventual precincts; and still othersin the church,wherea priest
exorcisesthe evil spirit by adjuring him in the name of God,

and beatingthe patient on the head,sometimeswith a shoe,


If the spirit will not leave the man, he is taken into the
cave, where an iron collar is fastened around his neck. If
violent, his limbs are shackled. A number of madmen may
be chained in the cave at the same time. The priest in

charge visits the cave occasionally,giving the patients to


drink of the holy water which drops from the roof, but
feeding them very little. The cure is assuredwhen the
patient is found without the collar. Its removalis saidto be
the work of Saint Anthony, whoseappearanceis sometimes
describedby the victims. If no cure is effectedthe priests
conclude that the man has no devil to be exorcised, but

only a diseaseof the brain for which the place professesto


have no cure! That belief in diabolical possessionis strong

in the land is indicated by the ordinary Arabic term for


insane,"mejntinY* whichis, literally, "possessedby a jinn,

122

CONSTITUTION

OF EASTERN

CHURCHES

or spirit/5 The exorcistIs still a recognizedfunctionaryin


the Maronlte Church, and In recent times devils have been

cast out not only at Qozhayya^but in someof the village


churches.1

Other Maronite monasteriesbesidesQozhayyapossess


valuableassetsin the allegedhealing powersof the patron
saint. Some of these are specialists. At the convent of
Mar No'hara (Lugius) there is a well of water said to be

good for weakeyes. Mar 'Ab'da el-Mashum'maris visited


by barren womenwho desirechildren. Mar Shalli'ta, the
patron of animals,is invokedwhenmulesare sick or mares
will not bear. Pebbles from the convent of Mar Dhu'mit,

which standsnear the sea-shore,in the vicinity of Jebail


(Byblos),areblessedby the saint to the cureof rheumatism.
Mar Ruha'na is supposedto cure hernia. Mar Ephraem
is the patron of memory. Miracle-workingis by no means
confinedto the saintswho lived in early times. Somefifty
yearsagoa holy monk calledNa'amtal'lahel-Hardi'ny was
buried in a vault of the convent of K'fefan'.

Some two

yearslater it wasfound that his bodyhad not decayed,but,


though dried up, preserved perfectly the form and features
of the monk. Thus K'fefan' began at once to attract
hundreds of sick folk who sought cure from the new saint,

bringingmuchgain to the coffersof the establishment.


1 Up to the year 1900 there was no establishment in Syria and Palestine for the scientific treatment of mental disease. In that year the
Lebanon Hospital for the Insane was established by TheopMlus Waldmeier at the 'Asfurt'yeh, near Beyrout.

CHAPTER

RITUAL

OF THE

III

EASTERN

CHURCHES

INTRODUCTORY NOTE

IN considering the ritual of the five chief Eastern churches

of Syria and Palestine,we shall find that we are dealing


with three types only: the Greek, the Syrian, and the
Maronite, for the Greek Catholic and the Syrian Catholic
communionsmade little alteration in the ritual practised
by the churcheswhoseauthority they exchangedfor that of
Rome. Indeed,broadly speaking,the typesare only two,
the Byzantineand the Syrian. 'Up to the twelfth century
the history of the Maronites formedbut a part of the general history of the Syrian Church,and to this day theyhave
In commona number of anaphoras,
or liturgies,while their
other services are similar.

The official languageof the Holy OrthodoxChurch, with


Its derivative, the Greek Catholic Melchite Church, is the
ancient Greek. The main service books, however, have

been translated into the national languages of all the countries where the Greek Church is organized. The natives of
Syria and Palestine have a peculiar advantage in their Arabic versions. The ability of the common people to understand

the services varies

much with

different

countries.

In

Bulgaria, for example,the translationwas made Into the


ancientSlaviclanguage,little of which is now comprehensible to the uneducated.1

In the Arabic translation, on the

other hand, while the classical language is also employed,

this canreadily be followedby the masses,thoughof course


they could not speakit. The sameis true of the Protestant translation of the Bible.

In Syria and Palestine the

1The gospelIs now readin modern Bulgarian.


123

124

RITUAL

OF THE

EASTERN

CHURCHES

Orthodox parish priest doesnot needto know any Greek


beyonda few phrases,suchasKyrie eleison,for all services,
including the mass, are read from the authorized Arabic

translations. At Jerusalem,in the Anastasis(commonly


known as the Church of the Holy Sepulchre)Greekis the
onlylanguageused,as theofficiatingclergyareIonian Greek
monks. In the cathedralchurch of Damascus(the seat
of the Patriarch of Antioch,who is at presenta nativeSyrian) the two languagesare usedindifferently; the singers
on one side may chant in Arabic while those on the other
are using Greek. Less concessionis made to the vernacular by the Syrian and Maronite churches, whose sacred
language is ancient Syriac. The commonest service of all,

the mass,is entirely in Syriac, though in the Maronite


liturgies a few authorizedArabic phrasesmay be substituted.1 On the other hand, the marriageand baptismal
services of the Maronites, together with many others, are

in Arabic. This holds true of similar servicesamong the


Jacobites and Syrian Catholics. The books containing
these are written or printed in Syriac character, this com-

bination of Arabic wordsand Syrian form beingknown as


Karshftni.

Both types of service books, the Greek and the

Syrian,are teemingwith passages


of profound spirituality
clothedin languagenobleand poetic. Large parts of the
services are rendered

in weird

Oriental

chants.

The

ser-

vice books of the Greek Church are in fourteen quarto

volumes. They would appear to cover everypossibleoccasion. There are, for example,prayersto be usedby the
priest whena corner-stoneis laid, whena threshing-flooris
constructed,when a well is dug, when a well is polluted,
when insectsmust be conjuredfrom the vines,when devils
must be exorcised,when silk-wormsare being cultivated,
when a sick man cannotsleep,whenone has beenharmed
by the evil-eye.
11 was told by a former Jacobite sub-deaconfrom Mosul that he
himself, by the advice of the priest (who was following a precedent),
once made, during service, an at-sight translation of the epistle into

Arabic, pronouncingin Syriac the wordshe did not understand! The


gospel is always read in the vernacular.

INTRODUCTORY NOTE
^

125

Theinteriorsof all Easternchurches


excepttheMaronite

differ from those of Western churchesin the use of a screen

to dividenaveandsanctuary,
entirelyshuttingoff thelatter
from the view of the congregation. This division has its

originin theconception
of the massas a mysterywhich
shouldbecelebrated
by thepriestin secret.As hasalready
beennoticed,ruined Maronite churchesin BatrUn,where

thescreens
maystill be seen,testifythatthecomplete
conformity of this communion to Roman custom in the matter

of internalchurcharrangementis but recent. In the Greek

Churchthe screen
is calledtheikonostasis,
asuponit are
hung the ikons. These may be picturespainted on a flat
surface,or maybe metalrepresentations
in low reliefwhich
are not supposed to contravene the unwritten law of the

Orthodox Church forbidding statuesin the round.1 The


ikonostasismay be merelya plain stonewall rising to the

ceiling,asfoundin theoldchurchof thevillageofMatardy,


in northern Syria; or it may be a real ornamental screenmade
of stone or of marble; or it may consistof wood, elaborately

carvedand overlaid with gilt or painted in rich, sombre


colors. It should have at least three openingswhich may or
may not be fitted with wooden doors, but curtains are always found in the Orthodox and Jacobite churches, not

always in the United churches. In somelarge buildings


there are five doors; the Greek Catholic cathedral at Da-

mascushasnine, with a curtainhung onlybeforethecentral


opening,called the royal gates,in front of the high altar.
In the Orthodox Church all curtains are drawn aside dur-

ing the weekfollowingEaster. The ikons or picturesare


usuallyof the unchangedByzantinetype, but modernart
is creepingin. At the right of the royal gatesis thepicture
1The permissionin the OrthodoxChurchto useikons while statues
arepractically forbidden presents,in the wordsof Tozer("The Church
and the Eastern Empire/' p. 125), "a curiousanomaly." He calls
it "a distinct departure from the principles of the SeventhGeneral
Council" (which restoredthe images),a changethat "must havebeen
brought about very gradually; so much so that no trace remainsto us
of the stepsby which it cameto pass." It is quite possiblethat the

Greeksmayhavebeenunconsciously
influenced
by the abhorrence
of
imagesfelt by their Moslemmasters.

126

RITUAL

OF

THE

EASTERN

of Christ; at the left, that of the Virgin.

CHURCHES

To the left of this

may hang the ikon of the patron saint. Saint George,the


Forty Martyrs,etc.,arecommonsubjects. Sometimespictures of the twelveapostlesare rangedalongthe top of the
ikonostasis. Pictures in modern style may be found in
the United churches; with the Maronites the seven stations

of the crossare common. Parry statesthat the only picture strictly allowed in Syrian churchesis a portrait of the
founder frescoed on the wall.

He adds that most churches

contain pictures either as frescosor framed paintings,but


that thesearemodernand little venerated.1Someyearsago
I found elaborate frescos, by no means modern, on the

walls of the Jacobitechurchat Sudud,representing,among


other subjects,a spirited frescoof the last judgment,and
a pictureof a robust sea-monster
either swallowingor dischargingthe Prophet Jonah,who was dressedin full episcopalcanonicals,with meeklyfoldedarms.
The sanctuary(Arabic: hai'kal, or temple) is usually
approachedby one step. In Greek churchesthe central
part is calledthe bema,the northernpart the prothesis,and
the southernpart the vestry; but often the threeparts form
a singlechamber. At the eastend thereis usuallyan apse,
where is placed the patriarch's chair. At the cathedral
churchof Saint Mark's, at Alexandria,the apseis stepped,
as in the old basilicas,the patriarchal throne being in the
centreof the top step,while the bishopsarerangedaround.2
The patriarchalso hasa chair in the nave. The high altar
is called, both in Greek and in Arabic, simply the table.
It is often, but not necessarily,surmountedby a canopy
or dome, supportedby four pillars, like an open belfry.3
This is wanting in the cathedral church of Alexandria.
On the table should always be found a cross, a lighted
'See "Six Months In a Syrian Monastery," p. 334, by O. H. Parry
(London, 1895).
2A similar stepped apse was found near the pool of Siloam in excavating a church dating from the fifth or sixth century. The steps,
however, were too narrow for seats. Sec " Excavations at Jerusalem,

1894-1897,"p. 204, plate 18, by Blissand Dickie,


8 Found also in Jacobite churches.

INTRODUCTORY NOTE

127

lamp,the clborhim("houseof the body/' in Arabic),


and the Gospels,which rest on the sacredcloth calledthe
antimins. Any table may be temporarilyconvertedinto

an altar if the antiminsbe placedthereon.In large


churchestheremay be two smalleraltarsto the north and
southof the high altar.1 In Saint Mark's, at Alexandria,

theseareactuallypartsof thebuilding,beingmerelyshelves
in circular niches in the east wall of the church.

Such a

shelf constitutes, in most churches of the East, the table

of oblations,or medhbah,literally the place of sacrifice,


where the holy gifts are preparedin connectionwith an
elaborateservice,to be noticedlater. Eachseparatetable
must have its own medhbah

to the north.

Where

there is

but one table the medhbahis supposedto be in the pro-

thesis;however,
at theMatardy Church,wherethesanctuary is tactually divided into three separate rooms, the
medhbah is a small wooden table in the bema itself, to the
north

of

the

altar.

In

the east wall

of

the cathedral

church of Alexandriatherearesix circularnichesof equal


size, threeto the north and threeto the southof the great
altar.

The

shelf of the first niche to the north

constitutes

the medhbah of this great table or altar; the second shelf


stands for another table or altar, having for its medhbah
the third

shelf.

The

first niche to the south

contains

the

medhbah of the third altar, which is constituted by the


shelf of the second niche; the third niche is not used.
the Greek Catholic
duced in the nave.

churches

side altars

In

have been intro-

In the Orthodox churches the nave is usually bare of

seats,as it is the practicefor the men to standduring the


service,but theremay be stalls at the sidesfor the aged
and infirm. Benches,however,are cominginto usein the
United churches. At the west end there is a gallery for

women. In churcheswherethereis a pulpit, this is usually


attachedto the north-westpillar, being approachedby a

circularstair. From this pulpit the deaconshouldread


thegospel.The baptismal
font is sometimes
foundin the
south-westcorner. In front of the screenon either side of
1Found also in Jacobite churches.

128

RITUAL

OF

EASTERN

CHURCHES

the royal gatesare desksfor the singers. The Eastern


churcheshaveno organs.1 Though In generalthe Interior
arrangementof all Maronite churchesIs modelled on the
Roman Catholic,sometimesa latticed screenmay be found
shutting off the western third of the nave for the use of
women.

The older villagechurchesareall dark, the only windows


beingsmall openingsvery high up. In former timesthere
was little difference betweenthe appearanceof the churches
and that of the ordinary square, flat-roofed houses. But
it is now customary to build at one of the corners of the

roof a light open belfry, with a dome,which is sometimes


surrounded by four ornamental chalices,and is always
toppedwith a cross. In the cities,amongall communions,
large windowsand tiled roofs are coininginto fashion,
I.

THE

EASTERN

LITURGIES

The liturgies usedby the churchesof Syria and Palestine are all derivedfrom the ancient Greekliturgy of Saint
James,and thus belongto the Hierosolymitanfamily of
liturgies? Those usedby the Greek Churchesare of the
Byzantine branch, while the numerousliturgies of the
Syrian and Maronite Churches,calledalso anaphora, descend through the Syriac Saint James, which itself was
translated from the Greek Saint James.3 The Orthodox

Churchemploysfour liturgies. Thesecommunionservices


are much longer and. more elaborate than the Roman
mass,teemingwith a greatervolume and variety of sym1There is an organ in the Maronite cathedral at Beyrout and in the
chapels of some of the schools, but the innovation is recent.
2 The term liturgy Is here used in its technical sense for the office of
the

mass.

8 Seethe following works: "The Liturgies of Saint Mark, Saint James,


Saint Clement, Saint Chrysostom, and the Church of Malabar," translated by Rev. J. M. Noale (London, I860). Also, "Praclectiones de
Liturgiis Orientalibus, habit in Universitate Friburgensi Helvetia, a
Maximiliano, principe Saxonia. Friburgi Briscovise, sumptibus Herder,
Typographi editoris pontificii. MCMVTII."
Also "Liturgies Eastern
and Western/7 by F. E. Brightman (Oxford, 1890).

THE EASTERN LITURGIES

129

holism.Thoughscreened
fromtheeyesof thepeople
by
the ikonostasis, saveat such momentswhen the doors are

opened,
theceremonies
areessentially
morespectacular
and
dramatic than is the Roman function. The service in ordinary ^ daily use is the liturgy of SaintChrysostom,
an
abbreviation of that of Saint Basil. The latter Is said on

Christmas
andEpiphany,
whenfallingon Sundayor Monday,otherwise
on theireves,andonthefirst Tuesday
after
Christmas.The liturgy of the presanctified,
whichwill
beexplained
later,is saidon Wednesday
andFridayof the
first sixweeks
of Lent,onThursdayof thefifth week,and
on Monday,Tuesday,
andWednesday
of HolyWeek,and

may be saidon certainotherdaysof Lent. In the Orthodox Churchmassmay be said only oncea day at a given
altar. In the large churchesthe threemassescelebrated
on the great feastmust be said by differentpriestsat the
threealtarsin turn. The GreekCatholicChurchpermits
the samealtar to be usedmorethan oncethe sameday.
The number of extant Syrian liturgies-both Jacobite
and Maronite-is

over forty. The Old Syrian or Jacobite

Church still usesa great numberof these. The printed


Maronitecollectioncontainseightand the SyrianCatholic
seven. At my requesta comparisonbetweenthe two collections was made by a professor in a Syrian Catholic sem-

inary, who found that they havethree in common,being


identical not only in title, but in substance,i. e., those of

Saint James,SaintPeter,and SaintZystos,the pope. The


liturgy mostcommonlyusedby theMaronitesIs anadaptation of the Romanmass.1 In generalmuch liberty is left
to the celebrant in the use of these various anaphoras,

thoughsomeare appointedfor feastdaysand other occasions.2For example,in the MaroniteChurchtheanaphora


of Saint Jamesshould be said not only on his feast, but also
1 Prince Maximilian states (tomus I, p. 12) that this liturgy was com-

posedby the Maronitesin Syriac,having someprayerssimilar to those


in the Romanrite, but I was informed on authority at the Beyrout
MaroniteCollegethat it is mainly a translationfrom the Romanmass.
21 wasassuredby a Maronitechorepiscopus
that he was at liberty
to useany one of the eight anaphorato the exclusionof all the rest.

130

RITUAL

OF

THE

EASTERN

CHURCHES

at the consecration
of priests. In this churchmassmay

be celebratedat the samealtar by differentpriestssucceeding each other on the sameday. The Jacobite Church

absolutely
forbidsthis Romanpractice,thusagreeingwith
the Greek

Orthodox.

While confessionbefore communionis obligatory in all


the Easternchurchesunder consideration,the discipline is
not always imposed with severity. The Oriental Greek
Church providesa long and elaborateorder of confession,
to be read separatelyover each person desiring to communicate. In it the doctrineis clearlysetforth that, while
the priest has authority to pronounceabsolution,confession is not madeto him, but throughhim to Almighty God,
who alone can forgive sin. To follow this long order
would be impracticablein the caseof a large number of
penitents,and a parish priest tells me that it is now rarely
used, a short informal service,without book, being substituted. The peoplemay be confessedin church or in
their own homes. The priest repeatsthe ten commandments, demanding whether these have been broken.

He

may put other questions,the number and charactervarying with his knowledge of the penitent, but the minute
catechising,sometimesobtaining in the Roman Church, is
unknown or is at least very rare. For the absolutionmay
be repeatedany one of the sevenprayersto be found in the
formal order of confession. In Jerusalemand vicinity, to
the rule of the Orthodox Church that no priest who hasnot
been married may confess the people, is added the further

practical restriction that a priest may not hear confession


unless he is the father of children!

In fact, until that time

he is not called "khflri," but only "qussfs," a term also


applied to a celibatepriest or monk in orders. Penanceis
imposedin the GreekChurch,but the sacramenthasnever
developedinto the elaboratesystemfound in the West.
Confessionis technicallyrequired in the Syrian-Jacobite
Church, but laxity in enforcing this sacramenthas been
chargedupon the Jacobite priests since the time of the
Crusaders. Jacquesde Vitry, Bishop of Acre in 1217,declaredthat the Jacobites" confesstheir sins not to priests,

THE

EASTERN

LITURGIES

131

but to God aloneIn secret,setting frankincenseon fire beside them,,as though their sins would ascendto God in the
smoke thereof."1 In recent timesParry makesthe broad
generalization that confession is "almost obsolete" in this

church.2He addsthat it is doubtfulif it everimpliedany

more than a formal confessionof sin, as it is the custom,


where confessionis made, for severalto confesstogether

at thestepsof thealtar. Parry'sstatemen.wasonly partially confirmed for northern Syria, where I was informed

that the servicemight be read over a number of penitents


together, but that each must make confessionseparately.
According to another account given me by a man from
Mosul, the penitent kneels by himself before the priest,
who is seatedon the floor of the church. After repeating
the formulaof confession,
and detailinghis sins,thepenitent
answersthe questionsof the priest,,who then gives good
advice and pronouncesabsolution. Women must never
confessto an unmarried priest. A Jacobite told me that
his father receivedespecialpermissionfrom the bishop to
commune without confession. The laxity of the Jacobite

clergy in this matteris further illustrated by the caseof two


American _ travellers to whom, quite recently, the Jacobite
priest of Sudud (on the edgeof the Syrian desert)insisted
on giving the communion at the mass, even when they declared

themselves

to be Protestants

who do not confess to

a priest.

In the Greek Church3the liturgy is precededby an elaborate service,lasting about an hour, during which the elementsare preparedfor consecration. At the time of the
great schism, one of the chief questions in dispute was
whether leavened or unleavened bread should be used in

the communion.

The Eastern church stood for the former,

1<sHistoria HierosolymitanaAbbreviate" Latin found in Bongars's


" GestaDei per Francos." Our quotation is from the translation in the
eleventh volume of the Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society's Works, p. 73.

51
"Six Months in a Syrian Monastery," p. 342, by OswaldH. Parry
(London, 1895).

3When no exception Is stated, it may be assumedthat under this


phrasethe Greek Catholic Churchis also included.

132

RITUAL

OF

THE

EASTERN

the Church of Rome for the latter.

CHURCHES

After its closer union

with Rome5the Maronite Church adoptedthe useof the


leavenedbread, as havealso the AbyssinianCatholics,but
the other Uniate

churches

still

follow

the Eastern

custom.

The Greek Catholic Church, in its Council of 1S06,declared

the matter to be indifferent, thus justifying its own useof


the leavened bread while at the same time not condemning

the Romanpractice.1 In the Greekchurches-both Orthodox and United--the loaves or cakes used in the ordinary

massarefurnishedby the priest,beingusually preparedby


his wife with the family baking. They measureabout five
inchesin diameterand one-halfinch in thickness. They
are solid all through, and not hollow, as is much'of the
native bread. In the centre is stampeda seal measuring

1C

xc

NI

K A

one and a half inches across, with an abbreviation of

the Greek sentence:*lrjo-ov$xpicrrds"Nt/ca("Jesus Christ


conquers"). This sealis known in ordinary Arabic:as the

" je'sed,"or body.Thewholecakeiscalled'the"qurban,"


or the "oblation." On the Saturdaysespeciallyset apart
for the commemorationof the dead (as well as on other
similar but less formal occasions)loavesor cakesof precisely the samekind are furnishedby the people.
Severalvarying customsobtainin the JacobiteChurch in

thematterof furnishingthebread. I wastold bya former


"deacon" in northernSyriathat thepeopleusedto bring
1The acts of this council were;newerratified by Home.

THE

EASTERN

LITURGIES

133

flour to the churchon Saturdaynight In small bags. The


priest,after noting the amountbrought by each,wouldmix
the portions together,so that eachcontributor might feel
that his flour enteredinto the compositionof the one loaf
to be consecrated later.

He then would sift the flour, re-

serving the finer portion for the church and keeping the
rest himself. The dough should be kneadedby a virgin,
or by a young man, and baked in the house,not in the
public oven. The cakesaremuchsmallerand thinner than
thoseusedin the Greek Church, being barely two inches
across. They may be stamped in several ways: with
crosses,or with a dozenrosettes,divided in four parts by
a cross (the specimenof this variety which I have seen
came from a Syriac Catholic Church), or, on Maundy
Thursday, with the emblem of a lamb.1 My north Syrian
informant added that at the present time it is customary

for the peopleto substitutefor the weekly contribution of


flour a certain amount of corn, presentedto the priest
annually. A similar custom holds at Mosul, where the
peopleat odd timesmay makecontributionsof flour to the
qandaleft,or sexton,who is responsiblefor the making up
of the loaves. In Mardin the flour is said to be bought by
the diurdi.

The Preparationof the elementsis performedat the table


of oblations or small altar in the prothesis; but, as has
already beenstated, this may be no more than a shelf in a
niche of the east wall, to the north of the high altar.^ In
Arabic the .small table or niche is called the medhbah, or

altar of sacrifice,and the high altar, simply the rnayyidi,or


the table. While the Preparation2is in progressthe people

maybe presentin thenaveof thechurch,if theysodesire,


but they seeand hear nothing of the servicewhich is said
1The Abyssinianoblation sometimesbears the figuresof Christ and
the twelve Apostles.
2 At least two forms of this service exist.

One simply called "The

Arrangement" may be found in a work in Greek and English called


"The Divine and Sacred Liturgies of Our Fathers among the Saints
John Chrysostomand Basil the Great," edited by J. N. W. Robert-

BOB
(London).In the liturgypublished
iq GreekandArabicat the

134

RITUAL

OF

THE

EASTERN

CHURCHES

" secretly/' or whispered,as indeedare manyprayersof the


liturgy itself. The servicebeginswith the sacrifice. For
this is usedoneof the five stampedloaves,calledoblations,
or qurbanswhich the priesthasbroughtinto the sanctuary,
in commemoration

of the five loaves of the miraculous

feed-

ing.1 This chosenloaf is called the irpmri]. Taking this


in his left hand, the priest,using a small knife called the
lance, with his right cuts out the stamped seal, or the
" je'sed" (leaving,however,the under crust intact), quoting
at eachincision phrasesfrom the passagebeginning"He
was led as a lamb to the slaughter" (Isaiah 53). The seal
is then placedinverted on the paten for the sacrifice. This
is symbolizedby two deepincisionsmade in the form of a
cross(correspondingto the divisionsof the seal),but these
do not penetratethe upper crust,which thus servesto hold
the parts togetherwhen the sealis turned right sideupward
on the paten. The priest then piercesthe right side with
the lance,repeatingthe versedescribingthe piercingof our
Lord's

side from which

came forth

water

and

blood.

Im-

mediatelythe deacon-or the priest,if there be no deacon


present-pours wine and water into the chalice.
After the sacrifice there follows the preparation for the
commemoration of the living and the dead. The seal oc-

cupiesthe centre of the paten. To the right of this is now


placed,in commemoration
of the Virgin, a triangleof bread
smaller than the seal. This may be cut from one of the

"other four cakes or from the remaining portion of the


qurb&n,or oblation, from which the sealhasbeentakenfor
the sacrifice. I was told by a parish priest,who explained
the service to me, that this oblation was held in more es-

pecial honor than the rest. In a similar way, nine still


smaller portions-tiny triangles that would be formed by
press of the Holy Sepulchre, in Jerusalem, 1907, the service of preparation is divided into two parts, the first part is uned during the robing
of the priest, the washing of hands, etc., and the; second during the
actual preparation of the elements. The first portion differs considerably
in detail from the corresponding part in the London publication.
1 In the Syrian and Coptic Churches three or more cakcnarc brought
into the sanctuary, but only one i consecrated.

A1MIANCKMKNT

1C

XC

NI

KA

OP PORTIONS

OP HOLY

BEEAD

ON PATEN

I. The " Seal " cut from the centre of the Communion Loaf.
2. Law- triangle! to commemorate
the Virgin.
3. Small triangles to commemorate
the Archangels,
Prophets,
Apostles,
Martyrs, etc.
4. Crumbs to commemorate
the Patriarch or Bishop, Clergy arid People-living and dead.

THE

EASTERN

LITURGIES

135

the tip of the lance-are arrangedto the left of the seal,to


commemoratethe archangels,prophets,apostles,martyrs,

saints,anddoctorsof thechurch. Thepatriarch,or bishop,


of thediocese,foundersof thechurch,clergy,andpeople
(living and dead)are symbolized
by crumbsplacedbelow
the seal,to an indefinitenumber.1The crumbsmay be
taken from any one of the five loaves. At the closeof the
preparationtheseportions, small and great, are gathered
togetherwith a spongeunder the seal,awaiting the consecration at the liturgy itself. In the meantimethe paten
is covered with three veils, the corner of which rests on the

asterisk,a sort of frame preventing the lowest veil from


contactwith the holy bread. The portionsof the oblations
not thus reserved

for consecration

and communion

are cut

up by the sexton,to constitute the anti-doron, or blessed


bread,which is distributed to the peopleafter the liturgy,
in the manner of the paw heni used in France.2 As the
remainingportions of the oblation from which the seal,or
"body," has been cut are mingled with the rest, they are
held to lend a certain sanctity to all. The commemoration
itself immediately succeedsthe consecration in the liturgy.
On the two Saturdays dedicated to the commemoration

of the dead (one falling eight days before Lent and the
other on the Saturday before the Transfiguration) each
family may bring to the church five oblations, or loaves of

their own baking,wrappedin a cloth, with a paperinscribed


with namesof their dead. Money for the priest is also
enclosed. During the preparationthe priest takescrumbs
from one of the five loaves to symbolize the commemora-

tion of the dead in a particular family. At the end of the


massthe head of eachfamily receivesback his qurba-n,or
oblation(minus the partsusedin commemoration),
wrapped
in the cloth.

The rest of the loaves, which at any given

time*maynumberscores,are at the disposalof thepriest,


to breakup for distribution,to giveawaywhole,orto take
1Over the medhbahwhere the preparation is madesometimeshangs
paperwith a lint of people*
to he commemorated.
aIt IHHaitithat th most ascetic:amongthe Russianmonks takes no
othur food in Lent but this anti-doron.

136

RITUAL

OP

THE

EASTERN

CHURCHES

home, as he pleases. This practiceis not confinedto the


Saturdaysmentionedabove,but may obtain wheneverthe
dead are especiallycommemorated.
These oblations furnished by the people in commemora-

tion must not be confusedwith the large loavesbrought


to the church on the saint's day of someworshipper,who
by giving notice of. his intention "pre-empts the feast/'
For example,in a given church there may be severalmen
by the name of Thomas, but only one can celebrate Saint

Thomas'sday in this way. The loaves,which are sometimes eighteeninches across,are stamped in the centre
with a seal of the usual form, but of larger size, while five

smaller stamps appear around the circumference. They


do not bear the name oblation.

All five are blessed by the

priest at an especialservicein the nave,but no portionsof


them are consecrated. One loaf may be taken by the priest

for himself,one by the sexton,anothermay be broken up


for distribution after the service, and the other two may

be returnedto the man keepingthe feastto take home,as


a blessing. A Beyrout priest tells me that this practiceis
now moribund.

The preparation of the elementsin the Syrian Church


is conductedin the southernpart of the sanctuary. The
elaborateceremonyabovedescribed,including the cutting
out and sacrificing of the seal and the arrangement of the

commemorative
portionsof the broadaroundit on flu* paten,
is confined to the Holy Orthodox Church and to its derivative the Greek

Catholic.

For

the commemoration

of the

living and the dead in the Syrian and Maronite liturgies,


no such symbolismis used. In the Jacobite elmrelics in
Mardin, just beforethe commemorationthe priestadvances
to the door of the sanctuaryand reads from a list, those*
namesfor whosemention money has boon paid. Similar
lists are known in the Syrian Catholic*Churchesat Hums.
At the time of the commemorationthe priest makes the
sign of the crossover the paperand over the paten. In the
Syrian churches, however, the distribution of (he anti-

doron (Syriac: burctho) at the close*of the massoccupies


an evenmoreprominentfeature than it doesin the-*
(Ireek.

THE

EASTERN

LITURGIES

137

In some cases the number of cakes that a man receives Is

in direct proportion to the amountof flour he has contrib-

uted. Many of thesecakesare takenhomeby thebishop

to be distributed to the peopleat his receptionafter the


service. On Maundy Thursday, at Mosul, each churchgoer is entitled to receive two of these cakes, which the sex-

ton hasbrought to the church in two large sacks.1

Thescopeof thepresentwork forbidsa detailedanalysis


of the liturgiesthemselves.A few words,however,may

be said regardingsomepeculiarfeaturesconnectedwith the


kiss of peaceand with the communionitself. Under one
form or anotherthe kiss of peacefinds a placein all ancient
liturgies. Easternand Western,but in the SyrianChurchit
Is given a very especialprominence,in a ceremonywhich
vividly symbolizesthe actual kiss exchangedby members
of the earlychurch. That the form of this ceremonyvaries
in different churchesmay be indicated by a comparison,
which the reader may make for himself, betweenthe account
found here and that given by Parry in his " Six Months in

a Syrian Monastery/73 Though retained by the Syrian


Catholicsas a body, I am told that the practicehasfallen
into disuse in the cathedral church in Beyrout. The following account I received from a minor " deacon/' After

the recital of the creed,the,*


servingdeaconadvancesto the
priest, holding up the chain of the censerfor him to kiss;
this deaconthen kissesthe priest'shandas well asthe gospel,
after which he presentsthe chain for the other deaconsin
the sanctuaryto kiss; then, advancingto the door of the
sanctuary,he holdsup the chainin view of the congregation,
while the chief man of the church comes forward,

kisses

the chain, and then smooths down his cheeks and the sides

of his body, as if to communicatethe blessingto his whole


frame; then, turning to the nearestworshipper,he draws
the two palms of the handsof the latter betweenhis own,
thuspassingon the peace(salaam),and againsmoothsdown
his own cheeksand body; in a similar way the man who
1The anti-doron should bo blessedby the priest beforedistribution,
but I gather that this is not always done.
* Op. c&, p. 340.

138

RITUAL

OF

THE

EASTERN

CHURCHES

has just receivedthe peacemay passit on to a number


of worshippers,eachone of whom maydo the same,so that
In a short time the whole congregationhas shared in the
blessing. It is interestingto note that when the Moslem
processionbearing the sacredflags to Neby Milsa, or the
shrine of Moses,passesalong the streetsof Jerusalem,the
by-standerssmoothdown their facesand bodiesin a similar
manner. It may be added here that at different points of
the Syrian massthe deaconsbeat cymbalsand jingle fans
which consistof long staves,having a round plate at the
top encircledwith bells. In the Easternchurches,especially
in thosenot united to Rome, the peoplecummunicateinfrequently, usually only at Easter and at Christmas,and
perhapson the day of the patronsaint of the communicant.
In

the Jacobite

Churches

of Mosul

the Easter

communion

is made preferably on Maundy Thursday, in direct com-

memoration

of the institution.

The Church of Rome,followed by the Maronite, differs


from the purely Easternchurchesin allowingthe laity communion in one kind only.1 In the Coptic and Abyssinian
Churchesalone, however,do the people partake of the
wine separately. In the other churchesthere is considerable variation in the manner of combining the two elements.

We haveseenthat in the ("31


reek Church the priest consecratesonly the sealwhich hasbeencut out from theoblation,
togetherwith, the commemorativefragmentsand crumbs.
During the Fraction lie breaksthe seal into four parts, arrangingthem,in the form of a crosson the paten. The part
marked1Che putsin the chalice,after which headdswarm
water to the wine; the part markedXC ho partakesof himself, sharingwith the deaconand bishop,if theybe present.
Priest and deaconthen partakethrice of the cup; the other
two parts, marked NI and KA, together with the*commemo-

rativefragments,arealsoput in thecup. In communicating


the people,the priest mentionseachpersonby name,giving eachwith a spoon a minute portion of the fragment
1The practice which grew up in tho Roman Church of withholding

the wine from the laity was madebinding only in I5II3 at the*Council
of Trent.

THE EASTERN LITURGIES

139

marked1C,soakedIn the wine. The rest of the sopIs


consumed
at thecloseof theservice
by thedeaconor priest.
On certainweekdaysin Lent,whenthemassof the pre~
sanctifiedis said withoutconsecration,
thepriestdoesnot
partake of the cup. At the consecrationof the bread

whichhastakenplacethe previousSunday,thepriesthas
crossed the bread with consecrated wine three times, so
this element enters into the communion, but in a dried

form. Wine is poured into the chalice, as in ordinary


masses,but in the procession around the church, with the

paten and chalice previous to their being placed on the


high altar, the priest carries the chalice in his left hand,
instead of in his right, to signify that it containsonly ordinary wine, not destined to be transmuted into the blood of
Christ.1 The Armenian practice is not unlike the Greek,

though the whole oblation or cake is consecrated.This


the priest immersesin the wine, so that it may becomeentirely permeated. After partaking himself of the soaked
bread and then of the wine, he holds the cake down into

the full cup with OIK;hand, and with the other he breaks
off a tiny fragment, dips it again into the wine, and gives
to each communicant. In the Syrian churches,while the
priest and deaconcommunein both kinds separately,the
peoplereceivehardly more than a symbolof the wine, as
the cake is merely moistened, here and there, in crossing

lines, made;by a bit of the cakewhich the priest haspreviously broken off and dipped into the chalice.2 The priest
doesnot call the communicantsby name. The Maronite
Church strictly follows the Roman, not only in the use of
the unleavenedwafer, but in communicatingthe laity in
one kind only. I am informedthat the AbyssinianCatholics alsoobservethe Romanpractice.
1This is stated on the authority of a parish priest.

2At the Coptic and Abyssinian communion the cake is similarly


crossedby the wine, though the peoplepartake also of the cup.

140

RITUAL

II.

OF

THE

EASTERN

CHURCHES

BAPTISM,MARRIAGE,AND BURIAL

Thereis nofixed rule,applyingto all theEasternchurches,


to governthe positionof the baptismalfont. In the Greek
churches this is sometimes found in the south-west corner
of the nave.
In the Greek Catholic
Church
the south

end of the sanctuary may be used as a baptistery.

In

the JacobiteChurchesbaptismsmay be celebratedat the


north end. Amongthe Greeks,baptismsarecommonin private houses,but this practiceis forbiddenby the Jacobites.
While the baptismal services differ in detail in the different

Easternchurchesunderconsideration,theyhavethe following salient featuresin common: the exorcisingof the evil


spirit; the blessingof the water; the anointing of the child
with oil; the clothing of the child in white garments. In
all churches but the Maronite

a second sacrament, that of

confirmationby useof the holy chrism, or the meirun, immediately follows.

In the servicebooksof the Greek Church the exorcising


of the evil spirit is a part of a ceremonycalled the Making
of a Catachumen1
immediatelyprecedingthe actual service
of baptism. When deliveredin the sonorousArabic, with
the clear enunciationthat marked the utteranceof a priest
who conducteda private baptism in my hearing, these
prayersare most impressive. The following extract from
the first exorcism
Wortabet:2

follows

the excellent

translation

of Dr.

"The Lord God who becameincarnate and dwelt among


men, that he may break thy violence and save mankind,

rebukesthee, O Satan. ... I conjure thee by God who


manifestedthe tree of life and appointedeherubiniswith a
flaming sword to keepand preserveit. I conjure thee by
him who walked upon the seaas upon dry land, who relThus it is named In the "Book of Needs of the Holy Orthodox
Church," done into English by G. V. Shann (London, 1894). The
Arabic service book containing the rites of baptism, marriage, burial,,
etc., is called "Agiasmatari-el-Kebtr"
(Beyrout, 1884).
a "Religion in the East/' op. c&, p. 23.

BAPTISM,

MARRIAGE,

AND

BURIAL

141

buked the storm, whoselooks dry up the deepsand at


whose

threats

the mountains

melt.

He

now

commands

theeby us to fear and comeout and depart from this creat-

ure; and neither to return to him nor to be concealed In him,

nor to meethim with any evil act by day or by night, at the


middle of the day, or any other hour; but do thou go to
Tartarus appointed for thee, until the great day of judgment. . . . Come out and depart from him who has been
sealed and elected

to be a new soldier

of Jesus Christ

our

God. I conjure thee by him.who walked on the wings of


the wind and who makes his angels a flame of fire.

Come

out and depart from this creature,thou and all thy powers
and angels!JJ

After the three exorcisms the priest breathes on the


child's body "in the manner of a cross/' saying: "Dispel
from him every evil and polluted spirit which may lurk in
his heart-the spirit of error, and evil, and Idolatry, and Intemperance,and excess,the spirit of lying and of all abomination producedby the suggestionof the devil. Grant
him to be a rational lamb In the holy flock of Christ, an
honorable member of thy church . . . and thus attain the

joy of thy saintsin the kingdom."

With the Maronites the exorcisms are also three, two

being uttered at the door of the church, wherethe priest


receivesthe child. Besidesbreathing"crosswise" on the
child's face, the priest blessessomesalt which he puts in
the child's mouth, saying: "Receive, O child, this salt of
wisdom that it may benefit thee to everlastinglife." l In
the secondexorcismare found the words: "I adjure thee,
thou evil and accursedspirit, in the nameof the Father and
of the Son and of the Holy Ghost, that thou depart from
this thy servantIn the strengthof the Lord Christ, by which
he walkedon the wavesof the seaas if It weredry land, and
in the strengthby which he put forth his hand and saved
Peter

when he was about

to sink."

After

the third

exor-

cism, which takes place within the church itself (following


the recital of the Lord's Prayer and of the Nicene Creed),
the priest, placing his hand on the noseof the child, says:
1This practice appearsto be borrowedfrom the Latin church.

142

RITUAL

OF

THE

EASTERN

CHURCHES

en^ O nostrils, and breathe in the sweet odors of God,


and flee thou accursed one baSled becausethe judgment

of God Is upon thee." 1 I havenot examinedthe Jacobite


service, but I am told that the exorcisms are brief, being

uttered "secretly3'by the priest.


In the Greek Church the service for making catachumens concludes with an elaborate catechism or dialogue

betweenthe priest and the child representedby his or her


godparent. The questionsare pressedwith solemniteration. Turning the candidateto face the west, the priest
first

asks three times:

"Dost

thou renounce

the devil

and

all his works, etc?'* and then again three times, as if to


place the matter beyondany possibledoubt: "Hast thou
renounced the devil?"

After the last answer the priest

exclaims:"Spit on the devil!" whichcommandis supposed


to be obeyed'by the godparentat once. In the sameway,
after the godparentwith the child in the arms has been
turned to facethe east,comethe questions,eachput three
times:
"Hast

"Dost
thou make a covenant with
thou made a covenant with Christ?"

Christ?"
and
After the re-

cital of the creed,which is to be repeatedthreetimes, the


last question is asked once more, after which follows a short

prayer that the child may be madeworthy of baptism.


In the Maronite servicethe catechisingof the child as
to its belief (through the godparent)takesplace after the
anointing. Thus in both the Byzantine and Maronite ser-

vicestwo identical ideasare emphasizedbeforethe act of


baptism: the expulsionof the evil spirit and the acceptance
of the faith. In the private Greek baptism which I witnessed the child

was taken

off to be undressed

after

the

catechising.
The Greek baptismalserviceproper beginswith several
prayersfollowed by the consecrationof the water. In the
prayerof consecrationoccurthe followingpetitions: " Make
it a fountain of immortality, granting sanctity, forgiving
1Seethe book containing the rites of baptism, betrothal, marriage,
extreme unction, etc., printed at Rome in 1840, in "Karnhuni," with
the Latin title: "Ritus administrandi nonnulla sacram., ad usum eccl.
Antiochena

Haronitarurn."

BAPTISM,

MARRIAGE,

AND

BURIAL

143

sins, dispelling desires,destroying devils, unapproachable


to satanicpowers,full of angelicpower. . . . We pray that
no evil spirit may descend with the baptized into it. . . .
And do thou, O Lord, who lias bestowed on us from above

regenerationby water and by the spirit, come upon this


water, and grant the candidate for baptism to be changed
by his putting off the old man, which is corrupt according to the deceitful lusts, and by putting on the new man,
which is createdanew after the imageof his Creator,etc.5'l
Later a large cross is made on the water by dropping in
the consecrated

oil.

In the Maronite servicethe priest lets fall three drops of


tallow from a lighted candle into the water,saying: "In this
water man is regenerated by a new birth, and becomes the
first-born of Heaven. . . . Drive out, O Lord, every evil

spirit and everysatanicwile from this water, that nothing


opposedto the mystery of baptism may have influencein
it, now or forever." The priest also breatheson the water,
plungesinto it a lighted candle, and puts in it someof the
oil of baptismas well as someof the meirun, or holy chrism,
a practiceheld in common with the Jacobites.
In the consecrationof the holy oil among the Greeks
the priest breathesupon it praying that it may become
"an unction of immortality, a weapon of righteousness,
a
regenerationof soul and body." The priest then anoints
the child in the form of a cross on forehead, breast, back,

ears, feet, and hands, with appropriate sentences,as, for


example,in anointing the ears "for the hearing of faith";
in anointing the feet " that he may walk in thy paths." It
is interestingto noteherethat the Moslemsin their required
ablutionsbeforeprayermay usesimilar petitionsappropriate
to the washingof the various members. Thus, in washing
the ears they say: "Make me, O God, to be of thosewho
hear thy word and perform it!" The Maronites anoint
the breastand shouldersof the child. Accordingto Parry*
the Jacobitepractice is to anoint the whole body.
Triple immersion is obligatory with the Greeks, who
recognizethe validity of no other form; is sometimesprae1Translation of Dr. Wortabet, op. c&, p. 27.

144

RITUAL

OF

THE

EASTERN

CHURCHES

tised by the Jacobites; and is not forbiddento the Maronites, who once uniformly practicedit. With the Greeks
the infant is passedthree timesrapidly through the water,
first in the name of the Father, then in the name of the Son,

and lastly in the nameof the Holy Spirit. WhenI saw the
rite performed,the priest first straightenedthe arms of the
Infant, clutchedit firmly with onehand, and kept the mouth
and nostrils closedwith the fingersof the other, so as to
prevent choking during the processof immersion. With
the Maronites,the baptismis performedby pouringa handful of water on. the child's head three times, once for each

personof the Trinity. In the JacobiteChurch immersion


may be complete,aswith the Greeks,or partial, by dipping
the child up to its neck threetimesin the font (so Parry).
In some cases the child is held erect in the font, with the

waterup to its neck,while the priest pours threehandfuls


of water

on its head.

After a Greek baptism the priest dries the child with a


toweland clothesit in a white robe,cap,and girdle,offering
an appropriateprayer. He then proceedswith the second
sacramentof confirmation,anointing the child on the forehead, eyes,nose, mouth, ears, breast, hands, and feet with

the holy chrism,or melrun,consecrated


by a patriarch1and
twelvebishops. Though performedby a priest, confirmation,with the Greeks,as truly as with the Latins, is a purely
episcopalfunction, the priest acting merelyas representative of the bishop. The mcirun,so a learnedGreek prelate explainedto me, symbolizesthe episcopallaying on
of hands.

In

the Jacobite

Church

the rite of the chrism

may precedethe dressingof the child, in caseswherethe


chrismatic oil is smearedover the whole body, a practice
commonbut not universal.3 Sometimes
the little baptismal
suit of clothes is owned by the church. This must be re-

turnedafter the "ghusl," performedby the priest the same


* Seep. 162.
2 In Mosul the priest touches the different parts of the ehild'H body
with his thumb, which luis been smeared with the meirun, then pours
the rest in the palm of his own hand, with which he scours the child's
head.

BAPTISM, MARRIAGE, AND

145

day or the day after, when the meirun Is washedoff. With


the Greeksthis washingis appointedto be done In church
by the priest sevendays after the baptism, an observance
mademuch of by the Hellenic Greeks. In Syria, however,
the meirun is usually washedoff at once by the godmother
quite informally, unlessthe priest happensto be present,
in which casehe may say one of the appointed prayers.
Both the water of baptism and the water of the washing
should be poured off in someclean place, to escapepollution.

With the Maronites the priest washes the child before

clothing it in a white veil, and immediatelyafter anointing


its foreheadwith the meirun, the latter ceremonybeing a
curiousinstanceof a symbolsurviving the thing symbolized,
and recallingthe old times when the Maronite infants like
all other Syrianswereconfirmedimmediatelyafter baptism.
Confirmation is now administered, according to the Roman

custom,to children of sevenyears old and upward, during


an episcopalvisitation.
In the Greek and Syrian Churches,the child, having
been confirmedin full membershipby use of the chrism,
maynow be communicated. Accordingto the Greekusage,
the priest places,with a spoon,on the tongueof the infant
a minute bit of the sop,brought in a small vial. With the
Jacobites,the wafer is passedover the lips of the child
and then given to the godparent to eat. The formal servicesalwaysterminatewith a processionaround the church,
or room, where the baptism has been performed. The
priest then takesdown, for registrationat the patriarchate,
the baptismal name,which is that of the patron saint and
may be quite different from the nameby which the child is
actually to be called.
Before celebrating a marriage between two people in
any one of the Eastern churches, the priest must ascertain

the exact degreeof relationshipwhich may exist between


them. This is especiallyimportant in view of two facts:
not only is it the customfor a youth to seeka bride among
his relations, but the fee for the episcopalor patriarchal

146

RITUAL

OF

THE

EASTERN

CHURCHES

licenseto marry within the prohibited degreesvaries with


the nearnessof the relationship. In computing the degreeof relationshipthe Easternchurch.countsall persons
up to the commonancestors. For example,first cousins
are said to be related in the fourth degree; an uncle and
his niece In the third degree; children of first cousins in

the sixth degree. The Greek Church prohibits marriage


(without especiallicense)in the sixth degree. In no case
mayfirst cousinsmarry. Accordingto the actsof the Council of the Lebanon the Maronites are forbidden to marry

within the eighth degree.,Easterncomputation,fourth degree,Latin computation. Licenses,however,coverthe marriage of first cousins.1
In Syria and Palestinethe usual time /or solemnizing
weddingsis Sunday. At the villageof Mahardy, in northern Syria, where the populationis Greek Orthodox, there
is but one wedding day in the year, usually a Sunday in
October. The priest goes from house to house, reading
the marriage service over each couple in an abbreviated
form.

The festivities, however, are celebrated in common

during four or five days when the wholevillage thinks of


nothing else.
In the ritual

of the Greek

Church

the offices of betrothal

and coronation(the marriage proper) constitutetwo separate services. For a second marriage the two are com-

bined in the abbreviatedoffice called simply a marriage


service. In former years in Syria the betrothal service was
used at the time of the actual engagement to marry, which

might precedethe weddingby an indefinite period. The


sanctity of the service,however, was threatenedby the
scandalof broken engagements,
hencesometwenty years
ago, so I am told, the formal betrothalservicewas postponedto the time of the wedding,and a shorterservicewas
authorizedfor the time of contract,it beingstipulatedthat
the party breakingthe engagement
shouldpaya certainsum.
1Divorce is permitted by the Greek Church but not by the Uniatc
Bodies. A Greek lawyer informed me that a man may divorce his

wife for adultery and for conspiringto kill him. A woman may divorceher husbandon the latter but not on the former ground.

BAPTISM,

MARRIAGE,

AND

BURIAL

147

For the betrothal the Eastern churchesuse rings. The


Greek rubric prescribesa gold ring for the man and a silver
ring for the woman,but as far as I am awarethe distinction
is no longer made in Syria, both rings being of gold. According to the rubric, beforeputting on the rings the priest
first pronouncesthe engagementformula three times over
the man: "The servant of God, M, is betrothed to the

handmaidof God, N, in the name,etc.," signinghim each


time in the form of a cross, touchinghis foreheadwith his
ring. He then pronounces the same formula over the
woman (namesbeing inverted), signing her foreheadwith
her ring. Finally^ he signs the foreheadof eachwith two
rings held together. This practiceis sometimeselaborated
in Syria as follows: At each repetitionof the formula over
the man the priest toucheshis foreheadwith his ring, then
the woman's forehead with the same, then, as he adds "In

the nameof, etc.," he makesthe sign of the crossby touching with the ring the groom'sforehead,breast,right shoulder, and left shoulder. The sameprocess,mutatismutandis,
is repeatedwith the woman's ring. The betrothal ends
with a long prayer.

In the Easternchurchesthe marriageofficeis called the


coronation,from the "crowns" usedduring the ceremony.
Indeed,a Syrian, in announcinghis marriage,will say: "I
havebeencrowned for such a girl." The following is the
orderin the Greek Church,as found in Syria and Palestine:
Lighted candlesbeing placed in the hands of the bridal
pair, the priestreadsthe 128th Psalm,with responsesto be
chanted by the singers. After this follows a speciesof
litany not found in the Russian service, which substitutes

questionsto bride and groom regarding their intentions to


marry and their freedomfrom other matrimonial engagements. The three prayersthat follow are practically the
samein both the Syrian and Russianservices. The first
two prayersarelong, and teemwith Scriptural referencesto
the married state. Among manyother things,supplication
is made that the pair may enjoy the blessingsthat were
granted to Abraham and Sarah, to Isaac and Rebecca, to

Jacob and Rachel, to Josephand Asenath,to Moses and

148

RITUAL

OF

THE

EASTERN

CHURCHES

Zipporah^to Zachariasand Elizabeth;1 that they may re~


ceivethe protectionextendedto Noah In the ark, to Jonah
la the belly of the whale,to the three children in the fire;
and that they may havea chastelife; love for one another
iri the bond of peace;graceupon their childrenand grandchildren; housesfull of cornand wine; all earthlyblessings^
and an unfadingcrown of glory.
The last prayer, in part, is as follows: aO Thou Holy
God who formed man from dust, and fashioned the woman

from his side,and joined her to him for a helpmate,for thus


it pleasedthy Majesty that man shouldnot be aloneupon
the earth; do Thou now, O Lord, stretch forth thy hand
from thy holy habitation and unite thy servantM to thy
handmaidN, for from theeproceedsthe union of man and
woman, etc."

At the mention of the names in the fore-

going prayer, the priest hookstogetherthe little fingersof


their right hands,which so remain during the rest of the
service.

The priest then takes a wreath of flowers, called the


"crown/3 and touchesthe man's head, sayingthe words:
"The servant of God, M, is crowned for the servant of God,

N, in the name,etc/' Then touching the woman'shead


with the samecrown, he says the words a secondtime;
finally, the crown is placedon the man's head while the
formula

is said for the third time.2 Then follows the crownfor the man JJin a precisely similar way.

ing of the woman "

Then the priest, stretchingout his crossedarms toward


the headsof the pair, announcesthe blessingof the crowns
three times: "May the Lord our God crown them with

glory and honor." 3 Here follows the Epistle (Eph. 5 : 20)


and the Gospel(Saint John 2 : 1). After more prayers
1In the Moslem marriage ceremony the qudhi (judge) prays for such
mutual love upon the pair as existed between Adam and Eve, Abraham
and Sarah, Mosesand Zipporah, Mohammed and Ayenha, etc. Seep. 288,
2 The rubric requires that the formula should be said three times
over each one, but the touching of the woman's head with the xnan's
crown, and vice-versa, is merely popular practice.
3 During the first blessing the right arm in crossed over the loft;
during the second, the left over the right, and finally, during the last,
the right over the left again.

BAPTISM,

MARRIAGE,

AND

BURIAL

149

and somechanting, the congregationrepeats the Lord?s


Prayer.

The priest then takes a cup of wine and blessesIt with


the following prayer: "O God, who createdall things by
thy power,and confirmedthe inhabitedearth by thy might,
and adorned the crown of all things createdby thyself,
blesswith a spiritual blessingthis cup of communion,etc.3*
This is not the sacramentalwine, but the name cup of
communion("common cup" or "shared cup") indicates
that it symbolizes the spiritual union of man and woman.

Of this wine both partake three times. Then the priest


leadsthe married pair around in a circle,while the groomsman holds on their crowns from behind.

Then, as lie takes

off their crowns,the priest says,first to the man: "May


God magnify thee, O bridegroom,as Jacob, and may He
bless thee as Isaac, and may He give thee increaselike
Jacob. Live thou in peace,and follow in righteousness
the commandments

of

God."

And

then

to the woman:

"And thou, O bride, may God magnify theeas Sarah,and


mayHe maketheejoyful as Rebecca,and give theeincrease
like Rachel. Be glad with thy husband,and keepthe law
of chastity without sin, for this is well-pleasingto God."
Eight daysafter the marriagethe priestis supposedto take
off the crownswith the prayer given in the manual, but
this practicehas now lapsed in Syria.
In the Maronite Church the betrothalwith ringsand the
"coronation," or marriageceremony,are united in a single
service. A formal engagement
usedto be readat the time of
contract,but this has now lapsedin the usage. The marriage servicebegins with the blessingof the rings by the
priest. In presentingthesehe saysto eachin turn: " May
the right hand of the Lord be given unto theewith grace."
Then follows the blessingof the "crowns,",which may be
either wreathsor rosaries. At a Lebanon church weddjng
which I attended, the wreaths were made of natural flowers:

rosesand carnations,with greenleaves. After the Epistle


(Eph. 5 : 22-23) and the Gospel.(Matt. 19 : 3-6) follows
a prayerin which the Lord is besoughtto blessthe crowns
to the pair with the blessingvouchsafedto Abraham and

150

RITUAL

OF

THE

EASTERN

CHURCHES

Sarah, Isaac and Rebecca,Jacoband Rachel. The pair


are then crownedwith the prayer that they may receive
the crown of righteousness.The Greekcustomof touching the bride'sforeheadwith the groom'scrown, and viceversa, is not observed. A crown is also put on the head of

the groomsman,or, if he be married, in his hand. The


bridesmaid is also crowned. In the subsequentexhortation

to the bridal prayer, the groom is urged to love his wife;


not to insult her; not to strike her nor to curse her relations.

The bride is urged not to disobeyher husbandunlesshe


command her to sin; not to tell his secrets; not to come
between him and his relations; not to answer him with

bitter words. The priest then joins their right handsand


pronouncesthe marriage formula in the name of the
Trinity. After various prayersand responsesthe priest
loosesthe handsof the pair and takesoff the crowns,saying: "Thou who didst wear the crown of thorns to take
from us the thorns of sin, removefrom this pair theseperishablecrowns,and placeupon them the crown that;never
perishes.3'The ceremonycloseswith anotherexhortation
and a prayer.

At the Lebanonweddingat which I was presentthere


followed a "procession,"in which,the bride did not join,
A small spacewas clearedaroundwhich the priest circled,
walking backward, thus facing the groom,who carried a
veiled crucifix, followed by the singers,eachcarrying the
half of a pair of cymbals which he clangedwith a book.
Behind thesewere boys with candles. The chantingwas
to a weird native tune. . Indeed, all through,the service
eventhe amenswere renderedin a sort of cadenzastyle,
full of rouladesand shakesand quirks. At the end the
groom kissedthe crucifix and then the priest'shand.
With the Syrians (Jacobitesand Syrian Catholics) the
"crowns"

are not wreaths, but fillets or embroidered hand-*

kerchiefs. Taking a fillet in his hand, the priest holds it


over the head of the groom, shakingit well, to symbolize
the descentof the Holy Spirit, and uttering thesewords:
"From

Heaven has come this crown in the* hands of our

Saviour; and the priest will placeit on theheadof him who

BAPTISM,
deserves It."

MARRIAGE,

AND

BURIAL

He then shakes the same fillet

151

over the head

of the bride, and once again over the head of the groom.
A similar processis gone through with the bride's fillet.1
The fillets are then tied around the necksof the pair, the
endsbeing tucked under their clothes. In someplacesfor
the fillets are substituted embroidered handkerchiefs, which,

after the shaking,are tied respectivelyto the tarboosh(fez)


of the man and the head-gear of the woman. The grooms-

man hasa handkerchiefsimilar to the groom's. Moreover,


around the necks of each of the three is bound a scarf,
which

is then crossed down

over the back.

These fillets

or

handkerchiefsshould'not be unloosedtill the priest takes


them off, with an especialprayer, sometimeswithin a day
or two. In someplacesthe handkerchiefsare then sent,
for good luck, to unmarried friends. In neither the Maronite nor the Syrian servicedo the pair drink wine as with
the Greeks.
With

the Maronites

the rite

of extreme

unction

is ad-

ministeredwhen the personis supposedto be at the point


of death. The serviceis in Arabic. The priest anoints
the eyeswith the sacredoil, praying that the sins of sight
may be forgiven,and then anoints the ears,nostrils,mouth,
hands,and feet. Referenceis made in the final prayer to
the commandsof the ApostleJames,to pray over the sick,
anointing them with oil, and petition is madethat the sick
man may be restoredto health. The Greeksemphasize,in
the administration

of the sacrament of unction,

the feat-

ure indicated in the last phrase. The rite may be employedduring any period of an illness, not being supposed
to have any peculiar efficacy at the moment of death.
Thus the idea of "extreme unction7' is lacking. Confession and communion,however,are supposedto be administerefl while the dying man is still conscious,though nonobservance in case of a sudden death is not regarded as

a calamity. "It was God's will/* they say. The oil of


unction is consecratedin a long and elaboraterite by seven
priests twice a year. Sick peoplemay be brought to the
1 With the Jacobites a fillet la also shaken over an infant at baptism.

