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# Brine Manual

## Commonly Used Engineering Formulas

Tank & Pit Volumes
Rectangular Tank (bbls) = length (ft) x height (ft) x width (ft) x 0.17857
Rectangular Tank (m3) = length (m) x height (m) x width (m)
Rectangular Tank (bbls) = length (m) x height (m) x width (m) x 6.29
Rectangular Tank (gallons/inch) = L x W x 0.623
Rectangular Tank (bbls/inch) = L x W x 0.0148
Cylindrical Tank (bbls) = [diameter (ft) ]2 x length (ft) x 0.1399
Cylindrical Tank (m3) = [diameter (m) ]2 x length (m) x 0.785
Cylindrical Tank (bbls) = [diameter (m) ]2 x length (m) x 4.938
Vertical Cylindrical Tank (gal/inch) = D2
294
Vertical Cylindrical Tank (bbl/inch) = D2
12348

## Volume Capacity of Pipe & Hoses

Gallons/1000 = (40.8)(ID in inches)2

inches)2

Barrels/ft

inches)2

(.0009714)(ID

## 2 Hose = .388 bbls/100

2 1/2 Hose = .607 bbls/100
3 Hose = .8738 bbls/100
4 Hose = 1.55 bbls/100
Temperature
Degrees Centigrade = 5/9 (Degrees F 32)
Degrees Fahrenheit = (9/5 Degrees C) + 32
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in

Annular Calculations
Hole Capacity (bbls/ft) = Dh2
1,029
Hole Capacity (ft3/ft) = Dh2
183.35
Displacement of Pipe (bbl/ft) = OD2 ID2
1,029
Annular Volume (bbls/ft) = Dh2 (in) Dp2 (in)
1,029
Annular Volume (m3/m = Dh2 (mm) Dp2 (mm)
1,273,000
Annular Velocity (ft/min) = 24.5 (GPM)
Dh2 Dp2
Bottoms Up (min) =

or

Dh2 Dp2
Pump Output (bbls/min)

## Pump Output (bbls/min)

Annular Volume (bbls/ft)
or Annular Volume (bbls)
Pump Output (bbls/min)

## Bottoms Up (min) = Annular Volume (m3)

Pump Output (m3/min

## Density Control Calculations

Mass Balance
Dh Df = fraction of Dl or light fluid
Dh Dl

## Dh = density of heavy fluid

Dl = density of light fluid
Df = density of final or desired fluid

## Df Dl = fraction of Dh or heavy fluid

Dh - Dl
After determining the appropriate fraction for each fluid, multiply the desired volume
times each fraction to determine the volume of each fluid to use.

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WoSf

So
Wf

## Do = Density of original fluid in ppg

Df = Density of final fluid in ppg
Wo = Water fraction of original fluid in bbl/bbl fluid
Wf = Water fraction of final fluid in bbl/bbl fluid
So = Salt of original fluid in pounds
Sf = Salt of final fluid in pounds
Vo = Original volume in bbls
Vf = Final Volume in bbls
Determine the Volume Increase due to the Salt Addition:
Wo
FinalVolume(bbls ) =
Wf
It is necessary to have blending charts to use the above equations. These equations will
work for any similar ion single salt weight upif you have the water fractions and salt
concentration in pounds.

## Increase the Density of a Two Salt Fluid with Dry Bromide:

CoWf
Cf

Wo

CoBf
Cf

Bo

Co
Vf = FinalVolume = Vo
Cf
Do = Density of original fluid in ppg
Df = Density of final fluid in ppg
Wo = Water fraction of original fluid in bbl/bbl fluid
Wf = Water fraction of final fluid in bbl/bbl fluid
Co = Calcium or Sodium Chloride Salt of original fluid in pounds
Cf = Calcium or Sodium Chloride Salt of final fluid in pounds
Bo = Calcium or Sodium Bromide Salt of original fluid in pounds
Bf = Calcium or Sodium Bromide Salt of final fluid in pounds
Ba = Calcium or Sodium Bromide Salt added in pounds
Vo = Original volume in bbls
Vf = Final Volume in bbls
It is necessary to have two salt blending charts to use the above equations. These
equations will work for any similar ion two salt weight upif you have the water
fractions and salt concentration in pounds.
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Increase the Density of a Two Salt Fluid After Dilution with Fresh Water:
First, it is necessary to determine the volume of water that was added to the fluid. The
following equation may be used to determine volume of water that diluted the fluid:
Do Dd
VolumeofWaterAdded ( Dilution) = Vw = Vd

Do 8.33
Next, it is necessary to determine the amount of dry calcium chloride and dry calcium
bromide required to increase the density of the diluted fluid back to the original density.
The following equations may be used to determine the appropriate amount of each salt in
pounds.
Vw
CalciumChloride Re quired (lbs ) = Co
Wo
Vw
CalciumBromide Re quired (lbs ) = Bo
Wo
Vw
FinalVolumeVf = (Vd Vw) +
Wo
Do = Density of original fluid in ppg
Dd = Density of diluted fluid
Wo = Water fraction of original fluid in bbl/bbl fluid
Co = Calcium or Sodium Chloride Salt of original fluid in pounds
Bo = Calcium or Sodium Bromide Salt of original fluid in pounds
Vd = Volume of diluted fluid in bbls.
Vw = Volume of water added (dilution) in bbls
Vf = Final Volume in bbls
It is necessary to have two salt blending charts to use the above equations. These
equations will work for any similar ion two salt weight upif you have the water
fractions and salt concentration in pounds.

