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SOSC1960

Discovering Mind and Behavior


Lecture 4
Learning

http://www.ntv.co.jp/zoo/index.html

Learning

A relatively permanent change in behavior (or


behavioral capacity) brought about by
_____________

Behavior is shaped by experience


(nurture)

Pavlovs Classical Conditioning


Skinners Operant Conditioning
Banduras Social Cognitive Theory
Media violence
Using learning principles in therapy

Classical conditioning

Stimulus Response connection

Type of learning in which a neutral stimulus


comes to bring about a response after it is
paired with a stimulus that naturally brings
about that response

Pavlov (1927)

a stimulus that, before conditioning, does not


naturally bring about the response

a stimulus that naturally brings


about a particular response
without having been learned

a natural, reflexive response that


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needs no training

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a response that, after conditioning, follows


a previously neutral stimulus

a once neutral stimulus that has been


paired with an unconditioned stimulus to
bring about a response formerly caused
only by the unconditioned stimulus

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Fear

Little Albert experiment (Watson, 1927)

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Fear

Little Albert experiment (Watson, 1927)

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Fear

What are the implications for people who have


experienced traumatic events? Fear toward
environmental features which were present in
the traumatic events.

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Classical conditioning in ads

Linking a product with a stimulus


(unconditioned stimulus) which naturally
brings about a positive feeling (unconditioned
response)

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Using celebrities

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E____________

Occurs when a previously conditioned response


decreases in frequency and eventually
disappears
The conditioned stimulus is no longer paired
with the unconditioned stimulus

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During Conditioning

Bell (CS)
Salivation (CR)
Food (UCS)
After Conditioning

Bell (CS)

Salivation (CR)

Extinction

Bell (CS)
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Stimulus _______________

Occurs when a conditioned response follows a


stimulus that is _________ to the original
conditioned stimulus
The more similar the two stimuli are, the more
likely generalization is to occur

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The more similar a stimulus is to the conditioned


stimuli, the more likely this new stimuli can trigger
the conditioned response

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Baslam (1988)

Operant conditioning

Operant conditioning

A type of learning in which a response is


strengthened or weakened, depending on its
__________ or _____________ consequences
The organisms operate on the environment to
produce a desirable results

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Studying operant conditioning

Operant chamber (or Skinner box)


A small enclosure in which an animal can make
a specific response that is recorded while the
consequences of the response are
systematically controlled

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Operant conditioning

Behavior becomes more likely if it brings good


consequences (_______________)
Behavior becomes less likely if it brings bad
consequences (_______________)

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__________________________:
a behavior is followed by a pleasant stimulus
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___________________________:
a behavior is followed by the removal of an unpleasant stimulus
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________________________:
A behavior followed by an unpleasant stimulus
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________________________:
A behavior followed by the removal of a pleasant stimulus
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Cognitive approaches to learning


Behavior can be learned without
reinforcement or direct experience
Studying learning in terms of thought
processes that underlie it
Re-introduce the mind into the learning
processes

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Observational learning

A process in which an individual learns new


responses by observing what others
(__________) do and what happens to them
for doing it, instead of through direct
experience
Learning through imitation

particular likely when the model is similar &


reinforced

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Bandura, Ross, & Ross (1963)


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vdh7MngntnI

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Observational learning

Very often, we do not or could not learn by


trial-and-error

E.g., the danger of crossing the road


E.g., the penalty of committing criminal offences

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Media violence

Release of violent game GTA triggers real assault

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Media violence

Violence in television and video games


Media copycat killings (e.g., Columbine High
School)
Many evidence showing that watching high
levels of media violence makes viewers more
susceptible to acting aggressively

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Brief exposure to violent dramatic presentations on TV or in


films causes short-term increases in youths aggressive
thoughts, emotions, and behavior, including physically
aggressive behavior serious enough to harm others.

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Anderson et al. (2003)

The current physical aggression, verbal


aggression, and aggressive thoughts of young
people are correlated with the amount of
television and film violence they regularly watch
High levels of exposure to violent TV
programs in childhood are associated with
aggression in later childhood, adolescence, and
even young adulthood

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Anderson et al. (2003)

Using learning principles in therapy


Therapy approaches which build on the
basic processes of learning
Assumptions

Behavior, normal or not, is a product of


learning
What has been learned can be unlearned

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Aversive conditioning (or aversion therapy)

Reducing the frequency of undesired behavior


by pairing an aversive, unpleasant stimulus
with the undesired behavior (e.g., alcohol
abuse, smoking, gambling, sexual deviance,
overeating)

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Alcohol abuse

Unconditioned stimulus
(Antabuse)

Conditioned
stimulus
(Alcohol) Unconditioned
stimulus
(Antabuse)

Unconditioned
response
(nausea, vomiting)

Unconditioned
response
(nausea, vomiting)

Before Conditioning

During Conditioning

Conditioned stimulus
(Alcohol)

Conditioned
response
(nausea, vomiting)

After Conditioning
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Smoking

Rapid smoking
Focused smoking

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Operant conditioning

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Token system

Tangible reinforcers in the form of tokens that


can later be exchanged for desired objects or
privileges

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Observational learning/ modeling to treat


phobia

E.g. Children who were afraid of rabbits seeing


a model (the Fearless Peer) playing with a
rabbit

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Required Readings
Chapter 6

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