152

RITUAL

OF

THE

EASTERN

CHURCHES

church at the time of this service, to be formally anointed

by eachpriest separately. People,however,wheneverthey


aresick, may anoint themselves
with no formal rite, if they
haveby them at homea bit of cottonwhich hasbeensoaked
in the oil. Should the cotton becomedry, the efficacy is
not lost.

In the Greek Church the funeral service for laymen is

very long, but about one-third of it may be omitted if the


late hour of the day or other causefor hasteshoulddemand
this.1 As Easterweek is a seasonof peculiarjoy, the rubric

directs

that

an abbreviated

service should

be used at

this time always. The office for the burial of priests is


almost twice as long as that for laymen; for example,five
extractsare read from both Gospelsand Epistles. There
is also an especialservicefor monks as well as for infants.2

The servicefor laymen beginsat the house,where the


priestincensesthe body,which haspreviouslybeenwashed,
but with no especialprayer. As the processionis on the
way to the churchthe priest intoneschants. In the church
itself, after variousprayersand psalms,and a sort of litany
with responses,there follows a seriesof eight odes,each,
endingwith an apostropheto the Virgin. After this series
comesthe Idiomehi of John of Damascus,in eight parts,
eachpart chantedto a different tone: quaint meditations
on death, full of an old-world flavor.

Then come the beati-

tudes, interspersedwith more reflections,Epistle (Thess.


4 : 13-17) and Gospel (John 5 : 24-30).

Here follows the

chantedinvitation to friends to advanceand give the lust


kiss to the dead. Parts of this I give in free translation:

"Come, O brothers,let us give the last kiss to the dead,


thanking and praising God. For he has left his kinsfolk
1With all sectsin the East burial takes place if possibleon the clay
of the

death.

2 This service may be used for children up to the age of ten or twelve,
except where the bishop insists on an earlier date for its discontinuance.

The service assumes that

the

infant

dies without

win.

The

JacobiteChureli makes the sameassumptionand has an especialservice. This church has separate burial offices for men and women, but

they differ only in the Scripture lesson.

BAPTISM, MARRIAGE, AND BURIAL

153

and relations, and now goes to the grave in haste. No


more has he concern for the vanities of the flesh and its

heavy toil.

Where now are we his kinsfolk and his friends ?

For we are parted from him: thereforelet us beseechthe


Lord to give him rest.3* This chantwanderson and on, in
a leisurely strain of gentlemelancholy,dwelling on the futility of this presentlife and on the barrennessand silence
of the grave rather than on the joys of heaven, though
theseare touchedupon. It closeswith thesewords, put
in the mouth

of the dead

man himself:

"O

brothers

and

friends and acquaintancesand relatives,if ye take note of


me lying here voicelessand deprivedof breath, weepover
me, all of you! For but yesterdayI was speakingto you,
and now suddenlythe hour of dreaddeath hascomeupon
me. But approachall ye that love me, and kiss me with
the last kiss, for never shall I walk with you again,nor hold
conversewith you. I depart now unto the Judge who
knows no partiality and no respectof persons;for the slave
and the master, the king and the warrior, the rich and the

poor shall stand together in the samedegree. Therefore,


I beg that you pray Christ God for me unceasingly,that I
be not appointedto the place of torment for my sins, but
that He appoint my lot whereis the light of life/*
In the servicefor a child the invitation to give the last
kiss is evenstill more touching: "Who wouldnot weep,my
child, at thy sad removal from this world? . . . For, like
a bird, thou hast quickly flown before thy time, and to the
Maker of all things hast taken thy course. O my child,
who would not weepand lament to behold now faded the
beauty of thy face, that once was like a rose for comeliness?. . . Come, O my friends and relativesand neighbors, that togetherwe may kiss this child as we commit
him to the grave/'
The coffin being opened,opportunity is then given to
the friends to kiss the dead. After more prayersthe priest
repeatsthree times in a loud voice thesewords: "Eternal
is thy memory,O our brother; worthy of blessingand of
lasting remembrance
I" The absolution,pronouncedover

thecorpsein theRussianservice,
is not foundin theArabic

154

RITUAL

OF

THE

EASTERN

manual. The body Is then carried to the grave whereIt


Is sprinkled with dust In the form of a cross, and on it
is poured the oil from the Iamp5or else ashesare scattered from the censer.1 The priest closesthe sen-icewith
the following words: "Glory be to God who thus has
wrought!"
All the burial services in the Maronite

Church are In

Syriac. The especialoffice for a patriarch I attendedon


the occasion of the death of his Beatitude, Boulos Mes'ad,

Maronitepatriarchfrom 1854to 1890. This wasconducted


In the small church attached to the convent of B'kerky,
now a fine establishment, but at that time*consisting of a

humble group of buildings,which the Patriarch Boulosrefusedto improveor enlarge. "My Master lived on earth
as a poor man/5 he Is reportedto havesaid; "why should
his followerslive in luxury?'7 On the clay of the funeral
the chancelwas packed with priests,among whom a few
Greek and Armenian Catholics chanted their own prayers

beforethe Maronite rite began. In the chancelwere also


placed the distinguishedguests: the pope'sdelegate,the
French consul-general,
the headof the Jesuit mission,and
membersof the Maronite nobility. Court and corridors
were denselycrowded, while Lebanonsoldiersattempted
to preserveorder at the door of the church. The dead
patriarch,dressedin full canonicalsand coveredwith his
orders,including the decorationof the Legion of Honor,
receivedfrom Napoleon III, and the First Order of the
Medjidie, conferredon him by the sultan, was seatedupright in an arm-chairplacedin an openingin the altar rails.
In onehand wasa largecross,In the other his pastoralstaff.
His refined,delicateface, framed by .soft,silky white hair
and beard, preservedIn death his sweetand gentle expression. Behind him stooda priest on guard- After the
burial servicewas closedby a simpleand eloquentaddress
given by one of the bishops,the patriarch'soutergarments
were changed,but the lace pallium sent from Rome was
1 Dust and oil from the lamps are both used at tho Jacobite fu-

nerals. The latter is appliedover the clothesin the form of three large
crosses.

THE

CHURCH

YEAR

155

again put upon him. Then followed a somewhatghastly


scene, as the chair was hoisted into the air and the dead

prelate was borne by men in slow processiona number of


times around the church, while the mitre shook and almost

Ml over. Outsidethe church the body wasseatedin a sort


of sedan-chairwith curtains, and carried to a large oak,
whereit restedduring the deliveryof speeches
by a number
of laymen. Then the bishopsand chief guestsreturned to
the convent for dinner, with more speeches,at least one of

which containeda referenceto the coming patriarch. In


the meantimethe sedan-chairhad again been raised on
the shouldersof peasants,who werebearingit two thousand
feet or more up the steepmountain-sideto the little village
of 'Ashqut, wherethe patriarch had beenborn of poor and
humbleparents. Many relationsfollowedwith the peasants
of the district. As the processionapproacheda village,
the menof the placewould comeout and put their shoulders
under the sedan-chair,to bear it to the next village. The
interment was in a vault of the church of 'Ashqut, where,
in accordance

with

the universal

Eastern

rule for the burial

of bishops,the body of the patriarch was seatedin a chair.


At the church of Ghosta, referredto already, two bishops
are buried in vaults
church itself.

or chambers

III.
The

Greek

THE

Orthodox

in the thick

CHURCH

walls

of the

YEAR

and the Jacobite

Churches

still fol-

low the Julian calendar,now thirteendaysbehindtheGregorian calendar, to which, as we have seen, the bodies united to

Rome, the Greek Catholic Melchites, the Syrian Catholics,


and the Maronites

now conform.

In 1908 the ecumenical

patriarchat Constantinopleaskedhis synod to join him in


the effort

to have the calendar

referred

to a committee

of

scientific men chosen from the universities of the world, in

order that they might adjust, finally, the chronologicaldifferences between the Eastern and the Western churches,

which he declaredto be mattersquite removedfrom theology or churchmanship. The synod refused,but the in-

15G

RITUAL

OF THE

EASTERN

CHUHCHKS

cidentis significant.1The inconvenience


to a community
of maintaininga double calendaris great, as it involvesa
doubledating of ordinary businessletter*?,as, for example,
October22/November4.
The Syrian ecclesiastical-,
year begins with the 1st of
October, which is still commemorated in the Afaronite

calendar.2 The Greek year beginson the 1st of September. In all churchesabstentionfrom work is required on
the greatmovablefeasts. With theMaronit.eslabor should
also be suspendedon twenty-twofixed feastdays; with the
Greeks,on twenty. Fourteenof thesefeastsfall theoretically on the samedates,though,owing to the differenceof
calendar, with the Greeks they arc actually cdehratcd
thirteen days later than the Maronites.3
The fasts of the Eastern church have always been more

frequentandmorerigorousthanthoseof fhr Western. In

the Greek communionthey may amount to two hundred


and twenty-sixdays of the year, including all Wednesdays
and Fridays. Besides'Lent there arc three great periods
of fasting. The Fast of the Nativity (Advrnt) lasts forty
days; the Fast of the Apostlesis variable in length, beginning with Whit-Mondayand terminatingon the <*\vof the
Feast of Saint Peter and Saint Paul, June 21); then* is also

a fast of fourteendays precedingthe Feastof flic Repose


of the Virgin, August 15.

Meal:.,eggs,cheese,mid milk arc

forbiddenin all fasts. Fisli may IK*eatenduring the fasts


of the Apostlesand of the Nntivity (exceptCHIWednesdays
and Fridays),and alsoon PalmSundayand flic Pcasfof the
Transfiguration,which falls in the Fast,of the Virgin. In
the towns of Syria considerablelaxity is said to prevail
among the Orthodox in the matter of fasting. TlirorHi1Seearticle, "From Rome to Constantinople,'1d^Hfribing an interview with the ecumenical patriarch, by Dr. Silas Mdiw
man," June 3, 1911).

(''The- Church-

aSeethe completeMaronito calendarin my article on th>Muromt^,


op. tit,, pp. #08-318.
era, and local saints.

It containH a curious mixture of Ka;*tk;niWest-

31
For list of fctwta when MaroniloHmid Greeksfurlm! work, HintAp-

pendix.

THE

CHURCH

YEAR

157

cally, all thosefasts are incumbenton the GreekCatholics,


but many indulgences are granted.

In generalthe Jacobitefasts are the sameas the Greek.

However,the Fast of the Nativity lastsonly fifteendays


and that of the Apostles only twelve. During the third
week beforeLent the Syriansfast Mondays and Tuesdays
as well as Wednesdays. This is called the Fast of Nineveh.

The very strict are said to abstain absolutelyfrom all food


from the Sunday supper to the mid-day meal of Wednesday. The Syrian Catholics are granted many indulgences
in the observanceof thesefasts. Fasting with the Maronites is even less severe. The Fast of the Nativity lasts
only twelve days, that of the Apostlesonly four, and that
of the Virgin, in August, only eight. Members of the
Society of the Scapular of Our Lady of Mount Carmel
abstain from meat on Saturdaysas well as on Wednesdays
and Fridays, when they also are forbidden eggsand milk.
Spaceforbids us to follow the Eastern ritual systematically, but someof the peculiar practiceswhich take place
during the ecclesiasticalyear may be briefly noticed. In
the Maronite Church, on December15, the priest consecrates two wafers; he partakes of one and the other he
puts in the ciborium on the altar, to be elevatedevery
evening from the 10th to the 24th, in commemorationof
the nine months of the Virgin's pregnancy. On Christmas eve he partakesof the secondwafer. Sometimesfor
this ceremonyis substituted the carrying of the picture of
the Infant Jesusaround the church on the nine days precedingChristmas. In someof the largerMaronite churches
may be found representations
of mangers,with toy images
of the Mother and Child, cattle, and sheep. This is quite
unknown in the Greek churches,where imagesare not
tolerated. There is a quaint ancient Christmas practice
still obtaining in someof the Syrian churchesof the interior
-Catholic

as well as Jacobite-to

commemorate the vigil

of the shepherds
in the bitter cold of the fieldsof Bethlehem. On the stonepavementof the naveis heapeda pile
of wood; around this stand children dressed in white, hold-

ing torches made of brushwoodwith which they kindle

158

RITUAL

OF THE

EASTERN

CHURCHES

the bonfire. As this blazestip the priest reads the early


Christmas

service.

CuriousancientSyrian practicesare sometimesalso connectedwith the blessingof the holy water at the Feast of

the Baptismof Christ,January3. After the servicethe


wateris distributedamongthe people,to be takenhomo in
small bottles;but one bottle is kept on the altar, to be min-

gledwith thewaterthat is to beconsecrated


thenextyear.
In churcheswherethis practicehasbeenlong handeddown,
tllis holy water is said to be as old as the buildings themselves. In some cases, instead of a general distribution,

the water is sold to the highestbidder, the proceedsgoing


to thechurch. Anotheranalogywith the Protestant church
fairsof the UnitedStatessometimesappearsat this service.
The priest makesan auction of the Bible, the large cross,
the ikons,etc.,which belongto the church. To carry these
in the processionafter the holy water is an honor worth
paying for, and this honor falls to the lot of the highest
bidders for these articles, which, when all is over, are re-

storedto their placesin the sanctuaryor on the ikonostasis,


as the case may be. In the Maronite celebration of this

feastthe priest takes a coal from the mi.serand immerses


it thricein the bowl of holy water,which is Interdistributed
among the people. Similar distribution is made among
the worshippersof the (/reek Church,whoaresupposed,on
each of the seven following days, to drink a little of the
water which they have carried home. On the4eve of this

Feast, at the Harbor or Mfna of Tripoli, the (!reeks light


bonfiresin their court-yards,and at midnightgo down to the
shore,the sick with the well, there to seek the blessingof
a bath in the sea. After this night ablution they proceed
to the churchfor early mass. Up to the sixteenthcentury,
pilgrims usedto seek baptismin the Jordan at this feast,
but the ceremonywas then changedto Easterweek,where
it is still regardedas constituting the proper termination
of the pilgrimage.
In the Maronite churches, at the Feast of the Presenta-

tion of Christ to the Temple,sometimescalledthe Purification, there is placedon the lecterna tray of candleswhich

THE

YEAR

159

are Messed
andsprinkledwith holywater. Theyare then
distributedamongthe peoplewho make an offering of
money. These candlesare supposedto possessthe virtue

of wardingoff sicknessand evil spirits,especiallyat the


time of death.

Sometimes they are burned In booths where

silk-worms are being raised. The Greeks have no such


custom

at this feast.

The Feastof Mar Martin, the allegedfounderof theMaronites,-is celebratedon February 9, when his picture is
borne around the church in procession. He is also commemorated on the second Sunday of every month. Yuhanna Martin (John Ma.ro), the first Maronitc patriarch,
is commemorated

on March

2, and the three hundred

and fifty monks of Mar Martin on July 31, all threedays


being feastsof abstentionfrom labor.
In the EasternchurchesLent beginson Monday, called
the Monday of the Fast. In Syria it is popularly known
as Monk's Monday, from an indefinite legend that some
monk, onceupon a time, at the beginningof Lent, came
riding into town on a donkey. So It is the fashion for
crowds to go out to the outskirts of the town "to meet the

monk/7 In Mosul it is also known as Mocking Monday,


or Tantalizing Monday, as the Moslems then make a

counter-demonstrationin the form of a huge picnic, where


they ostentatiouslyfeast upon meat and "greasy food.0
During Lent the (5reek churchesare draped in red cloth,
great care being taken to cover the gilded portions of the
ikonostasis. In the Maronite churches,during Holy Week,
the pictures are draped in black, and before the altar is
hung a black curtain on which have been sewn,in white
cloth, models of the cross, the crown of thorns, the nails,

hammer, pincers, the scourgeof ropes, the striking hand,


Pilate's ewer and basin, the cock, the torch, the sword, the

sun, moonand stars, the sponge,and the spear.


The observanceof Ash Monday by the Maronites is as
follows: On the eveningof the Saturdaypreviousthe sacristan takes somedried olive twigs, which have been preservedIn the sacristyever sincethe last Palm Sunday, and
reducesthem to ashesin a brazier. At the Monday ser-

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vice the priest sprinklesthe asheswith holy water and incensesthem, praying for a blessingupon them. Then, one
by one,the peopleadvanceand the priestmakesthe sign of
the crossupon their foreheadswith the ashes,saying: "Remember, O man, thou art dust and to dust thou shalt re-

turn." The Greekservicehasno especialfeatures. With


the Syrians oil is used instead of ashes.

On the Saturday before Palm Sunday a practice, now


moribund, used to be common to all the churches and still
may be seen in the interior. According to this custom the

school-boysgo from houseto houseenactinga crude sort


of miracleplay written on a roll of paperand commemorating in poeticallanguagethe raisingof Lazarus. Two boys
hold the extendedroll while the other boyschant the story,
except the one who lies on the ground underneaththe roll
to representLazarus. When they reach the point where
the dead man coniesforth, the boygetsup and the paperis
rolled up again. The collectionmadeof moneyand produce is supposedto go to the teacherwho copiedthe story.
In former days on Palm Sunday the Maronites used
sometimesto erect an olive tree in the church, but the pull-

ing of this to pieces,branch by branch,by the peopleproduced such an unseemly disturbance that the practice was

abandoned. At present a tray of olive twigs or small


branchesrestson the lecternwhile the servicetakes place.
After being blessed,theseare carried in procession,while
the singers chant the words: "Hosanna to the Son of
David!7' The twigs are taken home for a blessing. The
thrifty Syrians,who have a similar servicebut may omit
the procession,sometimessell theseat auction for the benefit of the church. With the Greeks,dried palm branches,
cut and braided,are carriedin the processionby the people
and later

taken home.

The ceremonyof washingthe disciples'feet on Maundy


Thursday haseverhad a wide celebration. As the Lord's
anointed,kings haveperformedthis. The King of Spain
still "washesthe feet" of twelveold men, and thequeen,of
twelve old women. The Emperor of Austria,also follows
the practice. In the Greek Church the washingmust be

THE

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161

doneby a bishop*and thedisciples


mustbe represented
bj

men who are at least in priest's orders. In Jerusalem this

function is performed with great pomp and splendor in


the court-yard of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre,where
a platform is erectedon which are seatedthepatriarch and
twelve bishops,whosefeet lie washes,while the thousands
of spectatorscrowd the court and the roofs of the surrounding buildings. Owing to the difficulty of assembling
twelve priests, the function is often omitted in Syria. In
the vilL'lgesthe event is symbolizedby smearingthe altar
with oil and anointing it with holy water.

A similar regulation, requiring the presenceof a bishop


and twelve priests,obtains with the Syrians,but I am told
that on necessitytwo priestsmay representthe bishopand
that deaconsmay take the place of all the disciplesexcept
Peter. In the town of llama (Ilamath) an amusing and
homely practice used to take place after this Syrian service. The peoplewould hoist the bishop in a chair, crying: "Bring us the feast!" On the* bishop's replying;
"The feast is far off," they would renew their laughing
cries of "We

must have the feast!

Give us the feast!"

Whereuponthe bishop would say: "The feast is in three


days!" for not till then would they let him down.

With the Maronites the servicerequiresthe presenceof


one priest only, henceit. is commonlyobservedin all towns
and villages. For the useof smallchurchesthe servicebook
givesan alternativerite. It is said that after the ceremony
is over the school-boywho is supposedto haverepresented
Judas is sometimes mocked and beaten by his comrades,

in a spirit of mischief. Someyours ago I witnessedthe


full service in the Maronite cathedral of Beyrout.

On a

platform built out into the navebelow the pulpit had been
placed twelve chairs, six facing six, on which sat twelve
school-boysin surplices. The bishopin his ordinary soutane mounted the platform, and there was robed in full
canonicals, with mitre and staff.

He then took his seat at

one end. In the pulpit a priest and a deaconchantedthe


account in the Gospelof John. When they came to the
words: "He arose from supper/' the bishop arose, was

162

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CHURCHES

disrobedof his canonicals,and wasgirt about with a towel.


The bishop then washedthe heel of the right foot of three
boys. He was then robed again and took his seat, while
somechantingwent on. After a secondreadingby priest
and deacon,the bishop,beingagaindisrobed,proceededto
wash the feet of three other boys, as before. This was
done a third and a fourth time, but after the feet of two of

the last trio of boys had been washed,when the reader


reached

the words:

"Then

cometh

he to Simon

Peter and

Peter saith unto him/5 the last boy aroseand read from a
paper: " Lord, dost thou washmy feet?" The bishopthen
read the reply. When the colloquy was completed,with
no attempt at dramatic effect, the bishop completedthe
washing.
On this sameThursday the Maronite patriarch at his
seat,with two or threebishops,consecrates
the oil of baptism, oil for extreme unction, and the holy chrism (the
meirun), all three kinds of oil to be distributed by the bish-

opsamong the Maronite churchesfor useduring the coining year. Oil remaining from the year before is burned.
As we have seen,the Greek patriarch of Constantinople,
with twelvebishops,consecrates
the meirun for all the four
patriarchates,its preparation being very costly. During
the recent periods of his alienation (for two different rea-

sons)from the patriarchsof Antioch and Jerusalem,they


receivedthe ineiruri from the metropolitan of St. Petersburg.
On Good Friday no mass is said in any of the Eastern
churches. They all maintain the service of the Adoration

of the Cross,known usuallyin Arabic as the jennfiz,or the


burial, which is ordinarily conductedin the afternoon,
though the Maronite rubric appoints it for the morning.
In the Greek Church the ceremonyincludes the following features:On the altar is placed a richly embroidered
cloth on which is imprinted the figure of the dead Christ.
For this, in poorer churches, may be substituted the anti-

mins, or cloth on which the Gospelsalwaysrest between


services,arid on which the cup and paten are placed during the liturgy. At the burial the cloth is coveredwith

THE

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163

flowers. When the long service comes to a close the priest

placesthe cloth on his head,with someone behind to hold


out the ends, and leads a processionthree times around the

church. Sometimes,insteadof restingon the priest'shead,


the cloth is hung over a combinationof bier and coffin, open
on four sides,and overarched,which the priest carrieswith
uplifted hands. Sometimesthe cloth is borneby four laymen. In any case,as it is carried around the church sick
peopleand women desiring children passunder it "for a
blessing." Whena "bier" is usedthis is then setdown on
the floor of the nave; or, if there is no bier, the cloth is

placed on a table. In the nave it remains till Saturday


evening,when it is placed,unfolded,on the altar, there to
rest till the eve of Ascension Day.

If the antimins has

been used,this practice cannot be carried out, as this sacred object must always be folded when the Gospelsrest
under it. The flowersare distributed among the people.
The

Maronite

service

of the burial

I once attended

at

the church of Mar Elyas, in Beyrout. In the centreof the


nave there was erecteda small platform, upon which was
placed a short, deep bier, hung with white lace and pink
cambric,and surroundedby candles. As the peoplecame
in they threw bunches of flowers into the bier.

In front

of the altar therewas a woodenstandwith steps,on which


was erecteda cross with a coloredplaster image of the
Saviour fastenedto it, about three feet high and covered
with crape. On either side there wasa candle,one veiled
in crape. A round table coveredwith servicebooks stood
just outsidethe altar rails at one side; the priest and laymen both read from the samebooks,the former standing
within, the latter without the rails. The priest wore no
vestments, but at times assumed the stole.

When the ser-

vice, which was long and impressiveand included many


Scriptureselections,had continuedfor sometime, the candles werelighted and the priestunfastenedthe imagefrom
thecross. Bearingit into the bodyof the church,he placed
it in the bier and coveredit up with flowers. Four men in
surplices took up the bier by its handles and carried it
around the churchthreetimes,precededby the priest walk-

164

RITUAL

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EASTERN

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Ing backwardand swinging the censer,and followed by a


processionof men and boyschanting and bearingcandles.
Whenthey put down the bier in the nave,the priest walked
around it, prostratinghimselfon eachside. He then took
a large silver crucifix and held it up for the peopleto kiss,
repeatingas they pressedforwardthe Arabic salutationfor
feastdays,equivalentto " Many happyreturnsof the day!"
literally, "Every year may you be at peaceV As the peoplewent out theystoppedbeforea small tableat which was
seatedthe " wakll," or lay-agentof the church,with a plate
before him containing a mixture of oil and dough, into
which he dipped a candle,making the sign of the crosson
the foreheadof thosewho left a pieceof money. Later
the imagewas placedin the " tomb/' or openingunder one
of the side altars at the south of the nave, which had been

decoratedwith flowersand candlesin preparationfor the


burial. In the villagesthe ritual is lesselaborate. A simple crucifix is placedon a black cloth resting on a chair,
the cloth taking the placeof the bier.
Our accountof the Syrian "burial" follows,in the main,
the descriptiongiven me by a late deaconin the Jacobite
Church, with some added details. At the south side of the
nave, in front of the ikonostasis, is erected a life-size cross,

in shapeof a T, the top vertical bar being supplied by a


small cross, which later is removed.

At either end of the

crossbarof the T are placedcandles. In the courseof the


reading,whenreferenceis madeto the breakingof the legs
of the two thieves, the candle on the left is broken and then

put out by oneof the laymen. At the referenceto the " vinegar and gall" a liquid under this name is given to the
peopleto drink. Toward the closeof the servicethe priest
takes down the cross,and laying it on a long towel that
restson his open palms,bearsit in processionthree times
around the church and into the sanctuary. On the altar
is a basin of water mingled with vinegar and sweetperfumes. Washingthe crossin this water, he coversit with
cotton and wraps it in a towel,and placesit in the space
under the altar, amid spices,with a lamp by its side and a
curtain in front. Here it remainstill Easter. According

THE

CHURCH

YEAR

165

to an old custom, apparently forgotten in some churches at

the presenttime, two deaconssit by this "tomb/5 quietly


readingpsalms,till they are replacedby anotherpair, who
maintain their part in a continuous vigil that lasts till
Easter morning. The water in which the cross was washed

is distributedamong the people,to be drunk on the spotor


to be taken homein little cups. It may be added that the
Syrian Catholics observe this same service.
On Saturday noon of Holy Week the bells which have

* been silent since Thursday morning are again rung. In


somecountryplacesthe ancientnaqfts,or boardstruck with
a hammer,takesthe placeof a bell. Holy Saturdayhas no
distinctive featuresexceptin the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, at Jerusalem,where the oft-describedceremonyof
the holy fire attracts thousandsof visitors and demandsthe
presenceof the Turkish governoras well as of many soldiers to prevent disturbance among the rival Christian
bodies. The simple peoplebelieve that the fire, which is
passedout from a small hole in the tabernacle.or cubiculum built over the allegedtomb of Christ, has actually descendedfrom heaven, and thus does not burn like ordinary

fire. Accordingly,in their ecstasythey pass their kindled


torchesovertheir facesand beards. In the presenceof the
Greek patriarchof Jerusalem,I hearda Greekbishop protest againstthe popularProtestantdescription of the holy
fire as a stupendousfraud. He volunteeredthe statement
that it is kindled by a priest, adding that the presenthierarchy cannot be held responsiblefor the belief of pilgrims
that it descends from heaven.

At about half-past three on Eastermorning the bells of


the Greek churchesbeginto ring. The serviceopenswith
a processionled by the priest dressedin full canonicals,
carryingthe ikon of Christ and crossand swingingthe censer. Three timesthe processionpassesout of the west door
of the church

and in at the south

door.

But the last time

a pauseis made in the porch while the priest reads the


Gospel,having rested the ikon on a chair. After saying
"Christ is risen!" he leads the processiononcemore into
the churchand the ikon is placedon a standin the centre

166

RITUAL

OF THE

EASTERN

CHURCHES

of the nave,thereto remaintill AscensionDay. The priest


then entersthe sanctuaryfor the completionof the service.
The usual Easter salutation is "The

Lord is risen/'

with

the answer: "He is risen indeed." In Russia they add:


" And hasappearedunto Peter."
With the Maronites the Easter service begins immedi-

ately after midnight. After preliminaryprayers,the priest,


fully vested,approachesthe "tomb" where the imagehas
lain sinceGoodFriday, and, incensingit, calls out in Syriac three times: "Christ

who rose from the house of the

dead has had mercy upon us!" He then takes out the
image,coversit with a white veil, and carriesit held up in
front of his face,while the peoplefollow in grand procession,singingand chanting. After all havekissedthe cross,
the flowersare distributed"for a blessing."
In the Syrian churches,very early Easier morning the
priestgoesinto the sanctuaryaloneand.takesout the cross
from the "tomb" under the altar.

Then opening the gates

of the screen,he holds it up in the sight of all the people,


sayingin a loud voice: "To-day the Lord is risenfrom the
deadI" It was many,manyyearssincethe friend who described this service to me had been a Syrian "deacon," and

during the interval he had preached,


as an ordainedProtestant minister from, behind a desk in the ban* chapelsor
school-houses
of the AmericanPresbyterianMission, but
the reflectionof that Easterglow wasstill on his faceas he
told of the joy that filled his heart when he heard these
words,and saw the simple act which brought to a climax
the quaintsymbolismwith which the Syrian Church depicts
the history of the passion.
EasterMondayarid Tuesdayare both feasts,but only on
Monday is cessationfrom labor obligatory. The seasonis
celebratedby wearing new clothesand by making visits
of ceremony. The children amusethemselves
by coloring
eggs,which they strike togetherin a regular game. The
great Greek Easter processioncalled Dowra-el-Ba'uth is
madeon EasterMonday and sometimesalso on Tuesday.
In formerdays all the priestsin Beyrout;usedto assemble
at the episcopalresidence,wherethey assumedtheir vest-

THE

CHURCH

YEAR

167

mentsand then investedthe bishop. All would then go in


grand processionto the cathedralin the town, followed by
a huge crowd, with the constantfiring of guns and revolvers in the air, which did not ceaseeven when the priests
enteredthe cathedral. In consequence
of such disorderly
scenesthe out-of-doorfunction was prohibited and for it
was substituteda processionthreetimesaroundthe interior
of the cathedral. It is still the custom for the priests to
follow eachother in reading the Gospelfor the day, verse
by verse, in as many languages as possible: Greek, Arabic,

Turkish, Russian,English, and French.1


An extraordinary elaboration of this Easter procession,
which appearsto havefusedtogetherelementsboth Christian and pagan, has been evolvedat the Orthodox village
of Mahardy, near the gorge of the Orontcs, in northern

Syria. It is the crown of the Easter festival and may be


celebratedMonday or Tuesday. Indeed,when I saw it in
1909 it had been postponedto Wednesday,on account of
bad weather. Originating as a simple processionwithin
the church, the dowra later girdled the exterior of the build-

ing, and now in encircling the town itself movesover a circumference

of more

than

a mile.

The

start

is made from

the church, which is also the terminal point. Every one is


in gala dress. Bridal couplesof the autumn before don
their wedding raiment. On the dark bands around the
brides7 foreheads glitters the gold of ornaments, nor do
their sober outer skirts conceal the gorgeous crimson of
silken dresses. Moslems from neighboring villages and
Arabs from the Eastern desert join the crowds. The air is

full of thesharpcrack of pistols. Horsemendashacrossthe


fields, hurling at eachother long light sticks, in the play of
the jertd. But it is the danceof the Debky that dominates
the feast. For four days,Sundayincluded,dressrehearsals
havebeengoingon. Everywherepartiesareformed,young
men joining hands with girls, in circles that begin with a
dozenbut that grow with extraordinaryelasticity beforethe
bewilderedeyesof the spectatorwho cannotnote how many
slip in. As they dance they sing. At the readingof the
1This is sometimes done on Easter Sunday-

108

RITUAL

OF

THE

EASTERN

CHURCHES

Gospelsthe dancing, Indeed,stops. In former times the


Gospelwas read at the four cardinal points of the village,
but now the readingis confinedto one spotnear the cemetery. Whenthis is over the impatient youthsand maidens
dashon aheadto weavenewdancingcircles. In the meantime the reformedprocessioncontinueson its circular route.
In the forefront may be seena massivesilver crosscarried
by a layman; then coniesa copy of the Gospelsheld high
in the air by bearerswho constantlyrelieveeachother; a
''flaming torch, carried near the Gospels, represents a can-

dle; next followsthe priestin gold brocade,and behindhim


comesa man who carriesa poletwentyfeethigh from which
flies a flag of blue silk with white stars. Priest and people
chantas theywalk. The church is in the centreof a labyrinth

of little

lanes which

encircle

the rude brown

As the distant sound of the chanting--"Christ


Christ is risen!*1-reaches

houses.

is risen!

the church, an advance crowd

poursinto the small court-yard,swarmsup the outsidesteps


leadingto the roof, throngsthe roofsof adjacentbuildings.
Instantly, as if by magic, the seethingmassof humanity in
the court-yardresolvesitself into threedancingcircles. The
leader in the centre of each circle strikes up a merry tune.
As the processioncomes near, the droning chants of Chris-

tianity strike discordantagainst the saucy rhymesof paganism. Then for a brief momentChurch is triumphant.
Dancing and singing suddenlycease;chatter dies away;
facesgrow sober; while the priest takes his stand at the
door of the sacredbuilding and beginsto explain the religious significanceof the ceremony. But hardly is the last
word out of his mouth when paganismreboundswith a
leap. The broken circlesare reformed; an increasedfury
of fun seizesthe dancing boysand girls; into the swaying
movements

has come a new abandon.

The

dowra

season.

is passing,so the tensefacesseemto say, let us makethe

most

of

it!

Even

so have danced

their

ancestors

before

them*through the long centuries,while cult has replaced


cult on this ancientplain of the Orontes.
Between Easter and Pentecost the Maronites

do not

kneel in the churchesnor prostratethemselves,


signifying

THE

CHURCH

YEAR

169

Accordby erect posturethat they are " risen In Christ."


ingly, on the latter feast,on which theyreturn to their kneeling, there is an especialrite, divided into three parts, in
honor of the three personsin the Godhead respectively.
At the end of the first part the priest saysin a loud voice,
turning to the people: "Kneel before the Lord upon the
left knee." The people obey. After a prayer the priest
says: "Rise in the strengthof God and worshiphim who
rides upon the sun-settings,etc/? In the secondpart they
kneel upon the right knee and in the third upon both together. The Greeksdo not ordinarily kneelin thechurches,
exceptduring Lent from Mondays to Fridays inclusive,but
on the Day of Pentecostthey havea servicecalledEs-Sejdi,

similar to the Maronite rite in that they kneel three times.

Parry describesa curious Pentecostalcustom obtaining


among the Syrians. After the sermonall deaconsbegin to
chant, but suddenlystop and pretendto be asleep. Then
eachman taps his neighbor'sshoulderto wake him, while
the priest praysand scatterswater with an almond branch
over the people. This act, performedthree times,signifies
the gift of the Holy Spirit descendingon the sleepingmembers of the church.1

The Feast of Corpus Christi is solemnly observed by the

Maronitesunder the nameof Khamis-ej-Jesed,


or Thursday
of the Body, but not by the Greeks. As the host is carried

from church to church, all in the streetsand shopsare expectedto rise. The following feastsare commonto all the
churches.

At the Feast of Saint Peter and Saint Paul,

June 29, a basin of water is placed on the lectern in the


Maronite churches,and after it is blessedthe peoplefill
bottles to take home. On the feastsof Mar Elyas, July
20, and of Es-Sayyidy(the Reposeor Assumption of the
Virgin, August 15) huge crowds, bent quite as much on
merrymaking as on worship, flock to the conventsthat
bear the namesof the Prophet Elijah and the Virgin. On
September14, the Feast of the Finding of the Cross,bonfires are kindled In memoryof the signalsthat flashedHelena's great news from Jerusalemto Constantinople. As
1 "Six Months in a Syrian Monastery," op. tit., p. 341*

170

RITUAL

OF

THE

EASTERN

CHURCHES

seenfrom Beyrout,the Lebanonmountain-sidefairly blazes


with,a multitude of brilliant lights. All-Saintsis celebrated
by the Maroniteson November1, but by the Greekson the
Sundaysucceeding
Pentecost,thus taking the placeof the
Trinity Sundayof the West.

IV
FIVE

PILLARS

OF

ISLAM

INTRODUCTORY NOTE

WHILE Christianity and Islam hold many great and essential truths in common, the difference between them as

systemsis fundamental. Christ's conceptionof life wasnot


Mohammed'sconceptionof life. The attitudeof Christians
toward

Jesus is not the attitude

of Moslems

toward

their

prophet. Of these points the presentchapter furnishes


abundant

illustration.

But the difference

between

the two

religions is not only a differencebetweensystems,it is a


differenceof atmosphere. In eachcase,moreover,the system createsthe atmosphere. It is the belief of Christians
that they may draw direct irispiratioa from the glorified
Christ, or, as one schoolof theologywould expressit, from
the Heavenly Father, of whom they may have the best
knowledge only through the words and life of Jesus. Such
a belief, stimulating personal loyalty from the beginning,

lias through the agesproduceda moral atmosphere,at once


warm and buoyant, in which idealism has never ceased to
be a force. Chilled and relaxed the atmosphere may be-

comeduring periodswhen the belief itself is distorted and


obscured; the force of the ideal remains latent notwith-

standing. Mohammeduttered noble words: he had lofty


aspirations,but the record of his life can never draw his
followers upward to the heights of the Christian ideal.
Christendomhas, during the courseof its history, sunk to
low depthsof morality, but its standardshavestill remained
terribly high. .Religiondoesnot claim to control an individual againsthis will, but everyreligion powerfully affects
the community,which consistssimply of individuals in the
mass. In the best Christian lands to-day, lands in which
171

172

THE

FIVE

PILLARS

OF

ISLAM

the ideal flamesthe most brightly, flagrantevils may flourish which religion neither preventsnor destroys; but such
evils are generallyabhorred;they are practisedat the risk
of heavypunishment;and their ultimate suppressionis regardedas both necessary
and possible. Even in suchlands
the moral atmosphere,sensitiveboth to good and evil, may
fluctuate.

Fluctuations

occur in our own land.

But in

spite of our alarming national recordfor divorce,reflecting


the attitude toward marriageof a small but unhappily increasingminority; in spiteof the frequentfailure to convict
for crimes of violence, due to an overscrupulous regard For

legaltechnicalities;and, more importantstill, in spite of the


consequent
lowering of the moral atmosphere,breathedby
the wholebody politic and thus subtly affectingeventhose
whosepersonalidealsand practicemayremain on the highest plane,but who at the sametime are unconsciouslyinduced to relax their belief in the universal applicability of
these ideals, or to view with a certain indulgence those who

deny the moral imperativeof theseideals-in spite of all


these tendencies, it is to be thankfully believed that the
ideals and practice of the sound majority will signin clarify
the moral atmosphere. In our land even,a distant approach

to conditionsprevailing in the Mohammedanworld is in-

conceivable.

For a relaxedmoral atmospherepervadesIslam, evenin


countries where its tenets are most purely followed and
where

the characteristic

Oriental

decorum

or outward

re-

spectabilityis most noticeable. A low view of marriageis


stereotypedin the Koran, with its legislationregardingpolygamy. The temporarymarriagespermittedto the Hhi'ahs
constitute a legalised prostitution. With the Sunnis, not
only polygamy and concubinage*with slavesare sanctioned,

but divorce may dependpnietieully on the caprice of the


husband. Forma] sins againstpurity, stigmatisedby the
Koran, are held in tolerationand are regardedwith indulgenceeven by many Moslemswho would utterly .shrink
from practising them. In such an atmosphereinnocent
childrenhavea knowledgeof vicesunknownevenby name
to manyadults in Christian lands. My foremanreported

INTRODUCTORY

NOTE

173

an inconceivablelicenseof speechamong the fellahin, employed in the excavationswhere men, women, and girls
worked together. The petrifying formalism of Mohammedanism, acknowledged by advanced Mohammedan think-

ers/ which producesthe tendency,often nobly withstood, a


tendencyto divorce the practice of religion from the practice of morality, hasgreatly helpedto preservea low moral
atmosphere. The popular conceptionof a sensualparadise
has further

tended

to the same result.

It shouldnot be necessaryto add that in spite of Its low


Idealism Islam has always had its saints and has Its saints

to-day. "Blessed are the pure in heart for they shall see
God" was uttered as a universal truth with no limiting
phrase. The followersof Jesuscan neverrise higher than
his teachings,but Moslem practice is sometimesbetter
than Moslem precept. How the desire for inward holinessfinds expressionin the religiousorderswe shall seein
our next chapter. But good men are everywherefound
amongthe rank and file of Islam. Oriental Christiansacknowledgethat their conscientious
Moslem neighborsoften
show a high type of character. British merchants in Syria

have testified to the absoluteintegrity of Moslem agents.


Missionaries declare that they have found true men of God

among the Mohammedans. "To do justice and to love


mercy" is the commonaim of all good men. In no country is the besttypeof Moslem charactermorewidely representedthan in thoseunder presentconsideration. A wellknown American missionaryin Arabia, wheresomeof the
worst features of Mohammedanism

are accentuated, once

remarked: "In Syria and PalestineIslam is at its best."


It is inevitable that in the chaptersdealing with Islam
comparisonshould be made, explicitly as well as uncon1 " For the last few centuries Islam has become, in. the minds of a
large number of its votaries, associated with a lifeless formalism, the
practice of its rules of morality has given place to mere profession, and
its real aim as a creed to live by has been forgotten/'
"The Spirit of
Islam or the Life and Teachings of Mohammed/' by Ameer Ali, Syed

(Calcutta, 1902),prefaceto popular edition, p. ix.

174

THE

FIVE

PILLARS

OF

ISLAM

sciously,betweenthe Koran and the Bible. Sucha comparison,however,should always be cognizantof the great
differences between them, relating not only to matters internal but to. external facts.

The Koran was the work of

one man: Mohammed,the unletteredprophet of Arabia.


Many writers contributed to the Old and the New Testaments: historians, jurists, poets, prophets, philosophers,
sages. The Koran is claimedto havebeenrevealed,bit by
bit, through the brief period of twenty-threeyears. Mate-

rial

for the formation

of the Bible

canon

took from

twelve

to sixteen centuries for its accumulation, to quote the two

extremesof chronologicalestimate. The New Testament


formslessthan one-quarterof the wholeBible. The Koran
is about two-thirdsthe lengthof the NewTestament. The
Bible was written in three languages:Hebrew,Aramaic,
and Greek. The Koran was composedin Arabic alone.
Biblical theologymust recognizemany trends of thought
and a gradual developmentof doctrine through centuries.
Variations of teaching in the Koran are confined to the
slight changesof belief of one man during religiousexperiences covering but a quarter of a century.

It is extremelydoubtful whetherMohammedever came


into actualcontactwith the Jewishand ChristianScriptures.
Biblical storiesplainly filtered down to him through oral
rabbinical

traditions

of

the

Talmud.

From

the

same

sourcewas derived his esehatology. His account of the life

of Jesusseemsto havereachedhim through a, corrupted


oral tradition or throughechoesof the apocryphal(ospels.
His conceptionof the doctrineof the Trinity, us consistingof
the Father, the Son, and the Virgin Mary, was his interpretationof the only sort of Christianity he knew. AH this
reflectslight upon the sourceof his doctrine of (!o<I and
of his noblest spiritual conceptions. It is inconceivable
that a man who regardedMary the mother of Jesusas one
with Mary the sister of Moses, and who believed that
Haman wasprominentin Pharaoh'scourt, had so searched
the Scriptures as to assimilate their religious teachings.
The Koranic doctrine of (rod has much in common with

theviewof theOld Testament,


but thecoincidence,
in my

INTRODUCTORY

NOTE

175

opinion, arisesfrom Mohammed'sdirect spiritual intuition,


which

led him

to a vision

of some of the truths

revealed

to

the Hebrew prophets. From the sameinner sourcecame


his other lofty spiritual sentiments,examplesof which
havebeengroupedin the next sectionafter a carefulsearch
through the pagesof the Koran.
In regardto thesebrief but vital spiritual utterances,it
must be acknowledgedthat, though they are plainly the
cries of a soul in touchwith the great realities,and though
they often ring true to universal experience,when contrasted with similar passagesfound in the Bible they not
only fall short in range,depth, and intensity, but they lack
in glow, in tender comfort, and in the inspiring practical
suggestionand persuasiveness
that accompanysustained
argument. Thus no distant parallel can be found to the
one hundredand third Psalm, or to the fortieth chapterof
Isaiah, or to the eighth of Romans, to name, out of scores,

examplesthat first suggestthemselves. It is, however,the


inestimablegood fortune of Moslemsin Syria and Palestine
to havean accessto suchpassages
that is withheld from their
brethren in other parts of Turkey, as the circulation of the

Koran, except in Arabic, is forbiddenin the empire. To


the majority of Turkish subjectsthe Koran is practically a
closedbook, openedfor them by their teachersonly on
formal occasions.1In the Holy Land the Moslemsmay
study their Scripturesin their mothertongue,at homeor in
the mosque,where,as we shall see,copiesare sometimes
kept for the especialuseof the public in the fast month of
Ramadhan.

In studying the Koran, it should be constantlykept in


mind that for much that is taught and practisedin Islam
to-day we would searchthrough it in vain. Islam is a theocracy,and theoreticallythe Koran, as the word of God, is
both sourceand arbiter of all questions,relating not only
to theology and to practical religion, but also to matters
of jurisprudence. For the Sha'rui, or Mohammedanlaw,
like the Pentateuch, knows no distinction

between matters

1 In India a number of translations into different languages are in


daily use.

176

THE

FIVE

sacred and secular.

PILLARS

OF ISLAM

But as the Jewish Pentateuch, was

overlaid by the Talmud, so the Mohammedanlaw has

practicallyburied the teachingof the Koran underthe

traditions of the prophet and the decisionsof the THania


or learned. Christianityhasnot escaped
a similar tendency,
for the teaching of the New Testamenthas often been

weighteddown,and hasat timesbeenobscured


by elaboratetheologicalsystems. The traditionsof Mohammed,recordingwhat he said, what he did, and what he permitted
to be donein his presence,havecometo possess
an infallible authority, practicallyequalto that of the Koran, while,
unlike the Koran, they touch on the minutest matters of

ceremonialand practice,thus exercisingthis authority in a


realm immenselywider.1 Belief in the universalityof their
binding power is largely responsiblefor the rigidity and
formality of the Mohammedanreligion. Lord Cromerhas
acutely said: "Islam, speakingnot so much through the
Koran as through the traditions that cluster a,roundthe
Koran, crystallizesreligion and law into one inseparable
and immutablewhole, with the result that all elasticity is
taken away from the social system."2

Mohammedprophesiedthat Islam wouldbedivided into


seventy-three
sects,everyoneof whichwasdestinedfor hell
but thai onewhich representedthe religion of himselfand
his companions. The number namedin the prophecyhas
been far exceeded,as 'Abd-el-Qa'dir ej-Jila'ni estimated in

the twelfth century that there wereonehum!reeland fifty.


Each sect naturally believes that it alone is following the

religionof the prophetand of his companions,thus constituting the Na'jiyeh, or "those who are beingsaved/* The
outside world, however,takes cognizanceonly of the,*two
main divisions into Sunni and Shi'ah, based on different

views of the nature and personnelof the caliphate. The


Sunnis overwhelmingly predominate. The Khi'ahs are
mainly confinedto Persia,wherethey are in the majority,
with a few thousandin India.,also in Syria, wherethey are
popularly known as Meta'wileh. The entire populationof
1Compare with p. 194.
a "Modern Egypt," vol. II, pp. 134-135.

CONFESSION

OF

THE

CREED

177

Syria and PalestineIs approximatelythree and a quarter


millions; of these about one million nine hundred thousand

are Moslems. The presentchapterdealswith the practice


of the Orthodox,or Sunnis,leavingthe presentationof the
Shi'ah variationsfor the sixth chapter.
I.

CONFESSION OF THE CKEED

The world of Islam is supportedby five pillarsof practical


religion: Witnessto the creed, prayer, fasting, alms, and
pilgrimage.1 The practice of theseordinancesis enjoined
by the Koran, which, however, does not lay down the
method of observancewith the detail characterizing the
later developmentof the ritual. No streamcanrisehigher
than its source. It is equally true that every stream falls
below the level of its source. All large streams, moreover,

are joined by confluentstreams,by other waters that give


a new color, a new quality to the parent stream. Islam as
practisedto-day is based,as we haveseen,not only on the
Koran,

but also on the traditions

of Mohammed,

both

interpretedby the decisionsof the learned.2 These tributaries have not only enormously increased the volume of

the waters, but have affectedtheir nature. In gazing at


the turbid streamof Islam to-day, we must not forget the
freshness and sparkle of the fountain that burst from the

desertsof Arabia in the seventhcentury. A few preliminary words, then, concerning the Koran, which is for all
Moslems, at least in theory, their final source of authority
will be in place.3
1This is the list of the Sunnis.

That

of the Shi'ahs

omits the first

item as belonging rather to the list of beliefs, substituting for it (in


the fifth place) the jihad, or holy war.
2 For the influence of the traditions on Moslem jurisprudence, see
foot-note to p. 194.
3 The Koran is divided into one hundred and fourteen chapters, called
surahs, revealed piecemeal during a period covering twenty-three years.
The surahs are subdivided into verses, called ayat. Each surah is
named, more or less arbitrarily, from some word contained in its text.
Equally arbitrary was the early arrangement-never altered by Mos-

lems-effected by placing the longersurahsfirst, the shorter last, and

178

THE

FIVE

PILLARS

OF

ISLAM

Islam is emphaticallya book religion^and for the Moslem this book containsnaught but the very words of Godf
revealed.,
indeed,to MohammedthroughtheAngel Gabriel^
but written beforetime beganin the " Mother of the Book/*
which lies open beforethe throne of heaven. The words
throughout are uttered in the first person: God is the
speaker,and Mohammedis the one addressed.1No theory of inspiration could be more mechanical. Mohammed, so holds Islam, was but the vehicle of divine truth.

For followersof other religionsthis theory, as applied to


by prefixing to the collection the opening prayer, or fat'hah.
Each
surah has prefixed to it the name of the place, Mecca or Medinah,
where it was revealed, but verses plainly composed at one place are
sometimes

inserted

in surahs marked

with

the name of the

other.

No exact chronology, thus, has been preserved, and an approximately


correct succession can only be inferred by the references to passing
events and by a study of the style of composition. As a working hy-

pothesis,Noldeke'schronologyis now widely accepted. (SeePalmer's


Introduction to his "Translation of the Koran," p. Ixiv.) This writer
recognizes not only the two general classes of surahs, separated by
the Hegira, or flight to Medinah, but he subdivides the Meccan surahs
into three parts, in all of which Mohammed appears as prophet. In
the first Meccan period he teaches the unity of God in a series of rhetorical outbursts, with the rhyme but without the rhythm of poetry,
appealing to the feelings rather than to the reason. The surahs of the
secondperiod, couched in more prosaic language, are characterized by
long-winded and tediously reiterated stories (borrowed from the Jewish haggadah) telling of the rejection of the prophets of old by unbelieving generations, with the plain moral that the rejection of Mohammed would inevitably result in the same punishment. The surahs of
the third Meccan period are even less interesting in style and contain
little new material. In the Medinah surahs, Mohammed appears as
the law-giver. The style is usually dull, but its almost plain prose is
relieved by a few of the old passages of power and beauty. (See the
admirable analysis of Stanley Lane Poole, in his "Studies in a Mosque,"
pp. 157-160.) The legal sections, contained almost entirely in surahs
II, IV, and V (amounting to about one-tenth of the Koran), do not
constitute a systematic code of jurisprudence. The legislation, often
arising from concrete cases,is practical rather than theoretical; at the
same time it is general rather than particular. It forms but the basis
of the complicated law and ritual which the development of Islam
has built upon it. For the contradictions and inconsistencies the book
contains, see p. 189.

1The fafnah, or openingprayer, is an exception.

CONFESSION

OF

THE

CREED

179

the Koran, is, of course, untenable. But In repudiating


this theory we must not fly to the other extreme. It is
often hastily assumedthat the only alternative is to call
Mohammed an impostor. Those who would thus argue
not only misreadhistory, they misreadpsychology. That
this great religious genius believedhimself to be inspired
by God, whenhe gaveutteranceto the early surahs,I take
for granted,just as I take for grantedthat Joan of Arc believed in the reality of her visions. If the doubter ask for
proof, let him read thesesurahsin a humble spirit. For
this earliest portion of the Koran rings with conviction,
with authority. It is full of life and movementand poetry.
It is, as StanleyLane Poolecalls it, " one long blazonry of
nature'sbeauty/' The main themeis the samewith the
Psalmist's: The heavensdeclarethe glory of God and the
firmament

showeth his handiwork.

" By the sun and its noon-day brightness!


And the moon when it follows Him!

And the day when it displays Him!


And the night when it coversHim!
And the Heaven and what built

it!

And the earth and what spreadIt!


And the sou! and what fashioned it,

And taught it its sin and its piety!


Prosperousis he who purifiesit!
And disappointedis he who corrupts it!"1

But the genuine spirit of theseearly surahs is evinced


not only by such spontaneous outbursts, recognizing God

in nature. Listen to the followingshort surah,utteredduring the lonelydays of the prophet'searly struggle:
**By the splendorof the morning,
And the still of the night!
The Lord hath

not forsaken

thee nor hated thee!

And the future shall surely be better than the present,


And the Lord will surely give to thee and thou shalt be
well pleased.
1Surah XCI, 1-10. When not otherwise stated, we follow Palmer's
translation. (See "Sacred Books of the East," vol. VI.)

180

THE

FIVE

PILLARS

OF

ISLAM

Did henot find theean orphanand sheltered


thee?
And found thee erring and guided thee?
And found thee poor and enrichedthee?
Then as for the orphan oppresshim not,
. And for him who asketh of thee, chide him not away?
And for the bounty of thy Lord, fell of it,"1

Here are no words of a self-conscious


impostor, but rather
of one convinced of the truth of his messageand of the

divine care enfolding the messenger,rejectedby his own


people.

In regard to Mohammed'sbelief in the divine inspira-

tion of all that is contained in the later surahs of the Ko-

ran, especiallyof those composedat Medinah, when the


growingtriumph of Islam addedto his role of prophetthose
of law-giverand ruler, we canspeakwith lessconfidence.
This

confidence

almost

vanishes

in the case of the conven-

ient "revelations" scattered through surah XXXIII

touch-

ing the prophet'sprivate life. Among theseis included a


list of marriageswhich he may contract, terminating with
the phrase, "A special privilege this for thee above all
other believers37(verse 49). Criticism of his marriage
with the divorced wife of his adopted son Zaici was si-

lencedby a revelationlegalizingthe union (verses37-38).


There are other instances, where the exact allusion is ob-

scure,whoseobject is clearly to guard the prophet'scomfort or his reputation.2 All such passages,whatevertheir
1Surah XVIII.
Translation by Stanley Lane Poolc.
2 It may be conceded that this especial legislation is announced with
quaint simplicity. According to Palmer's interpretation of verse 53,
the

believers

are warned

not to hint for an invitation

to dine* with

the prophet by following the Arab custom of sitting around the tent
watching for the pot to boil. Earlier in the surah, verses 27 and 28,
Allah is represented as commanding Mohammed, who, it is alleged, ha
been annoyed by his wives' demands for new dresses,to give, them the
choice between divorce on the one hand, and on the other contentment
with what they have here, plus the promise of reward in the hereafter.
The chapter of the Prohibition (surah LXV1) contains, without doubt,
a rebuke

to the women

of Mohammed'H

household.

Palmer

follows

the commentators, who link it with a squalid story of jealousy of the

Coptic maiden Mary, on the part of 'Ayeahahand Hafsah. This is

CONFESSION

OP

THE

CREED

181

interpretation,are doubtlessblots on the Koran, but they


do not, it seems to me, justify the use of the crude title im-

postor. Mohammedwas at first intenselyconsciousof being human. In the Mecca surahshe stoutly combatsany
contraryview: " I am but a mortal like yourselves,I am inspiredto announcethat your Godis oneGod/'1 " I am not
an innovator among the Apostles; nor do I know what will

be donewith me or with you if I follow aught but what I am


inspired with; nor am I aught but a plain warner." 2 As
an offset to the favorableespeciallegislationof later years5
we find a rebuke to the prophet, especiallyrevealedat
Mecca, for his impatiencewith a blind man.3 Even in a
later Medinah surah "his

early and his later sin are

acknowledgedas needingpardon."4 On the other hand^


as regardshis office as prophet and legislator lie came to
have a most exalted idea: "Whoso obeysthe prophet, he
obeysGod!" 5he cries. "Verily thosewho disbelieveGod
and his Apostlesdesireto make a distinction betweenGod
and his Apostles,and say,' We believein part and disbelieve
in part, and desireto take a midway coursebetweenthe
two'; theseare the misbelievers,and we havepreparedfor
the misbelievers'shamefulwoe!"0 Thus in later yearsa
subtlechangecameover the prophetof Arabia. When the
first glory of his visionshad faded; when for the ennobling
victory of the Idea wassubstitutedthe demoralizingvictory
of the sword; when perplexingquestionsof legislationdemanded

an immediate

decision

that

could

not wait

on in-

spiration; whenthroughhis own personalconduct,or rather


misconduct,the invasionof his personalprestige,so subtly
identified with the prestige of the cause, was threatened;

then, consciouslyor unconsciously,a temptation came to


pronounced "absolutely false and malicious" by Ameer AH, Syed, the
modernist of Islam, who seesIn the surah no more than a reference to
the remorse of the prophet at yielding to his wives' request that hie
give up the eating of honey, thus repudiating a good gift of God.
Ameer

AH also takes a more lenient

view

of Mohammed's

much crit-

icised conduct in the matter of the divorced wife of Zaid. (See "The
Spirit of Islam/' op. cit., p. 195.)
1XLI, 5.
3XLVI, 8.
s LXXX.
* XLVIII, 2.
IV, 82.
" IV, 149-150.

182

THE

FIVE

PILLARS

OF

ISLAM

this unletteredcameleerraisedto royalpower,a temptation


to live up to his professionof prophetat anycost,a temptation to fusehis conceptionof Mohammedthe erring mortal,
with Mohammedthe mouth-pieceof the Almighty, or, in
otherwords, a temptationto confoundthewill of Godwith
the will of Mohammed. And to this temptationhe yielded.
A sacredbook may be fairly judgedby its conceptionof
God. The Koran lias but one great message-a message

about God. Mohammed'sglory was the recoveryof the


monotheistic
Semitic

idea and its enthronement

world.

He

claimed

in the southern

to announce

no discoveries

In theology. He bade the idolatrouspagan tribes, as well


as the semi-paganChristians,of Arabia look back to Abraham, to Abraham the Hanlf (that is, "inclined" to the true
religion), who contendedfor the worship of the one true
Godagainsta heathengeneration. He pointedto the other
prophetsand showedhow disregardof their warningshad
ever resulted

in confusion

to the unbeliever.