## Density Correction for Temperature Variation

Use the following equation and Ve Table to compensate for the variation in the density of
a brine caused by changing temperatures.
Dc = Dm[1 + Ve(Tm Tc )]
Dc = Corrected Density @ 70o F
Dm = Density measured with a hydrometer and converted to ppg by multiplying the
Tm = Temperature at which the Dm is measured
Ve = Volume expansion factor from the table below
Tc = Standard formulation temperature (70o F)

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Ve
.000349
.000406
.000280
.000333
.000300
.000289
.000260
.000240
.000239
.000271
.000264
.000257
.000254
.000253
.000250
.000250
.000250
.000251
.000252
.000254
.000259
.000264
.000271
.000278

## Volume Expansion Factors (Ve)

Density (ppg)
Brine Type
9.0
NaCl
9.5
NaCl
12.0
NaBr
9.0
CaCl2
9.5
CaCl2
10.0
CaCl2
10.5
CaCl2
11.0
CaCl2
11.5
CaBr2/CaCl2
12.0
CaBr2/CaCl2
12.5
CaBr2/CaCl2
13.0
CaBr2/CaCl2
13.5
CaBr2/CaCl2
14.0
CaBr2/CaCl2
14.5
CaBr2/CaCl2
15.0
CaBr2/CaCl2
15.5
ZnBr2/CaBr2/CaCl2
16.0
ZnBr2/CaBr2/CaCl2
16.5
ZnBr2/CaBr2/CaCl2
17.0
ZnBr2/CaBr2/CaCl2
17.5
ZnBr2/CaBr2/CaCl2
18.0
ZnBr2/CaBr2/CaCl2
18.5
ZnBr2/CaBr2/CaCl2
19.0
ZnBr2/CaBr2/CaCl2

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BRINES
RIG CLEAN UP CHECK LIST

A. AREAS TO CLEAN
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

## If possible, remove all drilling mud from the rig.

Clean out suction, return, and reserve pits.
Clean out sand traps.
Clean out ditches and troughs.
Clean out trip tank.
Clean out shaker area.
Clean out mixing hoppers.

## B. ITEMS TO FLUSH OUT

1. All mud pumps and suction lines.
2. Centrifugals and lines.
3. Chemical and weight mixing lines.
4. Lines from the pit room to the trip tank.
5. Lines form the rig floor to the trip tank.
6. Choke, choke manifold and kill lines.
7. Standpipes.
8. Degassing and solids control equipment.
9. Lines to the cement unit and/or other pumping equipment.
10. Casing fill up line.
11. Lines to and from the filtration unit.
12. Take on and return lines to and from the boat.

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Recommendations
Pre job

## Meetings between M-I Completion Fluids and customer should be

held prior to the well site start up. This meeting should include well
site personnel. An overview of the well and the materials needed at the
well site should be included. M-Is Project Engineer Fluid Engineer
will also be present.
M-I Completion Fluids engineer will review the well prognosis with
the on site operator representative.
M-I Completion Fluids would like to have its Fluid Engineer on
location 24 hours before the job start. This will allow the site
representative to make appropriate recommendations and monitor rig
clean up.

Receiving a clean, solids free completion fluid at the well site is a challenge to
both the brine supplier and the customer. Assuming that the brine is clean and
solids free when mixed at the plant, steps to accomplish this goal begin at the
point of transfer from the brine mixing facility to the transport vessel. The
following steps should be taken to ensure a clean transfer to a clean transport
vessel.

The job load out will include an inspection of the vessel transporting
the brine. A shipping and receiving manifest will be signed by the
master of the vessel.
At customers request, volume, density, and other fluid properties will
be checked by a Third Party Representative.
All discharge hoses to be used in the transfer process will be inspected
to ensure cleanliness prior to beginning the transfer.
The receiving vessels tanks, lines and manifolds should be cleaned
and free of all drilling mud, liquids and chemical contamination. An
acid or caustic flush may be required to accomplish the level of
cleanliness required.
Once the cleaning procedures are complete, a joint visual inspection of
the receiving vessel should be conducted by the brine plant personnel
and the person responsible for the receiving vessel. All discharge lines
and valves, including dump valves, should be inspected at that time to
ensure they are closed. It may be wise to use a silicone sealer to
ensure that the dump valves do not leak, especially if there are plans to
transport a calcium or zinc bromide fluid.