He declared

the signsof God in nature,animateand.inanimate,outlining, in poetical form, the argument from design.1 He
preachedIslam-self-surrender to the will of God-thus
defining the Moslem simply as the man who is resigned.3
He rehearsedthe divine attributes, singly and in groups,
so that from the Koran most of the ninety-ninebeautiful
namesof Allah, so often repeatedby the pious Moslem,
may be culled.

At this pointwe areled back to the first of the five pillars


of Islam, the confessionof the creed: I testify that there is

no God but God, and that Mohammedis the apostle of


God.

This

shortest

imah, or word.

creed in the world

is called

the kaP~

It sets forth in splendid brevity the kerne!

of the Moslem faith: the unity of God as revealedby the


sealof the prophets. It is criedfive timesa day from every
1 For a good example, see surah VI, 95-99.
2 Compare surah LI, 35, "And we sent therefrom [i. c., Sodom] such
as were in it of the believers; but we found only one house of MoslwnH.'*
All the prophets from the time of Abraham arc held to have been
Moslems.

CONFESSION

OF

THE

CREED

183

minaret; it is repeatedin everyformal prayer; it is inscribed


on banners and door-posts; it is used for the comfort of the

dying. This confessionmust be madealoud by everyconvert. Indeed,it is said that the idle repetitionof the words
by a Christian, in the presenceof ignorant Moslems,may
put him in dangerof an enforcedcircumcision. Unequivocal adhesion is thus constantly testified by the Moslem to
the doctrine of one God. We can have no real notion, how-

ever, of the qualities which he attributes to this one God


without a study of the Koran. This revealsa conception
of Allah similar, in many respects,to the conceptionof Jehovah,held by the Israelitesof the great propheticperiod,
but also with differencescovering matters of vital importance. For both, God, the Creatorof all things, is omnipresent,omnipotent,jealous of worshipdue to him, vengeful on wrong-doers,gracious and compassionateto those
who fear him. There is little in the following descriptions
of the Koran that might not havebeenuttered by a Hebrew
prophet:
" He is God than whom there is no God, who knows the un-

seenand the visible. He is the merciful andcompassionate!


He is God than whom thereis no God, the King, the Holy,
the Peucegiver,the Faithful, the Protector, the Mighty,
the Repairer, the Great!-He is God, the Creator, the
Maker, the Fashioner;

His are the excellent names!

His

praiseswhateverare in the heavensand in the earth do


celebrate; for God is the mighty, the wise!" * "God, there
is no God but he, the living, the self-subsistent. Slumber
takes him not, nor sleep. His is what is in the heavens,and
what

is in the earth..

Who

is it that

intercedes

with

him

saveby his permission? He knowswhat is before,and what


is behind them, and they comprehend naught of his knowl-

edge,but of what he pleases. His throneextendsover the


heavensand the earth, and it tires him not to guard them
both, for he is high and grand/'2
The importantdifferencebetweenthe Jewishidea of God
1 Surah LIX, 22-24.
a II, 256. This Is the celebrated " Verse of the Throne/7 found often
inscribed on mosques.

184

THE FIVE PILLARS

OF ISLAM

andtheconception
ofIslaminvolves
aquestion
ofemphasis
anda question
ofomission.1
First,then,fortheemphasis.
In striking
contrast
tothemaintrendofitsteaching
theOld
Testament
contains
afewpassages
inregardto Godin which
predestination
appears
toshade
intofatalism.Amongthese
are theoft-repeated
phrasesin Exodus:"I will harden
Pharaoh'sheart/5"The Lord hardenedPharaoh'sheart/'

whichalternate
with the expression:
"And Pharaohhardened his heart."

Saint Paul echoes this doctrine in his

letter to the Romans: "Therefore he hath mercy on whom

he will havemercy,and whom he will he hardeneth."2


Similar passages,
however,are very muchmore frequent
in the Koran. Whereasin the Bible theyareexceptional,
in the Koran they are fundamental.They cast a dark
shadowovermanyof its pages. Overand over againoccurs the terribleexpression:"God leadsastray/3 Many
passages
are unqualified. "He whom God leadsastray
thereis no guidefor him! He leavesthemin their rebellion blindlywandering
on."3 " But whomsoever
Goddoth
lead astray thou shalt not find for him a way." 4 "But he

whom Godwishesto misleadthou canstdo'nothingwith


God for him: these are those whose heart he wishes not

to purify,for themin thisworldis disgrace,


andfor themin
thenextismightywoe."5 With thisclassof passages
belong
the following:"It is not for any personto believesaveby
the permission
of God: lie putshorror on thosewhohave
no sense/'6 "We havecreatedfor hell manyof the jinn
and of mankind,etc."7 But as we maybalanceonebibli-

cal teaching
by another,evenmore,in dealingwith the
Koran,theworkof a singleindividual,maywepermitit
to interpretitself. Forsuchnoxiouspassages
asthosejust
quotedtheKoranitselfatleastsuggests
anantidote.Over
lThe Koranrecognizes
the inspirationof the Zabur'(the Psalms)

andof theTaurat'(theLaw),aswellasof theInjll' (theGospel),


thoughthe Moslems
hold that the text of the two latter hasbeencor-

rupted. Thereappears
to be but onedirectquotation
fromthe Bible
in the Koran,andthat is from Psalm37:39.

2Romans
9 :18.

3SurahVII, 185.

IV 142

5V,46.

eX,100.

'VII, 177-178.

CONFESSION

OP THE

CREED

185

againsttheirgrim fatalismmaybeplacedthereasonableness
of thefollowing: "He leadsastrayonlythe evil-doers/'1
" God would not havewrongedthem but it was themselves
theywronged/'2 " Verily Godguidesnot him whois a mis-

believingTear/'3 "Hast thou considered


him who takes
his lustsfor his God,and Godleadshim astraywittingly,

and hasset a sealupon his hearingand his heart, and has


placed upon his eyesightdimness? Who then shall guide
him after God?" 4 May we not comparethis passage
with
the sanewords of James? " Let no man say whenhe is
tempted,I am temptedof God; for God cannotbe tempted
of evil, neither tempteth he any man; but everyman is
tempted,when he is drawn away of his own lust and enticed/*5 At any rate, in theselast-quotedpassages
from
the Koran, Mohammedappears,if only in temporaryrecoil from a bald fatalism, to be groping after something
that may harmonize the doctrine of the divine decree with
that of man's responsibility.

So much for the question of emphasis. The question


of omission is even more grave, for it involves the loss of the

very doctrinewhich in the Bible softensits own sternteaching regarding the divine decrees. The fundamentaldoctrine of the fatherhoodof God in relation to man, amply
illustrated in the prophetic period of the Old Testament, the

central idea of the New Testament,is explicitly excluded


from the teaching of the Koran.

"But the Jews and the

Christianssay,'We are the sonsof God and his beloved!'


Say, 'Why then doeshe punish you for your sins? Nay,
ye are mortals of thosewhom he has created!'"8 This
denial naturally followson the denial of the sonshipof Jesus
which is often and sometimespassionatelymadein theKoran.7 The prophetof Arabiawasunableto riseto a spiritual
1II, 24. This occursas an explanationto an actual objectionto the
doctrine.

2XXIX, 39.

* XXXIX, 5.

* XLV, 522.

6 James 1 :13, 14.


6 Surah V, 21.
7 The scattered notices of the Koran in regard to Jesus have been

systematizedby Hughesin his *'Dictionary of Islam.'' We herepresent


his brief summingup with our own additionsin brackets. " It will be
seenthat Mohammedtaught that Jesuswasmiraculouslybora of the

186

THE

FIVE

PILLARS

OF

ISLAM

conceptionof the words father, son. The nomenclature


connotedfor him a physical relationship,amounting to a
taint, which he could not disassociatefrom the Christian

doctrine.

" How can he have a son when he has no female

Virgin Mary, who was sister of Aaron and the daughter of 'Imran.
[This Is one specimenof the extraordinary ignorance of chronology
shownby Mohammed.] That the Jewschargedthe Virgin with being
unchaste; but the Babe, speaking in his cradle, vindicated his mother's

honor. That Jesusperformedmiracles,giving life to a clay figure of a


bird, healing the blind, curing the leper, quickening the dead, and
bringing down a table from heaven"as a festival and a sign." [This
is possibly a referenceto the sacramentof the Lord's Supper.] That
he [Jesus]was especiallycommissionedas the apostle or prophet of
God to confirm the law and to reveal the gospel

That lie proclaimed

his missionwith many manifestsigns,beingstrengthenedby the Holy


Spirit. [Moslemcommentatorsinterpret the Holy Spirit as a title of
the Angel Gabriel, through whom the Koran was revealed.] That ho
foretold the advent of another prophet, whose name should be Ahmed.

[Arab commentatorsseeherea prophecyof the missionof Mohammed,


whose name is equivalent in meaning to Ahmed, and signifies "the

praised." The referenceis to the promiseof the paraclete in John


16 :7, where, so it is held, the word frapdK\^ros has been substituted
for irepiK\r}r6s,] That the Jews intended to crucify him, but God deceived them, for they did not crucify Jesus, but only hLs likeness.
[See surah IV, 156. "God took him up into heaven." Commentators
differ as to who was crucified In his place, oven Judas being suggested;
others say it was a spy sent to entrap him, etc;.] That lie Is now in one
of the stages of celestial bliss. That after he left this earth his disciples
disputed among themselves, some calling him a God, and making him
one of a trinity of the "Father, the Mother, and the Bon." [See Htirah
V, 116: "And when God said, '() Jesus, Son of Mary, w It thou who
didst say to men, Take me and my mother for two Gods beside God'?"
This charge is vehemently denied in the reply of Jesus.] That he, will
come again at the last day, and will slay antichrist, kill all the swine,
" break the cross, remove the poll-tax from the infidels. That he will
reign as a just king for forty-five years, marry, and have?children, and
die and be buried near Mohammed at Al-Madinah, between the graves
of Abu-Bckr

arid 'Urnar."

From this summary It will be seen that Jesus occupiesan exalted


place in Moslemteaching. However,he Is of little or no practical account to the ordinary Moslem to-day.

The Gospels are practically

Ignored. In Palestineeven Abraham seemsto occupya more prominent position in the peasant consciousness, while Mohammed, as the
seal of the prophets, usurps almost all of the honor and attention due

to his predecessors,The cult of local saints is very strong.

CONFESSION

OF

THE

CREED

187

companionand when he has createdeverythingand every-

thinghe knows?" * "They say,"TheMerciful'hastakento


Himself a son5; ye havebrought a monstrousthing! The
heavenswellnigh burst asunder thereat, and the earth is
riven, and the mountainsfall downbroken,that they attribute to the Merciful
a son! there is none in the heavens or
in the earth but conies to the Merciful
as a servant/5 2 To

the Moslem of to-day the affirmation of the divine paternity, in any form, is equallyrepugnant. " We are all God's
children/1 I once said in attempted consolation of a noble

old man who had met with a lossin his family-the family, I
may add, of Khaled, the sword of God, who conquered
Syria for Islam. "No/' he gently reprimandedme?"not
God's

children:

God's

servants-God's

slaves."

The namesSon of God,sonsof God, thus,wereemphatically rejectedby Mohammed. But it is fair to askwhether
he was merely obsessedor hypnotized,by nomenclature.
Did he indicate a filial relationshipindirectly under other
terms? For the idea is expressed in the Old Testament

indirectly as well as directly. Note, for example, the exquisite metaphor in the Song of Moses: "As an eagle
stirreth up her nest, fluttereth over her young, spreadeth
abroadherwings,taketh them,beareththemon her wings,so
the Lord alonedid lead him, and therewas no strangeGod
with

him."

To such tender

words as these I am bound to

say I can find no parallel in the Koran. Allah is indeed the


Merciful, the Compassionate, the Faithful, the Forgiver,

the Guardian, the Guide, the Patient, an Excellent Help,


but these titles are not the exclusive

attributes

of fatherhood

they may belong to sovereign, master, teacher as well.

In

one passageGod is termedthe Loving,4but the idea is in


generalsubordinatedto other conceptions. Here are some
instances:

"God

loves the kind."

"God

loves those who

fear/7 8 "Verily to those who believe and act aright, verily

the Merciful will give love."7 " Verily Godlovesthejust/'8


1Surah VI, 101; compare XVII,
8Dcut. 32 :11 and 12.
6 III, 128.
7 XIX, 96.

42.

2 Surah XIX, 91-93.


* Surah LXXXV, 14.
8IX, 4.
XL, 9.

188

THE

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OF ISLAM

eiVerily God lovesthosewho fight in his cause.3'1 Light


thesepassages
surely cast, but it palesbeforethe glow of
the Old Testament words: "Like as a father pitieth his

children,so the Lord pitieth themthat fearhim/5 2 It pales


beforethe fire and splendorof the New Testamentwords:
" For I am persuadedthat neitherdeath,nor life, nor angels,,
nor principalities,nor powers,nor thingspresent,nor things
to come,nor height,nor depth, nor anyother creatureshall
be able to separateus from the love of God, which is in
Christ Jesusour Lord.7'3 And again, "But God commended his love toward us, in that while we were yet sinners
Christ

died for us." 4

These last-quotedwords suggestone of the chief differ-

ences between

the Bible

and the Koran.

This

difference

is in the treatment of sin. Pardon for sin repented of,

punishmentfor sin persistedin, the Koran constantly .reiterates,but the deep,inward experiencesof the fifty-first
Psalrn, of the seventh chapter of Romans,are nowhere
approximated. We hear nowhereof a broken heart, of a
contrite spirit.

We miss not only the senseof defilement,

the sighs of anguish,but the joy of redemption,the ecstasy of relief. If we find nothing like the confession:
"Against Thee, Thee only, have I sinned,"6 we miss
also the jubilant cry: "He hath put a new song in my
mouth." '

In a conceptionof God which deniesfatherhood,and in


which love is subordinatedto power,the relation between
God and man will naturally lack the tender intimacy involvedin the conceptionwhich regardsGodas Fatherand
God as Love. This relationship,however,may be both

strongandvital. Both strength'


and vitality I find in the
Koran's conception,and the fruits thereof in the lives of
thebestMoslems. HereI find myselfin disagreement
with
the sweepinggeneralizations
of Dr. Zwemerand the school
of criticism that he represents. "God stands aloof from

his creation/'he writes; "only his poweris felt, menare


1Surah LX, 4.

2 Psalm 103 :13.

3 Romans 8 :38 and 30.

4Romans 5:8.

5 Psalm 60 : 8.

Psalm 40 : 3.

CONFESSION

OP

CREED

189

like the pieceson a chessboard,and he is the only player."*


In readingthe Koran it should be constantly remembered
that it contains

both

inconsistencies and contradictions.

Certain fatalistic passageswhich support Zwemer's contention have already been quoted,but the very inconsistent and contradictorynature of the book permitsus to find
passages
which teacha closepersonalrelationshipbetween
God and man. "O ye who believe!answerGod and his
apostlewhen he calls you to that which quickensyou, and
know that God stepsin betweennuin and his heart, and
that to him ye shall be gathered/'- Though on a far lower
spiritual plane,doesnot this quotation from the Koran seem
to belong to the same order of ideas with the New Testament

words:

"Behold!

I stand at the door and knock"

V1'*

At any rate it. is a far cry from ihetGreatPlayer,arbitrarily


moving the chessmen! Or again: "We createdman and
we know what his soul whispers, for we are nearer to him

than his jugular vein/14 If, as Xwernerobjects,this passagedescribesthe nearnessof (.iod to man rather than that
of man to God, we may point to the following: "When dis-

tresstouchesman, he calls us to his side,whethersitting or


standing, but when we have removed him from his dis-

tresshe passeson as though he had not called on us in a


distressthai, touchedhim/' c Here is the old story.,once
told by Mahiehi, of the willingnessof God to help, and of
man's callous refusal.

Or again: "Whosoever takes tight

hold on (Joelhe is guided in the right \vay/Mi "Are not


verily the friends of God those on whom there is no fear,
neither shall they be grieved?" 7 "Those who believe and

whosehearts are comforted by the mention of God- aye1


by the mention of God shall their hearts be comforted
who believe and do what is right.

Good cheer for them

and an excellentresort.0H " Ik* ye glad, then, in the cove1 "The Moslem Doctrines of God," pp. GOunti 70, by S. M, ^
Compare the fomouH urraignnmrit of W. (I, Falgrave, "Narrative of a
Year'^t Icmrney through
" Arabia" f 1802-3), vol.1, pp.
' 365-307.
3 Eev. 3 : 20.
2 Surah VIII, 24.
* Rurah L, 15.
Xf 12.
S1I1, 9CL
X, 64.
8 XIII, 28.

190

THE

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OF

ISLAM

nant which ye havemadewith him, for that is the mighty


happiness! Those who repent, thosewho worship, those
who praise,thosewho fast, thosewho bow dowrn,thosewho
adore,thosewho bid what is right andforbid what is wrong,
and thosewhokeepthe boundsof God-glad tidingsto those
who believe!"1

A corollary to the disbeliefin the fatherhoodof God is a


disbelief in the brotherhood

of man.

A distinction,

how-

ever, shouldherebe made. Every religion practicallyrecognizessomesort of brotherhoodamongits own members,


whateverthe conceptionof God may be. It was not until
the Hebrewprophetsbeganto seedimly that God was the
father of the human race, that any senseof a brotherhood,
including the wholefamily of man, becamepossible. That
Christianity was intendedby its founderto be a world religion, as over against the religion of a " peculiar people/'
was revealedto Peter in that vision in Joppa. This dortrine constituted for Saint Paul a startling discovery; it was

"the mystery hid from ages'7:2his warrant for the title


"Apostle to the Gentiles." Historically,thus, the doctrine
made an early appearancein Christendom, but it has been
the last doctrine to be transmuted into the actual daily ex-

perienceof Christians. To desireto extendthe privileges


of one's own religion to "the heathen" or "the infidels" is
one matter.

Moslems share this desire with Christians;

to regard all members of the human race as brothers, irre-

spectiveof their conversion,is not an ideal of Islam, and is


still hardly more than an ideal of Christianity. The history of the treatmentof Christiansin Syria and Palestine
sincethe Moslem domination,notwithstandingmany terrible interludes,showslong periodsof toleration, but this
toleration has been the toleration for an inferior, always
temperedwith disdain, often discounted,by oppression.
This point hasalreadybeentouchedin the first chapter.
The Koran teachesthat the infidelsa,reto be regardedas
the enemiesof all true believers. It preachesthe jihad, or
holy war, againstall who refusebelief in Islam. However,
amongthe enemiesof the faith a distinctionis made. The
1IX, 114.

Col. 1 : 26 and 27; cf. Epli. 3 ; 3-4,

CONFESSION

OF THE

CREED

191

mushrikin' (variouslytranslated" Idolaters"and " thosewho


join other godswith God") are regardedas worsethan the
Ahl-el-Kitab' ("the peopleof the hook"); that is, the Jews
and the Christians.1 It is against the former that the fol-

lowing terrible passageis directed: "But when the sacred


months have passedaway, kill the idolaters whereverye
may find them; and take them, and besiegethem and lie
in wait for them in every placeof observation; but if they
repentand are steadfastin prayer, and give alms, then let
them go their way; verily God is forgiving and merciful." 2
The jihad against the Christiansand Jewsis preachedin
milder terms: "Make war upon such of those to whom the

Scriptures
havebeengivenas believenot in God,or in the
last day, and forbid not that which God and his apostle
have forbidden, and who professnot the professionof the
truth, until they pay tribute out of hand, and they be humbled." 3 The Moslem commentators agree that the duty

of the holy war is meant to extend,to all time.


In the Book of Joshua,may be founddescriptionof events
that indeed seemto parallel the deedsand spirit of the
jihad. But no one has arisen in Islam to say: "Ye have
heard that it hath beensaid, Thou shalt love thy neighbor
and hate thine enemy,but I say unto you, Love your enemies, bless them thai, curse you, do good to them that hate

you, and pray for them which despitefullyuseyou and,persecuteyou." The* spirit of these words, I repeat, enters
vitally into the ideal of Christianity, but it doesnot enter
into the ideal of Islam, as presentedin the Koran or as held
1The attitude of the Koran in regard to Christians is self-contradictory. It is usually stated that, as the years went, on, Mohammed
underwent a eluingp toward thorn, from a .spirit of conciliation to one
more uncompromising. However, surah V, according to Noldeke the
last one revealed, contains two of the most conflicting statements. In
verse 56 we read: "<> ye who believe, take not the Jews and Christians
for your patrons (or friends); they are patrona (or friends) of each
other; but whoso amongst you takes thorn for patrons, verily he is of
them, and verily God guides not an unjust people." But In verse 85
we are told that

of all men nearest in love to believers are those who

.say "we are Christians"!


a Surah IX, 5-8.

3IX, 29 (Hughes's translation).

192

THE

FIVE

PILLARS

OF ISLAM

by Its votaries. SaintBartholomew's


Day andthemassacresat Kishineff, to take examplefrom a long catalogueof
eventsdishonoringto Christianity,constitutea direct denial
of this ideal. Whatshall we sayof themassacres
of Adana,
when within a few days at least 12,000men, women,and
children of the district were murdered with unspeakable

horrors; whenthis slaughterwas sometimesprecededby a


sermonin the mosque,and often accompanied,
by cries on
the prophetand cursesupon Christianity? The answeris
by no meanssimple. It mustnot be forgottenthat, while
the fanaticism of the peoplewas doubtlessutilized, those
massacres
are supposedto haveformed but a part of that
counter-revolutionstartedby 'Abdul-Hamfd, in a last desperate attempt to retain his sovereignty;1it must not be
forgottenthat agentsof the reactionterrified the peopleby
insinuatingthe convictionthat the Moslemsupremacywas
threatenedby the Armenians,color beinggiven to this insinuation by the actionsof a few hare-brainedArmenian
revolutionists; it must not be forgottenthat the ingrained

passions
of crueltyandgreedandlustareboundto ragein

any uncontrolledmob when onceit has becomeinflamed;


it must not be forgotten that the Sheikh-uI-Islam, the relig1The Armenian massacres of 1895-6, in which 100,000 people were
butchered, were arranged and ordered by the central government at
Constantinople. At this time the province of Adana was not affected.
After the Adana massacres of 1908, stories were afloat in different
centres of Asia Minor and Syria, telling of orders from Constantinople
for the massacre of Christians which were sot aside by the local authorities, civil or military.
None of these stories has, as far as 1 am aware,
been authenticated, but not all have been disproved. The parliamentary committee, consisting of three young Turks and two Armenians,

sent to investigatethe Adana massacre,in spite of their predisposition


to accept evidence implicating the old sultan, failed entirely to find
this. Dr. Shepard, of 'Aintab (see article in the "Journal of Race De-

velopment," January, 1911,p. 339), statesthat seventyMoslemswere


hangedfor killing Christiansin the generaluprising. The samewriter
says of the massacre(p. 327): "It seemsto have beena spontaneous
local outbreak, and its only connection with 'AbduI-Hamtd wan that
when the reactionaries got the welcome news that he wan again in the

saddle,they thought that by the massacreof Armeniarwthey could


feed fat their ancient grudge, enrich themselves, and at the Home time
ingratiate themselves with the sultan."

CONFESSION

OF

THE

CREED

193

ions head of the Mohammedansof Turkey, has officially


repudiatedtheseatrocities as contrary to the teaching of
Islam/ and finally it should not be forgotten that in many
casesChristiansescapeddeathby finding shelterwith kindly
Moslems. Two things, however,are certain. If ever the
day dawns when the Sermon on the Mount shall control
the actionsof Christendom,on that day the spirit that made
Saint Bartholomew'sor the tragedyof Kishineff a possibility will vanish; but as long as Islam repudiates the
fatherhood of God, thus repudiating at the same time the
universal brotherhood of man, so long will a recrudescence
of the Adana

massacres

remain

as a menace

to the Turkish

Empire. The noble affirmationsof Islam are in constant


dangerof paralysisfrom its negations.
The secondpart of the kalimah,or creed,statesthat.Mohammedis the apostleof (.rod. It is important to remember that

Mohammed

did

not claim

to be the founder

of a

new religion,but merelyto announcea newcovenant. The


Koran calls him the seal of the prophets.2 lie thus is believedto haveat onceconfirmedand supersededthe revelations made to Adam, Noah, Abraham,

Moses, arid Jesus.

We havesec.ni
that Mohammedin the Koran distinguishes
betweenhimself as an erring mortal and,as the prophet of
Cod. For his followersto-day, however,the distinctionhas
faded out of sight. While any direct attribution of divinity
would be universallyand indignantly repudiatedby his followers, his practical apotheosisis wellnigh complete. He
is held to have beensinless. Every perfectionof character
is attributed to him. Prayersare never addressedto him,
1 See article, "The Moslem Answer to Christendom," in "Pearson's
Magazine " for Augiwt., 1909, pp. 105-108, I>y James Creelman, who had
an interview with the Sheikh nl-I'shim nhortly after the massacres.
"There IB nothing," naid the sheikh, "in the law, nothing in the Koran,
nothing in Monlem poliey or intention that sanctions hatred or strife
between subjects of the empire, he they Moslems, Christians, or Jewa
...
I Hay this officially and without any reserve." " We look upon
the masHacrftHwith horror," etc., etc.
* Surah XXXUI, 40.

194

THE

FIVE

PILLARS

OF ISLAM

but his nameis never mentionedwithout a prayer.1 He is


to be the intercessorat the day of judgment. His example
in matters of faith and practice, as substantiatedby the
traditions,which professto be the recordsof what he did,
of what he said, and of what was done in his presence,un-

forbiddenby him, is practicallyasbindingas theteaching


of the Koran itself.

Practice based on the example of the

prophetiscalled"Sunnah." The traditions-.oftencalled

thetable-talkof Mohammed- vary greatly in their authenticity, whichhasbeenthe subjectof muchlearneddiscussion.


For example,Abu Daud receivedonly4,800out of 500,000!2

1There is a phrase constantly on the lips of the peasantsof Syria


when they wish to emphasizethe importanceof a statement which is
capable of misinterpretation by strangerswho translate it carelessly,
"Pray to the Prophet/' This phrasehas beenexplainedto me by a
noted Arab grammarianas an ellipsisfor a longerphrase. Whena man

Is adjured
withthewords
^M-ffjj^ i^*-A&Qat once
responds:
&JJf (J^3 (Godhasprayedfor himandblessed
him).
Hence the full meaning of the adjuration is: " Say, God has prayed for
Mohammed and blessed him" - a quotation from the daily prayer.
When the adjuration is put in the form of a question, it means something as follows: "Are you paying strict attention? Are you in a sufficiently serious frame of mind regarding the matter in hand that you
can say: 'God has prayed for the prophet?'" etc. Sometimes porters
when carrying a load call out "Ya rusul Allah" (O prophet of God!),
just as they call out " Ya Khalll" (O Abraham!), or just as the dervishes
address the long-dead founders of their orders.
2 See article, "Traditions," in Hughes's "Dictionary of Mam."
In

regard to the bearing of the traditions on Moslemtheology, Stanley


Lane Poole makes the following observations in his "Studies in a
Mosque," pp. 164-167. "A large portion of what Moslemsbelieve arid
practice is not found in the Koran at all. We do not mean that the
traditions of Mohammed are not as good authority as the Koran- and,

indeed,exceptthat in the latter casethe prophet professedto .speakthe


words of God, and in the former he did not so profess, there is little to

choosebetweenthem- nor do we assertthat the early doctoraof the


law displayed any imaginative faculty in drawing their inferences and
analogies, though we have our suspicions; all that we would insist on ie

that it is a mistake to call the Koran either the theological compendium or the corpus legis of Islam."

The Sunnis recognizefour Orthodox schoolsof interpretation- the


Hanaft'yeh, ShafiTyeh, Malakt'yeh, and Hanbalt'yeh. Their differ-

CONFESSION

OF THE

CREED

195

Though held in extremereverence,the prophet's name is


freelybestowedon the childrenof Moslems. Mohammedis
the commonest

name in all Islam.

Before passingon to the secondpillar of practical religion, we may glancerapidly at the remainingpoints of Moslem theology.1 Of the six articles which enter into the
Iman' Mufas'sal, or formal declaration of Moslem belief, we

have sufficiently consideredthe first and third, the unity

of God, and the sacred books. In our sketch of the idea


of God, we have also touched on the sixth, the doctrine of

predestination. We may add here that, as taught by the


Koran, the doctrine agrees with the Westminster confes-

sion that "God foreordainedwhatsoevercomesto pass."


The traditions say that God preordainedfive things on his
servants; the duration of life, their actions,their dwellingplaces,their travels,and their portions. However,the influence of the doctrine on the mental attitude of Moslems finds

but a partial analogy in the outlook on life of thoseChristians who to-day subscribeto the Shorter Catechism. For
them belief in predestinationhasbecomepurely academic.
But

in the Mohammedan

world

all the decrees of God are

potent forces. On them is basedthat Islam or resignation


cnccs consist chiefly in minor variations of ritual and varied interpretations of Moslem law. The.Rhi'ah,s have a corpus of traditions of
their own, including many sayings of *Ali and the other Imams. They
reject the corpus of the Surmis, especially repudiating the traditions preserved by the first three caliphs.
In the great mosque at Damascus there arc*,four mihrabs, or prayerniches, for the* use of the four Orthodox schools respectively. The Malaktyoh are few in Syria. On the other hand, the Shafi'fyeh, who follow the easiest rites, arcscommon, outnumbering, at least in Damascus
and environs, the followers of all other schools, and including the mass
of the people, fellahfn and tradesmen. The Hanaftyeh have been called
the Pharisees of Islam, an their sheikhs wear intensely white turbans
and teach stricter forms of ablution, etc. Their followers are found
among the aristocrats and high Turkish officials.
1As recognized by all Western commentators, the theology of Islam
is a synthesis of ideas borrowed, in more or less distorted form, from
heathenism, Christianity, and Talmudic Judaism, the last-named element greatly predominating.
A tabulated analysis of the sources of
the different elements, which represents the point of view of tine compiler, is given in "Arabia the Cradlo of lulam," by S. M. Zwemer.

196

THE

FIVE

PILLARS

OF

ISLAM

which namesthe religion Itself. The practical effectsof


the doctrine, however, range between two extremes. At

one extremeis the apatheticfatalismof the ignorantmasses


that refusesto take precautions against disease even in the

midst of an epidemic. At the other is true submissionto


the will of a just God, experiencedby many a pious Moslem, a submissionwhich anothergreat Semiticreligion has
voicedin the expressions:"Shall not the judge of all the
earth do right?" "Though he slay me, yet will I trust in
him"; and into which Christianity has transfused its own

gentlerspirit, breathingforth in the hymn" I worshipthee,


sweet will of God/' One sayingof Mohammed, which
softensthe harshnessof thedoctrine,may bequoted: Once
the prophet was sitting under a wall that suddenlybegan
to totter; quickly rising, he crossedover to the other side
of the road. When the on-lookersaccusedhim of fleeing
from the decreeof God,he replied: " By the decreeof God
I have fled from

the decree of God to the decree of God!"

There remain to be noticedbriefly the doctrinesconcerning the angels,the prophets-apart from Mohammed-and
the resurrection, including the judgment, heaven, and hell.
A belief in angels, jinns, and devils is not only taught by
the Koran and the traditions, but enters vitally into the life

of Islam. There are four archangels: Gabriel, through


whomthe Koran was revealed;Michael, the patron of the
Jews;Azrael, who is the Angel of Death; arid Israfel, who
will sound the last trump. Every believer is said to be
attendedby two recordingangels,to note respectivelyhis
goodand bad deeds. The numerousbandsof angelsalso
includesMun'kar and Naktr', who presideat the examination of the tomb, to be described later.1 The jinns or genii

comprisespirits of variousshapes,and include both good


and bad. The Koran is full of teachingsin regardto their
natureand doings,while the possibilityof their appearance
is a constantsourceof terror to simple-mindedMohammedans. Equally numerousare the devils,headedby Satan,
who is called both Shait&n'

arid Iblis'.

With

tiresome

iter-

ation the Koran,tells the story of his expulsionfrom para1gee p. 293.

CONFESSION

OF

THE

CREED

197

dlse because
he refusedto adoreAdam alongwith the other
angels.

The Moslem commentatorsdistinguish betweenthe ordinary prophets,who Indeedare held to havebeen directly
Inspiredof God, and the apostles,who, overand abovethe
ordinary prophetic function, are Intrusted with especial
missions.

Mohammed

Is related to have said that there

had been 124,000an'biya, or prophets,and 315 ru'sul, or


apostles. Six of the latter have especialtitles: Adam, the
chosenof God; Noah, the preacherof God; Abraham, the
friend of God; Moses, the converser with God; Jesus, the

spirit of God; and Mohammed, the messengerof God.


Enoch (Idris'), Methuselah, Lot, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph,
Aaron, David, Solomon, Job, Elijah, Elisha, Zacharias, and

John the Baptist (Yah'ya) were all prophets. Some include Alexander the Great arid /Esop, though Moslem
commentatorsdiffer as to whether they were actually Inspired. Many of theseare no more than names to the
people,but the ejaculation" Ya Khalfl'" ("O Friend"), by
which Abraham is signified, Is common in southern Pales-

tine-where, indeed,Hebron, the burial-placeof the patriarchs, ordinarily goes by the name of EI-Khalfl; while the

cult of Elijah is universal,whether under his own name or


under that of Khudr, the ever living one, or that of Saint

George,with both of whom,he is Identified.1


The theologyof Islam is dominated by its eschatology.
In the Koran there are no descriptionsmore graphic and
detailed than thoseof the resurrectionand the day of judgment, of heaven and hell.

It Is the consensus of Moslem

interpretation that the accountsare to be taken literally.


The descriptionsof the resurrectionand the day of judgment are not without a certain grandeur of moral dignity.
The descriptionof paradiseis, on the face of it, sensuous
rather than sensual, though Palmer seems to state the case

altogethertoo euphemisticallywhen lie says: "It appears


. . . from the Quran, to be little more than an Intense real-

ization of all that a dweller in a hot, parched,and barren


landcoulddesire,namely,shade,water,fruit, rest,and pleas1Comparewith p. 10.

198

THE

FIVE

PILLARS

OF ISLAM

ant companionship
and service/31Attentionshouldbe

calledto a very few passages


which rise to a higher conception of paradise^
involvingthe ideaof moral purity. " They
shall hear there no folly and no sin; only the speech,Peace,

peace!" "They shall passto and fro a cup in which is no


folly and no sin." Paradiseis to contain" no folly and no
lie." It is a placefor "those not lusting."2 But whatever
may be the ideasof the Koran, the " table talk" of Mohammed is strongly tainted with sensuality. The least of the
believersis promisedeighty thousandslavesand seventytwo thousand women. Popular conception agreeswith offi-

cial interpretationin taking such statementsliterally.


The descriptionof hell is crudelyrealistic,coarselylurid,
reeking with loathsomephysical detail, reiterated with
horrid unction, with odiousgusto. Heaven,in one of its
seven divisions, is the final destination of all Moslems.
Hell, also in seven divisions, is the eternal reward of all

thosewho reject Islam.3 Opinionsdiffer as to an intermediate purgatorialstate for thoseMoslemswho have committed great sins. The accountsof the clay of judgment,
with its balance, in which good and evil deeds are weighed,

favor the purgatorial idea,.4The time of the great day is


unknown

to all save God alone:

not even Gabriel

could

re-

veal it to Mohammed. It is to be precededby the resurrection,which is to be usheredin by many signs:5among


thesewill be the descentof Jesusto inauguratea short period having the millenial marksof universalharmony; the
appearanceof Gog and Magog;variousconvulsionsof nat1 Seethe introduction to Palmer's translation, p. Ixx.
a LV1, 24, 25; Ml, 23; LXXVIII, 35; LX.XIX, 40.

3So the generalteaching, though the following pansagoappearsto

point the otherway: "Verily whetherit be of tluwewho behove,or


those who are Jews or Christians or Sabteans,whosoever believe in Clod

and the last day and act aright, they have their reward at their Lorc:P
hand, and there is no fear for them, neither shall they grieve."
II, 59.)

(Surah

4For this I find confirmation in a satiric anecdoteonce told mo by a


Moslem friend, involving the punishment of hell for thorio Moslems
who do not fast in Itamadhan.

5 Many of these are borrowed from the Talmud.

PRAYER

199

lire; a recrudescence
of idolatry, and the coming of the
Mahdi, or guide. On the greatday, God aloneis to bethe
judge, though Mohammedwill act as intercessor,after the
office shall have been refusedin turn by the other great
prophetsfrom Adam to Jesus. After the ordeal is over,
those destined for heaventake the right-hand way, and
thosedestinedfor hell the left, but both must first passover
the bridge called Es-Sirat,which is laid over the mouth of
hell,1and which is finer than a hair and sharper than a
sword.

Such are the mere outlines

of the Moslem

escha-

tology, which ramify into extraordinarydetail


II.

PRAYER

The secondpillar of practical religion Is prayer. While


the privilegesof private or personalprayer, unrestrictedby
formula, at any time the believer's heart is turned toward

God, is recognizedby the Koran, and doubtlessenjoyedby


many a pious Moslem, prayer is usually a fixed liturgical
formula uttered at set times and in a prescribedseriesof
positions. For thesestereotypedforms the Koran is not
responsible,as not even all the five times of prayer are indicated together in any one place. The stated hours of

prayer are at dawn, a little after mid-day, in the middle of


the afternoon, a few minutes after sunset, and when the

night hasclosedin. Establishedcenturiesbefore the time


of clocksand watches,the tradition of the seasons
of prayer
is not kept with exactitude. I haveseena man at his mid1P. T. Baldcnsperger, brought up in Jerusalem, declares that the
phrase, "Guide us in the straight or right way," found in the first
surah of the Koran, refers to this bridge, which "will be fixed on the
temple wall of Jerusalem on one Hide and on the top of the mosque of

Mount Olivet on the other, whilst a hugefire will fill the Valley-of
Jehoshaphat below. On the judgment-day, when all men will be assembled on the temple area, Mohammed will make them pass the
bridge. All such as have said their prayers will pass to the other side,
whilst

such as have omitted

them will

fall into the fire.

But Moham-

med will save the Moslems after their having burned for a while."
(See article, "Woman in the East/' found in the "Quarterly State-

ment of the PalestineExploration Fund/' 1899,p. 146.)

200

THE

FIVE

PILLARS

OF ISLAM

afternoondevotionswithin three-quartersof an hour of sunset. I have heard the cry wafted from,the minaret two hours
before sunrise, when the dawn was not even a promise.

This adharijor call to prayer,sungin a sort of florid chant,


ringsout aboveeverymosquein Islam. In Turkey the flag
often floats over the minaret during the function. The crier,
or muadh'dhin, is often chosen for the strength and sweetnessof his voice. In a closely built city like Sidon it is in-

spiring to listen from the housetop to this humancarillon,


bornethroughthe sunsetglow from minaretto minaret,with.
many a variety of key and cadence. The singerfirst faces
the south,turning to the otherpoints of the compassas the
chant proceeds. In the minaretsof the large mosquesthe
singersmay be two or more, chantingnow alternately,now
in unison. "God is great!" they call four times, and then

repeat the phrases: "I testify that there is no (Jod but


God! I testify that Mohammed is the prophet of God!
Cometo prayer! Cometo salvation! Clod is great. . . .
Mercy and peacebe unto thee, O prophet of God!" In
some lands after the first or morning call, the words are

added: "Prayer is better than sleep!"


While the call to prayer is borne over their heads,the
worshippersshouldmurmur appropriateresponses,
though
some of them may still be going through the prescribed
ablutions (wadhu'a*) at the large pool in the court-yard,
washingtheir mouth, face,nostrils,hands,arms, up to the
elbows,and feet up to the ankles. It is meritoriousto ejaculate a brief prayer appropriate to each,action.1 Where
water is unavailable,as in the desert,sandmay be usedinstead. But the Moslemdoesnot needto entera mosqueto
perform theseregular devotions. He may makeany clean
spot a place of prayer.

Islam, has none of the mftuwriftti

honteor falseshameattachingto the practiceof Protestant


Christianity. Your Moslemvisitor may interrupt the conversationfor a few minutes,while he saysthe noon prayer
1These are given In Wortabct'n "Religion in the*Kaat," p. 212.
Note that these ablutions necessary before each prayer are to bo dis-

tinguished from the Glints!,or washingof the whole body, prescribed


after certain acts that produce legal impurity.

PRAYER

201

on the rug in your reception-room. I oncesaw a man put


down his prayer-rugon the floor of a railway car. As the
train waswinding through the tortuousvalley leading up to
Jerusalem,the worshipper,who had begunhis prayer with
his faceturned southwardtoward Mecca (as is required),1
soon found himself twisted toward everypoint of the compass,till finally he suspendedhis devotionsto consult the
company,who comfortedMm by agreeingthat God would
doubtlessrecognizehis good intentionsin the matter of orientation. Pilgrims for Mecca may be seenadjusting their
rugs on the steamerdeck by a small pocket compass.
No matter when or where it is uttered, the Moslem for-

mula of prayeris unvarying. The prescribedseriesof positions-standing, bowing, kneeling, with the head at times
bent to the earthand the handsin various positions:hanging at the side, folded on the stomach,stretchedout from
the lobes of the ears, touching the knees, or spread on
the earth-these positions,with the accompanyingejaculations and quotationsfrom the Koran, constitutea rak'ah,
or prostration. The number of rak'ahs employedvaries
with the differenttimesand with the zealof the worshipper.
The rak'ahs are ordinarily designatedeither fardh, obligatory, or sunnah,voluntary-a purely subjectivedistinction,
as the formula is practically the same in both cases. When

a Moslem is performing a fardh, or obligatory prostration,


he is supposedto be following a positivecommandof God;
whenhe declareshis prostrationto besunnah,or voluntary,
he is following the exampleof his prophet.2 We might,
perhaps,rank in theory the sunnahprostration with those
callednafl and witr, which are acknowledgedto be works
of merit or supererogation. As a matter of practice,however, the sunnah prostrations are seldom omitted by the
Orthodox Moslem unless pressedfor time, though their
performanceis sometimeslessformal than that of the fardh
devotions,as we shall see shortly.3 It is estimatedthat
1Moslems at first prayed toward the temple in Jerusalem.
2 These distinctions apply to many practices besides prayer,
Hughes's "Dictionary of Islam/' p. 286.)
8 For the Shi'ah practice, seep. 303.

(See

202

THE

FIVE

PILLARS

OF

ISLAM

If the believer follows out all the number and variety of


rak'ahs requiredand recommended,
he will repeatthe same
formula seventy-five times in a day!*

A Syrian Moslem

has the advantageover his coreligionistsin all other parts


of Asia, exceptArabia, in that his oft-repeatedprayersare
uttered in his mother-tongue. Mohammed gloried in his
Arabic Koran, just becauseit was in the speechof the com-

mon people,but his successors


guard jealouslythis Arabic
Koran from translation, even such parts as enter into the

daily devotionsof millions of Moslems,in Chinaand India,


who cannot understand what they are repeating! Dr.
Zwemer estimates that three-fourths

of the Mohammedan

world pray five times daily in an unknown tongue.2


Every prayer to be acceptablemust beginwith a formal
declaration. The exact wording varies with the education

of the worshipper,but the sentimentshould be expressed


in some such words as, " I have purposedto pray to Almighty God (say) two fardh rak'ahs at this presentnoon,
a duty which I owe to Almighty (rod, facing toward the
Holy Ka'aba." After this declarationthe man invalidates
his prayerif he interruptsit to answera question,and this
cannot be done unless ho first turns to the right and left,

addressingthe words,"Peace be upon you," to the inhabitants of the spirit world. lie then must beginafreshwith
the declaration. After uttering the first ejaculation, "God

is great/' the prayer is invalidated if for more than three


times the worshipperrelaxes the prescribedpositions of
the hands,in wiping off perspiration,or brushingoff a fly.
The prayer actually beginswith the repetition of the fat'hah, or first chapterof the Koran, which has been called
the Lord's Prayer of Islam, so constantlyis it uttered: "In
the name of God the Compassionate,
the Merciful, Praise
be to (Jod, the Lord of the Worlds,the Compassionate,
the
Merciful, King of the Day of Judgment! Thee weworship,
1 See the article, "Prayer," in Hughcs'H "Dictionary of I,slam," where
the number of xuk'fths to be said at different tinuiB in given with illustrations of all the postures, and full text of the ritual.
2 "Islam: A Challenge to Faith," p. 104, by S. M. Zwemer (New
York, 1910).

PRAYER

203

and Thee we ask for help. Guide us in the right way, the
way of those to whom Thou art gracious; not of those
upon whom is Thy wrath, nor of the erring." 1 After this,
the worshippershould recite one long or two short verses
from the Koran, but he may extend the quotationsat his
discretion. The choiceoften falls on the short chapterof
the unity: "Say: He is God alone; God the EternalI He
begettethnot, and is not begotten; and there is none like
unto

him.2

The

rest of the rak'ah

consists

of other

verses

from the Koran and of brief ejaculationsin praiseof God


and of his greatness,uttered in various postures. The
secondrak'ah is a repetition of the first. At the end the
worshipper, being on his knees, says, "Salutations and
merciesand good things are unto God. The mercy and
blessingof God be unto thee, O prophet!" Here follows
the creed: "There

is no God but God, and Mohammed

is

the prophetof God"--during the recital of which the Moslem raises the right forefinger. This performanceis repeatedat the end of eachpair of rak'ahs which closeswith
the prayer: " O Godhavemercyon Mohammedand his people, as Thou hadst mercyon Abraham and his people,and
bless Mohammed and his people as Thou didst bless Abra-

ham and his people,for Thou art full of praiseand glory."


The worshipperthen turns his head to the right and to the
left, sayingto the angelsand to the spirits of the departed:
"Peace be unto you!" The third and fourth rak'ahs repeat the features of the preceding,omitting the chapter
after the fat'hah. The declarationis not repeatedunless
there be a changefrom sunnahto fardh, or vice versa. At
the closeof the seriesthe man is at liberty to go about his
business,but the piousman will continue crouchedon his
knees,with his hands open beforehim, engagedin private
supplication,praying in his own words for blessingson his
family, for forgiveness, for guidance, or for anything he

needs. Somecontinuelong in such prayers,extendingthe


translation

of Stanley Lane Poole.

The fat'nah

Is sometimes

precededby a short quotation from the Koran in the first rak'ah


alone.

2 Surah CXII.

204

THE

FIVE

PILLARS

OF ISLAM

time of worship further by praising God with the help of


the rosary.1

The sunnah,or voluntaryprayer,Is alwayssaid by a man


alone, or independentlyof an imam', or leader, and it is
always whispered. When severalpersonsare to offer the
fardh, or obligatoryprayer, at the sametime, it is proper
that someone of their number shouldact as leader,saying
parts of the servicein a loud voice,while at somepoints the
others make responses.When alone, a man says part of
the fardh prayer aloud and whispersthe rest. It is clear,
thus, that wherevera Mohammedanmay be, he may perform to the full his duties toward God, independentof
priest and mosque. Nevertheless,with the development
of the powerfulbodyof the 'ularna,or learned,whoselearning is usually confined to the study and interpretationof
the Koran and the traditions, hasdevelopedalso a sort of
clergy-indeed, a sort of hierarchy. But it is a clergy dr.
facto rather than dr.jure; a clergyof practicalconvenience
rather than of ordination. Moreover,though the "clergy'1
act as an official body, the membersare originally selfappointed. Any one,by devotinghimself to the studyof the
Koran, or by attaching himself to a mosque,may assume
the white turban of a religious sheikh.

At any time he

may "unfrock" himself by discarding the turban. The


nearestapproachto ordination, as far as I am aware,obtains in central Asia, where the turban is bound on the

head of the would-be sheikh by a chief mowlawa, or scholar.3


Of course, many of these religious sheikhs cannot techni-

cally aspireto the nameof 'ulaina, or learnedmen,but they


may be looselyclassedwith them. Like them they live
and move among the people,and yet are subtly separate
from the mass. The *ularnamay engagein secular busi1The Moslem rosary consists of ninty-nine round beads, loose on a
string, divided into three sections by two extra round beads, called
"showa'hld," or "witnesses/' with an elongated bead at the end called
the "mai'dany," the word used for "minaret."
2See Hughcs's "Dictionary of Islam," article, "Clergy."
Compare
with a similar function among the Palestine dervishes, p. 241, of the
present work.

PRAYER

,;. 205

ness>
but their wholebearingis stampedwith their religious.':
calling. In my employ in the Lachish excavationswas a
verypooryoung,white-turbaned" sheikh/3whoseconditions
of life were the same with those of his fellow-workmen,

save that he could read and write, while they could not;
yet he was subtly differentiated from them by that indescribable air which in one way or another marks the "theo-

logical student" of whateverrace or religion. As a class,


the 'ulama appearto be devout, fanatic, obscurantist,jealousof the least encroachment,resentfulof any innovation.
Of course,exceptionsoccur. Nothing could haveexceeded
the helpful courtesyof well-knownMoslem'tilama extended
to me when I was making researches in Damascus. One

of these.Sheikh Ta'hir el-Mugh'raby, whom I surprised


with a visit, unintroducedand unannounced,proved to be
an enthusiastic scholar, living by choice in the humblest

quarters,that hemight buy books,which absolutelyhemmed


him.in on everyside,and which wereby no meansconfined
to Koranic studies. With the generosity of the true savant,

he was eager to extend his enjoymentof his treasuresto


others. During his last journey, the late Dr. Curtiss had
similar experiences. Resident Christian missionarieshave
cordial

relations

with the more liberal-minded

sheikhs.

The

influenceof the 'ulama on public life is instancedby a large


number of deputies to Parliament, elected from this class.

Theoretically,at the headof Islam is the caliph (kalffah),


or successor
of the prophet. Though the sultansof Turkey,
beingnot evenArabs, of coursefail to satisfy the canonical
rule requiring all caliphs to belongto the Qureish, or tribe
of Mohammed,they, by virtue of their guardianshipof the
Hall of theHoly Garments,at Constantinople,containingthe
prophet'smantle, staff, and standard,are generallyrecognized as caliphs, except by certain African Mohammedans, notably by the inhabitantsof Morocco, whosesultan
strengthenshis claim to the caliphateby an undoubtedsherJfian pedigree.1The Turkish sultans,however,haveprac1The claim of the Ottoman nultans to the caliphate rests on the
following transaction: The temporal power of the Abbasside caliphs
of Baghdad, who ruled from 750 to 1258 A, D,, was overthrown at the

206

THE

FIVE

PILLARS

OF ISLAM

tically delegatedtheir religionsduties to the chiefs of the


'ulama. Thus, even the caliph himself is bound by the
"fet'was,"

or authoritative interpretations of the Koran

deliveredby the Sheikh-ul-Islam,who representsthe final


court of religiousappealin Turkey. At Meccathe religious
poweris exercisedby the Grand Sherif, whosenomination
must be approvedby the Sheikh-ul-Lshunat Constantino-

ple. The Moslem"hierarchy" is not sacerdotal,neither


doesit distinguishbetweenreligion and law. The ordinary
gradesare imam', mufti, and qa/dhL The imam1is practically the "minister of the parish"; leading in prayer at
the mosque,sometimespreachingthe sermon,and performing the religiousceremonyusual at marriages. The great
mosqueat Aleppohasa largestaff,supportedby the " waqf,"
or religiousendowments,
includingeight imams,fivepreachers, twenty-fiveteachers,and twelvemiuidh'dhins,or those
who call to prayer. The qa'dhi is the judge and administrator of the Koranic law.

It is customary for him to lead

the prayersat a funeral, though this function may be performed by the imam. He also may conduct the marriage
ceremony. The mufti assiststhe qa'dhi in the capacityof
legal adviser. His "fet'wus," or decisionsof dill'erentlegal
questions,are recognizedas authoritative.
In the Koran the believers are commanded, when they
hear the call to prayer on congregation day, to leave all
traffic

and hasten

to the remembrance

of God.

The

ref-

erence is to Friday, the day on which Mohammed entered


latter date by Khalak Khan. Their natural descendants, however, who
resided in Cairo for some three centuries, continued to claim the Hpirituai
power. From the last of these titular caliphs, Sultan Selim I of the
house of 'Othman obtained, in 1517 A. !). a transfer or cession of rights
to the .succession,the legality of which ha.sboon strongly disputed and

strongly defended. For a discussionof thin much-involvedquestion,


seeHughes's "Dictionary of Islam," article?,"Khalifah."
1The word imam is used by the *Sunnis in different HOUSOH
to denote the following classes of persons: (1) The khalifah, or Hueeeasor
of the prophet. (2) The great doctors of divinity.
(3) The leader of
prayers in any mosque. For the use of term by the Shiahs, see p. SOI.

In the villagesof Palestinethe term kh&tib', scribe*school-master,appears to be equivalent to imam.

PRAYER

207

Medinahfor the first time. On this day^in Syria and Palestine, all governmentofficesare closed. Prayer, then, is attended with extraordinary merit, the chief services at the

mosquebeingat noon.1 It is estimatedthat at Broussa,the


ancientcapital of Turkey, ninety-fiveper cent of the population attend the mosqueregularly. At Nablus, the ancient
Shechem,now a strong centre of fanaticism, Moslem men

found in the streetat this noonhour on Friday areliable to be


stonedby Moslem children. The interiors of the mosques,
large or small, are of striking simplicity. In the south is
the niihral/j

or small apse directed toward Mecca.3 To

the right of this should stand the mim'bar, or pulpit. In


many small mosquesthis is wanting,as thereis no preaching. On the walls, usually whitewashed,but sometimes
richly decoratedwith marbles,hang no pictures. No seats
cover the exquisitelyneat floor, which may be strewn with
mats. Shoesmust be left outside the low bar or partition
at the door. In the centre of the arcadedcourt-yard often
attachedto mosquesthere is usuallya large tank in which
the worshippersperform the preliminary ablutions.
Most mosquesin Syria and Palestine,including the most
celebrated, occupy the sites of Christian churches. Such
are the great mosques at Aleppo, Beyrout, Damascus, Jerusalem, Hebron,, and Gaza.

Sometimes the old church

was destroyed, sometimes radically remodelled, sometimes

adaptedto the new cult with the minimum of alteration.


The

sanctuaries

or ha'rams

at Jerusalem

and

Hebron

il-

lustrate the history of threegreat religions. The enclosing


walls

of the Hebron

ha'ram

are Herodian.

At the south

end of the court-yard the crusaders built a church which

the Moslemsturned into a mosque. Their claim that the


cenotaphsof Abraham,Isaac,and Jacob,with thoseof their
wives,are placedabovethe caveof Macphelahis ordinarily
acceptedby scholars.Verification is impossible,as no oneis
permitted to search beneaththe floor. Indeed, with the
1The classicalnamefor mosqueis mas'jid, that is, a place of worship.
The name ordinarily in use in Syria is ja'mia', or place of congregation.
2The great mosque at Damascus contains four praying niches for
the respective use of the followers of the four schools of interpretation.

208

THE

FIVE

PILLARS

OF

ISLAM

exceptionof a half-dozengreat personages


with their suites,,
who havefaced the local fanaticismwith an imperial permit, no Christian is allowed within the enclosure. The
Ha'ram-esh-SherfF, or noble sanctuary at Jerusalem, in
the view of the Mohammedan

world, is second in holiness

only to the great mosquesat Mecca and Medinah. The


term ha'rarn applies to'the whole area, once forming the
temple court, and still enclosedby massivewalls, which
contain stonesof many periods,including wonder-compelling coursesof megalithic Jewish masonry,both belowand
above ground. Within this area stand the Kub'bet-esSakh'ra,or Dome of the Rock, and the Mas'jid-el-Aq'sa,
which is the chief placeof worshipin the Holy City. The
formerbuilding (wrongly known as the Mosqueof Omar),
octagonalin shape,is not ordinarily used as a mosque,
thoughit containsa praying-niche. It wasbuilt asa memorial shrine,at the end of the seventhcentury,by the Caliph
eAbd-el-Me'likto coverthe extendedoutcropof rockaround
which so many Jewish and Mohammedan tra.difions have

gathered. Accordingto the former, here is the spotwhere


Abraham was about to sacrifice Isaac; according to the

latter, it was the point of departurefor Mohammed,on his


celebratednight journey to paradise. It was probablythe
site of the great altar of sacrificeof the*,Jewish Temple.
During the crusadingperiod the building was turned into
a church called the Ternplum Domini. The guardianship
is hereditary in one family. It eontains famous ancient
copiesof the Koran, as well as bannersof Mohammedand
'Omar.

The Masjid-el-Aqsa on the south, wall of the en-

closure,was originally built by Justinian as a ehurchto


the Virgin.

Merit, attaching to the Friday devotions,is still further


increasedby attendingthe noonprayerat the AqsaMosque.
Here assemblenot only the faithful, from the Holy City, but

many peasantsfrom the environs. Long before the time


for service,the peoplebeginto ehoo.se
their places,seating
themselvesin long lines acrossthe matted floor, for the nearer

the worshipperis to the imam, or leader,thegreaterwill he


the blessing. Perhapshe may havealreadyofferedthe In-

PRAYER

209

formal sunnahprostrationsin the vast grassyarea outside;


if not, he performsthem in the placehe hassecured. Thus,
at the same time, a single line may show worshippersin
everypostureof prayer. At noona dozenor moresheikhs,
in the gallery oppositethe pulpit, begin to chant versesof
the Koran, or hymns composed for the service. At the
mention of the name of Mohammed, those who are not taken

up with their own devotions murmur, in true Methodist

style, "God prayed for him and blessedhim!" In the


meantimethe imam has beendonning the especialFriday
vestments-a greencloak or sort of soutaneand an ample
green turban. Staff in hand, he walks through the long
lines, precededby a lessersheikh acting as verger, to clear
the way. At the gate of the pulpit stairsthey pause,while
the vergerturns to the peopleand warns them, by quoting
a sayingof the prophet, not to disturb the service,evenby
whispering "Be quiet" to a neighbor! While the imam.
is makinghis slowand statelyascentof the high pulpit stairs
with a pauseon eachstep,1the greatmosqueis soundingwith
the call to prayer. Verseby versethe verger repeatsthis
adhan; verseby verse it is echoedby the sheikhsin the
gallery; verseby verseit is caught up by a singer at the
door, who in a loud voice passeson the holy summonsto
the hundredsof worshippersoutsideextendedin parallel
lines over the ancient court-yard.

The imam has now completedhis ascentof the pulpit,


and, staff laid aside,is standing betweenthe two banners
of the mosque,ready to beginthe sermon. This lasts for
fifteen or twenty minutes,and may be deliveredextempore,
but moreoftenis the sermonfor the day readfrom a printed
bookof discourses
for everyFriday in the year. They treat
of subjectsof practicalmorality: the vanity of the present
world, the evanescence
of kingly power, the importanceof
good works. After the sermon,the imam offers a prayer
for the sultan, which he may have written out and com-

mitted to memory. While he is praying, the peoplemay


takeadvantageof a favorableopportunity, as theysit silent,
!The imam sometimesrepeats the fat'hah, or first chapter of the
Koran on each step.

210

THE

FIVE

PILLARS

OF

ISLAM

to offerprivatepetitions. Then theImamgoesdownfrom the


pulpit and proceedingto the mihrab, or small apse,toward
the south,standswith his back to the peopleas their leader
in the mainfunction of the service-the two fardh, or obligatory prostrations,which, becauseof the especialmerit attachingto theday, takethe placeof the usualfour. In contrast to the sunnah,or voluntary prostrations,which,as we
have noticed,eachman performsIndependently,theseobligatory rak'ahs are gone through with military precision.
The hundredsof worshippersIn long lines make a most
Impressivesight: now standingerect,with handsfoldedon
the breast, now bending downward from the waist, now

down on their knees with foreheadtouching the ground,


and, at the close, all turning the head to the right and to the

left, as they breathethe word of peaceto the spirits of the


departed. At the conclusionof the recital of the fat'hah
by the imam, the peoplemurmur "'Amen!" and while he is
uttering the next passagefrom the Koran, they all whisper
togetherthe wordsof the fat/hah. When the two required
fardh prostrations are over, the linos are often at once
broken up, one man taking a step forward, anothera step
backward,as it is usual to changethe position before the
two remainingsunnahor voluntary rak'ahsare performed,
independentlyof the imam, as before. All throughthe service representativesof the mendicantpilgrims have been
goingbetweenthe lines quietly droppingbeforeeach,man a
leafletuponwhich have;beenwritten versesfrom the Koran,
exhortingto charity. A collectionis continuouslymadeof
suchcoinsas the worshippersmay haveput on the papers.
Many remainin the mosqueafter the serviceis over, listening to more chanting, or repeatingthe beautiful namesof
Allah, as they tell the ninety-nine beads of the rosary.
III.

FASTING AND LEGAL ALMS

For the Moslem, the third pillar of practical religion is


fasting. This is regarded as an atonement for sin* While

many seasonsare recommendedfor fasting, It is obligatory


only during the month of Ilumudhan, when the Koran was

FASTING

AND

LEGAL

ALMS

211

revealedfrom heaven. In regard to its observancethe


bookIs mostexplicit. It beginson the first dayof the month
only when a reputablewitnessis able to announcethat he
has seenthe new moon. If the night is overcloudedat a
given place the fast is postponedthere to the secondday.
From early dawn, when one candistinguisha white thread
from a black, till sunset, all adults should abstain

from

food, water, tobacco,and from everysensuousindulgence,


including even the smelling of flowers. As the Moslem
year is lunar, each Ramadhanoccurselevendays earlier
than the previous, so that in the course of about thirtythree yearsit has fallen in the depth of winter, when the
gnawingsof hungerlengthenout the short days,as well as
in the fierce heat of summer, when the thirst becomes al-

mostunbearable.1 From thesestrict exactionsare exempt


young children, infirm persons,and women who are pregnant or giving suck. The sick and travellerson a journey
of more than three days may remit the fast, but must make

up later an equalnumberof days. The seasonis supposed


to offer a meansof grace. It is practicallya Moslemequivalent for Lent. The devout secludethemselves,
spending
muchof the time in the study of theKoran. To the weight
of everypound of charity done at this season,God is said
to add threepounds. Many giveup indulgencein doubtful
practices,such as gambling. Old quarrels are made up.
On the other hand hungerand thirst themselvesfoster exasperationand dispute. "Ramadhan temper" is a recognized disorder. Wortabetsays:"It is computedthat more
casesof divorce take placeduring this month than in. any
other two of the year/'2 Fanaticism is easily aroused.
The rich spendmuchof the day in sleep,but the poormust
go on earningtheir daily bread. I can testify to the rigid
observance of the fast-day by the large majority of my half

a hundred peasantworkmen in southern Palestine,when


1As establishedby the prophet, the Mohammedanyear consistsof
twelve lunar months, without any intercalation to make it correspond
with the course of the sun, and amounts very nearly to three hundred
and fifty-four days and nine hours.
2 "Religion in the East/1 op. cit., p. 218.

212

THE

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OF

Ramadhan
fell in thetorridmonthof May. At noonreeessf
insteadof eatingwith the women,almost all the men and
youths lay down to rest till the whistle summonedthem to
work again, unrefreshedby food or drink. On the other

hand,someof the townspeople


makea pretence
of fasting
for thesakeof public opinion. " I cannoteatin town," said
a young man whom I found seatedby a stream on one of
my country ridesnear Bcyrout; "and as,of course,I must
eat, I am forced to have a picnic with someof my friends
who havejust gone home." On the whole,however,fast-

ing is muchmorerigidly observed


than are the fivedaily
hours of prayer. Sometimesthis observanceis most meticulous, as when a woman with a bad throat in the hos-

pital demurredto having her tongueheld down by an iron


presser,on the ground that nothing should pass her lips.
The rigid conscience
of the poorcreaturedoubtlesssuspected
even the clinical thermometer of concealing some forbidden
nourishment.

Amplecompensationfor the day'sfastingis offeredby the


night's feasting, which may begin with sunset,and last till
dawn, though, as a.rule, only two meals are tuken. Indeed,

Moslemshaveassuredmethat thelonghoursof fastingleave


the stomach

so disinclined

for food

that

a man

eats less

than usual. The choicest food of the year, however,is


preparedfor the nights of Ramadhan. Confectionersthen

drive their richest trade.

All the fruits of the season are

temptinglyexposedin the shops. Night is turnedinto day.


The coffee-houses
are crowdedwith men leisurely pulling
at the gayly decoratednarghile!),with a senseof luxury
fosteredby a day'sabstinencefrom tobacco. The mosques
and minaretsarebrilliant with lights. Onenight in Beyrout
I cameacrossa largecompanyseatedin an openspacenear
a mosque,listening to a sort of sacredconcert. From the
lofty minaretwasbornethe soundof the fresh youngvoices
of boysornamentingtheir singingwith many a flourish and
roulade and florid cadenza, showing a flexibility of the vocal

cordsthat a diva might well envy.1 The night's sleepis


1My recollection doen not include the clay of the month or the

exacthour of night. The functionwaaprobablyeitherthe towiish'

FASTING

AND

LEGAL

ALMS

213

short enough.In Ramadhan,but It must be Interruptedby


the drum, or tom-tom,beatenby the man whogoesabout,in
the small hours of the morning,chanting a summonsto the
faithful to rise and pray, and take their last meal before
making the declarationof fasting for the next day, without
which their abstinencewould be of no avail as a religious
rite.1 After the mealcareshouldbe takenlest any food be
left even between

the teeth.

During Ramadhanafter the evening,or last hour of


prayer,twentyadditionalprostrations,or rak'ahs,shouldbe
offered. In Jersualem,theseare performedin the Aqsa
Mosque,which is brightly illuminated. Betweeneverypair
of rak'ahsthereis chanting. After the Friday noon prayer,
there is formed in the same place a procession of sheikhs,

dervishes,and people,who then move toward the alleged


tomb of David, or Neby Daftd, chanting, as they go, "There

is no Godbut God,and Mohammedis the prophetof God,"


" God is great," with other sentences. At the shrine they
offer prayers,and then have a huge zikr. This function,
which in its elementary form consistsin the repetition of the
divine name alone or in unison, is by ,no means confined to
the dervishes, as is sometimes supposed. Any set of Moslems may come together for a zikr, which is literally "a
remembrance."3

In

the Kubbet-es-Sakhra,

or Dome of

the Rock, there are especialfunctions through the month


of Ramadhan. Under the great dome, whose elaborate
arabesquesare traced in rich and sombre colors, dirnly
or farewell to Ramadhan, which is celebrated in this manner after midnight, on the last three days of the fast. Or it may have been a mow'lad, or a recital of poetry celebrating the birth and miracles of the
prophet, interpolated with singing. The recital may be arranged in
fulfilment of a vow (accompanied by a feast), or may be offered by
a bridegroom, at any time of the year, but especially in Ramadhan, in
a private house or from a minaret.
i ]?or words of the chant used among the fellahtn of Palestine, see
the article by P. F. Baldenspcrger, entitled "Orders of Holy Men in
Palestine," in " Quarterly Statement of the Palestine Exploration Fund,"
1894, p. 38.
2 It should be noted, however, that the zikr of the uninitiated, called
the zikr of imitation, is not supposed to have the mystical efficacy inherent in the function when performed by the dervishes. See p. 258.

214

THE

FIVE

PILLARS

OF

ISLAM

glowingin the moltenlight that filtersin throughthejewelled


glassstuddingthe windowsbelow,thereassemblefrom noon
on thosewho would study the Koran from the big volumes
furnishedby the guardians. An hour beforethe afternoon
prayer,sheikhsrepresentingthe four greatschoolsof Orthodox or sumrite interpretation, begin to lecture in different

parts of the building to groups of followers.1 In front of


the sheikh,who maybe seatedeitheron a platformor on the
floor, is a pupil, who readsthe verseto be interpretedby the
master. Womenareallowedto listenfrom behindthegrille
surrounding the great outcrop of rock, which may have
beenthe site of Abraham'ssacrifice. The afternoonprayer
is saidby eachsheikhin the placewherehe hasbeenlecturing, acting as imam for his disciples. In the meantimethe
governorand staff may have comein to attend the function
of the khat'meh, which follows upon the prayer. Every
day one-thirtiethpart of theKoran ischantedby paidsingers
from a platform. Near by, leaningon his staffand holding
a big Koran in his lap, sits the imposingfigure of the chief
guardian, alert to correct in stentoriantonesany mistake
that may be made. At any mention of prostration, he

ponderouslygets up, turns to the south, and elaborately


prostrateshimself,touchingthe floor with his forehead,followedby the wholecompany. At the end of the chanting,
in which each singer has taken, a turn, they all join in the

words: "The great God spake truth." On the twentyseventhday is chantednot only a thirtieth portion, but all
that remains, accordingto the usual procedurewith the
fchatmeh.2When the last chapter is finishedthe guardian
1See p. 194, foot-note.
2 The khatmeh, or recital of the whole Koran, is a common form of
entertaining guests. A Jerusalem Moslem tells me that it may be also
arranged after a man's* death or on Home anniversary of the name, by
a relative of the deceased,whose HOU!is supposed to profit in the other
world. A Hheikh in paid for the reading, the bulk of which he may perform by himself, anywhere he pleases-at home or in the mosque.
The reading IB completed at the homo of the man who employs him,
before an invited (tornpuny, and is varied by chanting. The last
twenty-three surahs, or chapters, are read by the guests, each taking
his turn till the final one m finished. After each surah they all for-

FASTING

AND

LEGAL

ALMS

215

brings out a small bottle which is said to contain the hairs


of theprophet,graspsit firmly, andthen,guardedby soldiers^
holdsit out to the people,who rushup by hundredsto kiss it.
So great is the scramblethat childrenarenot allowedat the
ceremony.This concludestheespecialservicesfor themonth
in the Dome of the Rock, or so-calledMosqueof 'Omar.
As the afternoon of the last day of the fast draws to a close

you may seethe faithful peeringanxiouslyup to the western


sky for a glimpseof the new moon, whoseappearancemust
be reported before the feast can be inaugurated.^This
is the *Id-el-Futr, the Feast of Breakingthe Fast, or *Id-ezZaghlr, the Small Feast, so called in contrast to the Great
Feast, or 'Id-el-Az'ha, which coincides with the great sacri-

fice at Mecca at the time of pilgrimage. Joy at having


completedthe fast is shownin manyways. In the mosques
there are especialprayersand preaching. Men, women,
and children put on new clothes. In the public placesthe
young folk whirl in merry-go-roundsor are drawn about
in boats placed on wheels. At this seasonthe dead are
remembered in extended visits to the cemeteries, which in
the cities

are crowded

with

shrouded

and

veiled

women.

Almsgiving is also especiallyrecommendedand practised.


This, however,is not that legalalms (zakaf) which constitutesthe fourth pillar of religion, but rather the voluntary
charity (sa'daqah)which, in the East,brings the benevolent
person so much credit and popularity.

In Syria and Pales-

tine to be " karfm," or generous,indeedcoversa multitude


of sins. However,the systemof legal almsdoubtlesshasits
roots in the voluntary charitable impulse, which finds a
beautiful expressionin the hospitality for which followers of every cult in the near East are so famous. The

root-meaningof the word zakat-purification-indicates the


subjectiveblessingsof giving, for the referenceis to the
sanctificationof the remainder to the proprietor after he
mally give him the right to transfer the reading to the benefit of the
dead. Then he pronounces out loud the transfer of the reading to
Mohammed and the other prophets, and afterward, in a whisper, the
transfer to the dead man. The analogy in general with masses for the

deadis naturally suggested.

216

THE

FIVE

PILLARS

OF

ISLAM

hasparted with a portion of his goodsin alms. It is a sort


of religious income tax levied on the kinds of property
whichwereownedin the half-pastoralland of Arabia in the
seventh century: camels, cattle, sheep and goats, horses,

silver,gold, merchandise,mines,and fruits of the earth. It


may be bestowedupon sevenclasses:the utterly destitute,
thosetoo poor to be taxed,the tax-gatherers,slaves,debtors,
those engagedin religious warfare, and wayfarers. The tax
rate, which, in some casesis to be paid in kind, varies not

only with the characterbut witli the amount of property.


Fruits of the earth, with some exceptionscovering conditions

of productionas well as definitely named kinds, are taxed


one-tenth. It is estimated that the rate averages at one-

fortieth of the total income. The zakat may be paid into


the hands of official collectors (still found in some Moham-

medancountries),but it is lawful for the possessor


to distribute his alms for himself. The regulationsgoverning
zakat, basedupon the practiceof Mohammed,showa complexity of detail that is rivalled only by a moderntarilf bill.
No Moslemadult, providedhe is free and sane,is exempt,
providedhe is in possession
of a fixed minimum of taxable
property,and providedthat his debtsare not equal to the
amountof his estate. Zakat is not due upon the necessaries
of life, such as dwelling-house's,clothing, furniture, slaves

employedas actual servants,etc. The following details,


takenat random, may be eited by way of examplesof the
ramification of the law. No zakat is due upon less than
five camels,or thirty cattle, or forty sheep;upon anynumberof camelsfrom ninety-oneto onehundredand twentyare
leviedtwo camels'femalethree-year-oldcolts; ratesbetween
are particularizedwith the sameexactitude. Above one
hundred and twenty camelsthe zakat is calculatedby the
same rule.1 Unlike a modern tariff bill these regulations

havenot beensubjectto revision. The conscientiousMohammedanof the new regime in Turkey, who may own
sharesin an electric-lightcompany,when puzzlingover his
religiousduties in regardto the same,will naturally find no
positivedirectionsin the traditions of the prophet!
1 See Hughcu'*) " Dictionary of Main," article "Zakat."

PILGRIMAGE

IV.

PILGRIMAGE

Hajj, or pilgrimage, to Mecca, the religious centre of


Islam, is for its votaries the fifth pillar of religion. "This
annual gathering/5says PresidentWashbura,"really constitutessomethinglike a pan-Islamic congress,where all
the interestsof the faith are discussedat length by representativesof differentcountries,and whereplans are made
for its defenceandpropagation."* Pilgrimageis incumbent
on all who are able to perform it, but the Moslem doctors
differ as to what constitutesability. Amongthe conditions
namedare soundnessof mind, maturity, health, solvency,
and safety of the roads. Women should be properly escorted or chaperoned. A very large proportion of Mos

lemsarrive at old agebeforeall theseconditionsappearto


be fulfilled.

A Jerusalem sheikh estimates that only ten

per centof his townsmenwho havepassedmiddle-agehave


madethe pilgrimage. The sameman informedme that the
hajj may be made by proxy in caseof a man prevented himself by sickness or age. He may send his proxy during his
lifetime or arrange for the matter in his will.
This ordinance of the hajj long antedates the rise of
Islam. So firmly fixed in the hearts of the Arabs were many
of the customs in connection with the worship of the Black
Stone of the Ka'aba,

that Mohammed

decided to retain

them in as purea form as was possible. Idols of the temple


weresweptaway; the venerationof the stonewasretained.
Whether this decision is to be regarded as a compromise with

idolatry, or as a wise concessionin matters of secondary


importance, in the interests of the consolidationof the
followersof the purer faith, dependson the point of view.
A certainparallel existsin the codificationof the religion of
Israel,whenmany practicescommonto all Semiticreligions
werepermitted,providedthat theywerepurified from every
taint of polytheism.
1See his article, entitled " The Probable Influence of the Turkish
Revolution on the Faith of Islam," in "Journal of Race Development,"
January, 1911, p. 303.

218

THE

FIVE

PILLARS

OF

ISLAM

The formal declarationof performingthe pilgrimage,or


hajj-essential to make the rite effective,as in the casesof
prayer and fasting-may be made as earlyas Shawwal',or
the tenth month, though the Meccanrites do not take place
till the twelfth month, known as theDhu-el-Hij'jah. Till
recently there have been three ways of getting to Mecca
from Syria. The mostarduousand expensivemethodused
to follow the caravanof the mah'mal,or royal litter, which
usedto leaveDamascuswith an often-described
pomp, soon
after the Small Feast. Once when travelling across the
treelesshighlandsto the east of the Jordan and the Dead
Sea,I cameacrossthis route of the hajj--over one hundred
and fifty camel-paths,now closely parallel, now running
into eachother. Here was an appeal to the imagination!
It waseasyto peoplethesedesolatetrackswith a vast multitude, moving toward the southwith the gladnessof anticipation, tinged with apprehensionof the dangersof attack
from the Bedawin, who have ever regardedthe pilgrims
as their properprey; and later, with broken ranks, moving
toward

the north

with

the sadness of those who

have

left

their dead in somestrangeland or perchancein somewayside grave.


This caravan route was abandoned in 1908, when the

railway reachedMedinah. Tins enterprise,conceivedby


the infamousMzy,etPacha,is the only claim to public spirit
which that evil geniusof the old regimecanmake. Of the
four million Turkish poundswhich he was responsiblefor
collecting,he is said to haveappropriatednothing for himself. This large sum wasrealisedin the form of direct gifts
from the faithful over all the world of Islam,especialstamps
to be affixed by Moslemsto certain legal documents,arid
levies on the salaries of Turkish

officials, who at first were

expectedto subscribeone month's salary. The distance


from. Damascus to Medinah is 1301.5 kilometres, or about

813miles. The chargeis twentyparasa kilometrefirst class


and ten parassecondclass(abouttwo centsand onecent respectively),with an additional ten francs(or two dollars)
for eachthrough passenger,to be paid to the Arabs by the
railway companyin lieu of the bakshish,or blackmail, they

PILGRIMAGE

219

usedto get from the caravan. These sonsof the desertstill


occasionallyexpresstheir resentment at the Invasion of

theirterritoryby tearingup the rails. Whiletheworkwas


proceedingit was unsafefor the engineersto wander half
a mile from the line. " I was able to explorefarther afield
than the rest/' said to me a Moslem engineerbearing a
namefamousin earlyArab history, who was employeddur-

ingthewholeperiod"ofconstruction,
" because
of therespect
for my family name,but I took my life in my hand all the

time." To pushthe railway over the 250milesbetween


Medinah and Meccawill furnish a still more difficult problem, as the Arab cameleers who for centuries have conducted

pilgrimsbetweenthe two holy cities, will not submitquietly to the cuttingoff of their meansof livelihood. The
first yearof railwaytraffic,however,musthavebeena jubileeseason
to them,for it brought to Medinahsomefifteen
thousandpilgrims(transportedin ten trainsa day for a
weekormore),asoveragainstseventhousand
oreightthousandwhoformerlyjoinedthecaravan. Non-Moslem
travellersmayjourney as far as Mafan, on their way to Petra,but

Medinah remains as inaccessible to them as it was before

theextension
of therailway. In fact all railwayemployees,

at least beyondMa'an, must be Moslems. Many pilgrims

who wentlastyearby train returnedby seafrom the port

of Jeddah. This Red Sea route Is still the most popular

for thedoublejourney.
On everyroutethereis arrangeda halt at thelaststation
beforeMeccawherethepilgrim's garb shouldbe assumed:
for the man, two sheets of white cotton cloth, sometimes

fringedand stripedwith red; one to be thrownover the


back, leavingone arm and shoulder bare, the other to be

wrapped
abouttheloins,falling over thelegs. Sandals
may
be worn, but not shoes. The head must be shaved and

then kept uncovered


during the pilgrimage. The woman
is shrouded
in a greatsheet,much like her ordinaryouter
covering,but in placeof the veil Is a hideousmask,made

of dried palm-leaveswith two holes for the eyes. To the


higher-classMoslem, trained in the dignified traditions

of Islam,accustomed
to the simple and statelyritual of

220

THE

FIVE

PILLARS

OF

ISLAM

the mosque5
seeingunder the elaborateceremonialof ablution and purification a sane law of hygiene,holding the
ecstasiesand professedmiracles of the dervishes to be a blot

on religion, the weekor ten dayswhich he must spendin or


near Mecca, in the performanceof the requirementsof
pilgrimage-rites so trivial, so undignified,so revolting to
good taste that Palgrave may well speak of them as "a
strange, unmeaning shroud around the living theism of
Islam"-these

must bring in their train little but disillusion

and disgust. On entering Mecca, after drinking of the


nauseous water of the well Zem-Zem, which was discovered

to Hagarby the angel,he mustperformthe tawtiP,or sevenfold circunuimbulation

of the Ka'aba.

This cubical, struct-

ure, called the Beit Al'lah, or House of God, to be described

later, rises in the centre of the court-yard of the Great

Mosque,or Mas'jid-el-Haram'. Four timeshe must walk


around slowly, and four times at a trot, unless the order is
reversed, as was done by Burton, who followed the instruc-

tionsof his cicerone.1It is alsoexpectedof the pilgrim that


lie repeat certain ordainedprayersat different stationsof
the route, and that he fervently presshis body against the
Ka'aba, and kiss the Sacred Black Stone at the south-east

corner. On the same day he should perform the sai, or


sevenfold

traversal

of the distance

between

the little

hills

dignified by the name of the mountainsof Ha'faand Mor'wah. For part of eachcoursehe must run and for part he
must walk, to show, so some say, the bewilderment felt by
Hagar when in search of water.

These rites are but preliminary to the real hajj, winch


1Our account mainly follows Burton's personal experiences, in 1853,
during his famous visit to the aacrcxl cities, in the disguise of a Moslem.
See the memorial

edition

of his work:

"Personal

Narrative

of a Pil-

grimage to Al-Medinah and Meccah," by Captain Sir Richard P. Burton, two volumes. ("London, 1893.) Very few Ghristiarm have visited
Mecca, and then only in disguise, at the risk of discovery and death.

The SpanishChristian, Badia y Lehlich, preservedhis disguiseeven in


his book, entitled: "The Travels of AH Bey el Abbassi in Morocco,

Tripoli, Cyprus,Egypt, Syria, and Turkey betweenthe Years 1803and


1807." (Londonand Philadelphia,1810.) Burckhardt'scarefulobservations were made in 1814,

PILGRIMAGE

221

coversonly threedays-the eighth,ninth,,and tenth of Dhuel-Hijjah. Accordingly,early on the eighth of the month
the pilgrim starts on his twelve-milejourney to the Mount
of Blessing, or Mount 'Arafat, famed for the reunion of

Adam and Eve, who had beenseparatedon their expulsion


from paradise. As practically>the whole local population
t joins the procession,the real hajj might well be called a
. pilgrimagefrom Mecca; indeed,themain featuresoccurat
^Arafat and at Mft'na, or Ml'na, which is three miles from

the sacredcity. The hill itself is about two hundred feet


high, and about one mile in circumference at its base.

Burton relatesthat when the pilgrims enteredthe precincts


of the plain of 'Arafat, in sight of the holy hill, they broke

out, all together,into the pilgrim's cry, constantly raised


during thesedays,"Labbayk', Allahum'ma, Labbayk'!"
" Here am I!

Here am I-

No partner hast Thou, here am I;


Verily the praiseand the grace are Thine, and the empire-No partner hast Thou, heream I! "

The night of this first day-the Yaum-et-Tarwi'hah-may


be spent either near 'Arafat or at Mtina.
The second day of the hajj is called Yaum 'Arafat.

The

noonand afternoonprayers,condensed
and joined together,
are said at the Masjid (place of worship) of Abraham on
the mountain, and then follows the waquF, or "standing
on 'Arafat/' wherethe army of pilgrims from all parts of
the Moslem world take their places to listen to the three-

hour sermon,preachedby the khattb, who is seatedon a


dromedary,nearthe summitof the hill. What an audience!
Burton, in 1853, estimated fifty thousand, including some
ten thousand Meccans. The estimate for 1880 is ninetythree thousand two hundred and fifty. The favorite posi-

tion for listeningis on the lower slopes,but, of course,such


numbersmust be spread over the plain. The sermonis
punctuatedby sobsand cries, and shrieksof "Labbayk,"
from the vast audience, for it is supposed to be a time for

weeping. At sunsetbeginsthe terrible "hurry from 'Arafat." It is part of the ceremonyto cover the three miles

222

THE

FIVE

PILLARS

OF

ISLAM

betweenthe mountainand Muzda'Iifah, wherethe night is


to bespent,in theshortestpossibletime. Ridersandpedestrians start off at full speed. The mad rush degenerates

into a chaoticconfusion,in which pilgrimsmay be trampled


under foot, and even camels are overthrown.
n

The third day of the hajj, called Yaum-el-Nahr, also

'Id-el-Qurbrm,1

is celebrated over all Islam as the Great

Feast,or 'Id-el-Az'ha. In Turkey and Egyptit is popularly


known as Bairain.

The sacrifices made that day at Mftna

commemorate
the vicarioussacrificeof Abraham-popularly
connectedwith the nameof IshmacI,notwithstandingthat
the Koran plainly refers to Isaac as the intended victim.
The festival prayers,called by Burton "the greatsolemnity
of the Moslemyear," are supposedto be performedby the
whole community at break of day at Muzdalifah.

Here

eachpilgrim shouldcollectsevenpebbles,to be hurled later


at the Mtina

monument

called

the Great

Devil.

Burton

reportsthat the mobof stone-throwers


wassodenselypacked
that a man might havewalkedover their heads. Attempting to get through the crowd of fighting men and rearing
horses,he escaped
from beingtrampledonly by a "judicious
useof the knife.'" Then may follow the;sacrifice of animalsa camel, an ox, a sheep, according to the man's station.

The beast'shead being turned toward the Ka'aba, the pilgrim usually cuts the throat himself. The sacrifice,however, is not obligatory, being "surmah," or based on the

practiceof the prophet,and as a substituteonemay fast ten


days. In Burton'stimehardly morethan ten per centseem
to have sacrificed, as he estimated the slaughtered animals
at between five and six thousand.

The flesh falls to the lot

of the poor. On this third day, either beforeor after the


sacrifice,many pilgrimshastento Mecca-this trip is called
the "flight"-for anothercircumambulationof the Ka'aba,
and perhapsa visit to the interior.
Accordingto tradition, many have been the vicissitudes
of this Beit Allah,

or House of God.

The first structure,

erected by Adam, from a model existing in heaven, having

beendestroyedby the deluge,wasrebuilt by Abraham with


1 Qurbun means offering.

PILGRIMAGE

223

the help of Ishmaei To the latter the angel Gabriel gave


a stone(originally white, but later made black by the sins
of the people)to mark the corner. This is describedas
an aerolite,someseveninchesacross,in shapean irregular
oval, inserted in the south-east corner of the Ka'aba, four or

five feet from the ground. The building itself is a large


cube, measuring eighteenpaces by fourteen and about
thirty-five feet high. The presentconstructiondates from
1627, the previousbuilding having been overthrown by a
flood. But this was only oneof manyreconstructionssince
the time of Abraham,not .the leastimportant taking place
when the grandfather of Mohammed was its custodian. The

first man to surroundit with a mosquewasthe caliph"Omar.


It is protectedby the kis'weh,a hugeblackcovering,a mixture of cotton and silk, interwoven with sevenchaptersof
the Koran, which are legible from a distance. A verse
from the bookis also found on the goldenband which runs
around the kisweh. This covering,brought from Cairo by
especialcaravan,is renewedeveryyear at the time of the
hajj. There is little to seeinside this celebratedbuilding
beyond a pretty pavement and some good tapestries, but

the guardians are very importunate. Burton, who left


seven dollars behind him, was congratulated, when he

emerged,on having escapedwith his skin. Shut up in the


close,windowlessroom,encircledby the fierce,extortionate
Meccans,he had felt like a rat in a trap.
The night of this third day the pilgrim usually spendsat
Mftna. After the sacrifice, or after the ceremonyof stoning,
in casehe does not sacrifice, he resumes his ordinary dress,

and may oncemorehavehis hair cut, his head shaved,and


his nails pared. The next three days, called Ayyam'-etTashrtk', or thedaysof drying flesh(a horrible commentary
on the sanitary conditionsafter the holocaust),shouldbe
spentat Mftna. Each day the pilgrim should throw seven
stonesat eachof thethreepillars calleddevils. Then Mtoa,
suddenlydesertedof its teemingpopulation,resumesits ordinary desertedappearancefor anotheryear. Beforeleaving Meccathe pilgrim drinks oncemorefrom the well ZemZem, againmakesthecircumambulationof the Ka'aba, and

224

THE

FIVE

PILLARS

OF

ISLAM

bids a formal adieu to the sacred haratn.

He is forbid-

dento takeawaycakesof earthfromthedustof themosque,


as the practice is supposedto savor of idolatry. However, it is common among the ignorant, who also take home
to

their

friends

water

from

the Zem-Zem.

When

word

comesto his native town that a pilgrim is returning from


Mecca, a large crowd goes out to escort him in with banners

and.music. When the newhajj, or pilgrim, as he is thenceforth called,reacheshis home,the followingceremonyoften


takesplace: A sheepis stretchedoutside1m door, or even
over the threshold,with its head toward Mecca; as the pilgrim stepsover it, the animal is killed so that the bloodruns
betweenhis feet. This sheepmay be presented by a friend
who has vowed it in case of the pilgrim's safe return. A

similar practiceis not unknown amongChristian peasants


on the return of a pilgrim from Jerusalem.1Moslemsalso
maypractiseit in caseof a safereturn from any journey.
1 This fact was gathered by Rev. Samuel Ives Curtiss during his last

Journey. SeePreface.

CHAPTER

THE

RELIGIOUS

ORDERS

OF

ISLAM

INTRODUCTORY NOTE

OURlast chapterfurnished abundantIllustration of the


formalismand rigidity of the religioussystemof Islam, as
expressed
In Its doctrineand ritual, and as incarnatedin its
'ulama, or doctors of the law.

These elements were felt in

the earliestyears,hencein the earliestyearswas developed


sufiism (tasaw'waf), which In its relations to Islam may
be briefly characterizedas an attempt to expressthe spiritual and mysticalsideof the newreligiousmovement.1 The
principles of sufiism,however,so far antedatethe rise of
Islam that their influencemay be traced back through the
later Alexandrian School to Persia, and finally to their ori-

gin in Indian mysticism. As,logically,theseprinciplestend


toward pantheism, they would seem to be irreconcilable
with the strict monotheism of Islam, but3 as has often been

pointedout, logical Inconsistency


doesnot disturb the Eastern mind

as it does the Western.

He who

would

follow

sufiismaims by certain religiouspracticesto attain such a


condition of moral purity that he mayseeGod faceto face
and become united to Him.

This, then, is the end of sftfiism,

but to this end lead many ways. Indeed, it is by the name

of the waysthat the religiousorders,at leasteighty-eightin


number,which havesprung from the sufi idea, are known
to their votaries. AgreeingIn the samebody of principles,
they differ in particularsof organizationand practice. All
acknowledgethe ba'raka, or blessing,divine spark trans1 Many derivations have been suggested for the word sfifi, or mystic,

but it probably refersto the "sftf," or wool, with which the early followers of the doctrine

clothed

themselves.
225

226

THE

RELIGIOUS

ORDERS

OF ISLAM

mitted from the founder throughunbrokenchainsof salnts5


by meansof the ward (pronouncedouard), or initiation,

andmadeeffectiveby the disciplineof thezikr, or calling

uponthe nameof God, accordingto variousformulas. The


followersof the ways, or dervishes/as they are called in
Turkey, havethe sameaim as have the 'ulama, or doctors
of the law, to know the will of God, but while the latter ex-

poundthis will as revealedexclusivelyin a book,the former


strive to find it also in their own hearts when these shall have

been purged and purified. It is customaryfor Western


writersto emphasize
an antagonismbetweenthe two classes.
In the nature of things this is bound to exist, but I have not

found in Syriaand Palestinetracesof that bitter enmity

which appears,for example, in North Africa and India.


The Syrian 'ulama may themselves
lie dervishes. A recent
candidatefor the office of mufti in .Beyroi.it,or legal and
religiousadviser, is the chief local sheikh of the dervish
order of the Shaziltyeh,whosedoctrinesare supposedto
vergeon pantheism. As far as the ordinary Moslemsare
concerned,theseorders or waysexert a far more vital influencethan doesthe body of 'ulama. "Notwithstanding
this hierarchicalorganization,"say Depont arid Coppolani,
our great authoritieson the orders, " the real force of the
Mohammedanworld lies in a power apart, a mysterious
sphere, deriving its almost incredible prestige from an
authority whose might differs from that of the 'ulama,
since,in the eyesof the believers,it emanatesfrom Divinity
itself."

The dervish orders thus trace their origin to the earliest

daysof Islam. Soonafter the Hcgint, or flight to Medinah,


there were founded by Abu IJekr and *Ali, respectively,
two fraternities, whosememberswere bound togetherby
vows to hold all things in commonand to perform certain
religious exercises. A Syrian dervish sheikh explainedto
me that a community of goodswas a practical necessity
1Tho word dervish is derived from a Persian word signifying a mendicant Keeking doors.
a"Les Confrtfries ReligieiiHCBMumil manes, par Octave Depont et
Xavicr Coppolani," Introduction, ix (Algcr, 1897).

THE

MOHAMMEDAN

HAGIOLOGY

227

arising from the utter destitution of the memberswho in


their flight had left all behind them. Abu Bekr and 'AH
eachappointeda successorcalled a khalf fy, who in turn
passedon the succession. Later on disintegrationset in,
with a consequentweakeningof the organisms,but "the
way," or essenceof doctrine and practice,was handedon
from individual to individual, so that in everyperiod of its
history Islam hasbeenpermeatedwith brethrenrecognizing
eachother by secretsignsand grips. From time to time
therearose,amongthese,greatteachers,who by sheerforce
of personalityattracteda band of followers,but with their
death thesefollowersusually fell away, becomingmerged
in the unorganizedbody of sufis,or mystics. Reorganizationinto distinct orders,whichcontinueto be a powerto-day,
beganin the twelfth centurywith the great 'Abd-el-Qa/direj-Jila'ni.1 The bodies chiefly representedin Syria and
Palestinedate from the twelfth to the fifteenth century.
Diplomas accrediting the sheikhs of theseorders contain
an unbrokenchain of names,beginningwith the holder,
first running back to the founder of the orderin the Middle
Ages,and then through the earliercenturiesto Abu Bekr or
to 'AIL

Thus the essential unity of all these orders is

acknowledged. They have accordingly been likened to


the various sectsof Protestantism.

Powerful organizations,

now prominentin North Africa,,haveoriginatedin modern


times.
I.

THE

MOHAMMEDAN

HAGIOLOGY

On one of its sides the study of the religious orders of

Islam is but a small part of the larger study of the saints


of Islam. Eachfounderof a way or order is now regarded
as a saint, or we'Iy, that is, a friend of God, because,like other

greatwelieseachwas supposedto havea secretfrom God.2


1The principles of organization appear to have originated with
Sheikh Alwan who founded the Alwantyeh in the year 766 A. D., but
the order is not counted to-day among the powerful and widely extended

fraternities.

3 Wely is the name applied to a saint after his death.

228

THE

RELIGIOUS

ORDERS

OF ISLAM

As welies they have an influencefar beyond the limits of


their particular followings. These founders of orders do
not numberonehundred,but theweliesin genera!arecountless.

Their

world.

shrines are scattered over the Mohammedan

In their cult may be found a very practical modifica-

tion of the pure monotheismof Islam. Hencea preliminary word about the doctrineof the saintsis in place. The
hagiologyof Islam forms an immensesubject. The late
Dr. SamuelIves Curtiss found a book in the library of the
great mosquein Aleppo giving the namesof two hundred
and ninety-one saints of that place alone.1 Shrines are
dedicatedto the prophets(most of whom also appear in
the Jewishand Christian scriptures); to the companionsof
Mohammed;

to the founders of orders; to other characters

famous in Moslem history; and finally, to a multitude of

holy men,local and obscure,someof whom may havebeen


forgotten Christian saints! For the uneducatedMoslem,
whether peasantor dweller in the town, the cult of the
shrines is as vital as are the five pillars or ordinancesof
religion: confessionof the creed, prayer, fasting, alms,
and pilgrimage. .Forsonicit wouldseemto bo more vital
"Saints" were often sufis, or seekersafter union with God,

but in the cult of their shrinesthe pure sufi ideais obscured


and distorted. The 'ulama, quoting the example of the
caliph'Omar, whoorderedthe fellingof a tree under which
Mohammed

used to meet his followers, lest it become an

object of idolatrousveneration,denouncethe cult, which


is built on the practiceof makingand payingvowsto welies.
Vows,they teach,shouldbe paid to (rod alone. The more
intelligent of the commonpeople justify the cult on the
ground that while the vowsare madeto God, thesemaybe
paid at some particular shrine whosewely is especially
beloved of God.

The cult, indeed, exalts holiness. The

object, however,is not to securepersonalholinessby direct


communionwith (Joel,but to turn to personalaccountthe
holinessof the wely. The cult of saints has much the
1Other

valuable

information

contained

in this section

comos from

the journals of Dr. Ourtiss, some of which are now used for the first
time.

See Preface.

MOHAMMEDAN

HAGIOLOGY

229

same history in every religion. The ignorant Moslems


vow to the welydirectly?In the belief that he mayturn from
them some evil directed against them by God himself.
In any case the weliesare sought in time of trouble. If
therewere no trouble, so naively arguesthe peasant,there
would

be no need of the welies.

To the shrines

flock

bar-

ren women, yearning for children, and there are brought


the sick,the paralytic,and the possessed
or insaneto receive
direct benefit from the holy influence of the welies whose

spirits are supposedto inhabit the shrines. So deeply imbeddedis the cult that, notwithstandingthe teachingof the
'tilama, shrines are even found connectedwith mosques,
sometimesoccupying the chief place. Even at the great
mosqueat Damascus,wherethe three shrines are subsidiary, peoplefulfil their vowsof sheepby slaughteringthese
at the north side of the court around the pool. Official
Islam recognizessacrificeson but two occasions:first on
the third day of the Mecca pilgrimage,when bloody sacrifices commemorativeof Abraham's consentto offer op his
son are permitted,not only at Mtina, but all through the
Mohammedanworld;1 and, in the second place, on the
birth of a child, whenit is incumbenton the parent to offer
a dedicatoryand eucharisticanimal sacrifice. Sacrifices,
however, play an important though unauthorized rdle in
the paymentof vowsat shrines. The placing of the blood
upon the foreheadof the one on behalf of whom the vow is
made, indicating to Dr. Curtiss a substitutionary character

lacking in the aboveinstances,appearsto be confined,as a


rule, to the rural districts;

the "sacrifices'*

in the towns tak-

ing more the form of alms given to the poor.2


1 Seep. 222.
2 The latest

note-books

of Dr.

Curtiss

contain

additional

material

touching on these questions, which he did not live to systematize.


The whole subject of "sacrifice" in Arabic-speaking lands is compli-

cated by the fact that the sameverb ^

is used both for ceremonial

killing and for the ordinary killing of animals by the butcher; and that

the samenoun aLs^D is used for an animal killed for food and for a
slain offering.

In lands where meat does not form part of the daily

230

THE

RELIGIOUS

ORDERS

OP ISLAM

But bloodysacrificesare only a small part of the system


of vowswhichincludesnot only productsof the earth,costly
handkerchiefs and carpets, but the promising of girls to the

descendantof somenotedsaint. Onepowerfulwely,Sfdna


'Ali, near Jaffa, is reputed to be able to attract to himself

votive offeringsof grapes,wheat, or bread, thus savingthe


trouble of a journey to the one vowing!1
Materially considered,the shrines are of many kinds,
rangingfrom a rude circle of stonesaroundan ordinaryflat
grave,underan oak tree,to a costlymausoleumwith oneor
more domes. It should not be necessaryto emphasise the

fact that while the cult is contraryto a strict interpretation


of theKoran, it doesnot tolerateany semblance
of an image.
Within a built shrine are to be found only a mihrab, or

prayer-niche,directed toward the south,a lamp or lamps,


and oftena pitcherof waterfor thepilgrim. Visitorsoften tie
ragson the windowof the building,or evenon a tree,merely
in memoryof their visit. Sometimesthe shrinesare unguarded,thoughthe powerof the wely preventsthe theft of
votive offerings. But each important shrine has its servant; the more important may have several. Among the
diet any event of importance-such as a circumcision, a wedding, the
arrival of a guest, the building of ii house, a meeting for reconciliation,
the return of pilgrims, the payment of vows, even in modern times
the opening of a- railway-is especially .signalized by a "killing."
In
some instances the ceremonial or religious element in the act clearly
predominates; in others a purely utilitarian or Hocial element ob-

tains; in still others the two elementsappearto be held in balance;


while in a large number of cases it requires delicate discrimination on
the part of the investigator to decide whether the ceremonial element
enters at all into the consciousniicss of the one "killing."
The whole
subject fit/ill awaits further study. Dr. Curtiss, in his "Primitive Semitic Religion To-day," does not appear to have fully realized the utilitarian

use of the

word.

1See article entitled "Orders of Holy Men in Palestine," pp. 22-38,

by P. J. Baldensperger,found in the " Quarterly Statementof the Palestine Exploration Fund for 1894"; tin's citation is from p. 33. The
whole article is a storehouse of practical information regarding our

subject,basedon intimate personalexperience,as the author wasbom


in Palestine and lived among the follaliln.
well systematized, is of the highest value.

The material, though not

THE MOHAMMEDAN

HAGIOLOGY

231

dutiesarethelightingof thelamponThursdays
and thereceptionof pilgrims. Sometimes
theofficeis hereditary,
and
maybe in thelineof thewely'sownfamily. In anycaseit
is profitable,for theservanthasa sharein thevowedsacrificesand other votive offerings. Well known to Syrian
folk-loreis the storysatirizingtheholdersof thisoffice,as
well as the easy manufacture of new saints. The servant

of a popular shrine sent his attendant off to seekhis fort-

unewith a fewprovisionsanda donkey. The youngman


lost his way,his food gaveout, his donkeydied and was
buriedin thesand. While he waslamenting,theleaderof
a passingcaravandemandedthecauseof his grief. " It is
that I have no means wherewithal

to build a tomb over the

graveof a greatsaintthat I havejust discovered/'Much


moved,thecaravanleaderleft a generous
gift. Thus en-

couraged,the youth repeatedhis tale with suchsubstantial


results that he was enabled to erect a handsome shrine.

Many yearsafter, to this wely, now becomerich and famous,travelledthe formermaster,who,unexpectedly


recognizinghis old servant,beggedfor the truth as to the

origin of this mysterioussaint. Under seal of confidence


this was revealed. " But/'

added the servant of the new

shrine,"confidencefor confidence,tell me now, O master,

whatwastheoriginof the saintat thy shrine?" The old

sheikhstrokedhis beard for a moment,and then answered:

" Wullahl It wasthefatherof thy donkey!"


The termwely is usednot only for the deadsaint,but

for his place of burial or commemoration. Like the Christian monasteries, the Moslem shrines often dominate the

landscape.Someof themwith a reputationaswideasthe


Moslem world attract pilgrims from distant lands. Some

radiatetheir influenceovera limitedarea,where,indeed,they


aresupreme. Whenencampednearthe shrineof theFalftjy,

in southernPalestine,
I foundthat my localworkmen,who
thoughtlittle of forswearing
themselves
by the Almighty,
wouldtell the truth if conjuredby theFalftjy. In caseof
theft, suspectswere cross-examinedat his shrine as it was

believedhe would causeto spit blood thosewho deniedtheir

guilt. For theweliesareconsidered


aspersons
still living,

232

THE

RELIGIOUS

ORDERS

OF

ISLAM

and, on occasion,mingling with men. The personalityof


the Khudr, the Ever-Living One, of whosesynthesiswith
Elijah and SaintGeorgewehavespokenbefore,1may besaid

to permeatethe Holy Land. Sometimes


the welieshold
direct communicationwith the living. Baldenspergertells
of a certain Sheikh *Othman, who at the command of the

SultanBedr, his long-deadancestor,natural us well as spiritual, remained dumb for a number of years, in order that
he might keep from sin, refusing to utter a word till the

saint withdrewthe injunction.3 Sometimesthe weliestake


strangeincarnations. The samewriter relatesanothercurious story of Sultan Bedr. "When Ibrahim Pashawas
ruler of Palestine,he took away many lands belongingto
weliesand suchholy men, but when he sentsoldiersto take
Deir-esh-Sheikh, a swarm of bees kept them back.

Then

they knew that thesebeeswereno other than Sultan Bedr


defendinghis abode." s
We havealreadypointedout how intimately the subjects
of the religious orders and of the shrines interpenetrate.

Both belongto the sameworld of miracleand magic,as real


to the peasantas the veritable,materialearth. The Khudr
to whom there are raised in Syria,and Palestine more shrines

than to any other wely, is said to impart the baraka,or


miraculouspower,to foundersof the orders. The folk-lore
of the land abounds in tales of these*,especiallyof 'Abd-el-

Qtidir ej-Jilani, Ahmed er-RerVi, Ahmed eMJedawy,and


Ibrahim ed-Dusuki, whose names are attached to the orders

respectivelyfoundedby each,and who are linked together


as the four poles,living on the four sidesof the earth,which
theyuphold. They are also likened to four trees,the rest
of the weliesbeingmerebranches. Of thempre-existence
is
predicated. Though born in the Middle Ages,theyarc said
to have lived in the spirit beforeMohammed. The tombs
of all foundersare most important shrines,not only for the
members of the orders, but for all who are in trouble.

The

mostnotableis thetomb of 'Abd-el-Qadirej-Jilfini, in Baghdad, but Syria,too,possesses


the shrineof a popularfounder.
1See p. 10.
aSee Baldcnsperger'n article (<tp.rit.), p. 35.

* Ibid,

MOHAMMEDAN

HAGIOLOGY

233

At Jeba, a few miles north of Damascus, is the tomb of


Sa'ad-ed-Din, the founder of the Sa'adiyeh order of der-

vishes,a derivativeof the Qadiriyeh,and knownalsoas the


Jabawiyeh. The villageand its environs,beingthe property
of this wely, are free from taxation, and Its men, who are
mainly descendantsof the saint, are free from military service by imperial order. Indeed, ^Abd-el-Hamld is said to

have contributedfive hundred poundsfor the repair of the


maqam, or shrine. The saint's influence still controls the
vicinity. The houses need no doors. Cattle may wander
at will, so the servant told Dr. Curtiss, and should a thief
dare to touch one of the herd, he would be turned into a
swine, or some other animal, while the cow would return

to the shrine.1 Any onecalling on Sa'ad-ed-Din,no matter


where he may be, on land or sea, no matter to what race or
religion he may belong, will get help and succor.

A similar belief is attachedto the four poleswho to this


very day are said to appearamongmen, for help or for taking vengeance,
as surelyin their waking as in their sleeping
hours. Sometimesthe two rolesmay be combinedin one.
Two Coptsin Egypt, so a Jerusalemdervish told me, tired
of toiling for a living, assumed the red turban of the Bedawiyeh. dervishes, and started forth on a tour of the Moslem
villages where their Christian^ origin was not known, con-

fident that the simple fellahin would without question


serve them with the best of the land, in recognition of their

holiness. At nightfall they cameto a prosperous-looking


village. As soonas their presencewasknown, the peasants
vied with eachotherin bringingforth food,but the two Copts
were told that before claiming the rights of dervishes to

this commonhospitality they must prove theseby jumping


into a greatfire of logsand coalsglowing in the open place
of assembly. Were they, in truth, dervishes,they must
surely come forth unharmed; so, if they would eat, into
the fire first! IJlie pseudo-dervishes
exchangeda glance,
turned to the people,and asked if they might go apart
for a moment. Obtaining their wish, they withdrew out
of sight, tucked up their garments,and ran for their lives.
1 Compare I Samuel 7 :12.

234

THE

RELIGIOUS

ORDERS

OF

ISLAM

Then, great and terrible, loomed in their path Sheikh


Ahmed er-Refa% dead for centuries, but still lord of those

who may tread on fire and eat live coal without harm,
prompt to avengethe insult done to his fellow-sheikh,
Ahmed el-Bedawy,whosedisciplestheselying Christians
claimed to be.

"Go back," he said, "and do what the

peopletell you!" Blinded by the double terror, the two


Coptsstumbledback to the openplace,and leapedamong
the coals,never doubting that they would horribly perish.
But lo! they came out unscathed,and the people,abundantly convincedof their dervishhood,not only pressed
upon them the gatheredfood, but brought forth sheepand
donkeys as presentsto the holy men. These went on
their way, reflecting. In what better way could they show
their gratitude to the Refa'i, whosemercy had averteda
just punishment,than by professingin truth the faith which
theyhad mocked? And so they becameMoslems.
It is important to note that all such,talesimplicitly recognizethe subordinationof the miraculouspowers of the
welies to the one God, who may see fit to render them infallible. A dervish told rne that his great founder, *Abdel-Qdir himself, whose name means Servant of the AllPowerful, once was asked by a woman with child whether
she had conceived a boy or a girl. At once he declared

that he had miraculous,tangible proof that it was a boy.


When, later, it was told the sheikh that the woman had

brought forth a girl, he said: "The

Power of the All-

Powerful}ms conqueredthe Servantof the All-Powerful!"


II.

THE

DERVISH

ORGANIZATION

Of the eighty-eightreligious orders of Islam, at least


ninehave representationin Syria and Palestine.1 The followersof the Qadiri'yeh, Ilcfa'l'yeh, IJedawt'yeh,Dusuqfyehand Sa'adf'yeh,all closelyallied, are by far the mostnu~
1 See "Marabouts

et Khouan,"

pp. 26-51, by Louis Iliim

(Alger,

1884). He gives the names and founders of eighty-eight orders.


Borne of these are offshoots or derived orders. A Syrian dervish sheikh
estimated the number of orders at forty-four.

THE

DERVISH

ORGANIZATION

235

merous,beingfound, in Palestineproper, almost to the exclusionof all other orders.1 Sheikhsmay belongto four of
theseordersat once,a privilegenot usuallyaccordedto the
lay-followers. Membersof any one order are admitted to

themeetings
of any other. Theymayhavea za'wiyeh,or
dervish house,in common. The Qadirl'yeh, founded by
Sheikh *Abd-el-Qa/direj-Jila'ni or Keila'ni, a sherif or descendantof the prophet (died at Baghdad,1165A. D.), is
the parent order (Tarl'qa-el-ustil'). His natural descendants (who may or may not becomemembersof the order

by initiation)havespecialprivilegesto-day,suchasexemption from military service. Membersof the wealthyKeilani


family of Damascusand Haraath showhigh breedingand
polished manners. As with other sherffian orders, whose

founderswere of the family of Mohammed,a certainprestige attaches to the initiated members also.

The Refa'i'yeh and the Sa'adfyeh are derivativesof the


Qadiri'yeh (Turuq' el furu"a), the formerfoundedby Ah'ined er-Refa/'i (died at Bosrah, 1132 A. D.), nephew of
*Abd-eI-Qadir,and the latter, also called Jebawl'yeh, by
Sa'ad-ed-Dfned-Je'bawi(died at Je'ba, 1335A. D.). Lane
regardsthe Sa'adfyehas a sub-sectof the Refa'tyeh; Baldenspergerdoesnot usethe distinctivenamebut appearsto
refer to membersof the Sa'adfyehwhen speakingin general
of the Refa'iyeh. Descendantsof SheikhAhmed er-Refa'i,
bearingalso the name of Refa'iyeh, which thus signifiesa
natural as well as a spiritual descent,are scatteredall over
the land. The family is said to include sometribes of the
Arabs. Somefifty years ago, Abu-el-Hu'da, chief of the
order at Constantinople,obtainedan imperial permit freeing them from military service. Such exemptionis also
accorded to the family of the Sa'adtyeh,who form the
population of the village of Jebawheretheir ancestorand
founderof the orderwasburied. The Bedawiyeh,founded
by Ah'med el-Be'dawi,who is said to havebeena celibate2
1Baldensperger (see his article, op. tit.} recognizes no other orders in
Palestine proper. As to the close connection between these orders the
reader is referred to the remarks on the four poles, p. 232.

aNotwithstandingthis fact, Baldenspergerassertsthat he is supposed


to be indulgent toward adulterers. (Seehis article, op. cit., p. 32.)

236

THE

RELIGIOUS

ORDERS

OF

ISLAM

fdiedat Tantah, Egypt, 1276,A. D.), and the Dusuqt'yeh,


foundedby Ib'rahim ed-Dusu'qi (died at Dusuq, Egypt,
1278, A. D.), follow ecstatic principles similar to those of

the mother order of the Qadirlyeh. Each order is signalized by a capand bannerof a distinctive color.
Such are the most popular orders in Syria and Palestine,

having the greatestfollowing among the multitude. Next


in importance comes the order of the Mowlawl'yeh, or
so-called whirling dervishes, founded by JelaF eel-Din,

Mowla'wa (died "Ko'niah, 1273 A. D.), with houses at


Aleppo, Damascus,Hums,and Tripoli. This order, most
popular in Asia Minor, appearsto have no influence in
Palestineproper. The samemay be said of the order of

theShazill'yeh,whichoccupies,
as we shallsee,a unique
placeamong dervish fraternities. The spiritual appealof
mysticdoctrine which they makeis very different from the
thaumaturgicappealof signsand wonders,which accredit
the ordinary dervish with the peasantry. Their founder
was Abu Ha'sancsh-Sha'zili(died at Mecca, 1258A. D.).
The Kalandari'ydi (offshootof the Bakhtasht'yehor Baghdashl'yeh,foundedby the Haji Bakhtash',died 1357)have
an establishmentin Aleppo, where celibacy is practised.
.Finally,at Damascus,under a sheikh,of their own, recognized or at least toleratedby the Turkish authorities,may
be found

a few secret

followers

of the famous

North

Afri-

can order, the Senusl'yeh,foundedin 1835by Mohammed


ilm-Senu'si (died, Jerabub, in the Libyan Desert, 1.859).
Each of these orders is connected by the "chain of succes-

sion" (sil'sileh), as proved by the diploma (sa'nad) of the


sheikhs, with the original, society founded by Ali, son-in-

law of the prophet; exceptthe Kalandarf'yehwhich derives


from that of Abu Bekr, his father-in-law.
All general statements regarding the organization of the

ordersshould be prefacedby the caution that thesedo not


necessarily hold true for any given branch of any given

order, in any given place,at the presenttime. Organization, perfectedwhen the order was founded,has always
shownthe tendencyto disintegrate. The closerin time an
order is to its founder the more perfect will be its organiza-

tion. Thus the order the most rigidly organizedto-day is

THE

DERVISH

ORGANIZATION

237

that of the Senustyeh,establishedonly seventy-fiveyears


ago In North Africa. It, however,was the result of a split
in the order of Khudirt'yeh, founded a century and a
quarter before. Most of the orders representedIn Syria
and Palestineto-daydate from the Middle Ages. The notable lack of cohesionnow apparent among the branches
existing in these lands, Including those of the mother order

of the Qadiriyeh,by no meansrepresentsthe theory of organization actually put in practice when the orders were

established,and still prevailing, though In limited way3in


the branches of the Qadiriyeh found in North Africa.
With this caution in mind, we may now set forth the

principlesand factsat the basisof all the dervish orders.1


At the head of the order is the sheikh, usually resident at
the mother za'wiyeh, or monastery, built near the tomb of
the founder, of whom, according to the rules of many or-

ders,he Is a direct descendantaccordingto the flesh. The


sheikhis the grand masterof the order, a veritable pontiff;
its spiritual and temporaldirector; inheritor of the baraka,
or blessing,imparted to the founder by the Almighty; distributor of this, through initiation, to others; having a

perfectknowledgeof the law of God; exercisingthe gift of


miracles; and claiming absolute obedience from all his followers. Theoretically, he alone is entitled to the name of
sheikh, but in most of the orders this is accorded by courtesy

and usageto all his subordinates,howeverhumble,who, as


his representatives,
admit to initiation. Among the Qadiriyeh and allied orders these representativesare divided into

two ranks: a memberof the higher rank Is calledkhalffy


(successor,deputy, vicar), who controls the muqud'dims
(prepositi)placedunder him, and thus constitutinga lower
rank.2 In other orders the title of muquddim alone ob1 See the Invaluable work of Dcpont and Coppolani, " Les Confreries
Rellgieuses Musulmanes, pp. 193 ff. (Algcr, 1897); "The Dervishes or
Oriental Spiritualism/7 pp. 191 ff., by J. P. Brown (London, 1868).
Compare "The Religious Orders of Islam/' by E. Sell, of Madras. This
appeared originally as an article in his "Essays on Islam'7 (1901), but
was republished separately with additions in 1908.

2Khalt'fah(auu-Lb*)is derivedfrom thewordkhalf (v^jLU*.),


which
means "behind/'

and thus signifies a successor or the one left behind.

238

THE

RELIGIOUS

ORDERS

OF

ISLAM

tains. From the mother zawiyeh go forth khalifieSjor


muquddims,or both, to organizeand presideover branch
establishments,either in the same country, or in distant
lands. Once or twice a year the sheikh issuespastoral
letterssummoninghis subordinatesto a councilor assembly
(had'rat), wherereportsare madeof the temporaland spiritual condition of each zawiyeh. In orders where the office

of sheikh is not hereditary, the businessof the assembly


may include the electionof one of the members,noted for
his ability and piety, as successorto the head of the order,

deceased,
thoughin somecasesthe sheikhmay alreadyhave
named his own successorin agreement with his followers.