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If the receiving vessel is deemed clean and the valves are secure, the
fluid transfer from the brine plant can begin. A beginning sample
should be taken and split, giving the receiving vessels representative
one half of the sample.
The transfer should be continuously monitored to ensure a safe, leak
free transfer. After transferring 50 - 100 barrels of fluid from the plant
to the boat, the fluid should be circulated through the manifold and a
sample taken. That sample should be checked for clarity and density
to ensure that no on-board contamination has taken place. A final
sample should be taken and shared with the receiving vessels
representative.
If the fluid is to be transported in above deck tanks, care should be
taken to ensure that these tanks are adequately secured to the boat deck
and that the hatches are securely closed, prior to the boat leaving the
dock. Hatches on the below deck tanks should be secured.

## Note: In anticipation of rough seas, above deck tanks should be equipped

with a system that prevents or minimizes fluid spillage/leaking through
vent lines.
Job Site
Most drilling mud is not compatible with the clear, solids free completion
fluids. Therefore, measures should be taken to meticulously clean the rig
mud storage and transfer system of all drilling mud and additives. This
includes mud storage tanks, pill or slugging tanks, manifolds, transfer
lines, flow lines, shaker and possum belly and pumps. Known leaky
valves should be repaired or replaced and dump valves should be sealed
with a silicone sealer prior to the rig taking n the clean brine fluid. Pin
holes or other small leaks that were sealed by the drilling mud will not be
plugged by the brine. The following steps are recommended to ensure a
clean transfer of brine fluid from the transport vessel to the rig holding
tanks.

Remove and or isolate the excess mud left from the drilling operation.
It is best to remove the mud from the rig when possible. That
eliminates the possibility of a leaking valve, or of the wrong valve
being opened.
Isolate all the tanks, pumps and other fluid handling equipment that
will come into contact with the brine system.
Thoroughly clean the brine handling system. Use caustic flushes,
detergents and or surfactants to assist in the cleaning and flushing of
the system. After pumping the cleaning sweeps, rinse the system with
water until it is clean.

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After the system has been flushed and is clean, check it for leaks,
especially in the following areas:
1. All storage tanks walls and bottoms (check corners, around
internal piping, etc.)
2. All inspection plates and seals.
3. All in-line valves.
4. Pump packages.
5. Transfer hoses.
6. TANK DUMP VALVES.

## Repair all leaks.

Install ditch gates with rubber seals or silicone them in place.
Remove any mud additives from the area to avoid mistaken products.
Cover all pits.
Drain the water from the tanks and lines and dry the tanks completely.
M-Is Fluid Engineer will make a review of the rig site. At that point
the fluid engineer will make the necessary recommendations.
M-Is Fluid Engineer will monitor the rig clean up throughout the
cleaning process. He will also reverify the cleanness of the rig prior to
taking on the fluid.
M-Is Fluid Engineer will verify the weight, density, and other
appropriate fluid properties.
M-Is Fluid Engineer will monitor the taking on of the brine.
M-Is Fluid Engineer will monitor the movement of the brine
throughout the job. This monitoring includes any and all circulating,
mixing of pills, and the filtration process. He will monitor the brine
for density and clarity. He will monitor any other properties specified
at the well site. He will also track the losses of brine on M-I
Completion Fluids report form.
M-Is Fluid Engineer will monitor the mixing of spacers to ensure that
the spacer has the appropriate properties.

All of the above procedures are supported by M-I Documents and the
Fluid Engineers Completion Report.

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Job Completion

M-I Fluid Engineer will catch a sample of the brine prior to offloading
the brine. A sample will be left with the rig supervisor and one
returned to M-I office for evaluation.
M-I Fluid Engineer will monitor the transferring from the rig to the
transporting vessel.
the brine will aid in reducing the reclamation cost.
A sample of the brine returned will be taken and compared with the
sample taken by the Fluid Engineer.
The samples will be sent to the lab and analyzed. A reclamation
procedure will be recommended. The brine will be reclaimed.
M-I Completion Fluids will issue a complete fluid recap of the well.
This recap will include daily discussions of activity, filtration analysis,
formation losses, surface losses, credits, and cost analysis.

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STORAGE OF BRINES
AT THE RIG SITE

Brines are hygroscopic and should not be exposed to weather conditions. Storage of
brines on the rig should be in enclosed tanks or in an enclosed pit room. Brines should
remain static when being stored. Agitators should not be run. The swirling effect of
agitators allows the brines to have additional exposure to the atmosphere. That causes
more moisture to be absorbed by the brine. The result is a decrease in density.
High-density brines will cause the tanks to bulge. Heavy-duty tanks are required when
storing high-density brines. This will reduce the integrity of the seals. The tanks should
be strong enough to hold the brines without rupturing or leaking. Hatches should be
secured using a sealant along with the gasket as well as being tightly bolted. Gaskets
need to be in very good condition.

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