And, finally, wehavethe massof adepts,who maybe called


the laymen of the order,as theyhave not the powerof ordination or of initiation, though through initiation theymay
derive a shareof the miraculous powers transmitted to their

initiators from the central source. Theseadepts,who are


variously called dervishes,brethren, companions,or servants, fall into two classes: first, those who follow the as-

cetic life, either domiciled in the zawiyeLs(monasteries)or


wandering as begging "faqirs";1 and, second, those who
live in the world, like the tertiaries organized by the Fran-

ciscans,carry-ingon their ordinal-}'occupation,be it farmIng or trade, but attendingthe meetingsand observingcertain rites of the order. These form by far the larger class
in Egypt, Syria,,and Palestine.1 Even initiating sheikhsof
the humblerclassmay, in theselands, earn their living by
The term khallfah IB relative. The sultan is regarded as the khalifah
(caliph), or successorto the prophet. The head of a dervish house is a
khallfah with reference to his (sometimes hypothetical) superior. His

under-sheikhsare khallfahs withjreferenee to him. The word khalf

alsogivesusthe verbkhallaf (oLLs^),signifyingto leavebehind,and


thus to bear, to beget. This verb in applied to the sheikh, or khalffah,
to describe his act of investing deputies or successors, begetting them
in the spiritual sense. It is to be noted that in thin chapter we transliterate from the popular pronunciation of the word which in Syria and
Palestine is Hounded khall'fy.
*The primitive meanings of the words "faqtr'"
( >La3) and "fu'-

qur" ( J3) are "poor" and "poverty."

Baldenspergerusesthe latter

also in a secondary sense, as "scenes of fuqur," referring to dervish


demonstrations of Thursdays. (See his article, op. cit.? p. 34.)

THE

DERVISH

ORGANIZATION

239

following a trade. Baldensperger, who writes of the orders


In Palestine from intimate personal observation, refers to
members of this class as " unrecognized dervishes," In con-

trast with the faqirs, whom he describesas " active '* or


"wandering" dervishes,who take the vow of poverty, let
their hair grow, and assumethe cap and spear of their
lord, that is, of the founder of the order. Some dervishes,
he says, become " active " immediately on initiation, but

the majority take up the life of mendicancyafter having


lived as unrecognizeddervishesfor years. It is possibleto
revert

to a secular

life but this is not common.1

We have

spoken thus far of all members of the orders in the masculine gender, but it should be emphasized that the benefits of

the ordersare accordedto women,who may evenaspire to


the rank of muqud'dim. Examplesof femaledervishesin
Palestinehavecometo my notice,thoughI understandthey
are

rare.

Suchis the dervish organization


- comparablein its concatenation to the monastic system of Western Christianity

- that was put in practice by the founders of the orders


still representedin Syria and Palestine.2How it has come
about that few tracesof this elaborate.,closelyknit system
of control are to be found among the dervishesliving in
theselands to-day may be explained by a brief review of
the history of the Qadirfyeh, the mother order of the most
influential group. The founder of the order, 'Abd-el-Q&dir
ej-Jilani, was buried, as we have noted, at Baghdad in
1165.

Here continues

to be the residence

of the direct

suc-

cessorand representativeof the founder, whosesuccession


must now be confirmed by the Sultan of Turkey, where the
order is most popular, with some twenty dervish, houses in

Constantinople. In courseof centuries,secondaryestablishmentsspreadover the world of Islam, presidedover by


khaltfiesand muquddims,who, in the early yearsof a given
establishment,renderedallegianceto the sheikh at Baghdad. As time went on, however, each large establishment
3The orders of Islam are comparable not only to the monastic but
to the masonic system.

240

THE

RELIGIOUS

ORDERS

OP

ISLAM

becameitself the centre of a group of smaller houses,and


finally, ceasedto recognizein any practical mannerthe au-

thorityof thesheikhat Baghdad^


though,theoretically,
his
supremacyhas remainedunquestioned. Thus, in general,
all financial obligation has ceasedto be felt, though the
shrine of tfAbd-el-Qadir has ever continued to attract crowds

of pilgrimswhosevoluntary gifts add greatlyto its revenues.1


Secondarygroups, thus formed, still flourish in parts of
North Africa. In Algeria and Tunisia, for example,there
are three important monasteries,independentnot only of
the mother zawiyeh,but of each other. One monastery
exercisesinfluenceover the north-easternregion of Tunisia
with three smaller zawiyehs in subjection to it.

The mu-

quddim of the central establishment,himself acknowledging no authority, claimsfrom his sub-sheikhsthe allegiance
he theoreticallyowesto the sheikhat Baghdad. The complete alienationfrom the mother zawiyeh is illustrated at
the monasteryof Nef'ta by the useof a zikr (form of worship) unlike that of Baghdad. In Morocco the order has
a number of monasteries which are quite uncoordinated,*

And for a final exampleof disintegrationwe are brought


back to the lands which form the subjectof our study-to
Syria and to Palestine. Scatteredthrough theselands are
manyfocal points of dervishlife, bound,indeed,by a union
of doctrine and practice but bound by no permanentorganic union. The last generalassemblyor council of the
Qadirtyehwas held,so I havebeentold, sometwo hundred
yearsago. A similar lack of cohesionis to be found in general in the allied orders,the IlefViyeh, Sa'adtyeh,Bedawiyeh,und Dusuklyeh,as well,as in the Shazilfyeh. Balclensperger,however,gives an instanceshowing that among
the Dusuktyehthereis still a, trace of a formerallegianceto
a central authority. In Kuryet-el-*Anab,near Jerusalem,
there is a family in which the office of sheikh in the order of

theDusuktyehis hereditary. Whenthe sheikhdiedin 1891,


1The immense Bomn Rent annually from India,, though voluntary,
appear to be regarded us a moral obligation. (See Depont and Cop*

polani, op. cti., pp. 209-300.)


2SeeDepont and Ooppolani(op. dL), pp. 305-1516.

DERVISH

ORGANIZATION

241

his sonof fourteenyearsrefusedinvestitureat the handsof


the mukhtar, or mayor, on the ground that he was an inferior, but with his own hands bound the sheikh's turban

half-way around his head,,leaving the other half hanging


down, declaringthat when he was old enoughhe would go
to Dusuk, in Egypt (wherethe founderIs buried), and there
receive proper investiture from his own superior khalify!1

We have just used the term "no permanent organic


union." Temporary organicunion, as applied to districts,
there may be under the authority of the mur'shid, that is,

the guide or director. This sort of union long antedated


the organizationof the orders in the twelfth century. The
murshid of to-day is a reversionto a Semitic type, which
createdthe schoolsof the prophetsand reappearedin the
early daysof Islam. Then great teachersarose,possessing
qualities of leadership,who attracted bands of followers.
"Such teachingsaints/' says Macdonald, speakingof the
ante-crusading
period," came and went, and with their death
their circle of disciplesbroke up. The unit of organization
wasstill the teacher and for his life only/7 3 Here is a descrip-

tion, applying equally to the modernmurshid, whoseinfluenceis circumscribedlocally, and is purely personal,being
after the order of Melchizedek, without father and without
descent.

From

time to time there arises a sheikh of extraor-

dinary piety or ability, or both, attracting by sheerforce of


personalitythe dervishesof the surroundingcountry,who instinctively acknowledgehis God-given authority, yielding
him perfectobedience. Thus, within a given order several
murshidsmay coexist,controlling different groups. Moreover, such authority may extendover severalorders. The
celebrated Abu Rabah', one of the notables of Jaffa, who has

only recently died, was sheikhof the four principal orders,


controllingtheir votaries,sheikhsand laymenasfar southas
Gaza, "like a generalin the army/7 so a poor sheikh of
the Qadiriyeh told me. He might assembletheseat Jaffa,
when the occasionarose,for generalbusiness,or he might
1See Baldensperger's article (op. dt.), p. 33.

2"The ReligiousLife and Attitude in Islam/7 p. 161,by D. B. Macdonald (1909)^

242

THE

RELIGIOUS

ORDERS

OF

ISLAM

at any time commandthe presenceof two dervishesto settle a dispute betweenthem. At his death, Jaffa ceasedto
be a centre of dervish power. His little son will probably
succeedhim as sheikh, but no power of natural heredity
can make him a murshid.

If genuinepiety be a requisite for a murshid, the late


Abu-'l-Huda, prominent among the membersof *Abd-el
Hamid's famousor rather infamouscamarilla could hardly
lay claim to the title. His rise,however,from the stateof a
poor,wanderingdervishto a positionof suchauthority over
the Refa'lyeh of Turkey that he has been called their supremesheikhwasdue to the possession
of certaindynamic
qualities that alonemake a murshid possible. His father,
a humble sheikh of the R.efa/lyeh,and also a descendant of

the founder,lived not far from,Aleppo. Initiated as a poor


young man into the order, Abu-'l-Huda becameat first a
faqir, going about chanting and jingling his tambourine.
Later he wassummonedto Constantinople,wherehis beautiful voice brought him into general notice. Having established

his reputationas a holy man with the Prince'Abd-el-Hamld


by eating a live serpentin his presence,he was appointed
his imam, or private chaplain,preachingeveryFriday and
interpretinghis master'sdreams. It was by his suggestion,
so it is affirmed,on excellentauthority/ that Midhat Pasha
raised'Abd-el-Hamid to the throne. The influencegained
over the sultan secured to him a control of religious affairs
second only to that of the Sheikh-el-Islam himself. He

becameknown as the sultan's astrologer. In temporary


affairsalsothe sultan soughthis advice. Through him aspirants for the officeof minister,qadhi (judge), evengrandvizier, wouldfind their bestmeansof approach. All of this
suggeststhe sourceof his wealth, reputedto be enormous;
but it should be added that great also was his generosity.
The relations of thesetwo masterful spirits were riot always smooth, for sometimesthe dervish and the sultan
1 Tins account is based mainly on an interview, found in the last
"Journal'7 of Dr. OurtiHS (No. XIX), which he had with a notable of

Jerusalem,who had been deputy to the first parliament of 'Abd-elfiamid.

THE

DERVISH

ORGANIZATION

243

wowicfbe estranged
for six monthsat a time,,but thedervish influence

downfall.

was maintained

on the whole

till

the sultanas

Abu-yl-Huda will long continue to be a name

to conjure by with the dervishesof Turkey, though the


lack of consistencybetweenhis vows as a dervish and his
life as a courtier provokesfree comment. It is statedthat
underhis powerful direction the membersof the order, the
organizationof which hasbecomemuchdisintegrated,were
recovering a spiritual homogeneitywhich might destine
them to form the best agents for the Panislamic movement
inaugurated in 1882.1 Up to this time., however, this move-

ment doesnot appearto havegained ground in Syria and


Palestine. The tale of Abu-'l-Huda is one that might be

told of many an abbot in the Middle Ages. We haverepeatedit in this connectionto emphasizeits distortion of
the murshid idea, not to illustrate this normally.
the murshids
Hermit.

of

the church

were

not

all

like

Alas!

Peter

the

In a former paragraph we have referred to the uncoordinatedfocal points of dervish life among the Qadiriyeh
and allied orders in Syria and Palestine. Such centres
fall under two classes.

Where there is a well-endowed and

well-organized dervish house, zawiyeh or tekkeh (written

also tekklyeh), it is customaryto find domiciled a sheikh


who has under him, not necessarilyresident in the building, a numberof sub-sheikhs,who as his representatives
or
deputiesare knownas khallfies. The spiritual ancestorsof
such presiding sheikhswere themselves,as we have seen,
khallfies

with

reference

to the head of the order.

At

the

presentday they are quite independentof control though


they may still bear the title of khallfy in a historical sense.2
In such a sensethe term khallfy is applied to ordaining
sheikhs,usually of the poorer class, not subordinatedto
the presiding officer of any tekkeh. These constitutethe
centres of the second

class.

As the heads

of tekkehs

con-

trol a body of lay-dervishes,so theseunattachedkhallfies


have their disciples. The former might be loosely com1See Depont and Coppolani (op. c#.), P- 327.
2Sec also p. 248.

244

THE

RELIGIOUS

ORDERS

OF

paredto a rector having curatesas well as a congregation;


the latter to a rector with a small congregationalone.
It was my privilege,on a recentvisit to a town of northern Syria, to receivefrom a sheikh, who presidesover a
tekkehbelongingto theorderof theSa'adfyehor Jebawlyeh,
a frank account of himselfand of his followers. Though
to a commonfriend I had expressed
a desireto meetSheikh
Sa'ad-ed-Din,if the interview could be arranged,I confess
that I was surprisedat his ready proposalto come to my
hotel.

The moment he entered my room, and even before

he cameup to me, I wasawareof a vivid personality. Soon


justified was my first impression. Tall and straight; dignified yet winning; with magnificentbold black eyesthat had
a powerof suddenillumination; graciousin manneryet radiating self-assurance;rapid, almost torrential in speech;
well dressed in long cloak with the turban of his order;

well groomedwith dark beardstreakedwith gray-here, indeed,wasa man, of authority. Proofsof this he immediately
and somewhatproudlyproduced. From his bosomlie drew
out a roll, tatteredand torn at the top, which proved,when
unwound, to be several feet long. This was his sa'nad, or

diploma, accrediting him with his followers; authorizing


him to ordain or "give the way," and to heal from sickness

or bites of serpents. Through,the readingof this diploma


I was personallyconducted,as it were,for he kept glancing
up to insurethat I was not only listening but taking in the
full meaning. He proceededto unwind an apparentlyendless chain of names: the first link was his own name; the
next, the name of his ordaining sheikh, from whom he had

"received the way"; and so, on and on, through names


wellknownin Moslemhistory,till he pausedfor breathat the
nameof the founderof the order, 8a*ad~ed-l)fnej-Jebawi,
who died in 1335. Then the line receded back through the

Middle and Dark Ages with a list of namesunknown to


me, from whoseobscurityflashed that of the great imam,
Ja'afar-es-Sa'diq,till at last 1 wasthrilled to hearthe words
"who

received it from Hoseiri, who received it from *Ali,

who received it from, Mohammed/'

The spiritual succes-

sion had now reachedits .source,but the pedigreewent on,

THE

DERVISH

ORGANIZATION

245

changingits character,however,from spiritual to natural.


Instead of the formula "who receivedthe way from" appearedthe connectingwords "who was the son of/' carrying the line from Mohammedto 'Adnan, ruler of Arabia in
122 B. C. For eachlink up to this point SheikhSa'ad-edDln waswilling to vouch,but beyond*Adnan,througha line
includingIshmael,Abraham,Idris (Enoch) to Adam he acknowledgedthat the chain was incompleteand uncertain.
On the margin of this sanad, or diploma, were sealsof
sheikhs of other orders witnessing to the identity of the
bearer. If we assume that each diploma in the chain of
documents between the sheikh and his great namesake,the
founder of the order, had beensimilarly accredited, here then

was apostolicsuccessionindeed! Credentialsthough less

elaborate

than his own our sheikh is authorized

to confer

on

his khalifies,or deputies,at the timeof their initiation. These


in turn becomeauthorizedto "pass on the way," or ordain
to the dervishhood in the villages, acting as his substitute.

Later I passedby the tekkeh, or dervish house, over


which SheikhSa'ad-ed-Dinpresides. This substantialstone
building, with an inscribed tablet over the door-way, was

erectedat the expenseof the sultan (probably from the


waqf, or religiousendowments). *Abd-el~Hamtdalso confirmed his title as sheikh over the establishment, granting

him an allowanceof four Turkish poundsa month (a trifle


over seventeen
dollars). He expresseddoubts,however,at
the continuance of this comfortable

condition,

for he had

heard that the reformsconsequenton the revolutionmight


include the cutting off of such allowances. * Within the
dervish

house-such

was

his

declaration-he

was abso-

lutely independent,owingallegianceto no centralauthority,


whether to the sheikh at Jeba, a descendant of the founder

there buried, or to any sheikhat Constantinople. In fact,


when he visited the capital he did not eventrouble himself
to pay his respectsto Abu-'l-Huda, head sheikh of the
Refa'lyeh, of which order his own is a sub-sect. With the
other dervish houses of his order in Syria he has no official

or organic connection,recognizingonly ties of friendship.


Out of courtesyhe would refuseto ordain a man from Da-

246

THE

RELIGIOUS

ORDERS

OF

ISLAM

maseus,telling him to apply to the sheikhat that place,and


would expectsimilar courtesyfrom his Damascusbrother.
He admitted the principle of a generalcouncil of sheikhs
for matters of extraordinary importance, but said that his

orderhad not had onefor threehundredand sixteenyears.1


He likened his own authority over his followers to that of

the sultan embodiedin an imperial decree. Though scattered over the city attending to their own business,he could
assemblethem "in ten minutes" by giving an order to a

dervish messenger.Sheikh Sa'ad-ed-Din'saccount of his


relations to his tekkeh may be held to apply in generalto
the sheikhspresidingover dervish housesbelongingto the
restof the allied ordersof which the Qadiriyehis theparent.
We may now notice threeordersnot in this group.
AmongtheSyrianadherentsof the orderof the Mowlawiyeh,or whirling dervishes,who number somefive hundred
souls,,we mayfind tracesof that cohesionwhichtheoretically
holds together the component parts of cadi order, but which,
as we have seen, is notably lacking, in Syria,and Palestine,

amongthe Qadiriyehand allied orders. The Mowlawiyeh

establishments
at Damascus,
Aleppo,
Tripoli,andfiumsall
acknowledge the authority of the head sheikh of the order,
whose title is Chelebi EiTendi, or Mulla.li Khunkar,

resident

at Xoniah, Asia Minor, where the founder was buried. Each


branch is under the direction of a sheikh, who inherits the
office from his father or brother, but who must be confirmed

in it by thechiefat Koniah. The sheikhat Humsis subordinate to the sheikh at Damascus, but otherwise the four heads

of establishments
appearto have no official relations,never
meetingin a generalcouncil either at Koniali or elsewhere.
At the picturesquelysituated dervish houseat Tripoli the
only permanentoccupantsare the sheikh and his family.
Like the heads of all such houses of whatever order, he is

bound to givehospitality,evento "half his loaf/* to visiting


dervishes. The lay-memberspursue their ordinary businessin the city, assemblingat head-quartersfor the religious
functions. Of the whirling function we speakin the next
section. At Damascustheselay-brothersare alsoprepon1My information waa received in 1909.

THE

DERVISH

ORGANIZATION

247

derant,but at the tekkeh are usuallyresidentsometen cellbates,includingvisitors. The sheikhis a notablefigure In


Damascus. In Aleppo the Mowlawiyeh occupy a handsomehouseon the principal street, besidesowning valuable endowedlands. The cap of the order, alwaysa conspicuousobject in a crowd, is of yellowishwhite felt in the
form

of a truncated

cone.

Until very recently the Shaziliyehof Syria recognizeda


supremesheikh with, authority like that wielded by the
head of the Mowlawiyeh over his Syrian followers. The
officewas not hereditary,eachchief appointing his successor.

When the head sheikh died at Acre, in 1901,the office

lapsed,as no onewasfound worthy of succeeding


to the post.
SincetheneachsheikhhasbeenIndependent,savein so far
as he mayacknowledgethe personalauthority of a murshid.
As hasbeenintimated,the Shaziliyehoccupya uniqueplace
among the dervishes of Syria and Palestine. In general it

may be said of them that with the Baghdashiyeh(who are


representedin Syria only by a derivative order called the
Kalandariyeh,with a houseat Aleppo) they have kept the
sftfi ideal before them more clearly, and have carried it out

more practically than have the rest of the orders.1 They


seekto attain a purified spiritualismby prayer at all hours,
in all places,and under all circumstances. To the tricks
of magicpractisedby otherorderstheygive no countenance.
At the sametimethey havea distinct intellectuallife. The
Shaziliyehhave been called the Protestantsof Islam, the
namebeingstretchednot only to includethe affiliatedmembersbut the generalfollowersof the teaching. During the
last century their activity was great, but the pantheistic
tendencyinherent in sufiism has brought upon them the
suspicionof the Orthodox, and it seemsto be partly owing
to their prudencethat less is heard of them in the present
century. There is a mosquein Damascusfrequentedalmost exclusivelyby themselvesand by their friends. The
1My information in regard to tho Baghdashfyeh was obtained from
a Syrian sheikh. They have n good reputation in Constantinople. However, Dr. D. B, Macdonald, .speaking evidently for Egypt, says they
are accused of immoral orgies. (See his "Aspects of Islam/' p. 154;
New York, 1911.)

248

THE

RELIGIOUS

ORDERS

OP

ISLAM

New Testamenthasbeenfor thema favoritebook of study,


as they feel free to interpret the statementsregardingthe
divinity of Christ in a pantheisticsense.
As we have seen, the Senusfyehare represented in Syria

only by a few secretfollowersin Damascus,under a sheikh


recognizedor toleratedby the Turkish Government. But
as this powerful North African order,organizedas recently
as 1835,is engagedin spreadingthe Panislamicidea, for
whoseorigin it is said to be responsible,and which if carried out logically would menaceall Europeanpossessions
in North Africa, a brief paragraph may be devoted to it.
The founder, Mohammed Urn Senusi, was buried in 1859
at Jerabub, an oasis in the Libyan Desert, midway between

Egyptand Tripoli, and to hismagnificentmausoleumthrong


multitudes of his followers, who are said to substitute this

visit for the pilgrimageto Mecca.1 The head-quartersof


the order were transferred in 1893 or 1804 to Kafra, some

three hundred and fifty miles south of Jerabub, by the

Sheikh-el-Mahdi,son of the founder. In ways that (up


to the present)are more peaceful,this order, still in the
vigor of youth,, is carrying on the work of the unsuccess-

ful Puritan revival,of the Wahabis,crushedearlyin the last


century by the arms of Ibrahim Pasha. Austere in their
living, iconoclastic toward the cult of shrines,'2zealous in
their efforts to restore the primeval ideasof Islam, intolerant

not only of Christiansbut of suchMoslempowersas tolerate


these, the followers of this order, said to number millions,
constitute a force that the world may have to reckon with.
From other orders are gathered recruits who by conforming
to certain restrictions are permitted to retain the old allegi-

ancewhen acceptingthe new. Good Moslemsare urged


to leavesuchcountriesas Turkey and Egypt, wherea compromiseis officially madebetweenIslam and Westerncivilization. It may be added that mighty as is the influence
in Syria and Palestineof the orders chiefly representedin
theselands,this is not on the samehigh plane,intellectual,
1 See"Essays In Islam," by Rev. E. Sell, article III, "The Religious
Orders of Islam," pp. 127 ff. Compare Depont and Coppolani (op*
at.), pp. 539-541.
8 Exception Is evidently made for the founder's shrine.

THE

DERVISH

ORGANIZATION

249

spiritual,and political, with that claimedfor the Senusiyeh


in North Africa.

While

the influence of the dervishes in

Turkey is groundedon the people'sbelief in their holiness^


yet the appeal is largely through superstition. That the
Shaziltyehfurnish an exceptionto this statementhas just
been indicated.

The principlesunderlying the rite of initiation in the various ordersare the same,thoughdetails may differ. The
seeker(ta'lib) must showa characterbeyondreproachfor
honesty,chastity,and piety. In Jerusalem,I am assured^
insistenceis placed on this requirement. With the Mowlawiyehand Baghdashfyehthe novitiateis said to last one
thousandand onedays. In someorders the length of the
period of probation appearsto dependon the aptnessof
the seekerto profit by the instruction (seluk7)he receives
from the sheikh to whom he applies and whose disciple
(mu'rid) he becomes. As a result of the instruction the
seekerbecomespractised in the exerciseof repeating the
name of God (Ya Allah!) and the divine titles a certain
number of times. This practice is Analogousto the private
zikr, to be described later. Each title, as The Living, The

Powerful, The Able, repeated separately,is supposedto


producea uniqueand peculiar effecton the one uttering it.
The forms vary with the different orders. When the instructing sheikh seessigns in the pupil that his "rarefied
spirit is prevailing over his denseflesh,"1 he is ready to
admit him to the orderas a simpledervish. The instruction
must be given secretly, but at the ceremony of initiation lay-

menor non-dervishes
maybe present.2 The services(which
are usuallyheld on a Thursday evening,that is, on the eve
of the sacredday) include the reading in concert of passagesfrom the Koran and the chanting of the creed with
other verses.3 When the sheikh administers the oath, he
1A phraseobtainedfrom an initiating sheikh.
2 A Jerusalem layman described to me an initiation of the Qadirfyeh
at which he was present.
8 The description here given applies to the Qadirtyeh and allied

orders. Comparewith the accountsof Baldensperger(op. cit.), pp. 24


and 31.

250

THE

RELIGIOUS

ORDERS

OP ISLAM

may spit on the candidate'shandsand forehead. According to Baldensperger,,


writing of the peasants,with the
Refa'fyehthe sheikhspits in the candidate'smouth several
times,in orderthat he may bepoison-proof. The candidate
also swallowsa pieceof sugarwhich he hastaken from the
mouth of the sheikh.1 In the sheikh's blessingoccur the
words: "In the nameof the founderyou havepermission
to heal and to cure from bites of serpents."

Power to enter

the fire without burningand to drink poisonwithout harm


may also be assured.3 Sometimesincenseis burned. The
sheikhinveststhe candidatewith the cap of the orderand,
mostimportantof all, giveshim the right hand of fellowship.
In some cases the initiate is then beaten with swords and

struck on the head, to the accompaniments of rude cries


and shouts of "Allah!"
"Allah!"
To accredit him with
the masses the new dervish receives a sanad, a certificate

from the sheikh for which he pays a fee ranging from twelve

centsto five dollars.3 To sealthe receptiona lamb or goat


may be killed and partakenof by the dervishesof the neighborhood. The massof dervishesdo not arise beyondthe
first degree. The seconddegreeis that of naqtb',or na'yib
(literally, representativeof the sheikh), whosefunction in
some orders is to have charge of the standard and musical

instruments: the drums, largeand small,and the cymbals.


The highest degreeis that of sheikh,or khalffy, who has
the power of "passing on the way," or admitting to the
order by initiation. He is investedwith his turban, the
signof thehighestdegree,by the khaltfyin chargeof the proceedings.
Some of the rules governing initiation and investiture are

curious. A man may becomekhaltfy of four orders,but


it is required that he receiveeach"way" from a different
1Examples are given in the next section of the supposedhealing
qualities of the naliva of holy men.
2Compare Mark 15:17 and 18. The ordinary Mowlawlyeh dervishes
do not receive especial authority at initiation for performing miracles,

but a dervish who POHSCSSCH


npiritual qualification*!and has acquired
personal merit may exercise the function by permiswion of his khaltfy,
a But see note 2 on p. 251.

THE

DERVISH

ORGANIZATION

251

sheikh. A sheikh may carry his father'sdiploma provided


that a notary certify to the matter of transferor inheritance.
A man,however,cannotbe initiated by his own father, even
If later heis to succeed
him. The purposeof thisprohibition
is plainly to guard against paternal partiality. A further
illustration of the importanceattachedto selectionof candidates for dervishhoodis furnishedby the following story
heard from a Jaffa sheikh: A khalify, who was accusedof
giving the "way" indiscriminately, replied that he could
easilyput the worth of his followersto the test (imtahan1).
Assemblingtheseoutside a mosque,he commandedthem to
ascenda lofty minaret and one by one to jump down into
his arms. Those who immediatelyobeyed substantiated
their eligibility to the order; thosewho refusedshowedby
their lack of faith that they were unworthy.

Exactly how

the testaffectedthe reputationof the sheikhfor carefulness


I was not informed.

This story also illustrates the obedi-

ence expectedby an initiating sheikh from his adepts, to


whom he is spiritual father, as it were.
The sanad,or diploma, is supposedto contain a resum$
of the doctrines of the order.

Diplomas differ much in ex-

tent

where

and content.

In

orders

all the ranks

are for-

mally recognizedthe sheikhat the motherzawiyehwill have


the most elaborate sanad, those of the khallfies will be less

elaborate,those of the muquddimseven less, and so on


down to the adepts,who have the simplest form of all,
sometimes hardly more than a letter of recommendation.2

The diplomas of the khallfiesin Syria vary among themselvesin character. A diploma with a genealogy(sil'sileh)
goingback to Mohammedis supposedto be the most honorable. As it inevitably must include many nameswhose
chronologicalsuccession
is universallyknown,a genuinedocument will successfullychallengeinvestigation,as any substitution or alteration would be instantly detected. If the
1An example of imtahan, or test of a true dervish, has been given on
pp. 233-234.
2 Among the Mowlawlyeh the simple dervishes do not receive a diploma but are taught certain secret words and signs by which they may
be known to others of the same order.

252

THE

RELIGIOUS

ORDERS

OF

ISLAM

initiating sheikh,however,be widely known personally,the


diplomas he issueswill be honored even if they contain
only his own name, properly certified, with no genealogy
appended. In caseof an obscuresheikha diploma without

concatenation
would not be recognized,
at leastin places
where the bearer was a stranger. Khaltfies who can trace

their pedigreesback to some common spiritual ancestor


take pleasure in a bond of special affinity. Naturally,
the nobility of a given pedigreeis enhancedby the inclusion therein of names high in the aristocracy of sainthood.1

We havenoticedthat in someordersthe hereditaryprinciplegovernsthe succession


to theofficeof sheikh. This may
hold true not only of the head of the order, but of sheikhs

presiding over tekkehsand even of unattached khalffies.


The

office is inherited

from

a fattier

or brother.

But even

heretheessence
of the"ways/* winchnoneis supposedto enter without full consecration to the spiritual life, is regarded
as the real determinative force. In the last analysis it would

appearthat a hereditaryclaim must bo endorsedby a spiritual fitnessor becomeinvalidated. It would be interesting


to inquire how far this principle is practically observed. I
am glad to testify that one of my fellah workmen in Palestine, though in the direct natural line of successionas
khaltfy, was refused initiation on the ground that he was
too worldly. The synthesisof natural and spiritual descent
is also illustrated by hereditary dervish sheikhs, descendants,

presumably,of somegreat saint though not attachedto any


order. Such holy men are found among the Rubin, Beda-

win and at Deir-esh-SheikhnearWady Ismail,3 We may


add that there are also many humble dervishes,belonging
to no order, who, as Baldenspergerquaintly says,"have
their secretdireet from God" and so "belong to God's
order."3

Here, of course, there is no natural heredity.

*A diploma granted to Sir Richard Burton when ho was Initiated


into the order of the Qadirfyeh in given, in facsimile tniziHlation, as an
appendix to his work, "A Pilgrimage to Meeeahand Mcdinah."
51See Baldensperger?$article (op. cit.)t pp. 35, 30.
p. 38.

THE

DERVISH

ORGANIZATION

253

The phrase" A dervishat God'sgate/' describingthesepoor


men, haspassedinto a proverb of wider significance.
Ever sincethe establishmentof the orders two contrary
principles have been at work within them: heredity and
celibacy. The principle of heredity, involving the institution of marriage,contravenesneither the letter nor the spirit
of Islam; indeed, is plainly in harmonywith both. The
principle of celibacyis in accordancewith neither. "Let
therebe no monksin Islam" wasan earlydictum. On the
other hand, celibacyis the logical end of the asceticlife,
which demandsthe suppressionof everycomfortand bodily indulgence. Moreover, the stateis almostnecessitated
by the wanderinglife. Celibates,then, therealwayshave
been among the dervishes. An early precedent was furnished by Selman-el-Pha'risi, the khalffy, or successor,of

Abu Bekr to the presidencyof oneof the two original orders


from

which

all

others

derive.

He

was unmarried.

The

foundersof the ordersof the Dusukfyehand of the Kalandarfyehwerealsocelibates. But with 320statisticsto prove
my point, I am inclined to believethat celibatesmust alwayshavebeenin the minority. In the minority they most
decidedly are in Syria to-day. Baldensperger appears not

evento recognizethe principle for Palestine. "As a rule/'


he says,"the dervishesare married men-at least marriage hasnothing to do with beinga dervish." l At Aleppo
there is an establishmentof the Kalandarfyeh(a branch of
the Baghdashlyeh)with a group of celibates,whosesheikh
must be chosenby election. The building of a similar
establishment at Hamath for the Refa'lyeh, with cells for
celibates, was arrested at the death of Abu-'l-Huda, who

was furnishing the funds. There are about ten celibates


resident at the tckkeh of the Mowlawiyeh at Damascus,
whose sheikh, however, is hereditary. Some years since a

monasterywas establishedfor Shaziltyehcelibatesin Hums,


but later was broken up. These are all the tracesof celibate bodies that I have found in Syria, though there may
be others. As it is, the vow of chastity is not always per-

manentlybinding. Those, however,who practisecelibacy


1SeeBaldensperger's
article (op. at), p. 35.

254

THE

RELIGIOUS

ORDERS

OF ISLAM

also observetheir vows of poverty and obediencewith ex-

ceptionalstrictness.Thehair isnotcut; thepersonisneglected.1 Celibacy extendsalso to women. The only old


maids in Islam are female dervishes.

One lives at 'Ain

Ka'rim, near Jerusalem, known as Bint-esh-Sheikh, or the

sheikh'sdaughter. She is a quiet, peaceable


sort of person,
famed for her cures,which attract visitors, who bring her
presentsfrom all parts of the land. Sometimesshevisits the
threshing-floors,taking her toll of wheat. Baldensperger
assertsthat a dervish may betemporarily turned into a waifeh

(feminine of wely: a femalesaint). In this casehe sits


in the hartin, as he has for the moment changed his sex.

Woman,so Baldenspergerimplies in a paragraph that is


not quite clear, is held by the fellahln to incarnate many
of the attributes of holiness which should distinguish a dervish: she does not bear arms, she suffers beating, she serves

others. As mother of mankind the peasantsacknowledge


her theoretic value, but in their actual treatment of her,

so Baldensperger
hastensto add, theydenythis, evenapologizingfor the merementionof her.2
A comparisonof the dervish organisationas it is in
theory,with,the conditionsactually obtaining to-dayamong
the dervishesin Syriaand Palestine,suggeststhat organization is regarded as mere machinery.

It has always been a

means,never an end. It has nevercrystallized. Its play


hasbeeneasyand fluid. It hasneverdominated,the spirit
If the "way" is properlyhandeddown; if the xikr is faithfully performed; if meansare taken to keep the heart arid
life pure,it matterslittle to the continuanceof the movement
whetherparts of the machineryget in motionor no. Purity
is the end. If a man canattain this bettertil roughcelibacy,
let him be a celibate; if he canpreserveit betterin marriage,
let him marry. A centralauthority is good. But if in the
courseof developmentthis loosensits hold on the branches,
the branches still flourish.

To have a local guide or murshid

is good. But if the murshid dies and therearisesnoneto


1 Seefoot-note 1 to p. 260.
"See Ealdc'iisporger'H article (op. cit.)t p. 38.

THE

DERVISH

LIFE

255

succeedhim, the dervish life goeson just the same. To


such an elasticconceptionof organizationmay be ascribed
the wonderfultenacity,the persistentvitality, of the religious
orders

of Islam.

III.

THE

DERVISH

LIFE

The centreof corporatelife for the orders is the dervish


house,called in Syria and Palestinetek'keh (sometimes
pronounced tekkl'yeh) or za'wiyeh. The former word
seems to be more commonly used in Syria, the latter in

Palestine,but theysometimesareinterchangeable. Tekkeh


appearsto be usedexclusivelyin Turkey; zawiyehis found
in all countries. The word zawiyehis literally a corner;
hence it came to signify a cell, and thus developed into the

wider meaningof a building containinga group of cellsfor


individual asceticsand pilgrims, in connectionwith a large
hall for public exercises. The terms zawiyehand tekkeh
are also applied to the residenceof the chief sheikh of an
orderin a givenplace,providedit is alsothe centreof organic
life, and to a hospice,whetherfor dervishesor for poor pilgrims in general. Above the green gardens of Damascus

rise the slenderminaretsof the mosqueattachedto the famous tekkeh built for the accommodation of pilgrims by

Sultan Selirnin 1517. Besidesthe mosquethere is a large


court with twenty-four dome-coveredchambers. The whole
edifice is now falling into decay, and in some of the rooms

horsesare stabled; but in otherspilgrims still tarry on their


way home from Mecca, while dervishes live in the mean

housesnear by. In Jersualemthere are severalendowed


zawiyehsfor foreigndervishes. Oneunder the EcceHomo
Arch is controlledby Hindus residentin the Holy City under
a sheikh. More important is the zawiyehof the Moghrabin, or Morocco dervishes, many of whom serve as night
watchmen in the city and its environs. These are entitled

to receive,gratis, bed, bread, and soup. A few of these

Morocco

Beautiful

dervishes

in

live

in the two rooms

the east wall

above

the Gate

of the Haram-esh -Shertf, or

temple enclosure. Some poor Qadiriyeh dervishesalso

256

THE

RELIGIOUS

ORDERS

OF

ISLAM

occupyother rooms in this haram enclosure,one of which


is usedfor holding the zikr, or religiousservice,andfor keeping their bannerand musicalinstruments,as the orderhas
no especialzawiyehin Jerusalem.
The characteristicdisciplineof the dervishesis the zikr,
literally, a "remembrance,"that is, a remembranceof God,
whichproducesa union of the heartand of the tonguein the
act of repeatingthe divine nameaccordingto set formulas.
It has been called the real pivot of sufiism, a form of revealed

prayerwhich draws the nameof God constantlyto the lips,


and which alone has the power of lifting to the divine
presencehim who thus perseveresin the invocation of his
name.1 Strangeare the contradictionsof the spiritual life.
Though itself a reactionfrom formalismand a yearningfor
spirituality,sufiismprescribesrigid and preciserules to him
who wouldattain the higherreachesof the spirit. A similar
inconsistencymay be traced.In Christianity, evenin Protestantismitself. The plain aim of the "revival" is to rekindle
the free life of the spirit, but all too often it is "conducted"
according to set rules, while its success or its failure is

gaugedby the presenceor by the absenceof certain stereotyped phenomena,.The zikr formula*are many, varying
not only with the differentorderssometimesbut in different
branchesof the same*order. In generalthe disciplinefalls
into three categories.2The zikr-el-waqt, literally the zikr
of the hour, is merelya sort of litany to be saidafter eachof
the five required prayers. The zikr-ej-jalla'la, or private
zikr, is for individual use. An analogouspractice, as we
haveseen,Is Includedin the instructionleadingup to Initiation. The private zikr is either "secret" (zikr-el-kha'fi),
that is, to be recitedmentallyor In a low voice,or "vocal"
(ssikr-ej-ja'li),that is, to be said aloud. The Quadirtyeh
are supposedto practice the secretzikr, but how far this
obtains in Syria and Palestine I am not aware* According

to Sell, during this disciplinethe dervishcloseshis eyesand


with "the tongueof the heart" repeatsthe words "Alla'hu
SarniW (God the Hearer),"Alla'hu Busirfln'" (God the
Seer),and"Alla'hu 'Aliimm'" (God the Kriower). Then,
1See Dopant arid Coppolani (op. cit.), p. 78,

'"*Ibid,, pp. 88 ff.

THE

DERVISH

LIFE

257

phrase by phrase^with alternateinhaling and exhalingof


breath, he utters the creed of the unity, thus concluding
the zarb, or division(strophe). This may be repeatedhundreds of times.1

Accordingto the form given by the samewriter for the


vocalzibr, theworshipper,sitting, but varying his exactposture from time to time, shouts with increasingvoice and
with changesof voice-productionthe several phrases of
the creed. This zarb is repeated one thousand and one

times. The zikr-el-had'ra,or zikr of the congregation,is to


be said by a number of dervishesin concert after a leader or

preceptor. It is usually conductedon Thursday evening


(the eve of the sacred day) at the dervish house.2 Accord-

ing to the order to which they belong,the participantssquat


on their heels, stand on their feet, or begin sitting and later

changeto standing. The chanting is accompaniedby the


bending of the body in different directions.

Sometimes the

zikr takes the form of a rude dance, to execute which the

worshippersform a circle or a row, holding eachother's


hands, advancingand retreating in unison, and stamping with the feet. Beginning slowly to repeat the divine
name with clear enunciation and solemn dignity, they
gradually work themselves up into such a state of excite-

ment that the rapidly uttered words becomemere sounds


without meaning. The swayingbody keepspacewith the
tongue. Physical exhaustion naturally follows this furious
exerciseof lungs and limbs. But sometimeswith the Refa''fyeh (called the howling dervishes on account of the shrieks

they emit during the performance),before the collapse


comes,the frenzy inducedby the zikr leads them into horrible demonstrationsof their boastedimmunity from the
burning of fire, such as licking red-hot irons, biting them
and cooling them in the mouth.
the will of the dervish

is often

There is no doubt that

weakened

and

his intellect

deadened,not only by the mechanicalrepetitionsbut by


1See E. Soil (op. cit.)t pp. 112-115.
a At Damascus the Mowlawfych, who devote Thursdays to the whirling function, have somi-weekly ssikrs on Mondays and Fridays. In
some orders at Constantinople they are even more frequent.

25S

THE

RELIGIOUS

ORDERS

OF

ISLAM

thesubsequent
scenes
of excitement.Thezikrsareresponsible for some but by no means for all the feeble-minded
dervishes.

Sainthood in Islam

is not held to be incom-

patible with congenitalidiocy. Ibn Khaldun distinguishes


betweenthe insanepersonwhoselogical reasoninghas becomecorrupt and the idiot who, notwithstandingthe limitations which preventhis conformingto legal conditions,
may still exhibit a distinct turn for religious meditation
and devotion.1

This concerted zikr of the dervishes must not be con-

foundedwith the popularfunction calledzikr-bettaqlfcl',or


imitation zikr, practisedby the uninitiated, though the differenceappearsto be largely subjectiveand theoretic,as
dervishes often unite with laymen in the same function.

According to strict doctrine, through the imitation zikr


laymen may obtain protection against their enemiesbut
not that mysticalunion with God producedby the zikr of
initiation. The popularzikr is commonlyheld in mosques.
A function of this sort is conductedweekly on Fridays
in the Khankey mosquein Jerusalem,under the auspices
of the family of the 'Alarny who control,the mosqueand
its endowments. Similar assembliesare found in private
houses. On a summer's night you may be disturbed in a

Moslemtown by what soundslike a railwayengineviolently


puffing and panting, but going to the window you will
perceive that the noise proceedsfrom a neighborhood
prayer-meeting,where the brethren have the increaseof
poweron them,as the wordscomefasterand faster,louder
and louder: "Allah Hail Allah Hail-God is Living!
God is Living!"

In the tekkehsof the Mowlawiyehtherealso takesplace


the sacred dance which gives to them the name of whirling

dervishes.In KonialiandConstantinople
this ispractised
all throughtheyear; in Damascusand Hums on Thursday
eveningsfor eight months,exclusiveof parts of winter and
summer; and in Tripoli usually during the spring season
only. The dancingis said to representthe revolvingof the
spheresas well us the circling movementof the soul caused
1Quoted by D. B. Macdonald (op. dL)} pp. 103 and 104.

THE

DERVISH

LIFE

259

by the vibration of Its love to God.1 The participantswear


voluminous bell-shapedskirts. After prayers led by the
sheikh they file in stately processionbefore their master,
reverentially saluting him with a low bow, each In turn.

This function is repeatedseveraltimes. Then follows the


circling.

When the dancer glides on to the floor his head

is inclinedand his arms arestretchedout; thefingersof one


hand are raised,thoseof the other are held drooping, symbolical of his being the medium of grace, received from
heavento be dispensedon earth. During the whirling the
eyesare shut. As the paceincreasesthe skirts spreadout
around

the dancer

like

a wheel

or disk.

When

exhausted

he takes a rest, but, again resuming,glides into the circle


for another round.

On the floor there may be several dan-

cing togetheror not more than one at a time. The dance


may last, with brief pausesfor prayer, for two hours, at
the closeof which the sheikhhimselftakes part.
Such are someof the practicesthat enter into the life of
the dervish,formal methodsby which the life is expressed,
parts of the machineryof the dervish organization. To
the Westerntraveller witnessing the public performances
at Constantinopleor Cairo they can give no possibleclew
to the principlesof theorders. What theseprinciplesarein
essence
is expressedby a definition given in my hearingby
a learnedsheikhof the Shazillyeh,the most spiritual order.
"The Ways/* he said, are "simply meansof turning the
mind to spiritual things/' To this semi-officialdefinitionI
wouldadd the unprejudicedgeneralizationof Baldensperger,
arrived at empirically by long observationof the dervishes
themselvesand by knowledge of the estimate in which
they are held by the Moslem peasantsof Palestine,among
whom he was brought up and with whom he had business
relations for years. "The generalidea of thesedervishes
and the reasonwhy they exist is that they may not sin. By
wearingbad clothing,being absorbedin prayer, having no
earthly comfort, and going about asking alms they are sup-

posedto keepthemselves
pure, and the morewelies,nebies,
and holy placesthey visit the more they havemerit before
1SeeE. Sell (op. cit.)t p. 120.

260

THE

RELIGIOUS

ORDERS

OF ISLAM

God/5* Baldensperger
addsan illustration of the searchings of heart that may accompanythe resolutionof an "un-

recognized
dervish"to become
a faqir:3 "A dervishin my

servicewastrying to qualify himselffor becominga wandering dervish. But he wasirascible,and that would not do for
a good dervish. He was fond of arms and shooting,but
extinguishinglife, eventhat of a caterpillar,was sinful in a
dervish. He was also fond of good,dressand wassorry for
it.

He went twice on foot from Jaffa to Baghdad to visit

as many welies (shrines)as possible,and he hoped by the


grace of 'Abd-el-Qadir, in Baghdad,to becomeconverted.
On one trip he was absenteight months,sufferedhunger
and thirst and fatigue through the Syriandesert,evenwore
bad clothingin the time of his pilgrimagesneveromittedthe
five regular prayers and his own voluntary prayers, but
after all returned to his passions-good clothing, bearing
arms and ill temper. The goodfellowwas muchperplexed
about it, and told me that he could be no real good dervish

as long as he did not put asideall thesesins, thai he knew


dervisheswho evenlet themselves
be bouf.cnwithout reply.
He even went further and said the thirty-eighth to fortysecondversesof the fifth chapterof St. Matthew's Gospel
[relating to non-resistance
of evil] seemto be wholly written
for, and ought to be kept by, a real dervish. A dervish is
never completelysanctifieduntil he hasdone*all, and then
he mayseeangels."9 Whetherthis torturedsoularrived at
peaceor not we cannotknow, for this burst of confidence
to his master was followedby scruplesagainst further talk
abouthis dervishhood,and later he left Mr, Baldensperger*s
service.

The last-namedauthority assertsthat the fellahln, as a


1BeeBaldensperger's
article (op.dt.)t p. 37, An extreme*illustration
of fanatical

golf-mortification

that would Meern to hrs almost, in defiance

of the ceremoniallaw in given by the Harm*writer on pp. f! -32,


where ho asscriH
that the BedawlyehdervwheH"drink tho water which
remain.8from the hand-washingsof an UHBeinbly." The practiceof letting the hair grow long, ho declares, is to encourage vermin and thus

increasediscomfort (p, 34).


9 Compare with p. 239.

*SeeB&lden-Bperjger's
article (op.rit.)t p. 37,

THE

DERVISH

LIFE

261

mass,believethe dervishesto be really holy, and respect


them, "even kissing their hands when they are known/*1
A Jerusalemfriend of mine, a Moslem of humble origin,
but educatedby Englishand Americanmissionaries,claims
that there is true piety to be found among the followersof
the orders. Few storiesare told of the abuseby dervishes
of the freedomwith women which their position permits
them. Baldenspergerremarks that the jealousy of the
fellahfnwouldnot permit this. He instancesan unmarried
dervish who lost casteand the respectof the peoplewhen
he was found guilty of flagrant unchastity. Dervishes
who persist in unworthy conduct may be beaten by their
fellows,and finally expelledfrom theorder.2 Therearepoor
sheikhsof notably blamelesslife beforewhom high government officialsof Jerusalemrise from their seats. Faqirs
may be transportedby ship from one port to another,at
governmentexpense,on the recommendationof a sheikh
of the order. A storyrelated in our first sectionillustrates
the ready hospitalityheapedupon travelling faqlrs.3 The
dervish is in a way sacrosanct. The khatib-teacher or
scribe-of a village near Beit Dejan, who composeda set
of scurrilous verses,lampooninga half-blind dervish so
cleverly that they were sung by the shepherdlads, was
condemned, by the assembled members of the order to

which the libelled onebelonged,to pay a fine of one thousandpoundsof riceand one hundred" sacrifices." Finding
that he could not obtain pardonwithout paying the fine in
full, he disappearedfrom the village, and kept away for
sometime, presumablytill the matter blew over.4
Two dervishesI rememberon whosepeacefulfacesshone
the unmistakablereflection of a pure purposeof livingsucha look as onemay seeon the faceof somehumble follower of the SalvationArmy. One of these,Sheikh Mohammed,a lowly artisan of Jerusalem,I saw for but an
hour, but in that hour he openedhis heart. Like Sheikh
Sa/ad-ed-Dinhe had his spiritual pedigree,but unlike him
he made little of it.

"The main matter/* he said very

* Ibid, p. 34.
* Ibid, p. 35.
4SeeBaldensperger'a
article (op. cit.)t pp. 25~29

8P. 233.

262

THE

RELIGIOUS

ORDERS

OF

ISLAM

simply5whenI referredto thediploma,"is that the thoughts


and the heart should be pure/' He admitted that he was
called to heal folk by his touch, but declared that the miracu-

lous manifestationsof his father wereno longer possiblein


thesedays, when the peopleare no longer good. One is
inevitably remindedthat not manymighty workscould be
done in Nazareth

"because of their unbelief."

What a

flamelighted up SheikhMohammed'ssweeteyes.,
and what
a ring soundedin his gentlevoice,whenhe rehearsedthese
wonderfuldoingsof the sheikh,his father,in a storywhich
I shall presentlyrepeat. There was clearlya spiritual kinship betweenhim and old Sheikh Sa.li.ni,who was one of
my diggerswhenI wasexcavatingLachishof the Amorites
many yearsbefore. Patiently, conscientiously,
this gentle
workman would toil all clay, with, little to distinguish him
from his fellows, save that most of thesehad to be watched,
while he could, be trusted

to do the same amount

whether the foreman were looking or not.

of work

But sometimes

at night the powerwould fall upon him. Then would he


swayto and fro, braying like a donkey,or growling like an
angry camel,1and oncehe started acrossthe field at full
speed,and had not the youngmen,giving chase,caughtup
with him and brought him back, he wouldhavegoneflying
through the air to Mecca-so at least the young men told
me! Baldensperger
speaksof a dervish who "in his fits of
fanaticism,"

ran naked over the rocks to meet his Lord the

Bedawy.2 Other storiesof the flying powersof holy men


have come to me and one of a sheikh who walked on the

wavesof the seaat Constantinople,refusingto take a governmentreward in recognitionof this proof of his holiness.
Baldenspergerstates that during the Turco-Itussian war
1 Baldensperger tells of a female dervish at Sldna 'AH, north of Jaffa,
consecrated a the prophet's foal, who went about expressing her de-

mand for alms by neighing,without speaking. In an appendednote


Dr. Chaplin .states that, she "wa suffering from a peculiar nervous affection, not very uncommon among girls in Palestine, which seems to
compel those laboring under it to go about imitating the sounds of
animals/' Sec Baldensperger Jsarticle (op. tit), p. 36.

DERVISH

LIFE

263

amany dervishes,also as gray falcons,used to hover over


the Turkish army and to catch the shellsand musket balls
as they flew." l
Let me at this point repeat the story that Sheikh Mo-

hammedof Jerusalem
told meof his father,for it is important in illustrating just the miraculouspowersthat are associatedwith lives believedto be genuinelyholy. These
are quite different from the tricks of magic practised by
manydervishsheikhs,but by no inecans
exclusivelyby them.
Here, then, is the story of the old sheikhand the Turkish
pasha. Onceon a time, not manyyearsago, the dervishes
of Jerusalemassembled
in thegreatcourt-yardof theharam,
or mosque of Omar, and began to make a loud noise with

their drums and cymbals. Their headsheikhhappenedto


beabsent. Presentlytherecameto thema messenger
from
the pashain the governmenthouse,or seraya,nearby, with
ordersto stopthe noise. Troubled in mind, theyconsulted
another dervish living in the enclosure,who answered,
somewhat oracularly: "Authority is from God/*

So they

stoppedand dispersed. Meanwhile the old sheikh, chief


of them all, had beendigging far awayin the fields. Suddenlythepowercameuponhim, thepick fell from his hands,
his eyeswereopenedand he saw all that was taking place
in the haram court-yard, though this was out of range of his
natural

vision.

At once he went

home and said to his wife:

"A discipleis coming to consult rne; give him food and


drink, and bring him to me." Presentlythe disciplecame,
ate, drank, and began to tell his tale.

But the old sheikh

interruptedhim. " I knowall/5 hesaid. " The governorhas


stoppedthe musicof the dervishes. Let us go to the haram
together/' When the old sheikharrived at the court-yard,
he ordered

that all the dervishes

should

be assembled

there

again, arid that those who did not wish to come should be

compelled. Thenhe commanded


that a greatfire of coalsbe
madein the court-yardand that oil lampsbe hung in the big
tree. Then, whenthe lampswerekindled and the fire was
1Ibid, p. 87; comparep. 31, wherethe author indicatesa belief among
the fellahtn that the Refa'tyeh dervishes may be changed into gray
falcons, a favorite form of incarnation with their founder.

264

RELIGIOUS

ORDERS

OF

ISLAM

blazing,and all the dervisheshad comeinto a circle,he gave


the signalfor the drums and cymbalsto make a noise,in
comparisonwith which the former had been silence. The
pashaheard. This time he sent no messenger:he came
himselfwith a body of soldiers. But whenhe reachedthe

fiaramentrance,he suddenlybecamerigid, unableto stir


hand or foot.

Terrified,

the soldiers rushed in to seek the

old sheikh,but at first they couldget no hearing,for many


of the dervisheswerenow pulling down the lamps from the
tree and passingthe flamesover their heads,and.scooping
up live coalsby the handful and devouringthese. When
at last they caught the old sheikh'sattention, and begged
him to comeout to the pasha,he said: "What haveI to do
with him? Let him take his punishment." And the
musicwent on unabated. The pashastoodstark. At last,
whenthe frenzyhad reachedits climax,and the first chapter
of the Koran had been recited,the sheikh rose leisurely
and went out.

With the words: "Destfir':

By your leave/*

addressednot to the pasha but to 'Alwl-fl-Qadir, his invisible lord, he gently tapped the governor'sback with his
stick. At once the pashacameto himself: his body relaxed,his speechreturned, and he plead with the sheikh
for immunity from other seizures. Now the old sheikh
was khalffy of four great orders and acknowledgedfour
lords. So, answeringthe pasha,he said: "You have one
sultan,I havefour; you rule over the peoplein semya;you
cannotcontrolthe dervishesof God." And he turnedaway.
The governorwent home,but a terrible chill fell on him.
Again they sentfor the old sheikh; again he said: "What
have 1 to do with him? Let him take his punishment."
Finally, he took a cup of water,prayed over it-the1 exact
words

of Sheikh

Mohammed

were

"read

over

it"--and

said, "Let the pashadrink this: he will rest and .sleep/31


Whenthe governorsawthe cuphe said," Whenceis this?"
They told him: "It is from the sheikh." Eagerly he
drained it, the chill immediatelydeparted, and he slept.
The nextday hesentmento the sheikhbegginghim to take
a present. "Tell the pashaI will takenothingFormyself,"
was the answer, " but, if he will, let him make a dinner for all

THE

DERVISH

LIFE

265

the dervishes." So, on the morrow, ail the dervishes were

assembled
in theharam court-yard,and beforethemwas set
a great feast: sheeproastedwhole, huge platters of rice,
curdedmilk, and manysweets. The old sheikhspreadout

his armsoverthefoodandblessed
it. And lo! thoughthe
dervishesate eachas muchas he could, scarcelyan impression was made on the food,which kept reappearing,being
miraculouslyrenewed. What remainedwas gatheredup
on trays and given to the dervishesfor distribution among
the poor. Whenall was over, the old sheikhturned to the
pasha, who was standing by, and said: "Hast thou repented?" " Wuliah," saidlie. " By almighty God,I have
repented."
Here, then, we have an excellent illustration

of what are

regardedas legitimate meanswhich pious dervishesmay


employin dealingwith the world of marveland of mystery:
second-sight, the gift of healing, contact with fire without

burning,and otherpowersover nature. Miraculouspowers


are supposedto be derived, mediately through the chain
of .sainthood, from, the founders of the orders.

The exer-

cise of healing powersis the most common. The uncle of


a Moslem friend of mine, resident on the Mount of Olives,

being afflicted with a disease of the feet, called in a dervish

sheikh, who repeatedsomeprayer or incantation, struck


the feet with his mantle, anointed them with his saliva,

acceptedthe profferedfee,or rathergratuity, and departed.


1 fancy that I myselfwas the subjectof dervish treatment
when, many yearsago in Palmyra, a splendidold sheikh
volunteered

to cure

a violent

headache

of which

I com-

plained. With his fingers,madesoft and suppleby daily


useof the famoussulphur stream,he crumpledup my forehead,mutteringindistinctlythe while, and.finally declaimed
in a loud voice: "In

the name of God, the Merciful, the

Compassionate!" If 1 rememberaright, my faith failed


me, and the cure was not immediate.

Immunity from the power of fire is especially,but not


exclusively,claimedby the Refa'tyeh,or so-called^
howling
dervishes, who relate that their founder, Sa'id Ahmed er-

Refa'i, onceput his legsin a basinof burningcoals,but

266

THE

RELIGIOUS

ORDERS

OF ISLAM

wascured by the holy breathand salivaof *Abd-el-Qadir.1


You may hear to-day;on apparentlyreputable testimony,
that Ms adherents swallow burning coals, walk on them,
and hold red-hot Irons between their teeth, cure being

effectedby the breath and saliva of a sheikh. A Jaffa


dervishtold meof a fellow-disciplewho,to submit his powers
to a test, went into a heated oven where he remained for an

hour. On emerging,unharmedbut thirsty, he draineddry


a, wholepool of water. A Christian, sitting by when this
tale was unfolded, declared that he himself had seen a der-

vish go into an ovenand stay for five minutes among the


loaves and coals.

Power over serpentsIs the especialprerogativeof the


Sa'adiyehor Jebawiyeh, a branch or derivative of the
Refa^tyehwith whom theyaresometimesidentified.2 Once
their founder, Sa'ad ed-Din ej-Jebawi, so runs the tale, was

cutting woodIn the forest, when he was attacked by three


snakes of enormous size. Seizing these, lie used them as

living ropesto bind his fagots. Hencehis followersto-day


claim to handle,bite, and eat serpentswithout harm. Accordingto Lane, the sheikhof the EgyptianHa'adtyehattemptedto put a stop to the practiceof eatinglive serpents,
which consisted of swallowing the head and two or three

mouthfuls,while the restwas thrownaway. Baldensperger


makes no referenceto the eating of snakes in Palestine, but

refers to the commonpractice of carrying them about in


leatherbagsfor showand performance. Amongthe varieties of serpentswhich he enumerates,the commonestexhibited

are the ZuniMiiti

mrbonari-ux

and the (lolubcr

awu-

lapii, the latter being often "us thick as a man'sarm, and


nearly two metres long/' while the only resilly poisonous
specimenis the very deadly Daboia xanthina. The dervishes,who aloneof the peopleknow the differencebetween
1The Greeksclaim a similar immunity In the Church of tho Holy
Sepulchreon Saturday of Holy Week, when they pa*wthe holy fire
over their beards and faces.

aBalderwperger(neehis article, ae quoted above, pp. 29-31) calls


SheikhAhmed-er Refti'i the serpent-charmer,attributing all the serpent wonders to his followers.

THE

DERVISH

267

venomousand harmlesssnakes,thus being able to play on


the peasants'credulity,get rid of thesecreaturesas soonas
possible,making the excusethat theyare deaf and do not

heartheinvocation
of theholiestdervish. Oneis tempted
to wonder whether this excuse is an echo of the idea that

Inspiredthe words written many centuriesago: "They are

like the deaf adderthat stoppethher ear! that will not


hearken to the voice of the charmer, charming never so
wisely." 1 It wouldseemthat most dervishestake the precaution to removethe fangs of the daboia, repeatingthe
operationwheneverthey growagain.2 Baldensperger,
however, relatesthat two simple-mindeddervishes,sharing the
commonidea that all serpentsare poisonous,and encouraged to believein their own generalimmunity by their experiencewith what weremerely harmlesssnakes,at length
chancedupon real vipers, handling thesewith a temerity
that had fatal results. One of them,,being bitten in the
thumb in the environs of Lydda, "came to the mosque
and fell down in the court, and died without letting

the daboia go; he had choked her.,for they both were


found dead."

In case of a bite from a harmless snake,

the wound is licked by the dervish, to the wonder of the


by-,standers,
who imagine they are witnessinga miracle of
healing.
Thereare certainseasons
in Syriaand Palestineespecially
signalizedby dervish demonstrations. During the second
and third weeksof September,the month when thousands
of peoplecamp out at the Wady Rubin (Reuben),southof
Jaffa, the swarmingdervishesmanifest their presencewith
signsand wonders. Curiouslyenough,oneof theseseasons
alwayscoincideswith the Holy Weekof the Easternchurch.
Mohammedansfrankly explain this coincidenceon the
ground of a counter-demonstration.According to ray
friend SheikhSa'ad-ed-Dln,it wasthe greatSaladinhimself,
1See Psalm 58: 4-6.

3 This statement is corroborated by Lane for Egypt.


On the
other hand, while in Morocco, Dr. Talcott Williams examined vipers
carried by dervishes, finding full-grown fangs in active poisonous condition.

268

THE

RELIGIOUS

ORDERS

OF

ISLAM

who, countingon the authority exercisedby the sheikhsof


the different orders in Jerusalemand the villagesaround

about,requested
themto co-operate
with him in organizing
a monsterprocessionwhich shouldoutrival the crowdsof

Christians thronging about the Holy Sepulchre at Easter-

tide. This statementI haveheardabundantlycorroborated


from other sources, as far, at least, as concerns the rise of a

rival demonstration in mediaeval times, though I have not


traced to an authentic source the alleged connection of Sal-

adin with thematter. But whoevermayhavebeenthe genins who conceivedthe idea of the still popular and famous

pilgrimageon the Greek GoodFriday from the Holy City


to the shrine of Moses, situated on the hills to the south of

the road leading to Jericho, it appears to be certain that

the Neby Mtisa mosqueat that site waserectedin or about


the year A. H. 60S or A. D. 1269or 1270 by el Melik ed
Da'hir and others. The commonpeoplehold this to.bethe
tomb of Moses, though the 'ulama, or learned, know that
it is merely a memorial shrine. In the course of time the
habit of especial Moslem demonstrations at this 'season
spread to the north, where they continue to be controlled
by the dervishes. At Jerusalem, however, the Neby Mftsa

feastis at presentan official affair, in which the dervishes


haveno organicpart, us it were,thoughthey appearprominently in the procession. We must confineourselvesto the
main

features

of

tins often-described

scene.

Just

before

the noon prayer on Good Friday, the holy flag, which is


keptat thehouseof the mufti, is carriedto the Aqsamosque,
within the haram area, by an especiallyappointedsheikh
walking besidethe mufti. At the prayer are presentthe
governorand staff, togetherwith huge crowds, not only
citizens of Jerusalem, but folk from all over the land, who

on the previous night have packed the great court-yard.


The procession,headedby the holy Hag,and the military
band, leavesthe haram,area by a westerngate and winds
up the Via Dolorosa-a counter-demonstration
indeed!emergingfrom the city at "SaintStephen'sgate. The entire
lengthof the routeis lined with spectatorsof all creeds. As
the bannersof the various dervish bandspassby, women

THE

DERVISH

LIFE

269

break from the lines to tie costlysilk handkerchiefs


to

flagsticks, in fulfilment of vows. Someof the dervishes


wound themselveswith swords and dirks/ beingimmedi-

atelycuredby thesalivaof a holy sheikh.Theprocession


pauses
at a gaymarquee
tenton thedensely
crowded
slopes
of the Mount of Olives,wherethepashahaspreceded
it,
while the imam, or preacher,readsor recitesa prayercomposedfor the occasion. After a salutefor the sultan, the

holyflag is furledand packedin a pairof saddle-bags


for
the rest of the journey. The band,mostof thesoldiers,
and many of the spectators
now returnto thecity. The
diminishedprocession,
however,may be reinforcedby
other bandsof dervishes,who havepreceded
it to theJewish
cemetery. Over the barren easternhills it winds till it
reachesthe shrineof Moseswhere,for daysbefore,tens of
thousandshave been assembling: Bedawtnfrom beyond

Jordan^
merchants
fromDamascus,
pilgrimsfromBaghdad,
holy men from all parts. There is plenty of food for all
during the five or six days of the pilgrimage,as the endowment of the shrine furnishes generouslypiled plattersfor
thosewho havebrought no supplies. Soliberalis the general provision for this occasion that the mufti has funds at

his disposalfor the hire of donkeysto transportpoorpeople


from Jerusalem. All through the weekthe servicesof the
dervishes

are

in demand

to furnish

music

in connection

with the festivitiesat the circumcisionof boyswhich may


take place of an afternoonat the mosque. On the following Thursday the flag is borne back to the houseof the
mufti

with

similar

rites.

As already stated, similar Moslem demonstrationsoccur

during Greek Holy Week at many points in Syria. At


Hums

and

elsewhere

the festival

is known as Khamfs

el

Mushey'yakh,or the Sheikhs' Thursday,for, in contrast


with the Neby Mfisa function, the affair is managedby the*
dervishes,while the 'ulama, or doctorsof the law, merely
1According to Baldensperger these are the especialpractices of the
Bedawtyeh dervishes. " In processions they are very wild, boating
themselves, and sticking great pins into their cheeks ami near their

eyes;they stand on sworda,eat cactusleaves/' etc. (p, 31).

270

THE

RELIGIOUS

ORDERS

OF

ISLAM

toleratewithout approving it.1 The details are, of course


subjectto governmentregulation. For example,the ceremony of the da"si, or dow'si (literally the trampling), is
sometimesforbidden. This practiceis commonon theplain
of the Buka'a, north and south of the Damascus road,at Burr
Elias, and at Qubb Elias, where I once saw it. A score of
men lie on the ground, side by side, while over this human

roadway,closely lined by eagerspectators,walks a horse


mountedby a dervish sheikh,whoseholinessis supposed
to insure those trodden against any damage. According
to Lane this ceremony is pra.efisedin Egypt by the Sa.Vtdi-

yeh.3 It was not attemptedat hums,as far as 1 heard, in


1909,when,in companywith many thousandout-of-town
visitors, I witnessed the great annual procession, which

leavesthe mosqueof Baba'Omar, to the westof the town,


after the noon prayer on the (I reek Maundy Thursday,
arriving at the mosqueerectedover the tomb of Khaled,
the Sword of God, for the afternoon prayer and returning
over the same route the next day. Presumably on account

of the very unpropitiousweather,the*affair did not go off


with the swingand spirit whichI had beenled to anticipate,
by the accountsI had.receivedfrom AinenVanand other
friends who had been eye-witnesseson former occasions.

Accordingly,with the descriptionof what wasseenby myself and the rest of the party are hen* Includedu few other
observations,equallyauthenticated. The processionis divided into four or five bands representingas many dervish orders. The chief figure of each,band is the mounted

sheikh, who is followed by several mounted khalffics or


deputies,and precededby the*bearersof the huge;1
standard
of the order and by groups of musiciansperforming on
drums, cymbals,and tambourines. The whole procession
is supposedto be under supernaturalinfluences. Sousetimes the standard-bearers
clutch the pole*to prevent the
sacred flag from ascending to heaven. Sometimes it is the
1This is probably a traditional attitude, representing,difTwnt point
of view in regardto religiousmutton.. With thi'uluma tlw Iitw is predominant, with the orders it IH the*spirit.
9 Thin name ceremony is not unknown in J<>r
>ruKHh.?m.

THE

DERVISH

LIFE

271

sheikhhimselfwhoselimbsaregraspedlesthe vanishinto
theskies. Sometimes
a horseisseizedwith somepossession
and refusesto budgetill the sheikhriding him bendsover
and whispersin his ear.1 Sometimes
a sheikhis filled with
"the power," shakingand mutteringas he rides on. Children are held up to receivethe blessingof the holy men.
Often theprocessionhalts to givean opportunity for the exhibition

of miraculous feats.

One we ourselves saw several

timesrepeated. The actorswerefour, all shouting"Allah!


Allah!" as the performancewent on. Into a small ring,
immediatelyformed,strodea dervish,stripped to the waist,
graspeda swordfirmly by both ends,bent himself double
so as to press the blade into his abdomen, and remained in

that positionwhile a khallfy, or deputysheikh,mountedon


his nakedback and jumped up and down in order to drive
the bladehome into the body of the man below,steadying
himselfmeanwhileby bearinghis handsupon the shoulders
of two dervishes,the one to the right, the other to the left.
Whenthis acrobaticgroupbecamedisentangled,the khaltfy
drew his finger across his own mouth, and then anointed
with his healing saliva the man's abdomen, which the lat-

ter had carefully kept coveredwith one arm since it was


" wounded." Sometimes
the swordis supposed
to havebeen
previouslyrenderedinnocuousby the tongueof the sheikh,
which hasbeenpassedalong the entire edge. On one occasionthe sharp eyesof a Yankeelad saw the performing
dervishquickly turn the swordso that only the flat sidewas
pressedagainsthis flesh. It hasbeenprovedthat in piercing their cheekswith stilletos the dervishesoften u'seold
holes concealedunder their beards. Different sleight-ofhand tricks arepractised. Someof the ordinaryby-standers

are quiteawareof these,but othersare workedup to belief in a vision of thingsmanifestlyimpossible. There was
no mistaking the implicit faith of the Moslem boy who, as
he blackedmy bootsafter the function, sworewith flashing
1 At the funeral of a dervish sheikh, recently deceased in Palestine,

the coffin became"poHsessed"in a similar manner,so that the bearers


were nakl to have been impededfor severalhours in their efforts to
enter the cemetery.

272

THE

RELIGIOUS

ORDERS

OP

ISLAM

eyesthat he had seena dervishactuallycut himselfinto two

partswhichfell asunder,andwhichwerethenput together


again by the sheikhwho cementedthem,by his holy saliva!
Sometimesscepticismand credulity exist in the samemind.
Our host of the day.,a youngMoslemof pronouncedliberal
views,prominentin the new regime,somewhatcontemptuously denouncedas tricks all the demonstrationsthat we
had beenseeingtogether,but, his voice subtly changing,
declared that he himself had seen a Refa'i dervish without

harm run a dirk through his abdomenso that it projected


for several inches from his back, and had further .seenhim

pressdown upon his brows a red-hot molten metal plate!


This is an admirableillustration of a generalizationrecently
made by Dr. Macdonald: "From one end of the Muslim
world to the other an unquestioningfaith in the magician
still reigns. Scatteredamongthe educatedehtsses
you will
meeta gooddeal of Voltairean unbelief,but even theseindividuals are liable to set back at any time.

Tin* she'll that

separatesthe Oriental from the unseenis very thin.*' 1


Theseoccasions
thusillustratenot only the simple1
healing
powersof the dervishes,to which, 1 ha.vebeenassured,the
really pious membersalways confine themselves,hut also
the magicalphenomena,often harmlessenough,but.sometimes clearly justifying the distinction made by the great

Moslem philosopher,Ibn Khaldftn, between miracle,and


magic. "A miracle," he says,speakinghen1especiallyof
the miraclesof the prophets--"a miracle*is what Is worked
by goodmen for good objects,and for purified souls*and
by way of proof of the propheticoffice. Magic is worked
only by an evil man, for evil purposesand for evil results."3
Magic he declaresto be a form,of unbelief. 'Practitioners
of magic, malicious as well as benevolent, are as common
to-day as they were in the days of Moses, who had to contend

with the professionalsof Pharaoh'scourt. The practising


diviners of Syria,are by no meansexclusivelydervi.shor
even Mohammedan. An old man of my acquaintancein
1"Tho ReligiousAttitude arid Lift* in Islam/' p. 12f,by I). II Macdonald.

2Quoted by Macdonald(op. a'/.), p. 117.

THE

DERVISH

LIFE

273

northernSyria,a GreekChristianby origin,but now a


Protestant, inherited this trade from his father, and, before

his conversion,was consultedby peopleof all religions,who


had lost property,who desiredcharmsor potionsto produce
marital fecundity,or who cameon similar errands suchas
havein all agesand lands driven folk to the magician. In
suchmattersthe creedof thepractitionercountsfor nothing.
Recentlythe Greek Bishop of Hums was obligedto forbid
in church the womenof his diocesefrom,consultinga dervish sheikhof great vogue. A stancewasdescribedto me
by a scepticalman whosemotherhad takenhim to a dealer
in magic. The sheikhfirst tried to "gather the jinns/5 or
spirits, from whom he professesto derive his information
and who give him visions.1 Falling on his knees,he bent
his head so that it almost touched the ground, shook it
ominouslyfrom sideto side,making a suckingsoundwith
his lips, as one might chirrup to a horse,thus talking with
the jinns. Presentlythey showedhim the desiredvision,
which he interpreted. Somedaysthe spirits are not to be
gathered. At other tim.esthey maybe ensnaredby skeins
of yarn, black, blue, or yellow, brought by the petitioner,
who may also present a black cat or a black hen for the same

purpose. Before writing a charm, the sheikhrequires to


know the nameof the motherof the recipient. In caseof
malignantmagicthe sheikhmay makea profit out of both
parties. My scepticalSyrian friend instancedthe following example: A paysthe sheikhfor a charm to insurethat
his enemyB should becomepossessed
of an evil spirit or,
as we shouldsay,go crazy. The charm is concealedunder
somethresholdoverwhich B is wont to pass-in the house,
the church, or the mosque. When the charm works, the
friends of the now crazed B come to the sheikh, begging

him to discoverthe place wherea charm may be hidden.


At thelikely placeshe goesthroughhis prayersand incantations till he "discovers" the charm at the place where he
had knownit to be put. The paperis thendippedin water,
and with the obliteration of the writing the madness van1Intercourse with the jinns was authorized, as it were, by the great

founder,'Abd-el-Q&dir,who Is said to have followed the practice.

274

THE

RELIGIOUS

ORDERS

OP

ISLAM

ishesfrom B.1 The sheikh then pockets his secondfee.


How B happensto fall in with the plot by going crazy,
my friend did not explain. Proof of the antiquity of this
black art in Syria and Palestine was discovered in our

excavationof the Hebrew-Greektown of Marissa (Tell


Sandahannah),
dating from the secondand third centuries
B. C. Here were unearthed many soft limestone tablets,
some in fragments, scrawled with malignant sentiments in

Greekand Hebrew; togetherwith a seriesof rude figures


or dolls, all under three inchesin length, made of lead, whose

arms, legs and in somecasesbodieswerebound by ropes


or chainsof iron or bronze.2 Accordingto the principles
of magic,this torture was supposedto be duplicatedby the
agonyof the personswhom thesedolls weremade to represent. Parallelpracticestake placein Italy to-day.
In closingthis chapter,emphasisshould be laid on the
fact that it necessarilygives but a superficial account of
its subject. The point of view is from without. What
theinner dervishlife maybewecanonly form a vagueguess
based on such rare confessions

as were made to Mr.

Balden-

spergerby his dervish servant. Even that confession,it


maybe remembered,
wascut short by dervishscruples. To
appreciatethe true content enshrinedin religions forms
alien to our own requiresnot only exact,first-handedknowledgeof the forms themselves,
but delicate*spiritual discernmentand keenpersonalsympathywith the votaries. If this
is true as betweenHigh-Churchman and Low-Churchman,

Quaker and Episcopalian,Protestantand Romanist,how


much moredifficult is the problemwhenit affectsChristian
and Moslem! And the difficulty is further enhancedwhen,
in the placeof the ordinaryMoslem,weare confrontedwith
the dervish,who adds to the commonprofessionof Islam
themysticaldoctrinesandritesof his order. How strangely
thedoctrinesmanifestthemselves
throughthe riteshasbeen
1In

some cases the water in which

the charm lias been soaked is

drunk by the one concerned.

2See"Excavations in Palestine," plates86-88, by Bliss and Macalistcr (London, 1902).

THE

DERVISH

LIFE

275

here described. It is hardly a matter for wonder-that a


recentEuropeanwriter hasdeclaredof the moderndervish
life that "the soul has departedand nothing remainsbut
this external

mechanism

so far as it relates

to the methods

of throwing oneselfinto ecstasyand renderingthe bodyinsusceptibleto externalimpressions/31 Such,indeed,is the


common

Western

view.

But

that this view should

be sub-

stantiallymodifiedto suit the realinner factsof the casehas,


I hope,beenthe indication of this brief study.2
1 Baedeker's "Handbook

to Syria and Palestine," Introductory

In-

formation, xciv, written by Socin and re-edited by Benzinger,edition


of 1894.

2The dervish life has beenapproachedin a spirit of sympathy by


Dr. 1). B. Macdonald, in his two lectures on "The Mystical Life and

the Dervish Fraternities," in Ms "Aspects of Islam" (op. cit)

VI
OTHER

FEATURES

OF

INTRODUCTORY NOTE

THERE are other features of Islam that call for notice

evenin this brief treatment. The bulk of the chapterdeals


with the status of woman,including the subjectsof polygamyand divorce; with deathand burial; and with the differencesbetweenSunni and Shi'ah; with a brief glanceat
thehereticaloffshootsof Islam. A preliminaryword, however, may be said about two matters: temperanceand
slavery,whichrespectivelyshowIslam at its bestand at its
worst. Total abstinenceis the glory of Mohammedanism.
It isas mucha part of religionasprayeror fasting. Failure
in regard to this preceptis not viewed with the popular
indulgenceaccordedto somemoral lapses. Islam hates
strong drink. Accordingto Mohammedanlaw, if a man
is broughtbeforea judge, still intoxicated,or evenredolent
of wine, and if two witnesses swear that he has been drink-

ing, he is to receiveeighty lashesif a free man, or forty


lashesif a slave. A Moslem is usuallynot only afraid but
ashamedto drink before a coreligionist. The use of Intoxicantsin Mohammedanlands can always be traced to
Western influences. Through education obtained abroad,

and through the temptationsof bars and saloonskept by


Christians, native and foreign, drinking is on the increase

amongall classes
of Moslemsin the seaporttownsof Syria
and Palestine, as well as in some interior cities. However,

to seea drunken man, of any religioussect, Christian or


Moslem,is a rarity in theselands. The wholepopulation
is, as a rule, still temperate. Among Christians the use
of wine and spirits is largely confined to ceremonialand
festive occasions.

276

INTRODUCTORY

NOTE

277

Slaveryis socloselyIntertwinedwith thelegislativecode


which grips Islam with an iron hand that its officialabolishment in any Mohammedanlandis not to be expected. The
existenceof slaveryin Turkey is scarcelyveiled.1 Arabia,
technicallya part of the empire,but neverunder its control,
is said to be still the centre of the African slave-trade.

Ac-

cordingto Doughty, slavesare bought in Jeddahfor distribution in Turkey itself. Up to thirty yearsago a regular

slavetrafficwascarriedonbetween
theSoudanandAleppo
by caravan. At the presenttime the slavesin that city are
mostlyfemales. But the empirecontainsalso many white
slaves. The haremsof Constantinopleare supplied from
Circassia. During a recentwinter of famine,a Mohammedan of'Aintab soldsomeof his children in orderto buy bread
for the rest. It is statedon credibleauthority that in Damascus alone there are two thousand white slaves, male and

female, amongst the Circassians, and in the families of the

higher classnative Moslems. The femalesare mostlyconcubines. The youths and men are allowed to hire themselves

out as servantson condition that they give a certain portion of their earnings to the owner. Individuals of this class
have obtained freedom from this state of slavery, or rather

of serfdom,by the interventionof Europeanconsuls,but


others are restrained from the attempt by fear of secret re-

vengefulaction on the part of their owners. Speakingfor


Palestine, Baklenspcrger admits that black slavesare on the

wholewell treated,and preferremainingin bondageto being turned looseon the world.2 Their householdwork is
easy;marriagesamongthemselves
arearrangedand financed
by the master; the acknowledgedchildren of ownersand
1The statement has often been made that slavery has been abolished
in the Turkish Empire, but this is not so. Thus Baldensperger, in his
article, "Woman in the East" ("Quarterly Statement of the Palestine

Exploration Fund/7 1899,p. 34), Bays: "Slavery is now abolishedin


Turkey-at leastlegally; but virtually it still exists." This idea probably arisesfrom the fact that Moslemsin lands wherethere Is a strong
WeBterasentimentare apt to keepthe matter of slavery in the background. In Ms "Modem Egypt" (vol. II, p. 136),Lord Cromersays;
"Islam doesnot, indeed,encouragebut it toleratesslavery."

278

OTHER

FEATURES

OF

ISLAM

slave-concubines
(as everywhereIn Islam) are freeand enjoy the sameprivilegesas thoseof a legalwife. By bearing
a child to her master the woman herself becomes emanci-

pated. Nor doescolor disbar such children from assuming the full socialpositionof the father. WhenI wasliving
In Jerusalem,the mayor,a memberof oneof the great noble
houses,showedall the salient characteristicsof negro blood.
The Koran teaches that when slaves can redeem themselves

it is the duty of Moslemsto grant the emancipation. The


prophetis reportedto havesaid: "Whosoeverfreesa slave
who is a Moslem, God will redeem every member of his

body,limb for Iimb5from hell-fire."


I,

WOMAN AND MARRIAGE

The position of womanunder Islam to-day is a striking

illustration of the evils inherent in a religious and social

systemthat has beenpracticallyimmovablesincethe death


of its prophet. Mohammedleft womanin a far bettor position than he found her, but the greatwork of improvement
was arrested when he died. As there is no such thing as
actual immovability, on this arrest has followed deteriora-

tion. Up to a certain point Mohammedis responsiblefor

thepositionof womanamonghis followersto-day. But it


is equallytrue that if the principleswhich he illustrated in
her treatmentcouldhavebeenfurther developedin the history of Islam, her condition would have been far higher
than it is.1

Here are some of the reforms

he effected:

he

abolished the horrible custom of burying fernaie children

alive; lie limited the numberof contemporaneous


marriages
to four, forbidding more than one unless a man could treat
1In the introduction

to Palmer's translation

of the Koran

are found

these apt words: "The real fault lies In the unclastic nature of the re-

ligion: in his desire to shield it from changeand to prevent his followers from dividing into Beets,the founder has made it impossible for

Islam to throw off certain customsand restrictions[regarding women]


which, however convenient and even necessary to the Arabs of the time,

becomegrievousand unsuitablefor other nations at distant periods


and in distant lands" (p. bcsvi).

WOMAN

AND

MARRIAGE

279

all Mswivesequally;llie established


lawstoregulatefemale
inheritance,and otherwiseamelioratedtheir legal status;
he recognized
women'sdutiesandprivileges
in themattersof

religion; he took for granteda certain amountof seclusion


for women,2but the very indefinitenessof his references
not only leavesthe commentatorswith a nicesubjectof dispute on their hands as to how far this seculsion should be

curried, but results in a differenceof practice. Certainly


the prisonlife of the harem was nevercontemplatedby the
prophet of Arabia. Indeed, the coveringof the faceis nowhereenjoined,in so many words, by the Koran.3
It is impossibleto exaggeratethe evilsinherentin the system under

which

woman

exists in Islam.

With

all the im-

1A liberal Indian Moslem argued In my hearing that by this the


prophet practically forbade polygamy, as to treat two or more women
with equal justice is an impossibility.
2 For example, note the following verse regulating the communication between believers and the prophet's wives: "And when ye ask
them for any article, ask them from behind a curtain, that is purer for
your hearts and for them/'
(Surah XXXIII,
54.) On this Palmer
commentates: "The [Arab] women to the present day always remain
behind a curtain which screens off their part of the tent from the rest,
but freely converse with the husband and guests, and hand over the
dishes and any other articles that may be required by the company."
(Compare surah XXIV, 27-29.)
:JThe following verse contains the nearest approach to it: "And say
to the believing women that they cast down their looks and guard their
private parts, and display not their ornaments except those which are
outride; and let them pull their kerchiefs over their bosoms, and not
display their ornaments save to their husbands arid fathers," etc.
(hero follows a list of other near male relatives, eunuchs, etc., who are

alsoexcepted. It is interestingto note that in Palestinefoster-brothers


have the same privileges as blood-brothers). The ambiguous word is
"ornament."
The commentator, EI-Beidhawi, says that it has been
held that the term includes, by contraction, the places of ornaments

also,taking in all parts of the body, exceptthe face and the palms of
the hands,for theseare not private parts. However,headds that the
only time when thesecan beshownis during prayer, as the whole body
of the woman la private, and not lawful to any but her husband,except for medical treatment and when she is bearing witness.

The four great schoolsof interpretation unite In regardinga woman's


hair OH'"owra" (forbidden or sacred). The Hanaffyehhold that the
face may be seen but not the hands. The Shafi'lyeh forbid the exposureof both faceand hands.

280

OTHER

FEATURES

OF ISLAM

provementMohammedeffectedin her condition, he continued to regardwoman as man's inferior and, within the
law, as subjectto him in all things. This ideaof inferiority hasbecomestereotypedin Islam. Fear lest the ancient
tradition may lose force with the prevailing of modern
ideas has beena strong element in the opposition to the Con-

stitution shownby somemembersof the 'ulama,or so-called

priestlyclass. Themain evilsarisingfrom thetraditional


point of viewcentrearoundseclusion,marriage,and divorce.
Seculsion in the harem practically prevents a man from

seeinghis destinedbride, and thus preventsher from any


previousacquaintancewith him; it greatlyfostersthe favoritism, jealousies,and quarrelslogically attendanton polygamy; and it so cuts womenoff from the outsideworld that
a weekly excursionto sit in a cemeterycloselyveiledmay
be eagerlyanticipatedas a diversionand a relief.1 Under
the marriagesystemof Islam merechildren may be legally
united. Not only is polygamysanctioned,but concubinage
with slaves is a recognized right of the husband. Among

the lower classeswife-beatingis regardedas a properdiscipline. A man may divorcehis wife out of merecaprice,
for no fault committed,nor causealleged,and without any
processof law. This arbitrary powerintroducesan element
of constant uncertainty into the life of Moslem women in

the circleswheredivorceis common. It is a sayingamom>'


Mohammedans:"When a woman preparesa meal for he,husband, sheis not sure that she will be his wife long enough
to share it!"

Yet common as divorce is, it curries with it a,

certainstigma, A divorcedwomansentbackto her father1;-;


housemay be relegated to the position of a servant. .From
all this it has long been recognizedby the West that womer.

born in Islam are liableto terrible unhappinessfrom cause;;


that do not operateunder the Christiansystem. That such
suffering does abundantly exist at points throughout the
entire Mohammedan world has been again illustrated in a
recent book called "Our

Moslem Sisters/'

which contains

1Harem, or, more properly, harfrn', is the plural of hur'mah, woman,


and from the simple meaning "women" comes to signify "the place
of women."

WOMAN
contributions

AND

MARRIAGE

2S1

from writers conversant with Islam in different

lands. SyriaandPalestine
arecovered
in twopapers,
which
agreein presentinga very dark side of the subject. The
author of the well-balancedpaper on Syria?however,recognizesalso a bright side whichfinds no placein the dismal
purview of the writer on Palestine.1 Says the former:
"There are happy homes(or so they seemat first) where
there is immaculate cleanliness, where the mother looks well

after the waysof the householdand of her children, is ready


to receive her husband and kiss his hand when he returns

from his work, where there is but one wife and a contented
and indulgent husband and father."2 Dr. Wortabet, him-

self an Oriental, surroundedduring a long lifetime by Moslem neighbors,also states both sides, lie points out that
"strong love may often be accompaniedby fierceand disorderedpassions,so that the object of intensedevotionmay
also be the victim of intense jealousy and consequent
cruelty," but he also states:"We know with certainty that
thereis muchof domesticlove,felicity, and peacefrequently
found in Mohammedan

families.

The fact is that where the

conjugalrelation subsiststhere is generally found conjugal


love also, ranging through all the degreesof which the human heart is susceptible." 3
The

writer

on

" Womenin Syria," quotedabove,ascribes


in almost everyeaseobservedby her the happier condition of Moslem womento Christian teachingand example.
The effectof this is beautifully illustrated in the schoolestablishedin Beyroutby the late Miss Taylor and still carried on for Moslem and Drusegirls. But thereare certain
elements within Islam itself, not often considered, which

operate toward a similar end. Thus, speakinggenerally,


1 "Our Moslem Sisters" Is edited by S. M. Zwemer and Annie Van

Sommer, the individual papers being anonymous. The writer of the


paper, "Woman in Palestine/7claims that during twenty years' sojourn
in Palestine she has had intercourse among all classes of Mohammedan

women, but the unqualified pessimisticgeneralizationsin which she


indulgesregardingnot only the position of womenbut the whole system
of Islam are quit unwarrantable.
2 "Our Moslem Sisters" (op. at.}, p. 175.

s "Religion in the East" (op. c&), pp. 230-231.

282

OTHER

FEATURES

OF

ISLAM

while it is impossibleto exaggeratecertainevils inherentin


the natureof the system,it is quite possibleto exaggerate
their extentand, to a lessdegree,their results. Take, for
example,seclusionwithin the harem. This naturally appearshorribleto a womanbrought up underWesterncivilization. But womenbred in the haremdo not missa liberty
which theyhaveneverknown. Amongthe higher Moslem
classescharmingfamily life may be found. The spirit of
high breedingis in everyrace the samethough conditions
of life may differ radically. The rather overcoloredaccounts of that interesting book, " Haremlik," did not come

as a surprise to Westernwomenwith friends among the


Moslemaristocracy.1 But evengrantedthat, as a rule, the
evils of life in the harem bear hard on the occupants,it
should be emphasizedthat theseare confinedto the cities,
and henceaffectonly the minority of Mohammedanwomen.
In passingfrom the townsto the countryin Syria and Palestine the traveller cannot fail to note a great contrast. The

town womenwhen theygo out are swathedin sheets,white


or colored,with their faceshiddenby dark veils. The peasant women,on the other hand, appear publicly in their
ordinary dress,leaving the face and sometimesalso part
of the hair exposedto view. The husbandsand fathersof
thesegirls are good Moslems,observingthe ordinancesof
prayerand fasting quite as punctiliouslyas the majority of
themen of the city, and morepunctiliouslythan manyof the
highestclasseswho keeptheir womenin strictestseclusion.
In letting their women'sfacesbe seenin public, thesepeasants are apparentlyunconsciousof transgression,and, as
wehavealreadyshown,theyaretransgressing
no law explicitly set forth in the Koran.3 This stateof things naturally
1See "Harcmlik " (New York, 1906), by Demetra Vaka (Mrs. Kenneth
Brown), describing the life of the high-class Moslem women in Constantinople.
2 A well-known Moslem sheikh of Beyrout, whom I consulted in regard to this matter, declared that the peasant women in exposing their
hair and hands (which according to the Hanaffyeh are forbidden, even

though the face may be seen)are acting in ignoranceof the law, and
hence are not blameworthy.

WOMAN

AND

MARRIAGE

283

givesan opportunity to a peasantwomanof strongpersonality to make her controlling influence felt in the household
and in the community. Such a woman I once met in a vil-

lagelying in a deepvalley of Mount Hermon,where,during


the summer, the inhabitants

live in booths.

We were en-

campednot far from each other, and so exchangedcalls.


This handsome,dignified matron, who serenelykept her
face uncovered,had an authoritative air well befitting the
solehead of the house. From her little boothshewasregulating the varied work of her estates,which brought her
in the princelyincomeof twelvehundredto fifteen hundred
dollars a year: the herding of cows and goats; the thresh-

ing of wheat; the culture of vinesand tobacco; the cutting


of wood. Her sons,all married or betrothed,obediently
worked

under

her orders.

Her husband

1 recall as a mild

man, apparentlyin total eclipse. Suchinstancesarenot uncommonin Turkey. Dr. Washburn, in his " Fifty Yearsin
Constantinople/'speaksof a Moslemwomanas " the leader
of thevillage" of Hissar,on the Bosphorus. Baldensperger,
a prime authority for peasantlife in Palestine,writes: "She
[woman] is consideredas inferior. . * But from this it
does not follow that a man absolutely commands the house.

On the contrary,the fellah-womanis just asoften-virtually


-the headof the family, and differsin nothingfrom women
in the rest of creation.

She at least influences her husband,

in mostcasesfor all things, not only in the house,but in all


matters affecting their commonweal. ...

I have known

many fellah-womento manageeverythingbetter than the


husband,and evenscoldinghim to somedegreefor any mismanagement,or teachinghim what to say in the men's assembly. But, notwithstandingthis, she doesnot escapea
good floggingoccasionally. Yet it doesnot follow that the
fellah-womanis to be pitied in beingconsideredan inferior
being. She enjoysher life and liberty to a certain extent,
at least in many instances."*
1 See his article, " Birth, Marriage and Death among the Fellahin of
Palestine" ("Quarterly Statement of the,Palestine Exploration Fund,"

1894,p. 133). From the context it is possiblethat this generalization


is meant to include

Christian

women as well as Moslem.

284

OTHER

FEATURES

OP

ISLAM

This peasantfreedom^
however,is notwithoutdefinitely

recognizedrestrictions. The easy relations betweenmen


and women follow an economic rather than a social law.

During the courseof my excavationsin Palestine,when I


employed,in all, hundredsof laborersof both sexes,I noted
that beforethe day's work beganthe womenand girls sat
apart with facesavertedand with veils pulled forward, but
that whenthe whistlesoundedfor work theythrewbacktheir
veilsand mingledfearlesslywith the men and lads, chatting
and joking with themin full comradeship. In the sameway
at home they would move freely about when engagedin
householdduties, but would not think of joining the men
at meals, or when they assembledin the evening to chat and

smoke. Oneis temptedto speculatewhetherthesepeasant


womendo not preservethe ideal of feminineconductentertained by Mohammed.1 At any rate, among the Moslem
peasantryactual practice is better than the theory of the
doctors of the law.

Conditions which tend to restrain Mos-

lem men from taking advantageof the licenseaccorded them

in mattersof polygamyand divorcewill appearin the following brief notice of thesesubjects.

Marriage in Islam is purely a civil contract, not invalidated by the absenceof a religious ceremony, though this in

someform, shorter or longer, is a usual accompaniment.


The marriageis valid and binding if the contractingparties possessthe legal capacityto enter into it and if they
1A certain amount of seclusion of wom<m is found among the Christian sects in those parts of Syria and Palestine where Western influences are still unfelt. In the Greek ehurchoHthe women are often kept
behind a sereeri. To this day a curtain separates the sexes in the
Protestant church in Hums (Emesa) In towns where Moslems predominate, Christian women go sheeted and veiled in the streets. In
the country districts of Syria most women would never think of eating
with male guests, and often not with the men of their own household.
Baldensperger states that Christian women in Palestine are practically
excluded from all men's society outside of their own households.
Jacques de Vitry, who became Latin Bishop of Tyre in 1217, describes
a similar state of things as existing among the Greek Christian women

of his time. (" Historia HierosolymitanaXXIV," found in " Bongars1


GestaDei per Francos.")

WOMAN

AND

MARRIAGE

285

give their mutual consentin the presenceof witnesses. It is


not necessarythat the contract should be reduced to writ-

ing, and,accordingto the Shi'ah law, witnessesmay be dispensedwith. Legalcapacitydenotesthe absenceof therecognizeddisabilities.1 Mutual consentrespects,theoretically,
at least, the independenceof the female. A girl who has
...reachedthe age of puberty cannot be married without her
consent^though this need not be given in so many words,
but may be expressedby silence,a smile,or a laugh. If
married by consent of her guardian during her legal in-

fancy, sheis free to ratify or to repudiatethe contract, before two witnesses,immediatelyon reachingpuberty. The
qadhi (judge) of a Palestinetown, however,told a Syrian
friend of mine that the youthful brides of his district were
generally ignorant of their privileges in this matter, and that

for his part theymight remain so,lest their girlish caprices


should augment unduly the list of matrimonial failures!
As to the witnesses, these should be Moslems, two males,

or one male and two females. According to the Koran a


man may contract four contemporary marriages, but as the

law requiresan especialestablishmentfor eachwife, economic considerations place polygamy among the luxuries.

Somepoor polygamistsflagrantly disregard the required


segregation,
in spiteof the protestsof the women'srelations.
It is my impressionthat amongthe hundredsof fellah workmen I haveemployedin Palestinepolygamywas decidedly
exceptional.2Baldensperger,from a wider range of observation,comesto the sameconclusion. *Even when polygamy obtains among the poor its unhappinessmay be
mitigated by mutual accommodation,as in the household
of one of my Siloam workmen, where two wives, one a
mother and the other childless, shared in the tender care of
1 For the nine prohibitions to marriage, see Hughes's " Dictionary of
Islam/7 p. 316. These involve questions of consanguinity, affinity, fosterage ("milk" relationship), slavery, etc. Also a man may not marry
a polytheist, though he may marry a Christian or a Jewess.
2 Speaking of the Moslem population, Dr. Wortabet says: "Perhaps
two-thirds of the whole are satisfied with one wife." (See " Religion in
the East," op. c&, p. 227.)

286

OTHER

the children.

FEATURES

OF

ISLAM

In this case both common-sense and tact were

exhibited,for a childlesswife is at a discountin a polygamous


household,
wherethe favorshownto eachwife dependsupon
the number of her children.

It may be added that celibates

of either sex are almost unknownin Islam, the regularexceptionsexistingin someof the more rigid of. the dervish
orders. Early marriagehas beenthe rule with all classes.
With the advance of the tide of Western civilization,

how-

ever, the marriage of men in the cities is postponedto a com-

parativelylate age. On the other hand, the marriageof a


boymaybehastenedso asto evadethe military conscription.
Amongthe peasants,
girls aresometimes
marriedwhenmere
children

because the future

mother-in-law

needs some one

to help in the house,in which shetakesher placewith the


otherchildren,including,perhaps,her little husband,till she
is able to perform the duties of a wife.1
The settlingof the amountof the dowry is usuallyheldto
bean indispensable
preliminaryto marriage,but evenif this
is not mentioned

in the contract

the woman

is entitled

to a

certainamountby law. Part of the dowry, in somecases


two-thirds,is payableat the time of marriage,the remaining third to be paid in casethe woman5sdivorced without
her consent or in case of her husband's death.

Among the

peasantsthis "reserveddower" is usedfor her funeral expensesshouldshepre-decease


her husband. On the other
hand, if a man divorces his wife becauseshehasdesertedhim,

he is entitled to receiveback half what lie has paid. With


the rich the dowry all goesto the girl, to be spentfor her
jewelry, but among the poor the father retains a part It
may be paid in moneyor in kind. Among the fellahtn it
is often estimatedat so manycamels. The amountis often
lessenedby a systemof .exchanges
by which a man may
1Baldenspergerspeaksof a Turkish captain in Jerusalemwho married two of his aoris at one time, aged respectively ten and twelve. He
remembers later watching the boy of ten and his little wife as they
went together to a day school, beating each other and fighting along the
road. The author speaks of still earlier marriages. (See his article,

" Womanin the East/' "Quarterly Statementof the PalestineExploration Fund," 1899,p. 137.)

WOMAN

AND

MARRIAGE

287

trade his sister or daughter for another man's sister or

daughter. The popularity of such double marriages is


also increasedby a savingin the weddingexpenses,as one
set of festivitieswill do for two couples.1
The marriageceremonymay be performedby the qadhi
(judge), by the imam (religious sheikh), or even by the
khatib (scribe). In any casea fee is paid by the bridegroom. The ceremonydoesnot take place in a mosque,
though it may be performedin the court-houseor government building. Among the fellahln bridal partiesare wont
to assembleat the bridegroom's house. Those present
are the "officiating clergyman," the bridegroom,the witnesses,and the bride's attorney, or male representatives,
whom she has the privilege of choosingherselfif she has
cometo a woman'sage. The law, in its four forms of Interpretation,givesthe bridegroomthe right to seethe girl before the binding contract As we have seen,among the
peasantsyoungmen have constantchancesto seethe girls
unveiled, but in the cities, where strict seclusion of the sex

is practised, such a privilege is rarely if ever exercised.


The city bridegroommust contenthimselfwith descriptions
of the bride given him by somefemale relation or by a
regular female " broker/' who may grosslyexaggeratethe
charmsof the fair unknown. The form of the religious
ceremonyis left to the officiating party. Sometimesit is

confinedto a repetitionof thefat-feah,


or openingprayerof
the Koran, and to the blessing. More commonlythe service openswith the prayer for forgiveness,followedby four
short chaptersof the Koran, selectedfor their brevity rather
than for their appropriateness,and by the professionof
faith. The officiating party then requeststhe bride's attorney to take the hand of the groom and to say: "Such,
an one'sdaughter,by the agencyof her attorneyand by the
testimony of two witnesses, has in your marriage with her

had sucha dowersettledupon her; do you consentto it?"


To which the bridegroomreplies: "With my whole heart
and soul, to my marriagewith this woman,as well as to the
1Ibid, p. 140. Compare" Birth, Marriage and Death among the
Fellahin of Palestine"

(op. tit.), pp. 132-134.

288

OTHER

FEATURES

OF ISLAM

dowryalreadysettleduponher,I consent,
I consent,
I consent." The qadhi or sheikh then raiseshis hands and
praysfor mutual love betweenthe pair, as existedbetween
Adam and Eve,Abraham and Sarah,Mosesand Zipporah,
Mohammed and Ayeshah,etc.1 Mutual congratulations
follow. This marriagecontract is absolutelybinding even
if it is not madeeffectivefor an indefiniteperiod. Usually,
however,the weddingfestivitiesand the actual consummation occurwithin a fewdaysafterthe makingof the contract.
To describethe weddingcustoms,which in many of their
details are common to all natives in Syria and Palestine,

doesnot comewithin the scopeof the presentwork, as they


belongto folk-lore rather than to religion. The persistence
of theseancient customs,irrespectiveof creed, seemsto
date their origin far beyondthat of any religiousfaith with
which they now coexist. It mustsufficehereto namesome
curious features still obtaining in rural districts: the blow

given by the groomto the bride, as symbolof his mastery;


the publicdressingof the groomout-of-doorsin his wedding
garments;the nuqtit, or formalpresentationof moneyto the
bride and groom by the individual guests; the 'mimicwar,
wagedsometimesbetweenthe bride'sparty and thegroom's
party, or betweentwo sectionsof the groom'sparty; the
announcement
of the consummationof the marriage by a
gunfired by the groom. The weddingfestivitiesof a widow
or of a divorcedwomanareat best" maimedrites." Many
generalfeaturesof the merrymaking are repeatedat the
circumcisions. This rite, though,universallypractised in
Islam, is nowhereenjoinedin the Koran. It may he performed at any time betweenthe ageof tea claysand, say,
sevenyears. Sometimesit is evenfurther postponed,hut
it is obligatorybeforemarriage.
Mohammedanpracticerecognizes
threekinds of divorce?
All of these take effect, though only the first, called the
most laudable, is universally recognizedto he regular.
This is the only form which doesnot compela woman to
marry another man before she can he remarried to her
1SeeHughes*H"Dictionary of Islam/' article, "Marriage."
2Ibid., article, "Divorce."

WOMAN

AND

MARRIAGE

289

former husband. It appearsto be rarely used among the


Sunnis. Dr. Wortabet,in his "Religion in the East/' takes
no account of it in his treatment of this sect. However*

from his notice of the Metawileh it would appear that in


divorce they follow this first form.1 With the Sunnis, in
ordinarycasesthe man needonly sayto his wife threetimes:
"Thou art divorced/' or "Thou art free/5 to make the di-

vorce final. Indeed, should he hold up three fingers or


drop threestonesthe result would be the same. However,
it is usual to employa formula of oath.2 No chargeagainst
the woman

need be named

nor

cause for the divorce

as-

signed. There may be found among the peasantry,however,especiallyin small communities,limitation of the evils
of divorce, as the tyranny of the husband is effectively
temperedby the fear of the malerelativesof the wife, whose
revengeful rage might make matters very hot in case of an

"unjust divorce. In Syria divorce is said to be rare among


the poor. Similar causesoperateto the sameend in higher
life, mutatis mutandis.

In Syria,if the divorcedwomanis friendless,shemaystate


her casebefore the court, and, should she wish to marry
again,a husbandmust be provided for her; if sheremains
unmarried,her formerhusbandmust supporther; children
must be supportedby the father; if over sevenyearsof age,
they may choosewhich parent they will live with; under
seven,theygo with the mother.3 In addition to the caprice
of the husband there are eleven conditions which, according

to Mohammedanlaw, require divorce. Someof theseare


favorable to women. Either party is divorced from the

other in caseof apostasyfrom Islam; in caseof proof that


the marriage has disregardeda recognizeddisability; or
in caseof one becomingthe slaveof the other. A woman
may obtain a divorce from her husband if she can prove
his physicaldisability; if the stipulated dowry is not paid;
1 "Religion in the East" (op. at), p. 278.
2 For the oath "by the triple divorce/' used by the fellahtn, see
Baldensperger's article on "Marriage " (op. cit.), p. 132.
8 See article, "Mohammedan Women in Syria/7 in "Our Moslem
Sisters " (op. dt.)f p. 184.

290

OTHER

FEATURES

OF ISLAM

and In caseshehasbeenentrappedInto marriagewith a man


of inferior

tribe.

Mohammedrecognizedthe religiousdutiesof women,but


the laws of Islam have gradually wovensuch a fabric of
ceremonialablutionsand purifications,necessary
beforethe
individual is fit for formal devotions, that wives and mothers

in the prime of life find it almostimpossibleto observethe


five daily hours of prayer. Young girls, trained to pray,
usuallydrop thecustomat thecritical age,and this isseldom
resumedin later years.1 Fasting,however,is more strictly
followed by women of all ages. The provision made for
the women of Jerusalem in the so-called mosque of 'Omar,

where especialfunctions are held during the month of


Ramadhan,hasalreadybeennoticed. At this time women
visit eachother with greater freedom. As has also been
herechronicled,womenmayenteruponthe direct" religious
life" by becomingdervishes. Such eases,however,seem
to be exceptional.
In the cult of the shrines, however,the women quite
keeppacewith the men. Moreover, theyhave their own
peculiar superstitions. Each woman is supposedto have
an invisible double, calleda karfny, her exactduplicate in
dispositionand character,andevenin thenumberof children
shemay bear. If the womanbe quarrelsome,so alsois the
kariny, who mayventher spiteon thehumanchildren, even
causingtheir death. Against the power of such, charms
are bought from the diviners, who claim, that, through
these,the spirit-doublemay be chained to the bottom of
the sea.

Howeverthey may lack in religiousobservance,it must


not be assumed that Moslem

women

are without

a fund

of

natural religion, or to some degree without a certain, vital

knowledgeof their own faith. The very eagernesswith


which they receivethe instruction of Christian missionary
women indicateshow deep is this natural religioussense.
Somethingwhich nourishesthis they possessin their own
faith. Thosewhoare fortunateenoughto know thespiritual
passages
of the Koran find in thesereal comfort, A Turk1See"Woman in the East" (op. cit.), p. 145,by J. P. Baldenspeqgcr.

DEATH

AND

BURIAL

291

ish lady teacher,in one of the Americanmissionaryschools,


quoted these texts with the reverence and faith with which

her Christian colleaguesmight quote the Bible. Nor are


suchinstancesconfinedto the educatedclasses. The superintendentof a hospital in Syria describedto me the peaceful death-bedof a poor Moslemwoman,whosefriendsconsoledher by repeatingthe beautiful passagesabout God
with which their sacredbook abounds. According to the
samewitness,similar instancesof real spirituality, of trust
and faith in God,are not uncommonamongthe womenof
Islam.

II.
When

a Moslem

DEATH

AND BURIAL

realizes that the hour of his death is near

he asks forgivenessof his family and friends. Among the


peasantsit is customaryto give the wife permissionto marry
again. The bed is placedso that the dying man lies facing
the south, or toward Mecca.

The words of the creed are

repeatedto him. in order that, so somehold, he may be


preparedwith answersto the questionsat the dread examination of the tomb. According to the belief of some, at

the.*
momentof death the angel'Azrail is visible, appearing
beautiful to the good man, terrible to the evil-doer, for he

not only announcesto eachhis fate but pointsout his place


in paradiseor in hell. When the man breatheshis last the
men go out, leaving the women to their weeping, lamenting,

and rendingof garments. For the men suchexpressions


of
sorrow-indeed,any expressionof sorrow-are forbiddenas
rebellionagainstthe decreeof Allah. In fact, they should
rebuke the women. Beforethe corpseis washedthe eyes
are closedand the two feet are tied togetherat the big toes.
Opportunity is then given to kiss the face of the departed,
for after the washing a kiss would render him ceremonially
unclean, and, indeed, no woman save his mother or sister is

permittedto look upon him, not evenhis wife. The washing may be done by a memberof the family, but is usually
performedby a sheikhor khattb (scribe). It may be done
in the houseor in the court-yard, or on the roof of the

292

OTHER

FEATURES

OF

ISLAM

mosque. After the washingthe regular ceremonialablu~


tions, as before prayer,,are performedon the deacL The
water then should be poured Into a hole in the ground to
prevent pollution. While the washingis proceedingthe
sheikh often chants the creed continuously, and the blind

men, who alwaysassembleat a funeral, may repeatverses


from the Koran, while moneyis distributed to the assembled beggers. After the corpseis anointedit is clothedin
the regular graveclothes,consistingof severalparts, which
may includea white cap and turban, all kept in place by
extra bands of cloth wound around the body., sometimes

coveringit entirely, so that not even the face is exposed.


Camphoris often sprinkled insidethe shroud,and, among
the fellahin, when a bad man dies they may slip in a reed

containinga paper inscribedwith the wordsof the creedto


helphim in the examinationof the tomb.
A Moslem funeral should take place,if possible,before
sunseton the day of the death, a practicecommonto all
sectsin Syriaand Palestine. For a womanthe ritesare the
same as for a man.

The

coffin is carried

on a bier to the

place where the serviceis conducted,which, may be the


mosque,its court-yard or roof, or any open place on the
road to the cemetery, but not the cemetery itself.

In ease

of a rich man or a dervishthe processionisan affair of some


state,with bannersand chanting,thoughall mustgo on foot.
Contrary to Westernideas,the processionmovesrapidly.
As merit accrues to such as may carry the bier, this is

constantlychanginghands. As they walk, the pall-bearers


repeatthe fat-hah,or first chapterof the Koran, while men
in the shopsor coffee-houses
rise in respectto the dead.
For the regular service for the dead the reader is referred to

Hughes's"Dictionary of Islam.0 If in a mosque,theprayers are led by the qadhi or imam, but the nearestrelative
is held to be the properpersonto conductthem. The worshippersstanderect,without the usualprostrations,though
thepositionof thehandsis changedfrom time to time. After
the conclusionof the service,it is customaryamong the
peasantryof Palestinefor the sheikhto turn to the people

aridask: "What do you testifyconcern;ng


thedeparted?"

AND

BURIAL

293

To thisthe conventional
answeris: "He wasof the good
folk"; but in caseof a notoriousevil-livertheymaysay:
" Woeto him!" Thiscuriouscolloquy,whichI do notfind
mentionedin the " Dictionary of Islam/* is sometimesreservedfor the cemetery.
At the cemeterythe corpseis takenout of the coffin,and
placed in the grave, which is lined with stonesand subsequentlyarched over, so that no earth may presson the
body,as all Mohammedansheikhsteach that the corpse
feelspain. Accordingly,the floor of the grave is made soft
with henna(red dye-stuff)and camphor. The head of the
graveis toward the west,and the bodyis placed on its right
side so that the face may look south, or toward Mecca.
Beforethe graveis closedin the friends may sprinkle dust
on the corpse,and, amongthe fellahtn,sometimesthe face
is uncoveredto preventthe deadfrom swallowingthe band
of cloth! An extraordinary practice, not obligatory but
basedon tradition, often either precedesor follows the clos-

ing in of the grave. In a loud voice the sheikh addresses

the spirit of the dead man, to preparehim further for the


dreadvisit immediatelyafter the peoplehavedeparted,the
visit of the two examiningspirits,the angelsMun'kar and
Nakir', with blackfacesand blueeyes. After a preliminary
exhortation emphasizingthe reality of death and the resurrcction, he declaims: "The two angelsare now coming
to thee,and theywill ask thee: Who is thy Lord, and who is
thy prophet, and what is thy religion? By what hast thou
lived arid by what hast thou died? Answer them quickly
and without fear: Allah is my God, Mohammed is my
prophet, Islam is my religion, and I havelived and I have
died by thewords of the creed,*There is no God but God,
and Mohammed,
is the prophetof God!5 " This exhortation,
called the talqin', may be elaborated,ad libitum, to cover
other mattersof faith and loyalty.1 While this practice is
voluntary,belief in the visit of the angels,calledthe punishment of the grave, is incumbent on all Moslems.

Among

the fellalitn it is sometimescalled the reckoning. For the


1It is said that in Busrah the sheikh, in giving this exhortation, may
strike the corpse'shead with his stick.

294

OTHER

FEATURES

OF

ISLAM

wicked It is full of terrors. After the talqin the sheikhmay


lift his voicein the call to prayer. Sometimesthe gravediggerswash their implementsand their hands over the
grave. At a town funeral the citizensshakehandswith the
relatives of the dead, while the fellahln salute them by

touching foreheads,and sometimesoffer presents. Much


rivalry is shownby villagers,not related to the dead, in the
matter of dinner invitations to out-of-town guests,who often

find themselvesin a state of agreeableembarrassmentof


choice. The relatives, however, may furnish food to the

women,who partakeof it sitting undera tree. During the


daysof mourning,which mayrangefrom threeto eight,both
sexesgo to the grave to listen to readingsby the sheikh,
which the dead is supposedto hear. On the third day
theremay be a "zikr" or ejaculatorycalling on the name
of God.

Sometimes food is brought to be eaten at the

grave. The cemeterymay be visited everyThursdayafter


the death occursand thenannuallyon the Thursdayof the
dead. Notwithstandingthe prohibition of the Koran directed against the erection of tombs and monuments, these

are commonthroughout Islam. Against this practice'the


Wahabisprotestedin vain. Someof the mausoleumsare
elaborate. The ordinary cemetery usually shows a forest
of head-stones

in which,

there

are often

niches

for

small

oil-lamps,to be lighted on Thursdayevenings. A turban


surmountingthe head-stoneindicatesthe grave of a male.
A practiceanalogousto the sayingof massesfor the dead
has already been described.1
III.

THE SHI'AH SECT

Thus far this presentationof Islam has followed the


practicesof the Sunnis,or self-calledTraditionalists, who
form a very large majority of the Moslemsof Syria and
Palestine. Scattered over these lands, however, are num-

bersof Shi'ahs,literally followers-that is, followersof 'Ali,


first cousin to the prophet and husband of his favorite
daughterFatima. They preferto be calledsimply Moslems,
1Seefoot-note on p. 214.

THE

SET AH

SECT

295

thoughthetermShi'ahis not denied. In Damascus


they

are known as Arfadh' (alternativeforms are Rafidhln and

Rawafidh'),a terminventedbytheSunnisin theearlydays


of the schism,and meaningdeserters,traitors, or forsakers
of the truth.1 The term Metawa'li (plural Meta'wileh) is
a synonymfor Shi'ah,signifyingonewhobefriendscAli.2 It
appearsto be only of local Syrianusage. Under the designationof Meta'wileh the Shi'ahsareknownthroughouttheir
two chiefdistricts: in the highlandseastof Sidon,Tyre, and
Acre, and in the plain of Coele-Syria(the Buqa'a), as well
as in the district of 'Akkar, north-eastof Tripoli, in the
northern and southern ends of the Lebanon, and in the

cities of Sidon and Tyre. South of the Seaof Galilee the


Shi'ahsare practicallyunknown. As they are everywhere
registeredunder the categoryof Moslemsexactstatisticsare
wanting, but they must number at least fifty thousand.3
Probably, on account of their distinct physiognomy,it is
often assumedthat they are of foreign origin. They certainly turn toward Persia as the stronghold of their faith,
but this is because in that land the Shi'ah

Moslems

are in the

overwhelmingmajority. Churchill quotesa tradition tracing themto Bokhara.4 Accordingto this tradition theyfled
into

the mountainous

districts

named

above

after

an un-

1 For an elaborate history of the word rawafidh, see Appendix A


to the*article entitled "The Heterodoxies of the Shiites," etc., by ProfoHsor Fried laemk'r, in the "Journal of the American Oriental Society/*
vol. XXIX, pp. 137-1.51).

3Fromjj,5 (waliy'yi),friend,comes
theverbalform(J,*j (tewal'Ii),
to make a friend of, from which is derived the progressive noun

J*-xj
(metawal'li),
pluralxLUuo(meta'wilek),
onewhomakes
friends
with.

The Shi'aha understand the word *Ali.

This is the accepted

derivation,
though
ones
fromtheroot,JL, to separate,
hasbeensuggested.
8 Dr. Wortabct, writing in 1860, regards eighty thousand as an overestimate. ("Religion in the East.," p. 201.) The recent estimate of

Cuinet is only about thirty-Hevcnthousand. The number given above


Is a mere guess.

4 "Mount Lebanon/' vol. Ill,


(London, 1864),

pp. 110-111, by Colonel Churchill

296

OTHER

FEATURES

OF ISLAM

successful
rebellion. The CountdeJehaysaystheyare sup-

posedto havearrivedIn Syriain the twelfthcenturywith

the Kurdish hordesled by Saladin and other chieftains.1

Professor Boulos Khauli, of the Syrian Protestant College,

pointsout thatit is notnecessary


to assume
for thissectan

origin in Syria different'from that of the SunnI Moslems.


From the beginning'All had his partisanswhereverIslam

spread. Accordingto a traditionof the Mefciwileh,the


caliph'Othman banishedto Damascusa certainAbu "Czar
who took the part of his rival 'AH. Becauseof his active
influence in Damascus he was later transferred to Sum fend

(Sarepta),south of Sidon, wherehe continued to preach


the claims of 'All

The adherents thus gained to the cause

are said by the Metawileh of the region to have formedthe


nucleusof the sect in Syria. The distinct physiognomy
of its votariesis easilyaccountedfor by an extraordinary
exclusivenessenforcing through many centuries marriage

within their own community. It Is quite possiblethai (he


above-named
traditionsof a foreignorigin mayapply to the
immigrationof certainfamilieswho swelledthe ranks of a
sectalreadyformed in Syria.. Whatevertheir origin, they
had become strongly established around .Bu/ulbek in the
beginning of the sixteenth century. An early leader In that
district, one Harfush is said to have given his name to the

terriblehouseof Harfush,whosemembershavehelddespotic
swayin the sameregionuntil quite recenttimes.
In order to make clear the roots of the strong antagonism

still mutually felt by the Sunnisand Shi'ahs,we may be allowedto return to the historyof the schismalreadytouched
upon in the first chapter. After the death of the prophet,
one party claimedthat the divine right of successionwas
vestedalonein 'Ali and his descendants.But the contrary
opinion prevailed; Abu Bekr, 'Omar, and 'Othman were
successively
electedto thecaliphate; and twenty-threeyears
had elapsedfrom Mohammed'sdeath before the succes-

sionof 'Ali became


a fact. Revoltagainstthe newcaliph
drenchedIslam with blood,and after five years*Ali fell sole

1See"Dela Situation Llgulc dennujets Ottomansnon-MuHulmunft,"


pp. 424-442,par JeConte F. van den Htoondo Jolrty (Hruxelk'H,1906),

THE

SHI'AH

SECT

297

victim to a threefoldpuritan plot that aimedto destroy


alsohis rival, Mo'awiyah,Governorof Syria,and thelatter's

lieutenant,'Amr,whowasleadingtherevoltin Egypt. The


followersof "AHelectedhis eldestsonHasan,but he shortly
abdicatedin favor of Mo'awiyah, with the understanding
that he should resumethe caliphateon the latterys death.
On Mo'tuviyah'ssonYezid, who ignoredthis.compact,has
restedthe suspicionof causingthe death of Hasanby poison, but it appearsto be the fact that he died naturally in
his bed at Medinah.

The adherents of the house of 'All now

rallied about his second son, Hosein.

Plain, unvarnished

history representshis death, and that of his brotherAbbas,


as the inevitable culmination of the unequal contest for
supremacy with the forces of the successful Yezid. On the
plains of Kerhcla, near Kufa, Hosein, with his handful of fol-

lowers,wassurroundedby forty thousandhorsemen. In a


series of single combats, marvels of valor and courage, the

little band, oneby one,gaveup their lives. This plain, unvarnishedtalc is thrilling enough,but in the yielding of
Hoseinto an inevitablefate the Shi'ahsseea voluntary selfsacrifice,a vicariousofferingfor the sinsof his people,forefold, theyaffirm, by theprophethimself.1 They believethat
beforehis death Ilosein spokewordslike these: "O Lord,
for the merit of me, the dear child of thy prophet; O Lord,
for the sake of young *Abbas rolling in his blood, even that

youngbrother that wasequal to my soul,I pray thee,in the


day of judgment, forgive,O merciful Lord, the sins of my
grandfather'speople,and grant me, bountifully, the key
of the treasure of intercession/'2

No wonder that for the

descendantsof those men, through, whose malignant agency

they believe that this atonement was accomplished,the


Shi'ahs have nothing but fierce hatred!

Even thus, but far

lesspoignantly,do the Christiansof the landregardtheJews


1The common people in Persia are said to include all Hosein's
fellow-martyrs on that day us actors in this vicarious atonement.
aBeep. 245 of the chaptercalleda " Persian Miracle Play," in " Stud-

ios in a Mosque," by Stanley Lano Poolo(London and Sydney, 1893),


Our .noticeof this play, whichfollows,is baseduponPoolc'sdescription.
The paasionplay may be given ulnoat other seasons.

298

OTHER

FEATURES

OF ISLAM

whoseancestorstheyhold to havebeenagentsin the tragedy


of the crucifixion.

This hatred is fanned anew into flames

at the beginningof eachMoslemyear. Amongthe Shi'ahs


the woesof the houseof *Ali are commemoratedduring
the first ten days of Moharram, known as the 'Ashura.
Only the tenth day is observedby the Sunnis,and for quite
another reason: the creation of Adam and Eve, of heaven

andhell, etc.,etc. In someplacesthis is keptas a fast,but I


am told that in parts of Syria theSunnismakeof it a NewYear's feast,wearinggay garmentsand going forth to picnics, thus widening the breach between them and their
Metawilehneighbors,whosegrief and mourningculminate
on this tenth day, the GoodFriday of their passionseason.
The

manner

of the commemoration

varies in different

lands. In Persiaand India it takesthe form of a passion


play, following for ten days,with two performancesa day,
the eventsof the tragic.history that terminatedat Kerbela
with the martyrdomof Hosein. For ten days in everyPersian town the streetsare filled with mourners,groaning,
weeping,castingdust on their heads,wourulingthemselves
with knives,calling out: "O Hasan! O Hosein!" as they
hasten to the theatres.

Some of these are enclosures

in the

court-yardsof palaces
ormosques,
with a brick platformin the
centrefor a stage. Many areattachedto privatehousesby
their rich owners,who expendenormoussumson the lamps
and decorations. The stagepropertiesare of the simplest
-a tank sufficing to representthe Euphrates-but the
"tabflt," a model of the tornbs of the martyrs, is sometimes

very costly. Thesetabfttsareerectednot only on the stage


of the theatresbut all over the city. Around the stagesit
or squatthe populace,sometimesto the number of twenty
thousand,while the noblesoccupyboxesat the sides. As
the play advancesthe demonstrations
of grief becomeacute,
the audienceno longer seesthe mere representationof a
tragedy--this is the tragedy itself! The soldiersof the
usurperYezid are driven from the stageby stonesthrown
by the infuriatedpeople! Even the actorssharein the illusion: it is said that the head,of the man impersonating
Hoseinwas onceactually cut off in the frenzyof the actor-

THE

SHFAH

SECT

299

murderer! In Bombay,afterthelastperformanceof thetenth


day, the tabflts, or tomb-models, are carried In hundreds of

processions,
from the theatresand other placesto the sea*
wheresometimestheyare left to be the sport of the waves.1
The 'Ashura commemorationof the Syrian Metawileh
is but a shadowof the Persian play. I am told that the
local religioussheikhsforbid as sacrilege,or dishonorto the
family of the prophet,eventhe publication of the history of
the houseof 'Ali in the form of a drama merelyfor private
reading,any dramatic representationbeing consideredout
of the question. The readingof this history in undramatic
form is, however,a sacredduty and privilege,pursuedin all
Metawali communitiesthree timesa day for the ten days.2
As the village mosquesare small,the readings,usually conducted by a sayyid,or allegeddescendantof tfAli, may be
given at the houseof somecomparativelywell-to-doman,
who acts as host, furnishing tea or coffee or cakes "for the

sakeof Hosein." Loavesare alsogiven away to commemorate by name 'All's fellow-martyr arid brother *Abbas.
The tenth day is kept with culminating solemnities. All
shops are closed; all labor suspended. Shaving the head
or face, wearing fine clothes, taking walks-these, with any-

thing elsethat maygive comfort or pleasure,are forbidden.


The morning reading is lengthened out from sunrise to noon.
Sighsand groans, beatings of the breast, cries of" Ya Hasan!
Ya Hosein1" increase in intensity. For while the Syrian
form of recalling the woes of the house of 'AH may be but a

shadowof the Persianpassionplay, yet it stimulates the


sameemotions. A placeis appointedto which is brought
food cookedin everyhouse" for the sakeof Hosein/* that the
poor may not be forgottenin the commemoration.
Though the points of likenessbetweenthe Sunnis and
Shi'ahs greatly outnumber their points of difference,the
latter are extremelyncute,centringchieflyin the questionof
the caliphateor iinamatc,as the Shi'uhsprefer to designate
1 In India the Sunnis have similar processions on the same day, some-

times joining with the Shi'ahH. Occasionallythe Hindus accompany


the MosloniH in a procession of their own.
3 Such reading**,common in Persia at any time of the year, may there

be substituted during the 'Ashura for a dramatic representation.

300

OTHER

FFATURES

OP ISLAM

the succession after Mohammed.

The two lines or lists

agreein two namesonly,thoseof 'Ali andhis sonHasan.


Especially
do theShi'ahsrepudiatethe first threecaliphs:
Abu Bekr, 'Omar, and 'Othman. They believein a line of
twelve imams.,infallible in characterand teaching,begin-

ning with CAHandcarrieddownfromfatherto sonasfar


as theyoungchildof Hasan-el-*
Askari,Mohammed,
who
mysteriouslydisappeared
abouttheyear878A. D. According to one tradition the boy entereda cavein search,of his
father and was never seen to come out.

The Shi'ahs have

especialhonor for the sixth imam, Ja*afar-es-Sa/diq,


as the
sourceof the peculiar schoolof jurisprudenceaccordingto
which their conduct is regulated. They trace the irnamate

throughhis secondson,Mfl'sa-el-Qu'sim,whereasthe Isrna'iliyeh, followedby the Druses,hold to a succession


through
the son of Ja'afar's eldest son Ismail The Nuscirfyeh
follow the mainbodyof Shi'ahsin this matter. All Moslems
look forwardto the corningof the Muh'cli, the directedone,
who will set all things right. The Shi'ahs,however,hold
that lie hasalreadyappearedoncein the personof Mohammed Ibn Hasan, their twelfth imam, who was lost in the

cave. In regard to their belief in the remanifestation of


the Mahdi, Dr. Wortabet obtained this account from hooks

coming to him from a great Metawali leader, the Sayyid


MohammedAmln-el-Hoseiriy,of the line of the prophet:
"At the appointedtime he (the twelfthimam) will manifest
himself to men, and will then he known by the name of
Guide (El-Muhdy), and with Jesus,the sonof Mary, will
fill the whole world with the knowledge of God, , . . This

settime is fastapproaching. All this is a part of the settled


faith of the Metawileh.

Some of their learned men believe

also that after the appearanceof the Muhdy he will in due


timedie, and be succeeded
by hisown father,or predecessor
in theoffice,who"will be raisedfrom death for this purpose;
and a retrograderesurrectionand successionwill go on,
until the twelveimams shall haverisenand completedthe
regenerationof the world.

After this will come the end, the

judgment, and eternity/' * In the meantime,so hold the


1"Religion in the East," p. 274. Dr. Wortabet's chapter on tho
"Metawileh"

is full

of first-hand

information.

THE

SHI'AH

SECT

301

Metawileh, this twelfth imam is existing in the world disguisedand unknown. .He is supposedto be presentoften
at Mecca during the Hajj ceremonies.Many storiesare
told to-day of his succoringof peoplein dangeror distress.
Once a man on a journey was attacked by robbers,and
called on the imam for aid. To him then appeareda simple muleteer,or so, indeed,he seemed,till after delivering
the travellerfrom the robbers,and conductinghim to a safe
place, he vanishedfrom his sight. A pilgrim on the road
to Meccafell behindthe caravan,his camelbeingsick. In
vain he urged the beastalong,but the train disappearedin
the distance,leaving the man in danger, not knowing the
route and fearful for the dangersof solitary travel. Suddenly thereappeareda man on a white horse,lifted the pilgrim to a placebehind,him, borehim swiftly towardMecca,
droppedhim gentlyto the earth,andwhenthe man lookedup
therewasno horsenor rider. His guidehad beenthe imam.
The Sunnisand Shi'ahsdiffer from each other not only
in their belief as to the personnelof the true successors
of
Mohammedbut in their theoryas to the natureof the office.
With the Sunnis the caliphateis chiefly a temporaloffice,
with the Shi'ahs the imamate is valued mainly on its religious

side. The imamsa.repractically regarded,as supernatural


beings whose commands come with divine authority.

To

them are known the secretsof God; by them is the way of


access to him.

Thus

in each imam

the Metawileh

see the

high-priest, the preacher,the expounderof faith, and the


guidein all spiritual matters.1 For all the allegeddescendants of 'AH, the first imam, the Metawileh have a great

respect,enhancedby the fact that they are also descendants of the prophet. In BaJacFBesha'ra-the mountainous
region east of southernPIxxMiicia-are found to-day, in a
stateof poverty,two branchesof this "royal family," called
respectivelyHiisiint'yeh and Hoseint'yeh,who wear the
greenturban, the budgeof the prophet'sfamily. To support thesesayyids,or lords, as they arecalled,by charityknown as sadaqah-is a duty incumbenton all Metawileh,
though they are in generalpoor themselves. Most of the
* CompareWortabet'a " Religion In the East," p. 273.

302

OTHER

FEATURES

OF

ISLAM

sadaqahgoesto thosesayyidswho, after completingtheir


theologicalstudiesin Irak (Mesopotamia),return as 'ulama,
to be consultedon mattersof law and religion, to draw up
marriagecontracts,and to perform other "clerical" duties,
If wemay socall them. Collectionsin moneyand kind are
made everyyear for the acknowledgedsayyld of the district. Other descendants
of the "royal house/5numbering
severalhundreds, are obliged to supplement their small share

of the doleby work which Is donefor other peopleusually,


as they seldom are landowners. They collect their own
dole by a house-to-housevisitation, proving their claims to

descentfrom the houseof fAli by a certificatecountersigned


by the seals of well-known sayyids. Both classes,learned

and unlearned,are said to be distinguishedby a meticulous


observance
of all the ordinancesof their religion. Sayyids
are extremelycommonin Persia.
From the fact that the Shi'ahsreject the corpusof Sunni
traditions, including those preservedby the first three
caliphs, whom they repudiate,it Is often hastily assumed
that they deny all tradition. On the contrary,they havea
corpus of their own, including many sayingsof 'AH and
the other imams. In Syria this is Interpretedfor them by
an especialmufti appointedby the Turkish Government.
The differencesbetweenSunnl and Shi'ah practicesare
mainly confined to details of ritual.

There is somevariation

in the ceremonyof ablution before prayer. For example,


the Sunnl lets the water run from

the hand down the arm to

the elbow; the Metawali reversesthe processso that the


water runs from the elbow to the hand. Before praying
he shouldremovefrom his personanythingof gold, suchas
rings or a watch. He should always carry with him a
"sejdi," or praying pebble,a cake of baked clay, madeof
earth from Mecca or Medinah or Kerbela, or some other

notable place of visitation. This is to be placed on the


ground beforehim so that his foreheadmay touchit in the
due courseof prostration. In caseit is lost or unavailable,
he may substituteas a remindera round stoneor a bit of
greenpaperor leavesfrom anyplant that doesnot bearfruit.
A sejdi that I havehandledis octagonalin shape,measur-

THE

SHI'AH

SECT

303

ing oneinch and three-quarters


across. Within an orna-

mental borderare stampedin Arabic the namesGod, Mohammed,'Ali, Hasan,Hosein. It is said that a Metawali
fears to break an oath made on this sedji. In the ritual of

theprayeritselfthereareminordifferences
betweenthetwo

sectsas well as in the number of prostrations required at


varioustimes. Again, the Metawileh do not follow the distinctionsmadeby the Sunnisbetweenan obligatory (fardli)

prostration,or oneexpressly
commanded,
and a voluntary
(sunnah)prostration,or onemadein accordancewith the
practiceof the prophet,but they appearto recognizethe
formeronly,as their formof declarationtestifies. For the
sakeof convenience
they maycombinethe noon prayer with
the afternoonworshipand the sunsetprayer with the evening, practicesnot usuallyallowedby the Sunnis. No especial
prominenceseemsto be given to the Friday noon service,
which

need not even have a sermon.

At times

the women

prayin theopenair. Dr. Thomson,whonevernoticedthis

customamong the Sunnis,sawa group of Metawali women


go through the regularablutionsand prayersnear the fountain of Jeba'a-el-Halawyin the .southernLebanon. Another visitor at this place states that this custom holds on
certaindays only, when thewomenhave the exclusive right
to pray near a holy place. Unlike the Sunnis, who, when
prayingin a group,follow an imam or leader,the Metawileh
alwayspray singly, unlessthey can be led by a mujta'hid,
or sort of a doctor of divinity, who has studied in the theological institution at Irak. Though the Shi'ahs have mosques

of their own, theyhavethe right at any time to worship with


the Sunnis. In fact, they claimedthe right to contribute to
the rebuildingof the great mosqueof Damascus, after the
fire of 1892,taking up a considerablecollection. This offering the Sunniguardiansabsolutelyrefused. But the Shi'ahs
bided their time. When the restorationwas complete and
the scaffoldingwith otherddbris of reconstructionremoved,
theysuddenlyswarmedinto theimmensecourt-yard, an irresistible army of hundreds,with pails and brooms and hose,
and madethe holy housesweetand clean, a moot place for

prayer; contributingin militantlabor what theywere kept

304

OTHER

FEATURES

OF

ISLAM

from giving in money. With the Metawileh,pilgrimageby


proxy5for the living as well as for the dead,appearsto be
morecommonthan it is with the Sunnis. A man may assigna certainsum by will, to be paid to the proxy making
the pilgrimageafter his death. If made for a living person,the latter shouldpaythe expense
of the journey. Visitations to the tombs of 'Ali and Hosein, at Kufa and Kerbela

respectively,are meritorious,but are called,technically,ziaras, though they are sometimespopularly referred to under
the name of-hajj.

In addition to the normal union the Shi'ahsrecognizetwo


forms of marriage held to be illegal by the Orthodox:
muf'ah, or temporary marriage, and tahrim', or nominal

marriage.1 The formeris calledthecurseof modernPersia.


Among the Metawileh arrangementsfor such a union are
made verbally between the man and woman, usually a
widow, with stipulationscovering the length or period-a
day, a week, a year, as the case may be, and also the
amountof "dowry" to be paid by the man, strictly in advance. Within the stipulatedperiod divorce is forbidden,
but at its termination each party is perfectly free. Such
unionsare common,evenamong religioussheikhsbringing
no technical disgrace to either party, but men of social
standing following the practice would prefer to keep the
matter quiet, while a lady of goodfamily would nevercontract suchan alliance. The tahrim, or nominal marriage,
is a legal fiction, merely an ingeniouspretext for avoiding
the practical inconveniencearising from the seclusionof
women. It is a marriage without consummation, for the

contractgivesthe man the right simply to seethe woman.


Such an arrangementpermits a woman to facilitate the
transactionof businessby "marrying" her agent. But the
1Wortabet paraphrases "mut'ah"
as "marriage of privilege."
Hughcs's "Dictionary of Islam}) points out that temporary marriages
had been permitted by the prophet, but that the Sunnis declare he
afterward prohibited a mut'ah marriage at Khaibar. The Shi'ahs justify
their practice also by an interpretation of surah IV, 28. If the woman
becomes pregnant (which may be lawfully guarded against), the child
is the temporary husband's; but if he should deny the child; the denial
is sustained by the law.

THE

SHTAH

SECT

: ,*

305

man also gains accessto his "wife's" immediate


relations,which may be the chief object desired. To *cite'a concreteexample: A widow wishing to have a proper
escort to Mecca may arrange a temporary marriage between

her daughterand sometrusted friend of her late husband's,


who is thus enabled to care for both ladies with the freedom

of a brother till the end of the pilgrimage,when the bond


is dissolved. It may be added that in regular marriage
divorcedoesnot depend,as with the Sunnls,on the caprice
of the husband,but upon a regularlegalprocess.
The exclusiveness
of the Metawileh is enhancedby their
own idea that ceremonialuncleannessis producedby contact, even at second hand, not only with members of other

religions,but evenwith the Stinni Moslems,though fear of


the powerof the latter leadsto a relaxationof the principle
in Syria.. They will not eat the meat of animalskilled by
aliens,drink of water from their vessels,nor permit them to
bake bread in ovensusedby themselves. If compelledto
eat with others,they will not usethe samesideof the plate,
and, after the meal, must wash away the defilement by
pouring water over the mouth. If a Metawali sell leben
(sour milk) to a Christian, he must pour it himself into a
vesselbroughtby the latter, for, should the buyer touch the
shopvesselor dip his finger into the leben,the defiledliquid
mustall be pouredaway. The Metawilehwill not touch,a
strangerwhoseclothesarewet, nor permit him to entertheir
houses,if theycanhelp it. Onetravellingamongthem will
find it hard to get a drink of waterunlesshe providehis own
cup. An especiallypolite or kind-heartedhost maj concedethe useof his own cup to a thirsty Christian, but on
the departureof the guestthe cup must be broken. It may
be emphasizedthat this insistenceon cleannessis strictly
ceremonial. In the Metawileh villages of the interior actual

cleanlinessis sadlywanting. Never shall I forget the night


spentby my fatherand myselfon the filthy floor of a khan, or
stableof a squalidvillage in Naphtali, whereshadowycats,
lean and grim, prowledaround the saddle-bagsthat served
us for pillows, nor the surpriseI felt at two in the morning,
when my father returned from a raid on the reluctant

306

OTHER

FEATURES

OF

ISLAM

hospitalityof the town, bearingsomemilk which an ancient


damehad beenpersuadedto draw from a ghastlycow into
our own vessel.

Notwithstanding their exclusiveness,the Metawileh follow

the doctrine of taqfyah, or "guarding oneself/7heldby all


Shi'ahs. This is definedin the"Dictionary of Islam" as"a
pious fraud by which the Shl'ah Moslem believeshe is
justified in either smoothingdown or in denying the peculiarities of his religious belief, in order to save himself

from religiouspersecution." A Shi'ah can, therefore,pass


himselfof! as a Sunnito escapepersecution. Suchconformity, or "bowing in the houseof Rimmon," is illustratedat
public funerals, where the talqfn, or addressto the deceased,is given in conformity to Sunni usage,though in
private funeralsthe Metawileh omit it at the grave,having
breathed it into the ears of the dying man. The secret re-

ligions of Syria, all of which are offshootsfrom the Shi'ahs,


exhibit some startling corollaries to this doctrine.

Though the cults of the Druses,the Nuseirfyeh,and the


Isma'iltyehrepresentthe lastingeffectsof schismaticmovementsin Islam, alreadysketched/their presentvotariesdo
not hesitate

to call themselves

Moslems

when it is for their

safetyor convenience
so to do. Shelteredin their Lebanon
villages,or segregatedin the highlandsof the Hauran, the
Drusesopenlyavow their independence
as a sect. But individual Druses,settledin Moslem cities,conformto many
of the practicesof Islam. This they may do with a quiet
conscience,following the developmentof the doctrine of
taqlyah taught by their religion. They are explicitly told
that in privatetheymaycurseMohammedas" bastard, ape,
and devil/' while in public they may call him the prophet
of God! A similar tendencyis found among the Nuseirfyeh and the Isma'iliyeh. A young emigrantwith whomI
chattedon a West-boundsteamersolemnlymaintainedthat
he was a Moslem until my friendly cross-questioning
convincedhim that I had guessedhim to belongto the Nuseirfyeh. He then quite frankly acknowledgedhis faith,
1See p. 17,

THE

SECT

307

ThoseXsma'iilyefa
in Syria who openlyadmit their belief are
estimatedat sometwenty thousandby a native official intimate with them,but he holds that theseform only a tenth
of the wholenumber,as the majority arehiddenin the cities
of Syria underthe generalnameof Moslems,openlydenying
the faith which theysecretlypractice. The Isma'Iliyetisend
a yearly tribute to one Sultan MohammedShah,known as
the Agha Khan in Bombay, where his father was exiled,
for political reasons,from Persia. This remarkable personage,who is well read In many modern languagesand
has the appearanceof a polishedman of the world, claims
lineal descent from the Old Man of the Mountain, Lord

of the Assassins. The Isma'ilfyeh cherish his picture in


their houses,believinghim to be an incarnationof theDeity.
His enormous wealth is mainly derived from this tribute,

much of which is sent by the Isma'ilfyeh of East Africa:


And yet he is countedas a prominentfigure in Islam, with
great influenceover the Shi'ah Mohammedansof India!
Theologically,thesethree secretcults of Syriaarederived
from the sameroot, namely,the teachingsof an extremesect
of the early Isma'iltyeh calledthe Batinis or Esoterics. Initiation, thus, plays an important factor in all threecults.
With the Druses,the Initiates,or 'oqqfil' (that is, the wise),
include both men and women, but the non-initiates, or

jahhaF (that is, the foolish or simple), form the majority of


the Druse population. The Initiated are divided into two
classes. Membersof the higher classare characterizedby
extreme dignity and exaggerateddecorum of speech. As has

beenstated,the Drusesspeak of themselvesas Unitarians


unlesstheyare forcedto usethe commondesignationfor the
sake of convenience.

The

services of the Initiated

are held

on Thursdayeveningsin the khul'wehs,which are usually


situatedon somelonelyhill-top, or in the meeting-house
in
the village. The meetingsare supposedto havea strongly
political flavor. Formal prayer Is said to form no part of
the service,which includes expositionof the secretbooks,
composedmainly by Hamzeh,the Batini missionary,who
was the real founderof the sectin the tenth century. The
uninitiated participateIn no religiousservicenor practices,

308'

OTHER

FEATURES

OF ISLAM

saveat theannualfeastwhichcoincides
with thegreatfeast
of the Moslems. With the Nuseirfyeh,on the other hand^

thevast majorityof malesareinitiatedat theageof eighteen/ while women5who are supposedto be without souls,

are not admittedto any sharein the religiousmysteries.


In their prayersthe men go through prostrationssimilarto

thoseof the Moslems,but unlike thesetheypray only in


secret, at any rate not before members of other sects. At
the ceremony of initiation wine is used, as it is also at the

annual feastof the quddas',which is the ordinaryword for


the Christianmass. Whetherthe Nuseirfyehborrowedthis
use of wine from Christian

sources or whether it is the

survival of older heathenpracticesis not clear. Someinfluence of Christianity is indicated by the observance of

Christmas. At the feastof the quddasa bowl of wine,the


symbolof light, is placedbeforethe imam, who,after a service of reading,presentsa cupful to eachinitiate present.
At the initiation of the Nuseirfyeh, the novice is threat-

ened with the meanestform of reincarnationif he betray


the secrets. The doctrine of the transmigrationof souls
is held both by the Drusesand by the Nuseirfyeh,but with
a difference. According to strict Druse doctrine, metem-

psychosisoperatesonly from one human body to another,


thoughsomeof the ignorantbelievein reincarnationin lower
forms.

The learned teach that all human souls were created

at once, and, as the number never changes,the death of one

personinvolvesthe birth of another. Characterdetermines


whether the soul shall pass to a higher or to a lower human

form. But with the Nuseirfyehthe presentlife determines


whether the next incarnation shall be in a higher human form

or in someanimal form. Both Drusesand Nuseirlyehseem


to be lesssecretabout this matter than they are regarding
their other beliefs. The Drusesrelate amusingstories,involving memoriesof former incarnations,as that of a small
boy who went to call on his formerwife, finding his children
grown up and inclined to be patronisingto their little papa.
A religioussheikh of the Nuseirfyehgavea full accountof
1According to Rev. S. Lyde, In "The Asian Mystery" (1860), aU
males are Initiated at eighteen.

SHI'AH

SECT

309

their belief in this matter to a native Protestant of northern

Syria for whom he had great respectand affection. All


soulswerecreatedfrom God's spirit, at the samemoment,
and placedin a variety of bodies,human and animal. All
werehappytill sin enteredthe world, though the spirits incarnated in human bodies were nobler. A man is judged

by his works. A persistentlygood soul is reincarnatedin


human forms seventy-twotimes, passingat last into the
body of a religioussheikh,after which it becomesa star in
heaven. The soul of a bad man passesinto a lower form,
determinedby the degreeof his wickedness-cat, donkey,
wolf, ant, louse, etc. No soul is eventually lost, for the

work of purification involvesthe final triumph of good, so


that at the end all created souls will become stars in heaven,

having previously passedthrough the body of a Nuseiry


sheikh. This salvation is to include membersof all religions. Christiansat first becomeswine; Jewsbecomeapes;
Moslems, donkeys and jackals.

But later thesesouls, being

purified, passinto the bodiesof goodNuseirlyeh,and so on


to heaven.
One of the chief

beliefs

of the Shi'ahs

is that the imams

are supernaturalbeingswhosecommandscomewith divine


authority. This doctrine preparedthe,way for the acceptance of the divinity of the caliph El-Hakim by the body
later called Druses. In El-Hakim they believeoccurred
the last of ten incarnations of the Deity, the secondof which
was in the time of Adam. They also hold that in the be-

ginning of things thereemanatedfrom the essenceof God


a spirit of pure light calledthe universalmind, who become
the medium of creation.1 Contemplatinghis own perfection, this spirit thereby committed sin.,hence,apart from
his own volition, there emanatedfrom himself a spirit of
1 The Druse secret books, which first came to light over two hundred
years ago, have been independently studied by two authorities, De Sacy
and Dr. John Wortabet. The learned work of De Sacy, "Expose* de
la Religion des Druses" (1838), is well known. In this brief account
we follow the exposition of Wortabet, who was not only a conscientious scholar but whose knowledge of Arabic was practically that of a

native. (Seethe chapteronthe " Druses" in his " Religionin the East,")

310

OTHER

FEATURES

OF ISLAM

puredarkness
calledtheantagonist.Fromthesetwospir
its God then derived a third, partaking of the nature of

eachand calledthe universalsoul. By similarprocesses


wereevolvedfourotherspirits,orministers,
makinga total
of seven: five being ministers of truth and two, ministers of

error. All thesespiritshavebeenoften incarnated. When


the universalmind,or chief spirit of good,wasincarnatedin

Lazarus(knownas the True Christ),the antagonist,or


chief minister of error, was incarnated in Jesus, who re-

ceivedinstructionfromtheTrueChrist. Whentheantagonist became Mohammed,

the universal mind was Selman'-

el-Pha'risy.At thetimeof theincarnationof theDeityin

El-Hakiin, the universal mind was Hauazeh,the real founder


of the Druses.

With the Nuseiriyehbelief in sevenincarnationsof the


Deity is held to be fundamental That of 'Ali, however,
transcendsall the rest in importance. For all subdivisions

of this bodythe son-in-lawof Mohammedis practically


God. Each incarnationof the Deity, who is primarily regarded as the essenceof light, is accompaniedby the incarnationof two other elements,the threeforminga sort of
triad, themembersof which arecalledthemeaning(ma'ana),
the name(ism), and the door (bah). Thus when God was
incarnated as the meaning in Abel, Adam was the name

and Gabriel was the door. Jesuswas only the name


at the time that Sima'an-es-Sufa(Simon-Peter)was the
meaning. When 'Ali was the meaning,Mohammedwas
the nameand Selman-el-Pharisy
was the door. *AIi is held
to have created Mohammed,

his father-in-law!

It seems

inconceivablethat from the pure monotheismof Islam such


wild doctrinecouldhavedeveloped. The followersof 'AH,
however,havealwaysbeencharacterizedby mindshospitable to new ideas, or rather to the old ideas of other cults, in-

cludingPersianDualismand ChristianGnosticism.1
1The most recent work on the Nuseiriyeh is by M. Ren Dussaud,

entitled "Histoire et Religion dcs Nosairis," being vol. CXXIX in the


"Bibliothcque do 1'eeoledes Hautes Etudes" (Paris, 1900). "The
Asian Mystery," by Rev. SamuelLyde (London, I860), containsmaterial of great value.

THE

SHI'AH

SECT

311

The doctrineof Incarnationas held by the Drusesand by


the Nuseirfyehis nowlargelya matter of theory. With the
Isma'illyeh of Syria,however,the doctrine takesa present
practical form. Not only is God supposedto dwell in the
sultan MohammedShahin Bombay,but he is also held to
be tabernacledin a virgin, living on the edgeof the Syrian
desert,at Selem'yeh?
which with Masyad' and Qadmfis7,in
the mountainsto the west,constitutesthe head-quartersof
the sect. This girl is called the ro'dhah, which may be
translateda greenswardor pleasaunce. As long as sheremains a virgin sheis regardedas sacred,and the Isma'ilians wear bits of her clothing or hair from her person in
their turbans. But should she marry-and shemay do so
honorably-search is made for a successor,
who must be a
girl born on a certainday in the year,1and who should conform to certain characteristics regarding her height and the

color of her hair and eyes. At leasttwo personshave surprised the Isma'illyeh at a serviceof adoration of the ro'dhah. One, a governmentofficial, who broke in forcibly,
found thegirl seatedon a high chairdressedin a white robe,
with a wreathof fresh flowerson her head. The worshippers werekneelingbefore her chanting sacredsongs. According to the testimony of the other witness,a simple
Syrian Christian, whom I questionedsometen yearsafter
his adventure, his observations were confined to the brief

period betweenhis accidental stumbling into a secretassemblyand his rough ejection by one of the worshippers,
who told him that any one elsewould havebeen promptly
butchered! He happenedto be on friendly terms with the
prominentsheikhs. He remembersseeinga circle of some
twenty or thirty initiates, seated on the floor, in an attitude

of adorationof a girl of about sixteenyears of age dressed


in a black robe that entirely coveredher person,with her
hair hanging down on either side of her face which was
left exposed. Someone held a book, but he was not sure
whetherit was the girl or her father, a prominent religious
1Miss Gertrude Lowthian Bell was informed that every female child
(of the Isma'iltyeh) born on Rajab 27th is an incarnation of the Deity.
(See "The Desert and the Sown," p. 233, London, 1907.)

312

OTHER

FEATURES

OF

ISLAM

sheikh. In Fact,the witnesswas evidentlyconscientious


in
discriminating betweenwhat he rememberedclearly and
what he was hazy about. This girl has since been married

and her place taken by another.


The cult of the rodhahappearsto be an ancient form of
nature-worshipretained when the local inhabitants acceptedthe strangeideasof the Isma'ilfyeh. In the resultant synthesisboth setsof ideasmayhaveundergonealteration. In its presentform this nature-worshipappearsto
be symbolicrather than sensual. There is evidencethat
woman is venerated as the symbol of the earth-mother.
From their earliest days followers of all the secret cults have

beenaccusedof indiscriminateimmorality and wild orgies.


No such accusationhas been proved against any one of these

religionsas a whole. Dr. Post, indeed,has testifiedthat


chastityis the crowningvirtue of the Druses. It is well to
insiststronglyon thispoint in closingthe.sebrief paragraphs,
which are all that we havebeenableat the presenttime to
devote to the secret cults.

VII

THE

INFLUENCE

OF THE

WEST

THIS chapterdealsmainly with missionwork. In other


words, it takes account of certain concrete forms of Western

Influencedeliberatelyexertedwith the aim of affecting one


or more of the religious cults of Syria and Palestine. But

theseparticular forms of influenceare but parts of a great,


indefinable,indescribablestreamof tendencywhosepotency
inheres in its very unconsciousness. It comes,indeed, from

the West,but its name is the spirit of the times. In the


Holy Land it had begun to makeitself felt eightyyearsago
when American

missionaries

first landed

at Jaffa.

Fostered

by Christian missions, in turn it helped their progress.


It breathed in every school. It grew with the establishment
of foreign mercantile houses, British, French, or Italian.

Later it flashedalong the new telegraphwires and whirred


in the newprinting-presses. It was fanned into a brighter
flameby the massacres
of 1860,which resultedin the short
Frenchoccupationby the soldiersof NapoleonIII. It .was
freshly manifesteda quarter of a century later, when Lebanon peasantsarid other Syrianswho, like their Phoenician
ancestors of old, had ventured across the seas,first began

to bring home the ideasof other lands. How powerfully it


has worked during the last third of a century can be accu-

rately gaugedby comparing the attitude of the common


peoplewhen a constitution was promulgatedIn 1877 with
their attitudewhen preciselythe sameconstitutionwas proclaimedin 1908. At the earlier period the people,ignorant
and apathetic, were as little affected by the granting of
rights as they were the next year by their withdrawal.

When,thirty yearslater, *Abd-eI~HamId


was forced by the
Young Turks to declareoncemore for constitutional rule,
313

314

THE

INFLUENCE

OF THE

WEST

the wholeempirewent mad with joy. Whena few months


later thereappeareda chancethat this would againbecome
null, a deep gloom fell on the land. To a certain extent
this changecanbe accountedfor by definiteinfluences. It
is easy to point out that the leadersof the Young Turks
learnedtheir political lessonsIn Paris,Vienna,and Geneva.
It Is now well knownthat the liberal ideasspreadthrougha
mysterioussecretpropaganda,the extentof whoseramification was unsuspected before the revolution itself.

It Is

quite legitimateto find an Important factor of this preparednessof the commonpeople in the spreadof schoolsof
all kinds through the empire. The paramount influence
of the Americanmission schools,whereprinciplesof true
liberty were not only taught but Incarnated, cannot be
overestimated. But greater than any one of theseInfluences

and greaterthan the combinationof them all that could be


namedIs the spirit of the times. All the Orient Is feeling
its touch. China has just awakened to it.

It has recreated

Japan; in time it is bound to recreateTurkey.


Our presentthesis,however,is concernedwith the concrete. First, then,what impressionhaveChristianmissions
made on Islam in Syria and Palestine? The answer must
be: No direct influence, except on a very few individuals

convertedat different times and placesand having no coherenceamong themselves. Direct work on a large scale,
conductedopenly amongMoslemsin Turkey, haseverbeen
Impossible. Turkey is a Mohammedanstate. Its sultan
claimsto be the successor
of theprophetof Islam. According to strict Moslemlaw apostasyfrom Islam Involvesdeath.
The extremepenaltyis said to be still Imposedby the emirs
of certain semi-independentdistricts of Arabia. Lord
Cromeronceaskeda qadhi,or judge,in Egypt why thedeath
penaltywasno longercarriedout. The qadhideclaredthat
the law was Immutable. As a religiousauthority he would
sentencean apostateto execution. If the secularauthorities would not carry his sentenceinto effect, he was not
responsible. The Imperial proclamation,called the hatti
shertf of Gulhan^,issuedat Constantinoplein 1839,promised to make no distinctions of race and religion In the treat-

THE

INFLUENCE

OF THE

WEST

315

mentof subjectsof the Turkish Empire. In 1844,under


pressurefrom the powers, the sultan 'Abd-el-Medjtd gave
this written pledge: "The SublimePorte engagesto take
effectualmeasuresto preventhenceforwardthe persecution
and putting to death of a Christian who is an apostate."*
Though the implication was that apostasyfrom Islam was
indicated, the characteristic ambiguity of this pronouncement, doubtless intentional, gave no clear guarantees of

immunity to Moslemswho proposedto changetheir faith.


The hatti Houmayftn of 1853,however,appearsto have
satisfied the Western world that no one was to be molested

or punished,no matter what form of faith he might deny.


Moslemsin Turkey evidently took that view. Many began
to study the Scriptures,sold by a convertedTurkish, colporteur. A Turkish gentlemanwho with his wife had become a Christian received official assurance that the sultan

intendedthat all his subjectsshouldenjoy perfect religious


freedom. Moslemsopenly acknowledgedtheir interest in
Christiandoctrine. A few of them attendeda daily prayer
meetingof the missionaries. Up to the year 1860forty had
been baptized. This state of things was not confined to
the capital. Turks who had 'been baptized in different
centres of the interior

lived on in their own towns undis-

turbed. In his preface to "his "Religion in the East/7


dated I860, Dr. Wortabet, an Armenian Protestant res-

ident in Syria, and a member of the American mission,


wrote

as if a new era had indeed

set in.

But in 1864 the

reactionbegan. It is the habit of Turkish rulers to let tendencieswork uncontrolledup to a certainpoint and then to
actsuddenly. 'Abd-el-Mejldsetspiesto watch the missionaries as well as Mohammedans

who

leaned

toward

their

teaching. A scoreof Turks werearrestedon comingout of


churchand thrown into prisonon sometrumped-upcharge.
It is always easy to get two Moslem witnessesto testify
that a Christianhascursedthe religion of the prophet. But
1This declarationis quoted by Dr. J. L. Barton, secretaryof the
American Board (A. B. d F. M.) in his authoritative

volume, "Day-

break in Turkey" (Boston, 1908). On this generalsubject we have


followedhim closely. (Seepp. 248ff> of his work.)

316

THE

INFLUENCE

OF THE

WEST

the chargemight havenothingto do with religion. The


aim wasto gettheconvertsquietlyout of theway. Some
wereexiled; others nevercameout of prison. The assur-

ancesgivento Europepreventeddirectandopenpersecution, but none the less a Moslem who became a Christian

wasobligedtofleethecountry. Officiallythedeathpenalty

was neverpronounced,actually a convertedMoslemstood


in fear of his life. There are many forms of "sudden
death75in Turkey.

Moreover, the convert had to reckon

with unofficialfanaticism,perhapsexhibitedby his own kith

and kin, whoin their ownviewhad beenirretrievably


dis-

graced. Dr. Barton concludesthat in spiteof its reiterated


declarationsof religious liberty the Turkish government
never intendedto permit the right of Moslemsto become
Christians. He reports a conversationwith a prominent
Turkish official, who, after stating that there was full and

complete religious liberty for all subjects of the empire,


declaredthat no power on earth could changea man who
once had becomea Moslem. "Whatever he can say or
claim cannot alter the Fact that he is a Moslem still, and

must alwaysbe such. It is thereforean absurdity to say


that a Moslemmaychangehis religion,for to do sois beyond
his power:35This man voiceda generalMoslem opinion
which has persisted unaltered since the recent Turkish
revolution,if indeed it has not been accentuatedthereby.
The youngTurk leaders,manyof whomhold liberalor even
agnosticreligiousviews,believeto a man in a Mohammedan
Turkey as a Fundamental
article of political creed. Justice
to all racesand faiths theyare glad to grant; participation
in the government is conceded; but the final control is to
rest with the Turks, and the Turks are Mohammedans.

Such being the state of things in the Turkish Empire,


it is no wonderthat direct religiouswork among the Mohammedansof Syria and Palestinehas not beenattempted
on any large scale. No societythat madeostentatiousdisplay oFsucha work would be allowed to continueoperationsin theselands. Since1875work amongMoslemshas
beenconductedmore extensivelyand systematicallyby the

ChurchMissionarySocietyof theChurchof Englandthan

THE

INFLUENCE

OF

THE

317

by any othersocietyworkingin the nearEast. The medical


work at Gaza,Nabliis, and otherprovincialcentreshasbeen
very encouraging,as indeedsuch work always is by whatever agencyit is conducted,but the attempt to follow up
impressionsmade on patients by sending catechiststo the
villages,wherethey have returnedafter recovery,has been
Lacknowledgedby a prominent worker of the Church Missionary Societyto be unsuccessful.1
The history of American missions tells a similar tale.
Turning over the fascinating pages of Dr. II. H. Jessup's

"Fifty-three Yearsin Syria," one readsfrom time to time


of a Moslem convert; but in almost every case,a little later
on, one reads how the new convert was obliged to leave the

country. Such impressionas Protestant Christianity has


made on the Moslems has been through the dissemination of
the Bible, the extent of which it is difficult to gauge; through

the schoolswhere Moslem children attend; through the


colleges;and through admiration for the characterof the
missionaries themselves. Powerful, indeed, is this lastnamed form of influence, for these missionaries come into

contact with all sorts and conditions of men, including


religiousleadersamong the Moslems. Friendly relations
onceestablished-and with courtesy,tact, and patiencethe
task is easy-intercourse becomes wonderfully frank.
the first

time Puritan

Islam

comes in contact

with

For

Puritan

Christianity. The 'ulama, or doctorsof the Moslem law,


begin to realize that elaborate forms and ceremonies,
adoration before pictures and images, which to them means

nothingbut idolatry, the burning of incenseand the mystery


that enshroudsthe Greekserviceof the mass,the assumptions of all the clergy and the pomp of the prelates,are no
essentialpart of the practiceof the Christian faith. Pious
and upright men they have known among followersof the
Easternchurchesand amongRoman Catholicmissionaries,
but among the Protestantsthey find a lofty morality im~
1See extract from a report made In 1905 by the Rev. T. F. Welters,
for thirty years a missionary in Palestine, quoted by Dr. Julius Hichter

in his "History of Protestant Missions in the Near East/' p. 254;


English translation.

318

THE

INFLUENCE

OF THE

WEST

hampered
by elements
that appearto themto be not only

uselessbut pernicious. Such men as Bishop Gobat, of


Jerusalem;Dr. Crawford, of Damascus;Drs. Thomson,
Van Dyck, and Jessup,of Beyrout; Mr. Calhounand Mr.
Bird, of <Abeih; Mr. Gerald F. Dale, of Zahleh; Mr. Falls-

cheer,of Nablds-toname
onlya fewof those
whoaregone
-received the willing tribute of love, honor, and reverence
from Moslems, Druses, and Christians.

The death of such

men comesas a public calamity. When Mr. Fallscheer


passedaway in one of the fanaticalcentresof PalestineNablus, the ancient Shechem-Mohammedans
joined with
Christiansin pleadingfor the right to carry his coffin from
the church to the grave. " Our father is dead/5 theysaid,
"and we are orphans.33
*
The progressof missionaryeffort amongthe Druseshas
been hamperedby their very readinessto accept Christianity, following the operationof a fundamentaldoctrine
inherited from the Isma'iliyeh, which permits them to declare themselves to be of any faith that suits their conven-

ience. "Other religionsare cloaks/' so says the old doctrine.

"The esoteric religion is the real man. God knows

your heart, so put on the cloak of any religion that suits


your purpose/3 It is next to impossibleto get a native
Christian to acknowledgethe possibilityof the actual conversionof anyDruse. While the sincerityof individualconversionshas been tested in the judgment of English and
Americanmissionaries,there is no doubt that the general
conductof the Drusesgivessupport to the cynicalattitude
of the Syrians. Beforetheir conquestby Ibrahim Pashain
1835,theDruseshad madesomepretenceof beingMoslems,
lest they be confoundedwith the Christianswho suffered
oppression. When the conqueror, however, proposedto
draft thesesplendidsonsof the Lebanonmountainsinto his
army, theydeterminedto seekimmunity by declaringthemselves to be Protestants. Almost every day for several

yearsthe Americanmissionarieswerepesteredwith deputations from this or that village, beggingfor preachers,for


schools,for catechists. Naturally theAmericansproceeded
1 Quoted in Richter's work (op, c&), pp. 233, 234.

INFLUENCE

OF

WEST

319

with caution, but a few schoolswereopenedand a certain


number of personswho went through a period of probation
were baptized. To this movementthe Turkish government put a stop,in 1842,,by sendingan army into the Druse
district and by forcibly exactinga promisefrom the sheikhs
that neither they nor their villageswould ever apostatize
from Islam. That the chief aim of the governmentwas to
checka definitemovementthat might further strengthenthe
influenceof the English in the Lebanon, rather than to
announcea religious principle, may be gathered from a
" fetwa," or decisionof the mufti of Beyrout,only five years
later, who pronouncedthe Drusesto be infidels and therefore not liable to death for apostasy from Islam!1
In this connection it may be noted that the wholesale

adoptionof anotherfaith by the peopleof a givenchurch is


a favorite form of threat to be held over their own clergy
when they want their own way. We have seenhow the
Beyrout Orthodox threatenedto becomeAnglicans when
their plans for securingthe bishop of their own choicewere
temporarily thwarted by the holy synod; and how the
Maronites declared they would invite the Mohammedans

to build a mosquein theheartof the patriarch'sown territory


if he continued to antagonize their wishes. I remember
the tone of perfect impartiality with which a lad from a town
north-east of Damascus told me, as we jogged along toward

Palmyra, how his fellow-villagershad announcedto their


priest that they would becometeitherProtestantsor Moslems" if he would not give in to them in some matter or

otherthat had provokeda big quarrel. For similar reasons


anyannouncement
of individual" conversion" to Protestantism in Syriahasto be carefullyinvestigated,as someulterior
motivehas often beenresponsiblefor an allegedchangeof
heart.

Mission work among the Nuseirlyehwas started in 1854


by an independentEnglish missionary,Rev. SamuelLyde,
who died in I860.

The work was carried on by the Ameri-

1Seea pamphletentitled "A Brief Chronicleof the Syrian Mission/'


edited by Brs. Lowrie and Jessup, and issued by the American Press
at Beyrout, 1901-

320

THE

INFLUENCE

OF THE

WEST

can ReformedPresbyterians,resultingin the establishment


of forty schoolsand in the baptism of a few individuals.
But the government,acting evenmore forcibly than it had
with the Druses, closed the schools, drafted the converts

into the army, and pronouncedthe entire people to be

Mohammedans.1
Thus the work amongthe Nuseiriyeh
was entirely checked.

In Palestineproper, there are at least eighty thousand


Jews at the presentday. In Syria there are somesixty

thousand.Takenasa wholethePalestinianJewshardly
concernour presentwork, for they form no organicpart of
the native inhabitants of Turkey. They use Arabic only
when they are forced to communicate with the natives;

theypreserveto a large extentthe mannersand customsof


the various Europeanghettosfrom which they come; and
probably the great majority of them are not Turkish subjects. Since 1490 Safed,indeed,has been without interruption the home of Jews; but with the exceptionof one
family or clan the Hebrew inhabitants speak no Arabic.
On theotherhand, theyhavepracticallyforcedtheir Moslem
neighborsto speak the languageof the Bible. How far
this use of biblical

Hebrew in Safed has been due to the

stimulus of Zionism I am not aware, but it is certain that

owing to this movementbiblical Hebrewhasgreatlyspread


in Palestine,being used evenin businesscorrespondence
betweenZionist banks. The presentlarge Jewish population in Jerusalemis largelyclueto the enforcedexodusfrom
Russiaand Roumaniaafter the fiercepersecutions
of 1882.
The Arabic-speakingJews,to the numberof somefivethousand,aremainlyfrom Yemen. Therearesometenthousand
Jews scatteredin about thirty-three agricultural colonies,
found almostliterally from Dan to Beersheba,but they live
practically isolatedfrom their Arab neighborseven when
they employ theseas workmen.
Mission work has been conductedamong the Hebrews
of Palestinesince1825by theLondonSocietyfor Promotion
of Christianity among the Jews. The centreof operations
is Christ Church in Jerusalem, built in 1849,when therewas
1See Eichter (op. cU.), p. 209.

THE

INFLUENCE

OF

THE

WEST

321

no otherProtestantchurchin the Holy Land proper. Since


1839 some four hundred adults have been baptized and
about three hundred infants, children of the former.

The

beautiful hospital of the societyhas stimulated the efforts


of Hebrews in the line of medical work for their own race.

The societymaintains schoolsfor boys and girls, a book


depot,and a houseof industry. Thereare stationsat Jaffa,
Damascus,and Safed. Tiberias was occupiedby the mission of the United Free Church of Scotland in 1884.

Over-

looking the Seaof Galileea well-equippedhospitalhasbeen


built.

At Hebron also this society carries on medical work,

and it has schools

in Safed.

Richter

states that

there are

only slightly morethan onehundredand fifty baptizedJews


now in the Holy Land, but adds: " Theseform, however,but
a smallproportionof the Jewsthat havebecomeProtestants,
for very manyhaveemigratedto escapepersecution."l
The Jewsfound in Aleppo, Damascus,and elsewherein
Syria are to all intents and purposesnativesof the land,
knowing no language but Arabic.

They all follow the

Sephardicrite. Among them missionwork has not made


much progress. A missionaryof the PresbyterianChurch
in England stationed at Aleppo declares that the fifteen
thousandor twentythousandJewsthereresidentare hardly
more than Hebrews in name, ignorant not only of their own

religioushistory,but of the Old Testament. They of course


attend the synagogue,and they scrupulouslyobservethe
Day of Atonement by the rabbinical custom of killing a
white cock for a man and a hen for a woman; but otherwise

theysharemany of the superstitionsof the nativeMoslems

arid Christians.

In view of these facts I was astonished to

learn from the sameauthority that every Jew in Aleppo,


unlesshe is too poor, pays his yearly shekel toward the
maintenanceof Zionism. This is all the moreextraordinary
in view of the attitude of the averageJerusalemJew toward
this movement. While therearea scoreof prominentZionists in the Holy Land, it maybe confidentlystatedthat Zionism means more in Vienna and Paris, in London and New

York, than it does in Palestine. To the pious Orthodox


1 Richter (op. ct'O, p. 256.

322

THE

INFLUENCE

OF THE

WEST

Jewsof Jerusalem,
politicalZionismis folly, if it is not

blasphemy. God, they hold, is to bring back the Jewsin


His own time and way without human plan or assistance.

To thethousands
of Jewswhoearntheirdailylivingin the
holycity, Zionismhasno significance
onewayor theother.

The Rev. J. E. Hanauer,missionaryof the LondonJews5


Societyin Damascus,statesthat it may be assumedtheJews

havelivedtherecontinuously
from the timeof the Caliph
"Omar. Before that period they were excluded. Even
later they sufferedpersecution. My missionaryfriend has

hearda numberof versionsof a traditionexplaininghow


this was changedto tolerance. In the days of storm and

stresstenrabbismettogetherandagreedthat for thegood


of their racetheywoulddevotethemselves
to perditionby
becomingMoslems. They felt that by working within the
paleof Islam theymight be ableto amelioratethe condition
of their brethren. An angelappearedto them-or, according to one tradition, they heard the Bath Kol, daughterof

the voice of God-sanctioningtheir plan. Accordingly

they abjured the faith, acceptedIslam, and induced the


authoritiesto treat the main bodyof Jewswith morejustice
and kindness. The ruined mosqueof Sheikh Arslan, out*
side the north-east corner of the city walls, is said to have

beennamedfrom oneof theseten rabbis. Not far awaythe


travelleris shownthe placewhereSaint Paul waslet down
in a basket to escapefrom persecution,that he might live
to preach the Christ who had appearedto him as he first
approachedthe city. It was this samePaul who later declared that he was willing to be "accursed" for the brethren's
sake!

In Damascusthere are now about twenty-five thousand


Jews. Work amongtheseby the London Societyhasbeen
much impededthrough lack of funds. There are, however,day-schools
arid Sunday-schools,
largelyattendedBible
classes
for youngmenof the better class,visitationsby Bible
women, and mothers* meetings. Service is conducted at

presentin a hired chapel. Work among the Hebrewsof


Beyrout is conductedby the Church of ScotlandMission
to the Jews, which maintains excellent schools.

INFLUENCE

OF

WEST

323

The highly successfulwork among the churchesof the


East which was stimulated by the establishment of the

propagandaat Rome in 1622,and which culminatedin the


formationof the Uniate bodiesor suchportions of the old
churchesas acceptedthe allegianceof the pope,while In the
main retainingtheir own ritual andlocalhierarchy,hasbeen
already treated in these pageswith considerabledetail.
Undoubtedlythe movementwasbegunas a true missionary
enterprise,consciouslyaiming at the spiritual revival of the
apatheticEasternbodiesand workingfor the instructionof
their clergy,who weremainlyin a stateof greatIgnorance.
But in seeking to achieve such a result, the Roman Catholic
Church conducted a definite work of proselytizing. Before
all, these Eastern

Christians were to become Catholics.

Every attempt to reform their conductwas,in the mind of


the missionaries,logically linkedwith the purposeof restoring theseschismaticsor heretics,as the casemight be, to
papal allegiance. Among these missionariesthere have
beenand thereare to-day manymen of piety and wisdom.
In his sketch of the papal propagandain Mesopotamia,
Parry dwells on the zeal of the presentRoman missionaries,on their liberality in dealingwith the lower clergy of
the United bodies,on their noble,self-sacrificingcharacter^
and on the great amount of good which they have accom-

plished.1

Consider we now the attitude

toward the Eastern

churches

entertained by the first missionariesof the American Board


of Commissionersfor Foreign Missions, who entered Pales-

tine early in the last century. There was no Intention of


proselytizing. The thought of forminga nativeProtestant
community was not contemplated. A concrete instance

will Illustrate this attitude better than any generalstatement.

The

Rev.

Levi

Parsons

landed

in Jaffa

on

the

morning of February 17, 1821,and proceededat once to


Jerusalem, where he arrived at five in the afternoon.

He

wentat onceto thehouseof Procopius,theagentof the British and Foreign Bible Society, who was at the same time

assistantof the patriarch havingchargeof all the Greek


1" Six Months in a Syrian Monastery " (op. ol)> PP- 301 ff.

324:

THE

INFLUENCE

OF THE

WEST

monasteries.
Procopius
hadgoneto attendtheevening
prayerat the chapelof the greatconvent. " Without a moment'sdelay/' writes Mr. Parsons,"I hastenedthither to
unite with the professedfollowers of Christ on Mount

Calvary,and to renderthanksto Godfor thehappyterminationof n?yvoyageto theholy city. . . . Everythingwas


conductedwith a pleasingstillnessand regularity becoming so holy a place." Later he attendedmass,as well as

the Easterceremonies
at the Holy Sepulchre.His spirit

was sympatheticrather than censorious. To be sure, he


mildly wondered, after witnessing the antics of the Greek

populace
at theceremony
of theholyfire,whythehierarchy,
in maintainingthe superiorityof their ownform of Christianity, had failed to mention this feature,but wefind no righteous fulminations against "gross .superstition/*"impious
idolatry/' "stupendous ignorance/' and such like. His,
rather,weregentlermethods. During his few months' stay
in Jerusalem,encouraged
by thepriests,he receivedconstant
visitsfrom pilgrimsand othermembersof the GreekChurch,
readingand expounding the Bible to willing ears. He was
much cheeredby the results. "If then/' he says,"a missionary can residehere with no other employmentthan to
read the Scriptureswith pilgrims, not uttering a word respectingCatholics,Greeks,or Turks, a great work may be
accomplished/71
Suchwas the spirit of the first Americanmissionariesall
over Turkey.

Speaking of the work farther north, Dr.

Barton declaresthat it was not the policy of the American


board to weaken the Armenian Gregorian Church or to

proselytizefrom it; rather those who, after hearing the


preachingof the missionaries,felt that they must separate
themselvesfrom it were persuadedto remain within its
fold and there to work for the gradualreform of its superstitions and abuses.

Even as late as 1839, after the reac-

tionary party within the ancient church had electedas


patriarch a bigot who forbadethe circulation of Protestant
booksamonghis followers,the Americansurgedmembersof
the ArmenianChurch who entertainedevangelicalviewsto
1Seethe "Missionary Herald" for 1822,p. 33.

INFLUENCE

OF

THE

WEST

325

wait patientlytill suchtyrannywereoverpast. Not until the


patriarch, in 1846,issueda sweepingbill of excommunication againstall Gregorianswho favoredthe Protestants,was
thereany definiteideaof organizingan ArmenianProtestant
Church at Constantinople.

In 1850 all the Protestants

of the empire, irrespectiveof their former ecclesiastical


allegiance-Armenian, Greek, Maronite-were recognized
as a definite community in a firman issuedby the sultan.1
Beyrout,which for eighty yearshasbeenthe centreof the
American mission in Syria, was first occupiedby the Rev.
Pliny Fisk in 1823. At first his experiences
weresimilar to
those of Mr.

Parsons

in Jerusalem.

Members

of all creeds

showed interest in the exposition of evangelical doctrine.


But the Roman Catholics,

alarmed at the success of the

new movement, took prompt measures to crush it. . It has

been, and still is, a lamentabletendencyof the warring


Christian sects in Turkey to seek the aid of the Moslem

authorities, who thus favor now one party, now another.


In 1824the papal missionariesinduced the sultan to issue
a finnan forbidding the distribution of the Bible in Turkey.
This order,indeed,becamea deadletter, in consequence
of
the vigorous action of the British consul, when Messrs.
Bird and Fisk were arrested for selling Bibles in the streets

of Jerusalem. The co-operationof the powerful Maronite


patriarch,then a very sovereignin his Lebanonmountains,
wasfar moreeffective. Oppositionto the Americansspread
amongthe Muronite clergyand people. Absurd taleswere
afloat about the missionaries. It wasbelieved by the credu-

lous that they paid ten piasters(forty cents)a headfor converts, which sum, was like the widow's cruse of oil, never

decreasingthrough spending; that they drew pictures of


their convertsso that if any one recantedthey might cause
his death by destroying his likeness; that they shot their

sins to heavenwith a gun.2 But the situationhad its tragic


element. As'ad esh-Shidiaq,a brilliant young Maronite
scholar, who had been secretaryto the patriarch, gave in1 See Dr. Barton's work, "Daybreak in Turkey " (op. cti.), pp. 157 ff.
2 See Wortabet's "Religion in the East" (op. at), p. 361; also Jes-

sup's "Fifty-three Years in Syria" (op. dt.)t vol. I, p. 35.

326

THE

INFLUENCE

OF THE

WEST

straction in Syriae and Arabic to Mr. King, author of the


locally famous" Farewell Letters/5 which gavehis reasons

for antagonizing
the errorsof Rome. Shidiaqnot only
polishedtheArabicof theseletters,but endedbyaccepting
theviewsthereinadvocated.By thecommandof thepatriarch, in the year 1826he was imprisonedin the desolate

monastery
of Qannubin,whichhidesin thedeepgorgeof

the Qadfsha. There he was chained, tortured and beaten.

The peasantswereencouragedto visit his cell, to spit in his


face, to call him vile names.

Once he was assisted to

escape,but he was recapturedand finally died amid the


filth of his prison.1
The persecutionwhich this incident illustrates resulted
in the formation of a native Protestantbody. In 1829the
Maronite patriarch pronounced his secondban against
thoseof his flock who approachedthe American missionaries.

"Let them be hereby excludedfrom all Christian society;


let the curse cover them as a garment and sink into their

membersas an oil and make them wither as the fig-tree


which the mouth of the Lord has cursed; the evil spirit
shall also take possession
of them, torturing them day and
night; no one shall visit or greet them/'3

Turned out of

their own communion,thosewho had beenattractedby the


preachingof the Americansdemandedshelterin theProtestant fold. The missionarieswere forced thus to give up
direct attempts at reforming the Oriental churchesfrom
within.

But while

individuals

were admitted

to the Protes-

tant communion,it was not till 1848 that the first Syrian
EvangelicalChurch wasorganizedin Beyroutwith eighteen
members,including four women.3 Splendidtypes of men
were some of the first Protestants-grave, earnest, dignified.

By 1857therewerefour suchchurchesin Syriawith seventyfive members. At the presentday the communicantsnumber over two thousandeight hundred. In 1870the careof
*The details of the imprisonment are quoted by Dr. Wortabet
(pp. 362and 363) from the "History of the A. B. C. P, M.," by Joseph
Tracy.
3 Quoted by Richter (op. cti.), in a foot-note on p. 188.
a For the constitution of the church, seeWortabet (op. at), pp. 402 ff<

THE

INFLUENCE

OF

THE

WEST

327

the Syrianmissionwas transferredfrom the Congregational


Board (A. B. C. F. M.) to the PresbyterianBoard of Foreign
Missions(North), but regularpresbyterialorganizationwas
not attemptedtill 1882. The Syrian synod now includes
three presbyteries. The entire Protestant community in'
Syria and Palestine, resulting from the work of many
societies, amounts to about ten thousand souls.

Consider-

ing that, all told, some thirty-eight different Protestant


agencies
havebeenat work, the numberseemssmall enough.
Richter ascribesthis to the especiallymalignant character
of the persecutionto which thosewho havedeclaredthemselvesProtestantshave beenliable. Such persecutionhas
not come only from the papal bodies. But while the attitude of the Greeks has usually been milder,, the terrible ex-

periencesof the Protestantsof Saffta, beforethe middle of


the last century,,weredue to the co-operationof the Greek
bishop with the Turkish authorities. For a number of
reasons,amongwhich the spirit of the times is prominent,
direct persecutiontendsto grow lessand less.
Undertakenas an indirect way of preachingthe gospel,
in the providenceof God educationhasturned out to be the
most powerful of all means for the spread of genuinely
evangelicalideas. Stresswas early laid on this feature of
the work by the American mission. It was a prophetic
instinct.

A boys' school was soon started. The first girls'

schoolever establishedin the Turkish Empire was opened


at Beyrout in 1830. Theseprimary schoolswerethe seeds
of an educationalsystem,involvingall nationsand creeds,
that now flowersluxuriantly all over Syria and Palestine.
When excavating an ancient site a dozen years since, near

the town of Zakariya,I missedoneday the white turban of


one of my boy basket-carriers. It turned out that *Abd
el-Latff had been haled back to the little village school

by the local "scribe," acting as truant-officerfor the Department of Public Instruction at Jerusalem. About the
sametime this departmenthad placedthe careof a flourishing Moslemgirls' schoolin the holy city in the handsof an
American lady.

The first boarding-schoolfor boys,establishedin Beyrout

328

THE

INFLUENCE

OF THE

WEST

in 1840,was transferredto the mountainsIn 1846,and becamethe famous'Abeih Academy,whereso many Protes-

tant scholarsweretrained. In thesameyeara boardingschoolfor girls was openedin Beyrout. In the courseof
time schoolsof differentgradesspreadover Syria. To-dav
the pupils of the commonschools,high-schools,industrial

schools,
and the theologicalseminarynumbernearlyfive
thousand. But the schoolsof the American Presbyterian
mission form but a part of the Protestant educational work

of Syria and Palestine. Almost all of the thirty-eight Protestant agenciesnow active in these lands-English,

Scotch,

Irish, Gernum,Swedish,Danish-have their schoolsystems


all conducted on much, the same lines, with the Arabic
Scriptures as a main feature of instruction. This Arabic

translation,,begunby Dr. Kli Smith in 1849and completed


by Dr. Van Dyck in 1805,is pronouncedto be one of the
mostbeautiful versionsever made. Printedat the Beyrout
Press,it haswide circulationoverthe wholeArabic-speaking
world.1 By order of their director-in-chiefit has beenintroducedin nil the Russianschoolswhich to-day honeycombthe patriarchateof Antiodi. Of themany Protestant
schoolswe may signalize without invidiousness those of the
Church Missionary Society of England., with over three
thousand scholars in Palestine;

the schools of the Prussian

deaconesses,
with the orphanageat Beyrout; and the most
practicaland efficientwork of the British Syrianschoolsfor
girls, spreadall over Syria, with someover four thousand
pupils. No institution, however,lias interested,me more
than the high-school at Hums, maintained by the local
Protestant church, and housed in a new building erected

mainly by native money. I am temptedto nameits leading


spirit, but I rememberthe modestyof this gentlesoul and
refrain.

The Protestantschoolsearly actedas a stimuluson the


other cults, whose educational establishment had chiefly

been confined to the training of priests. Once Dr. Van

Dyck wasaskedwhat errandhe had in visitinga small


1From tin's presshave beenissueda large number of religiousand
educational works, mostly in Arabic.

INFLUENCE

OF

THE

WEST

329

village. " I.am goingto opentwo schools/*hesaid5adding,


with a twinkle of the eye5as he saw the anticipated look
of surpriseon the faceof his questioner," I shall open one
to-day; the Jesuitswill open the other to-morrow!"1 By
the year 1877in Beyrout there were schoolsmanagedby
Protestants, Latins,

Greek Orthodox, Greek Catholics,,

Maronites, Jews,and Moslems. Twenty years later this


much-Instructedtown, then possessing
one hundred thousand inhabitants, possessedsixty-sevenschools for boys
and thirty-six schoolsfor girls, with an aggregateattendance

of

over

fifteen

thousand.

Since

then

schools

and

scholarshaveincreased. It is no wonderthat on installing


a numberof lines of electrictramsin 1909the companywas
able to demandthat every conductor should speak either
French or English. I fear that the attemptto enforcesuch
an ordinancein London or New York, requiring, say, the
knowledgeof French or German,would causemore inconvenienceto the public than a strike even!
The crown of the Protestant educationalwork in Syria
is universally acknowledgedto be the Syrian Protestant
Collegeat Beyrout. It hasalsoservedto stimulateactivity
for higher educationin the other cults. For example,at
Beyrout we find collegesfounded,at different periodsafter
the American school, by the Jesuits, the Greek Catholics,
and the Maronites. The Greek Orthodox College, con-

ceivedon a largescaleby theGreekbishop,existsstill largely


in plan. The Syrian ProtestantCollegeis by birth a child
of the American mission. In 1862 this body wisely decided

that the country was ripe for an institution of higher learning, but that this shouldbe independentof themission,while
in full co-operationtherewith. The American board then
released Daniel Bliss, who had served as missionary in
1It is only fair to note that the Jesuits tell similar tales of Protestant rivalry.
The College of 'Ain Tura, in the Kesrouan district of the
Lebanon, was established by the Jesuits in 1734. Later this was turned
over to the Lazarists. Jesuit work became active again in Syria at
the time of Ibrahim Pasha. The University of Saint Joseph at Beyrout (established after the Syrian Protestant College), with its academic
and medical schools, is famous for ita excellent teaching of French.
From the Jesuit printing-press many learned works have been issued.

330

THE

INFLUENCE

OF

THE

WEST

Syriasince1855,that lie mightorganize


thenewenterprise.
A board of trustees was formed in the United States, and

the institution was incorporatedunder the lawsof the State


of New York. Thosewerestrenuouswar timesin America,
but sufficientmoneywas collectedthere and in England to
begin the college in 1866. It was started in a hired house
with sixteen students and two teachers besides Dr. Bliss.

All instruction was given through the medium of the Arabic

language,though French and English formed part of the


curriculum.

Arabic also was the language of the Medical

Department,inauguratedthe nextyear. In 1882,however,


owing principally to the difficulty of keeping up with the
timesin the translationof text-books,the languageof the
collegewas changedto English. This changeimmensely
widenedits scopeand thus waspropheticof its presentdevelopment. In its early days the studentswere confined
to Syrians,Egyptians,and dwellersin otherArabic-speaking
lands. To-day more than a dozen nationalitiesare represented, including seventy Armenians and one hundred

Greeks. The geographicalareafrom which comethe eight


hundred and seventy-four students enrolled in 1911 extends from the Ural Mountains

to the Soudan, and from

Greeceand Egypt to Persiaand India. There aresix regular departments for boys and men: Preparatory, Academic, Commercial,

Medical, Pharmaceutical, arid Dental.

The Academic Department, or School of Arts and Sciences,


includes a teachers' course. The Training School for

Nursesis in connectionwith a systemof hospitalswhere


the medicalstudentsmay study variousdiseasesand where
the sick flock from all over the land.

The

members

of the

corps of instruction and administration number seventyseven- Of these forty-one are Americans, twenty-five
Syrians, four Swiss and French, three Greeks, two
British, and two Armenian. The Departmentof Biblical
Archaeologyoffers inducementsto students from Europe
and America to study the antiquities of Syria on the spot.
Turkish diplomasare issuedto such medicalgraduatesas
passthe examinationsconductedby a specialcommission
sentby the Imperial MedicalSchoolof Constantinople.

THE

INFLUENCE

OF

THE

WEST

331

Thesesevendepartmentsare housedin a scoreof buildIngs, spread over forty acres, on a bluff overlooking the
Mediterranean,with the magnificentrangeof the Lebanon
in full view. In the Medical Schoolaregraduatesfrom the
other missionarycollegesof Turkey: EuphratesCollegeat
Harpoot; AnatoliaCollegeat Marsovan;the Central Turkey
Collegeat 'Aintab; the International Collegeat Smyrna;
and Saint Paul's CollegiateInstitute at Tarsus. Friendly
relationsare maintainedwith Robert Collegeat Constantinople and the English Collegeof the Church Missionary
Societyat Jerusalem,while from the Protestantsecondary
schools of Syria and Palestine, too numerous to name, it
draws the students best fitted to appreciate its own mis-

sionary spirit. In 1902Dr. Daniel Bliss becamepresident


emeritus,being succeededin the office of presidentby his
son, Dr. Howard Bliss. From its very inception the college
has had no more active worker either in Syria or in the

United States than Dr. 1). Stuart Dodge, the present


president of the board of trustees.
Within the walls of the Syrian Protestant College are

gatheredrepresentativesof all the religious cults touched


upon in this book, except the Nuseirlyehand the Isma'iliyeh.

During the collegiate year of 1908-9 rather less

than three-quartersof the student body belongedto the


various Christian sects, the rest being non-Christian.
one-half

of the

Christian

students

were

Greek

Over

Orthodox

(forming 39 per centof the wholebody of students); about


one-quarter (or 17 per cent of the whole number) were
Protestants, while the rest were divided among the following bodies, named In order of numerical strength: Greek

Catholic, Armenian Gregorian, Maronite, Coptic, Roman


Catholic,Syrian Jacobite,Armenian Catholic, and Syrian
Catholic.

Of

the non-Christian

students

over

half

were

Moslems(forming 14.5 per cent of the whole body of students); more than a third were Jews, the rest being Druses

and Behais. All studentsare requiredto attend the preaching serviceon Sunday. There are other religiousexercises
obligatory on certain classesof students. Membership"
in the Christian Association is, of course, voluntary.

Early

332

THE

INFLUENCE

OF

THE

WEST

in thecollegiate
yearof 1910-11,
twohundredandseventy
members
hadbeenenrolled. Thesemaybelongto anyone
of the many Christian bodies,while there is a pledgefor
suchnon-Christians-Moslems,Jews,etc.-as may wish to

becomeassociate
members.The attendance
at the open
meetingsis by no meansconfinedto members,and special
services often attract large crowds. Sectarianism is so far
removed from the meetings that it would be hard to detect

a differenceof substanceor of spirit in the prayersor remarks of Protestantsand Maronites, Greeksand Syrians.
At the meeting of the World's Students' Christian Federation

Conferenceat Constantinople,conductedin 1911by Dr.


John R. Mott, one of the most impressivespeecheswas
made by a Maronite delegatefrom the Syrian Protestant
College. The spirit of brotherhoodbreathedin the quiet
of the Y. M. C. A. servicesfinds ample opportunity for
practical testing on the athletic field, where the son of a
Druse sheikh may have to own that he is beatenby the
grandsonof the peasantwho owedfeudal allegianceto his
family, and wherethe foot-ball teammayincludemembers
of half a dozenChristian sectsunder the Moslemcaptain.
The religiouslife of the Syrian Protestant Collegeis a
striking vindicationof the programmeof the first American
missionaries,If we regard this as theory or as prophecy;
and yet at the same time it is an equally striking vindication
of their wisdom in departing from the programme in view

of a practicalnecessityforcedupon them. This programme


did not includethe formation of a native Protestantbody,
but looked
from

within.

toward the reformation


How

the creation

of the old churches

of a Protestant

church

was

necessitated
by the hostileactionof the prelatestowardtheir
followers who listened to the missionaries, we have seen.

How this body,onceformed,hasneverassumedlarge proportions, we have also seen. But that its Influencehas
reachedfar beyondits own limits can be strongly asserted.
Members of the old churches assert it strongly themselves.

"You have not built up a large sect," said one of these


recently to a veteran missionary,"but you have changed
all the rest!"

THE

INFLUENCE

OF

THE

WEST

333

The non-sectarianism
of the Y. M. C. A. of the Beyrout
College owes its very existence to the formation of a Protestant sect in Syria. This secured in advance a cohesion

for the elaboratesystemof schools,later developed,in which


the evangelicalleaven has already worked to so large results among the children of all churches. What the future

history of the Protestantchurch in Syria may be it is impossibleto prophesy. As an organizationit may increase
or it may decrease,
but in one form or anotherits work will
go on.

Decrease in numbers, indeed, may be in inverse

ratio to the extensionof its real influence. The pebble


dropped in the pond sinks out of sight, but the circles go
on ever widening for all who care to look. The more the
older churches become infused with vital Christianity the
less need

there

will

be for

men

to become

Protestants.

This revival, however,has only just begunin Syria. 1 will


frankly admit that at the present time the continuance in

the old churchesof men who have taken the evangelical


point of view involvesboth loss and gain. The loss is to
the individual who, keeping a nominal connection with his

own churchwhosesuperstitionshe hasceasedto share,loses


someof the "means of grace." But while he may suffer
a personalloss, his church will enjoy an inestimablegain,
providedthat he join, with othersof his mannerof thinking,
in the work of purification and reform.
Those who hope for reformation within the old churches

of Syria and Palestinemay find encouragementin results


already achievedfarther north in the Turkish Empire.
Writing from Constantinoplein 1911,1Dr. Patton,secretary
of the American board, made the following .significant state-

ment: "I considerit practically assuredthat the original


purposeof the board toward this [the Armenian Gregorian]
church is to be realized.

From

the first our aim has been to

revitalize a church which had lapsed into dead formalism


and orthodoxy." The Armenian Patriarch of Constan-

tinopleimpressedhim as a man of fine sincerityand earnest


spiritual life. There are many signs that the Armenian
1 Seehis article in the " Congrcjatalionalist" for January 19, 1911, entitled "Facing Europe and Mecca."

334

THE

INFLUENCE

OF

THE

WEST

churchesand peopleare awaketo new opportunities. In


1911 one of the American missionariesat Constantinople
was invited within a period of two weeksto preachin four
Gregorianchurches. A number of studentspreparing to
enterthe Gregorianpriesthoodhavetaken their theological
trainingat theseminariesof the board. Many laymenholding evangelicalbeliefs who once would have been forced
to become Protestants now remain in the old church.

committeeof the Gregorianchurchesof Constantinoplehas


overtured the head of the church, the Patriarch of Etclimizian, to institute a council for church reform.

Dr. Bar-

ton statesthat " thereare probably to-day more intelligent


evangelical believers within the old Gregorian, Greek, and

Syrianchurchesthan comprisetheentire Protestantbody/5*


But the religiousteachingof the missionaryinstitutions
of Turkey finds responsein the heartsof manywho belong
to no Christianbody,and who probablywill neverformally
abandon

their

own

cult.

It

should

be remembered

that

overa quarter of the studentsof the SyrianProtestantCollegeat Beyrout corneunder this category. It would be as
unfair to ignorethe existenceof this influenceas it wouldbe
to exaggerate
its presentpower. Whatits future powermay
becomeis beyondall estimate. If evera movementof reform, both practicaland spiritual, is to developand succeed
in Islam-and I, for one, recallingthe dark days of Christianity before the ProtestantReformation,do not despair
of it-this will be led by men who have been taught by
Christian missionaries to study the long-neglected life and

teachingsof Jesus,whom,under the nameof 'Isa, theyhold


in theoryto be one of the greatprophetsof God.2
So much

in all fairness

can be said for the influence

of

the West on the cults of Syria and Palestine. But as has


been earlier hinted, the West may learn somethingfrom
many, if not from all, the cults of the East. For the West
but brings back to the East its own. Transplantedacross
1See "Daybreak in Turkey " (op. rit.), p. 237.

2The Moslemshold to the inspiration of the Gospels,but believethat


these have been altered and corrupted by Christians.

THE

INFLUENCE

OF

THE

WEST

335

the seas,religion may haveflourishedmore vigorously,may


have borne fairer and sounder flower and fruit, but the seed

was first droppedin the soil of the Orient. And this seed
still germinates,oftenin the mostunexpectedplaces. In a
richly illuminated Druse manuscript treating of the functions of the humanbody in a mannerboth quaint and practical, a young Maronite friend of mine found the words
with which

I close this volume.

Now the Druses

are never

seento pray, exceptat a public funeral, when, perhapsfor


the sakeof policy, they follow the Mohammedanrite. It is
popularly believedthat even the initiated never pray even
in their secret meetings. And yet these words of the old

Druse manuscript,which the writer recommendshis readers to repeatwhenthey go to bed, constitutea prayer which
might bring a benedictionon any true believer,Easternor
Western:

"To Thee, O God, I come,determining to do what is


meetin Thy sight. Let my eye,O God,sleepin Thy obedience. Let my strengthbe alwayson the sideof Thy Grace.
Take unto Thyself my waking and my sleeping hours;
and placeunderThy control,my day and my night. Guard

me,O God,byThyeyewhih4teepeth
not."

APPENDIX
1.

OFFICIAL
OF

STATEMENT

THE

GREEK

ALEXANDRIA

IN

ISSUED
ORTHODOX

ANSWER

TO

FROM

THE

BUREAU

PATRIARCHATE

OF

QUESTIONS

1. Question: Est-ce-que le titre "Oecumenique" ne donne aueun


privilege an patriarclie de Constantinople?
Answer: Le titre "Oecumenique" ne donne aucun privilege au
patriarche de Constantinople. Ce titre a etc donne a PEveque de
Constantinoplepar des Synodes(Conciles) du VI siecle, a raison de
circonstances
locales;l Constantinopleet surtout a Foccasionde 1'election pour le Throne de Byzanccdu Directeur de I'Universitede la Capitale, nomine Jean.

Le Patriarche Oecumenique,relativcment aux autres Patriarches,


equivalentsa celui-la, ainsi que de rapport a tout Svcqitequi n'est pas
subordonne*
au Throne de Constantinople,est^implement"primus inter
pares."
2. Question: Existc-t-il des circonstancesou le gouvernement du
Sultan pent regarderle patriarcheOeeurneniquecommechefde tons les
orthodoxes(Millct-El-llourai) en Turquic?
Answer: Ah antiquo, (des la prise de Constantinoplepar les Turcs)
le Patriarchede Constantinoplea e"te*
reconnucommele chefdes orthodoxesen Turquie, d'oft le titre attribue*au (lit patriarche "Millet-bassi"
(Chef de Nation). Mais son autorite* (domination spirituelle) n'est
pas de iri^me dtendue sur les chr^tiens, soumis spirituellementaux
autresPatriarcats,vu que ceux-cisont equivalentsa, et tout-a-fait independentsde celui tie Constantinople.
3. Question: En quoi consiste1'inddpendance
des quatre patriarcats?
Answer: Elle consisteen ce que chacun de ces Patriarcats est administrativementindepenclantsdes autres, tons ensemble,cela nonobstant 6tant administrdset regie'sconfonndmcnta une mSmedoctrine
(celle de S'orthodoxie)et eux m&nes rdglcments (ceux des conciies
Oecumdniques).
4. Question: Comment les Patriarcats d'Alexandric, de Jerusalem
et d'Antioche

font

ils leurs communications

Constantinople?
337

avec le Gouvernement

a.

338

APPENDIX

Answer:Cettecommunication
sefait onpar unecorrespondance
directeavecle dit gouvernement,
oumememoyennant!esrepresentants
des

patriarcatsen question,s'il y en a, en Constantinople,


(representants)
dont le maintiendependdela multitude d'affairesdesdits Patriarcatsa
Constantinople.

5. Question:Est-ce-que
le PatriarcheOecum^nique
peut aiderses
confrerescomnieinterme'diaireou repre*sentant
dans leurs affairesavec
le gouvernement?
Answer: Oui, cela peut se faire dans le cas que le PatriarcheOecu-

me'nique
eut6te*prie pourcela,par sesconfreres
a titre deslienssplrituels qui 1'unissentavec ceux-ci.
6. Question,:Malgre la the'oriede 1'independance
des Patriarcats,est-

ce-qu'iiestjamaisarrive*,surtout depuislestempsdescroise"s,
que le
patriarcheOecume'niquea cssaye*
de se meler dans leurs affairesou de
leur controler(par exempledans la questiondespatriarchesd'Antioche
pour quelquessiecles)?

Answer:II y a endescirconstances,
oule patriarcatOecume'nique
est
Intervenudanslesaffairesdesautrespatriarcats,
raalgre*
1'independance
de ceux-ci; mais cela n'a ete"arrive*qu'apres1'invocationde cetteinterventionpar lespartis interess&s,
lesquels--aucontraire-refutaient toute

pareilieinterventiondu dit Patriarcaten casquecelle-cimena9ait


de
porter prejudice aux privilegesreconnusdes autrespatriarcats. C'est
ccpcndantbicn entendu que chaeuncdes Soeurs-Eglises
a de soi-me'me
le droit d'interveniraux affairesdesautres,touteslesfois que la doctrine
orthodoxcou les lois ct regiesconforme'racntauxquellesles ^glisessont
gouvernCies
courent un risque Evident.
7. Question: Pourquoi la consecrationdu Saint-Chr6mesefait-elle
seulementa Constantinople?
Answer: Seulesraisons pour lesquellesle Saint-Chromene se fait
qu'aupresdu Patriarcatde Constantinoplese sont que1) sa preparation
exigede grandesde*penses,
et, 2) sa ce're'monie
exigeun grand nombre
de (du moinsdouze) pr^lats, nombreduquel les autresEglisespeuvent
6tre privies pour descausescirconstancielles.
8. Q'uestian: Combien d'dv^quesapproximativement sont soumis
au PatriarcheOecum&iique?
Answer: A quatrc-vingtsix monteauhourd'huile nombredesMetropolitains et ^v^quessubordonne*s
au patriarche Oecumenique.
9. Question: Est-ce-quele PatriarcheOecum^niquepartageavecses
confreresle droit de contr61erles affairesdu Saint S^pulcre?
Answer:

Oui.

10. Qmstion: Pour quelleraison?


Answer: Pareeque les saints Lieux et les endroitsde p^ierinageen

g^n^ralsontdesbiensappartenant
a toutela NationdesRoumsOrtho-

APPENDIX

339

doxes,(Nation)delaquellen'a dte*qu'uneprocuratrlcela Confr6ne(le


Fraternat)du SaintSepulcre,qui a pour chefle patriarchede J^rasalemet qui a pourmissionprincipaledegarderlesSaintsLieux et les
conserveren bon et sur etat au moyendes offrandesdes pele'rinsorthodoxes et des autres dedicateurs.
Du Bureau

2. THE

du Patriarcat-Grec.

EPISCOPAL

DIOCESES

OF THE

GREEK

ORTHO-

DOX, SYRIAN JACOBITE, GREEK CATHOLIC, SYRIAN


CATHOLIC, AND MARONITE CHURCHES IN SYRIA
AND PALESTINE (WITH A FEW DIOCESES IN MESOPOTAMIA)
I.

THE

GREEK ORTHODOX CHURCH

(a) Patriarchate of Antioch.-Antioch (diocese of the patriarch).


Berytus (Beyrout). Laodicea (Latakia). Tripolis (Tripoli). Arcadias ('Akkar). Cilicia (Tarsus and Adana). Thcodosiopolis (Erzerftm). Amidis (Diarbekir). Beroeas (Aleppo). Tyros et Sidonos
(Hasbeya and Ilasheya). AuranitLs (Hauran). Ernesa (Hums).
Epiphanias (llama). Seleukias(Zahleh), Byblos et Botrys (Mount
Lebanon). Edessa(in partibus). Eironopoulis (in partihus).
(b) Patriarchateof Jerusalem.--Jerusalem(dioceseof the patriarch).
Caeserea.Scythopolis (Beisan). Pctra. Ptolcmais (Acre). Nazareth. Lydda. Gaza. Neapolis(Nablus). Scbastc(Samaria). Tabor.
Jordan. Bethlehem. Tiberias. Philadelphia. Pella. Cyriacopoli.s
(Kerak). Diocaeserea(Sepphoris). Madaba. (The majority of the
bishopsare non-residentin their sees; seetc%xt.)
II.

THE

JACOBITE OR OLD SYRIAN" CHURCH

Patriarchateof Antioch.-Antioch (dioceseof the patriarch). Jerusalem. Damascus. Edessa (Ourfa). Amida (Diarbekir). Mardin.
Nisibis. Maiferacta(Farktn). Mosfil. Ma'adan. Aleppo. Jr/Jreh.
Turabdln. (There are six other bishops, but resident in monasteries
without sees.)
III.

THE GREEK CATHOLIC MELOIHTE

CHURCH

Patriarchateof Antioch. Aleppo. Bosrah(Hauran). Berytun (Beyrout) and Botrys (Jebail). CasereaPhilippi (Banias). DamasetLs.

Heliopolis (Ba'albek). Emesa (Hums). Sidon. Tyre. Ptolemais


(Acre). Tripoli.

Zahleh.

340

. APPENDIX

IV.

THE SYRIAN CATHOLIC CHURCH

Patriarchateof Antiock. Baghdad. Damascus. Hums and Kama*


Aleppo. Berytus (Beyrout). Jezireh. Mardin andDiarbekir (Amida),
MosUL
V.

THE MARONITE CHURCH

Patriarchateof Antioch. Jebai!and Batrun (dioceseof the patriarch,includingtheBesherreh


districtof theLebanon). Aleppo. Beyrout (includingpart of the Metn districtof the Lebanon). Cyprus
(including the rest of the Metn). Ba'albek (including part of the Kesrouan). Damascus(including the rest of the Kesrouan). Tyre and

Sidon(includingthe southernLebanon).Tripoli (includingthe adjacent Lebanondistrict).


3. DISTRIBUTION
OF

A.

OF MEMBERS

THE

HOLY

OF THE BROTHERHOOD

SEPULCHRE

IN

1909

RESIDENTIN THE CONVENTOF CONSTANTINE,JERUSALEM

Bishopsin convent
Archimandrites,membersof the Holy Synod ....
Other archimandrites
Priests
Deacons
.

Lay brothers
B.

8
9
.

21
26
19

55
738

RESIDENT ELSEWHERE IN JERUSALEM AND VICINITY

Convent of Abraham

40 *

Prison of Christ, near Saint Anne's

Deir Nicolaus
Delr Barsimus

4
8

Virgin's Tomb

Mount of Olives
Convent of Cross

4
6

Katam&n,summerresidenceof patriarch
Talabiyeh

2
3
"""76

1 Twenty-five of these monks sleep in the adjoining church of the


Anastasis, or Holy Sepulchre. In the chapel of the Convent of Abraham th'e Anglicans have been granted the privilege of celebrating the
holy communion.

APPENDIX

C.

341

RESIDENT ELSEWHERE IN THE HOLY LAND

Bethany

................

*AIn Farah

Wady-el-Kelt (Mar Yuhanna), including Hermits


Qarantel (Quarantania)

. .

...........

Deir Hajla

Mar Saba ................


Madaba
Kerak
............
Es-Salt .................

60
1
1
2

'Ajlun
Mar Elyas ................
Bethlehem
Hebron
Gaza
.

15

. .

................
.

Bureij
'AinAriq
Lydda

.
. . .

Ramleh
Jaffa1
'Ain Karim.
Beit Sahilr .
Ramallah
.
Jifna
Bir Zcit . .
Beit Jala

.
.
.

.
.
.

"

.
.

.
.

1
4
10
2
4

4
1
3
5
0
1
1
1
1
1
1

Tayyibch

Nablfts

Bir Yaqfil) (Jacob'sWell)

Nazareth
Acre
Haifa
Tiberias

6
12
3
5

T5T
D,

RESIDENT IN OTHER COUNTRIES

Constantinople

Athens

Cyprus

.......

1 During the recent troubles between the monks and the Syrian
people, the latter obtained possession of the Jaffa property.

342

APPENDIX
Crete ..................
Moscow

. .

3
4

Tsiphan .................

6
~~26
SUMMARY

Resident in the Convent of Constantine, Jerusalem .

Residentelsewherein Jerusalemand vicinity ....


Residentelsewherein the Holy Land

138

76
171

Resident'in other countries

26

"Hi
4. LIST

OF FEASTS WHEN
MARONITES

THE

FORBID

GREEKS
WORK

GREEK AND MAKONITE


Jan. 1.

Circumcision

Jan. 6.

Baptism of Christ.

of Christ.

Feb. 2.

The Purification

Mar. 9.

The Forty Martyrs.

Mar. 25.
June 29.

The Annunciation.
Saint Peter and Saint Paul.

July 20.
Aug. 6.
Aug. 15.
Sept. 8.
Sept. 14.
Nov. 21.

The Prophet Elijah.


The Transfiguration.
Reposeor Assumptionof the Virgin.
Birth of the Virgin.
Finding of the Cross.
Purification of the Virgin.

Dec. 25.

Christmas.

Dec. 26.

Commemorationof the Virgin.

April 23.
Aug. 20.
Oct. 26.
Nov. 8.

Saint George.
Decapitationof John the Baptist
Demetriusthe Martyr.
The ArchangelMichael.

of Christ.

GREEK

Dee. 6.

Saint Nicholas.

Dec. 9.

The Conceptionof Hannah.

Feb. 9.
Mar. 2.

Mar Marftn.
Yuhanna Mardn.

MARONITE

Mar. 19. Saint Joseph.

AND

APPENDIX

June 24. The Birth of John the Baptist.


July 31. The three hundred and fifty monks of Mar Martin.
Aug. 1. The Maccabees.
Nov. 1.

All Saints.

Dec. 8.

The Conceptionof Hannah.

Work is also suspendedon the great movablefeasts*

343

INDEX
Effendi, 19, 20
'Abd-el-Hamid, Sultan, 32, 192,

Beyrout, 30, 56, 58, 59, 93, 103,


137, 163, 325 ff.

<Abd-el-Mejid, Sultan, 315


Abu Bekr, the Caliph, 17, 226,
227, 296, 300
Abu 'Obeidah, 14, 16
Adeney, W. F. (his "The Greek
and Eastern Churches")j43 note
'All, the Caliph, 17, 226, 227, 297,
298, 299, 301, 302, 303, 304, 310
Assassins,Order of the, 18, 307.

Burial (Christian)
Ceremony at the grave
(Greek), 154
Child, service for, 153
Funeral, of a Maronite patriarch, 154
Greek burial services for laymen, the, 152
Interment of bishops, 155
Kiss, the last (Greek), 152,
153
Maronite burial service, 154
Unction, the sacrament of,
151
Burial in Islam, 291
Angels Munkar and Naktr,
196, 293
Ceremonial ablutions, 292
Funeral service, 292
Grave clothes, 292

242,245

Bab, the, 19
Baldensperger, P. J., 28, 230 note
et passim
Baptism, 140 ff.
Anointing with oil, 143
Baptismal garments, 144, 145
Blessing of the salt (Maronite), 141
Blessing of the water, 142
Catachurnens, making
of

Broussa,207

(Greek), 142

Hospitality at funerals,294

Catechism, the Greek, 142


Communicating the infant,
142
Confirmation, Greek sacrament of, 144

Hour of death, 291


Punishment of the grave, 293
Visits to cemeteries, 294
Washing of the corpse, 291

Syrian sacramentof, 144

Christianity, early Jewish,7

Consecration of the holy oil,


143
Exorcism of the devil, 140,

Official triumph of Gentile, 9


Types of Syrian and Greek,
111

141

Church

General features of Eastern


baptism, 140
Godparents, 142
Holy chrism or Meirun, 144
Maronites, among the, 145
Triple immersion (Greek),
143
Beha Allah, 20
Behais or Babis, 19
Bell, Miss Gertrude Lowthian,
311 note

of the Anastasis or Resur-

rection at Jerusalem (see next)


Church of the Holy Sepulchre,
30, 54, 61, 324
Church of the Nativity, Bethlehem, 30
Church buildings, 124 ff.
Altar, the high, or table, 126
Baptismal font, 127
Ikonostasis, 125
Ikons, 125
Interiors, 125

345

346

INDEX

Oblation, the Greek table of,


127

Pulpit, 127
Service books, Greek, 124
Maronite, 124
Syrian, 124
Churches, the Eastern, 35

Eastern and Western,compared, 38

Originof GreekandSyrian,11
Relative numerical strength,

35

Mar Yuhanna Marun, 13, 98


Monothelitism,35 note,98

Numbers of, 37, 103


Origin and present distribution of, 12, 102
Parish clergy and missioners,
111

Patriarch, election of a, 109


Funeral of a, 154

Periodeuta and Chorepiscopus, 110

Recent popular movement,

Churches, the Jacobite or old Syrian Church, 74


Ancestors of Syrian Christians, 9
Chorepiscopus, or Country
Bishop, 77
Deacons, grades of Syrian, 77
Geographical distribution, 74
'Mafrian, 76
Nestorian Church, 80
(Persian), 80
Palayacoor, or the Old Com-

112
Revenues, the patriarchal
108
Union with Rome, the, 101
Unique position of, 96
Wars with Druses, 104
William of Tyre, testimony
of, 100
Church, the Orthodox, 39 ff.
Archbishopric of Mount Sinai,
the, 42
Archimandrites, 54

Parish priests, 77
Patriarchs and bishops, 75
Putheneoor, or the New Community (Malabar), 79
Syrians of Malabar, the, 79
vestments, 78

fifteen, 40
Bishops, election of, 54, 56
Boycott of churches, 66, 70,
71, 72
Brotherhood of the Holy Sepulchre, 61 ff.

ites
Council of the Lebanon, 97,
108
Dibs, Joseph (Bishop of Beyrout), 99
Dibs College at Beyrout, 111
Emir Beshtr Shehaab, 105

The Bulgarian, 42
Crisis in Jerusalem, 70
Of Greece, 41, 42
Of Russia, 41
Circuit system, the Greek, 58
Cleophas KikHides, librarian
of the Convent at Jerusa-

munity (Malabar), 79

Churches,Church of the Marori-

Episcopate,
the, 109

Feudalism and the Lebanon,


. 104
Gregorian calendar, adoption
of the, 97
Hierarchy, the, 108

Decline of the power of,


112

In Patriarchateof Jerusalem,
103

JosephusAssemanue,
99
Kesrouan,107
KhazinB, the, 107

Mar Marun, allegedfounder.


13,98

Autocephalouschurches,the

Church and state, 40

lem,60

Diaconato, the, 60
Dositheus, Patriarch of Jerusalem, 61
Ecclesiastical publications, 53,
56

Ecclesiasticalrevolution, an,
67

Ecumenical Church, the, 41


Erotheos, Patriarch of Anti-

och, 65
Germanus, Patriarch of Jerusalem, 62, 63

Gregorios,present Patriarch
of Autioch, 69

INDEX
Hierarchy of, 49 ff.
High-schools, Orthodox, 57
Holy synods, the, 50, 53 et
passim
Imperial Russian Society of
Palestine, 57, 73
Ionian claims, the, 72
Ionian

control

at Damascus,

347

Churches, the United or Uniates,


81 Jf.
Apostolic vicar or delegate,
84
Armenian Catholic Convent
at Venice, 86
Basis of union with Rome, 83
East

and

64
Jerusalem Convent, income
of, 63

West, 82
Councils of Ferrara
Florence, 82

and

och, 69
"Master of the Week," 59
Metropolitan Church of Cyprus, 41
National party in Damascus,
victory of the, 68
Orthodox and Catholics, 39
Parish priests, 58
Patriarch of Constantinople,
simply Primus inter pares^

Divisions in the Churcn Universal, 81


Four general councils of the
Greek Catholics, 95
Greek Catholic colony in
Calabria, 95
Greek Catholic community,
92
Greek Catholic schism of
1724, 89

Malatios, Patriarch of Anti-

44, 46

Patriarchs, election of, 51,


53, 54, 56
Patriarchate of Alexandria,
41, 52
Patriarchate of Antioch,
41, 50, 56, 64 ff.
Contrasted with Jerusalem, 60
National movement in
the, 64
Patriarchate of Constantinople, 41, 44
Patriarchate
of Jerusalem, 41, 53
Patriarchates,
/utual relations of the , Air, 47
Phanar at Constantinople,
53
Photios, Patriarch of Alexandria, 51
Points of difference with

Rome,40

Breach

between

Coptic Catholic Church, 86

Greek Catholics, unique po-

sition of, 92
Gregorian calendar, adoption
of, 93
Influence of Rome, 94
Latin patriarchs, 85
Mark, Bishop of Ephesus, 82
Married clergy, 84
Propaganda in the Greek see
of Antioch, 87
Propaganda, sketch of
the general P&paL 96
Seraphim Tanas, first Greek
Catholic patriarch, 89
Synod of Diamper, 83
Syrian Catholics, 87
United Abynsinians, 86
United Greeks in Russia,
Austria, arid Bulgaria, 95
Church Year, the, 155ff.
Adoration of the cross or burial, 163 ff.

Advent,1J

Relations to sultan, 43
Russian influence alleged, 65
Denied, 66

All Saints, 170


Ash Monday, 159
Baptism of Christ, 158

Sylvestre,Patriarchof Anti-

Beginningof Greekecclesias-

Theological colleges, Ortho-

Beginningof Syrian ecclesias-

dox, 57
Turkey, Orthodox Church in,
48

tical year, 156


Calendar, the, 155
Christmas, 157

och, 64, 80

tical year, 156

348

INDEX

Christmasbonfiresin church,
157

Damascus, 16, 45, 56, 64 f


89 jf., 321, 322

Church auctions, 158


Easter Monday, 166

Procession (Greek), at

Mahardy, 167

Salutations, 166
Sunday, 165

Weekprocessions,
167
Fast of the Apostles, the,
156
Of the Nativity, the, 156

Of Nineveh, 157

Of Repose of the Virgin,

156

Feast of Corpus Christi, 169


Of the Finding of the
Cross, 169
Of Mar Marun, 159
Of the (Repose or Assumption of the Virgin,
156, 169

Of Saint Peter and Saint


Paul, 156

Feasts requiring abstention


from labor, 159
Foot-washing ceremony, 161
Good Friday, 162
Holy fire, ceremony of the,
165
Holy' oils, consecration of,
162
Lent, 156
Draping of churches, 159
Maundy Thursday, 160
Miracle play, 160
Palm Sunday, 160
Sunday, blessing of olive
twigs on, 160
Pentecost, 1BK
Society of the Scapular of
Our Lady of Mount Car-

mcl, 157
Churchill, Colonel (his "Mount

Lebanon"), 30note,37note,105
note. 107 note, 295 note

Day of Atonement (Jewish), 321


Depont, Octave, 226 note et passim

Dervish^life,the, 255if.

Attitude toward the doctors


of the law, 226

Toward government,264
Ceremonyof the trampling,or
dowsi, 270
Charms, 273

Dervish demonstrations,267
Seance, 273

Diviners and their tricks, 272


Eating live serpents, 266
Establishments at Damascus,
255
Establishments at Jerusalem,
255
Flying powers, 262
Holiness, the object, 259

Howling dervishes,257
Immunity

from fire, 265

Miracles of dervishes,261
Moslem belief in magic, 272
Popular estimate" of the, 261
Power over serpents, 266
Powers of healing, 265
Procession of Neby Mtlsa on
Good Friday, 268
Punishment of the unworthy,
261
Saintly dervishes, 261
Sheikhs' Thursday at Hums,
269
Shrine of Moses, 268
Turkish pasha and the old
dervish, the, 263
Whirling
function of the
Mowlawiyeh, 258
Zikr, 256

Concerted,258
Effect of, 257

Imitation, 213, 258

Dervish organization, the, 234

Coppolani, Xavier, 226 note d

'Abd-el-Qitdir-ej-Jimni, 227,

Covenantof 'Omar, 62
Cromer, Lord, 176

Abu Hasanesh-Shazili,236
Abu-'l-Huda, 235, 242, 243,

passim

Crusaders, the episode of the,

20,21

Curtiss, Dr. SamuelIves, 28, 205,


228, 229, 233

232, 235, 239


253

Abu Rabat, 241

Adepts, 238
Aimed ol-Bedawy, 232, 235

INDEX

349

Ahmed er-Refa'i, 232, 234,

Sa'ad-ed-d!n-ej-Jebawi,233,

235, 265
Bakhtashiyeh or Baghdashiyeh, 236
Bcdawtych, 232, 234, 235, 240
Caps and banners, 236
Celibacy, 235, 253
Chief sheikh of the order, 237
Dervishes of no order, 252
Diploma, or sanad, 227, 244,

235, 244, 266


Sa'adiyeh, 233, 234, 235, 240
Selman-el-Pharisi, 253
Senusiyeh, 236
Senustyeh, Mohammed Ibn
Senusi (founder), 236, 248
Iconoclasm of, 248
Numbers of, 248
Shaziliyeh, 226, 236, 247

Dusuqiyeh, 234, 236, 240, 253


Election of sheikh, 238
Faqirs, 238, 260
Female dervishes, 254
General council or assembly,
238, 246
Haji Bakhtash, 236
Head of a dervish house, 243
Hereditary principle, 252

Tendency toward pantheism, 247


Unique position of, 247
Tekkeh (dervish house), 245.
255, 258
Test of a good dervish, 251
Unrecognized dervishes, 239.
260
Visit to a presiding sheikh,

245, 251, 252

Ibrahim ed-Dusuqi, 232, 236


Independence of Syrian
sheikhs, 245
Initiating sheikhs, 238
Initiation, 249
Initiation, degrees of, 250
Initiation, period of probation, 249
Initiation, powers conferred,

Sheikh-el-Maidi, 248

244

Wandering dervishes, 239


Zawiyeh, or monastery, 237,
243, 245, 255
Dictionary of Islam (Hughes),
185 et passim
Bowling, Archdeacon, 31, 50 note,
55, 116 note
Druses. See Shi'ah sect

250

Jelal cd-Din, 236


Kalandartyeh, 236, 253
Khaltfy, 237, 239, 24.3, 245,

Elijah, the prophet, 10, 232

Lay-members, 246
Mowlawtyeh, 236, 246
Mowlawtych, cap of the order, 247
Muquddim, 237, 239
Murshld, or guide, 241
Number of orders or ways,
234
Orders in Syria and Palestine, 236
Organization and spirit, 254
Principles of organization,
236

Conscientiousness, 211
Declaration of fasting, 213
Especial service in Ramadhan, 213
Exempt persons, 211
Fanaticism in Ramadhan, 211
Grea,t Feast, the, 215
Lunar year, 211
Night feasting, 212
Watching for new moon, 215
Fatima, 17

250/251,252, 253,264

Qadirtyeh,234, 235 et passim

Fasting in Islam, 210 jf.

Beginning of Ramadhan,211

God, Moslem doctrine of, 182

Beautiful conceptionsfound

Qadirtych order, development


of the, 239

in Koran, 183
Confession of the creed, 182

Qadirlyeh in North Africa,

Elementof lovesubordinated,

Kef a*ty eh, 234, 235, 240, 257,


265

Fatalistic elements, 184


Fatherhood repudiated, 187

240

185

350

INDEX

Monotheistic theory, 182


Moslem and Jewish ideas
compared, 184

Practical modification
monotheism}228
Trinity
Hagiology,

227if.

of

repudiated, 186
the

Cult of the shrines, 227, 228,


248

Folk-lore,
231,233
Founders of orders, 232
Fourpoles,
the,232

Total abstinencein, 276


'Ulania, or learned, 204, 205
Inter-relations of the cults, 22 ff.
Christiansand Moslems,be-

tween,
28

Christian bodies,between,29
Common basis of supersti-

tion,27
of the Turkish revolution,
32
Governmentrelations,22
Effects

Memorial rags, 230


Sacrifices, Moslem, 222, 229

Servant
of theshrine,
230
Shrines,
27,228,230,
232

In Aleppo Mosque, 228


Sufi, Sftfiism, 225? 227, 228,

247,256

Slavery in, 277


et passim

Mohammedan,

Supernatural visitations
saints, 233

Sheikh-ul-Islam, 192, 193


note,206

of

Moslembaptisms,28

Segregation,
26
Isma'iliyeh.
See
Shi'ah
sect
Ja'afar-es-Sadiq,
244,
300
dc Jehay, Count17,
van
den
Steen?
22, 40 note et passim

Wcly,welics
(saints),
227,288Jerusalem,
16ctpassim
Jesuit printing-press
at Beyrout,
ei passim

Welies, incarnations, 232

Powers
of the,231
Tombs
of,232

Vows to, 228, 229


Hasan, 17, 297, 299, 303
fiasan-cl-'Askari, 17, 300
llatti Houmayun, 23, 24, 315

Shcrtf
offclulhanS,
23,314

Hosein, 17, 297, 299, 303, 304


Influence of the West, the, 313 ff.
Islam ^

Circumcision, 269

Comparisonwith Christianity, 171


Conquest of Syria and Palestine, 14
Divorce, 280, 288
Grand Shcrtf, 206
Hierarchy, 204

Jihad, or holy war, 190


Legal alms, 215
Moral atmosphereof, 172
Mufti, or legal adviser,206,
226

Qadhi, or judge, 206,285,287


Religioussheikhs,204
Sectsof, 17G

329note

University
ofSaintJoseph
at

note
Jews inBeyrout,
the Holy329
Land,
8
In Syria, 8, 321

Khaled,
theSword
of God.14,
187, 270
Khauli, Prof. Boulos, 296
Khudr, the (the Ever Living One),
10, 232
Koran, the
Analysis, 178 note

Contrasted with the Bible,

174
Doctrine of its inspiration,
178
Early chapters of, 177
Especial legislation, 180
Fat-nah, or first chapter of

Koran, 199note, 202, 210,


264, 287
Khatrneh, or recital of the
whole Koran, 214 note
Language of, 174, 202

Late chaptersof, 180


Poetic passagesof, 179, 183
Spiritual passages
of, 175,188

INDEX

351

Lebanon, Mount, 35 note, 37, 96


et passim
Liturgies, Eastern, 128ff.
Antimins (Greek), 127
Blessed bread or anti-doron,
135
Communion in both kinds,
138
Confession, Greek, 130
Jacobite, 130
Greek commemoration of the
living and the dead, 134
Liturgies, 128
Oblation, 131
Preparation, 133
Sacrifice, 134
Kiss of peace (Syrian), 137
Liturgy
of
Saint
Basil
(Greek), 129
Of Saint Chrysostom
(Greek), 129
Of the presanctified
(Greek), 129
Penance, 130
People's oblation (Greek),
135
Pre-empting
the feast
(Greek), 136
Syrian and Maronite liturgies or anaphora;, 129
Commemoration, 136
Oblation, 132
Macdonald, D. B., 241 note, 272,
275 note

Marriage in Islam, 284


Ceremony, the, 287
Consent of girl, 285
Dowry, 286
Early marriages, 286
Female broker, 287
Four marriages allowed, 285
Legal capacity, 285
Limitations of polygamy, 285
Wedding customs, 288
Massacres of Adana, 33, 192
Massacres of 1860 (Lebanon), 104,
313
Melchites, 12, 13, 87, 98 <
Missions (Protestant), 313 ff.
'Abeih Academy, 328
American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, 323
Anatolia College at Marsovan, 331
Apostasy from Islam, 314
Armenian Protestant Church
at Constantinople, 325
As'ad csh-Shidiaq, 325
Baptisms among Jews, 321
Barton, Dr. J. L., 315 note
Bliss, Dr. Daniel, 329, 331
Bliss, Dr. Howard, 331
British and Foreign Bible
Society, 323
British Syrian schools, 328
Central Turkey College at
'Aintab, 331

Cup of communion (Greek),


149
Greek betrothal, 146
Marriage or coronation, 147
Fine for breaking engage-

314
Church Missionary Society,
316
Dale, Rev. Gerald F., 318
Educational influences
in
Syria and Palestine, 327

Marriage (Christian), 145ff.

ments (Greek), 146

.Lebanon wedding (Maronite),

150

Maronite ceremony. 149


Exhortation to bride and
groom, 150
Marriage fillets (Syrian), 151
Russian service, 147
Second marriages, 146
Sunday weddings, 146
Syrian practices, 150
Wedding crowns (Greek), 148
Rings, 147

Christian Missionsand Islam,

Euphrates College at Harpoot, 331

Fallseheer,
Mr., 318
Gobat, Bishop, 318
Hanaucr, Rev. J. E., 322
Houmayun, Hatti, 315
International
College
at
Smyrna, 331
Jessup, Dr. H. BL, 29 note,
317
London Society for Promotion of Christianity among
the Jews, 320

352

INDEX
Mission of the United Free
Church of Scotland, 321
Work among the Druses,
318
Work among the Nuseiri-

yeh, 319

Missions to the

Eastern

churches,323
To Jews, 320

Parsons,Rev. Levi, 323

Community of Mount Athos


113
Convent of B'dlman, 108
Convent of Constantino at
Jerusalem, 114

Of. Mar Antanius Qozhayya, 121

Of Mar Ettsha', 120


Of Qannubtn, 108, 120

Of Sedanayya,116

Persecution of Protestants,
325
Poliey of early American missionaries, 323
Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions, 327
Primary schools, 327
Protestant agencies, 328

Exorcising of evil spirits, 121


Greek monasteries (independent), 113
Hermits, 115, 120
Maronite establishments, 119
Miracle-working saints, 121
Monastic orders among the
united bodies, 117

333
Protestant
community
in
Syria and Palestine, 327
Prussian deaconesses,schools
of the, 328
Iliehter, Dr. Julius, 317 note
Robert College*at Constantinople, 331
Saint Paul's Collegia! c Institute at Tarsus, 331
Smith, Dr. Eli, 328
Syrian Evangelical Church,
326
Syrian Protestant College,

triarchate of Antioch, 116


Order of Beladiyeh (Maronite), 118
Of Halabfyeh (Maronite),
118
Of Mar Lsha'ya (Maronite), 118
Organization of the orders
(Maronite), 118
Moslem doctrine
Alms, 215
Angels and prophets, 196
Fasting, 210 ff.
God, 182 ff.

Christian association of
the, 331
Thomson, Dr. William, 318.
VanDyck, Dr. W. C.A.,318,
328
Wolters, Rev. T. F., 317 note
Mo'awiyah, 17, 296, 297
Mohammed, 14, 176 et passim

Jesus, 186
Paradise, 198
Pilgrimage, 217 ff.
Prayer, 199ff.
Predesti nation, 195
Sin, 188
Virgin Mary, 186 note
Moslems, approximate number In

Protestant church in Syria,

"329

Companions
of, 228

Conception of his own mission, 181


Early and later career con-

Monast.icLsm
in the Greekpa-

Hell, 198

Syriaand Palestine,
177

Mott, Dr. John R., 332

trasted,
181
Nablus,
207
Popular
apotheosis
of,193 Nuseirtyeh.
SeeShi'ahsect

Relation to the Bible, 174


Traditions pf, 175, 194
Mohammed-el-Habib, 17
Monasteries of the East, 113 ff.
Brotherhood of the Holy Sepulchre, 01 ff., 113, 114

Old Man of the Mountains, the,


18, 307
'Omar, the Caliph, 14, 16, 17, 228,
296, 300
'Othman, the Caliph, 17, 296, 300

INDEX

353

Pagan survivals, 10

Mosque at Hebron, 207

Parry, Q. H. (his "Six Months in


a Syrian Monastery"), 74 $.
Pilgrimage to Mecca or Sajj,

Mosques,the, 206
Orientation, 201
Prostrations or rak'ahs, 201,

217 if.
1Arafat, standing on, 221
Caravan route, 218
Circumambulation of the
Ka'aba, 220, 223
Conditions of, 217
Description of Sir Richard F.
Burton, 220 note
Feast of Bairam, 222
Festival prayers, 222
First day, 220
Formal declaration, 218
Hajj by proxy, 217
Hill of 'Arafat, 221
Ka'aba, 223
Kisweh, or sacred carpet, 223
Mecca Railway, 218
Mountains of Safa and Merwah, 220
Muna or Mina, 221
Numbers of pilgrims, 221
Pilgrims' chant, 221
Pilgrims' return, 223
Preliminary rites, 219
Sacrifices at Muna, 222
Sacrifices on return of a pilgrim, 224
Second day, 221
Stoning the Great Devil, 222
Third day, 222
Well Zem-Zern, 220
Poole, Stanley Lane, 179, 180
note, 194 note
Porter, Professor Harvey, 15 note
Post, Dr. George E., 312
Prayer, Druse, 335
Prayer in Islam, 199 ff.
Ablutions, 200, 207
Call to prayer, 199
Collection, 210
Formal declaration, 202
Friday service at Jerusalem.
. 208
Haram-esh-Sherif, 208
Imam, or leader, 204

210
Numbers of, 201
Obligatory, 201
Voluntary, 201
Ritual, the, 202
Rosary, the, 204, 210
Sermon, the, 209

Kubbet-es-Sakhra

or

Dome

of the Rock, 208, 213


Masjid-el-Aqsa, 208
Minrab, or small apse, 207
Mirnbar, or pulpit, 207, 209

Religion in the East, 3, 4


In the West, 7
Religious orders of Islam, origin
of, 225, 226
Rinn, Louis, 234 note
Ritual, languages of the Eastern*
123
Saint George, 10, 232
Sell," Rev. E., 237 note, 257 note
Shi'ah sect of Islam, 16, 17, 176,
294 et passim
'Ashura, the, 298, 299
Conformity, 306
Contrasted with Sunnis, 302
Corpus of traditions, 302
Descendants of Mohammed,
301
Divorce, 304
Druses, 18, 19, 307
Darazi, 18, 19
Doctrine of incarnation,
309
Of metempsychosis,
309
El-Hakim, the Caliph,

^ 18, 19, 309

Hamzeh, 19, 307


Initiates, 307
Unitarians, the, 307
Exclusiveness, 305
House of Harfush, 296
Imams, the, 300
Isma'iltyeh, 18, 19, 300
" Asian Mystery,"
by
Rev. S. Lyde, 308 note
Doctrine of incarnation,
311

Mohammed
Shah or
Agha Khan in Bombay, 307, 311
Nature worship, 312

354

INDEX

Number of, 307


Old Man

of the Moun-

tain, Lord of the Assassins, 307


Mshld-ed-Dm Sinan, 18
Rodhah, the, 311, 312

Mahdi, the, 300

Martyrs,the, 296
Metawali(pluralMetawileh),
17,295

Mufti, 302
Mujtahid, 303
Nominal marriage, 304
Nuseirfyeh, 19, 300
Doctrine of incarnation,
310

Sophronius,Patriarch of Jerusalem, 16

Spirit of the times, 313


Sufiism. See Hagiology
Syriac language, 16, 123

Tozer, H. F. (his "The Church

and the EasternEmpire"), 44,


52,74note

Turks, Young, 32, 33, 314ff.


Washburn, President, 217
Woman in Islam, 278 ff.
Domestic relations, 281
Harem life, 282
Influence of, 283

Of308,
metempsychosis,
Mohammed's
legislation
for.
309
Feast of the quddas, or
"mass," 308
Initiation

of, 308

278

Peasant freedom, 282


Present conditions, 280

Originand distribution
in
Religious
290
Seclusion,duties,
280
Syria, 294
Persian
passion
play,298
Wortabet,
John,
note,140,
200 note,Dr.
281,
300 88
et passim
Physiognomy in Syria, 296
Pilgrimage by proxy, 304

Practises
in prayer,303
Praying pebble, or sejdi
Temporary marriage,
Visitations to tombs/

Yezid,297,298"
ism, 320, 321
, Dr. S. M.7 188, 189