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By
August, 2014
(For copies, send email please, to the author: rsjreddy1341946@gmail.com)
Dedication
to
SRI GOVINDARAJA SWAMI VARU
(Sri Maha Vishnu of Vaikuntam)
Tirupati Temple, Chittoor District,
Andhra Pradesh, India
Preface
3.14159265358 has been used as a
circumference of circle, has become impossible with the known concepts, principles,
statements, theorems, etc.
From 1660 onwards, 3.14159265358 has been derived by infinite series
also, starting with John Wallis of UK and James Gregory of Scotland. This number
was obtained by Madavan of Kerala, India, adopting the same concept of infinite
series even earlier i.e. 1450.
recently, that Madavan is the first to invent infinite series for the derivation of
3.14159265358. John Wallis and James Gregory too invented the infinite series
independently though later in period (George Gheverghese Joseph of Manchester
University, UK).
C.L.F. Lindemann (1882), Von K. Weirstrass and David Hilbert have
called 3.14159265358 as a transcendental number. The basis for their proof was
Eulers formula ei + 1 = 0 (Leonhard Euler, Swiss Mathematician, 17071783).
With their proofs, squaring of circle has become, without any doubt, an
unsolved geometrical problem. Thus, the present thinking on
is the
is, 3.14159265358
number.
At this juncture, the true and an exact
value equal to
14
2
4
value is
14
2
4
as the real
value with Siva method, Jesus method and later with many more methods only.
A dilemma has thus crept into the minds of the people, which number
3.14159265358 or
14
2
4
value.
One
responsibility before this author was to clear this dilemma. And, therefore, a book
was written collecting the work done in the past 12 years and titled Pi of the Circle in
2010, and is available in the website www.rsjreddy.webnode.com
The second responsibility before this author was also, to search for any flaw
in the derivation of the present value of
equal to 3.14159265358
As a result of continuous search for 16 years further deep, two errors have
been identified. And one paper has been published. One is, that, 3.14159265358
belongs to the polygon and not to the circle. The second error is, to call
of the circle
constant 3.14.
refers to
When 3.14 is involved in the Eulers formula, the formula becomes wrong. Is it
acceptable then to call
right of its participation in the above formula ? However, it is acceptable still, if one
agrees that
radians 1800 =
constant 3.14 or
immediately. Here, the NATURE has kindly entered and rectified the errors by
revealing Gayatri
ii
In this book there are two unpublished papers also, one is to show the first
method the base of this work after 26 years of struggle (Gayatri method) and two is
is, not a transcendental number (Arthanaareeswara method).
Fifteen papers on
journals. The World and this humble author are grateful, forever, to these Journals.
1. IOSR Journal of Mathematics
2. International Journal of Mathematics and Statistics Invention
3. International Journal of Engineering Inventions
4. International Journal of Latest Trends in Engineering and Technology
5. IOSR Journal of Engineering (IOSRJEN)
While writing Pi of the Circle, Mr. A. Narayanaswamy Naidu, and while
writing these published papers of this book, Mr. M. Poornachandra Reddy, have
helped this author in simplification of formulas. The Editors of above Journals have
published this authors work after refining the papers, keeping in mind the standards
expected in the original research.
Education (196368) because of his mother only. He led a happy life for 42 years
with his wife. Now he is leading a peaceful life because of his second daughter
R. Sarada out of three children by staying at her house, after the death of this
authors wife two and half years ago. Mr. Suryanarayana of M/s. Vinay Graphics,
Balaji Colony, Tirupati, has done DTP work perfectly well. This author, therefore, is
greatly indebted to these wellwishers and prays to the God to bless them with good
health. This author requests the readers to send their comments and they will be
gratefully received and acknowledged. To end, the quantum of contribution of this
author in this work is equal to, square root of less than one, in the square of trillions of
trillions, i.e.
1
trillions of trillions
Author
iii
constant
without for circle too. He thought many days. One day he inscribed a
circle in a square and found the diameter of the inscribed circle and the side of
the superscribed square equal. He was surprised and felt happy that he got the
clue to make real, the question Why not without . He thought and thought,
did many things, searched, studied, enquired fellow mathematicians, did
physical experiments, onandoff, for next 26 years.
Being a government college teacher, he was transferred in the mean
time, from Piler (197181) to Kadapa, to Nagari, to Anantapur and finally to
Chittoor (in December 1995). No answer to his question of 1972.
He was 26 when question came, waited another 26 years and lost self
confidence. He was like a man swimming on the surface of the ocean looking
down and striving hard to take hold of the wanted pin with its visible blurred
image lying on the bottom of the ocean. Man looks up when he is helpless.
This was what happened to him also. He went to the nearby temple of Mother
Goddess Durga (at Chittoor) in 1998 and prayed to HER. He gave a word to
the goddess. When he gets answer and succeed in finding formulas for the
iv
was
not 22/7 and it was 3.1415926 in its reply with encouraging comments.
There, the search did not stop. Second question came anew. The new
question made this author why should there be 22/7, 3.1416, 3.1415926 By
March, 1998, during the rejuvenated search Gayatri Method, Siva method
came successively after many many many failures.
Next 16 years,
14
2
4
reading.
CONTENTS
Page No.
1.
Preface
iiii
2.
ivv
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
13
8.
21
9.
25
10.
27
11.
29
12.
33
13.
39
14.
43
15.
47
16.
51
17.
56
18.
64
19.
66
20.
73
Gayatri Method
ABCD = Square
AB = Side = a = 1
JG = diameter = a= 1
OF = OG = radius =
a
= 0.5
2
FG = hypotenuse =
2a
2
DE = EF = GH = CH =
2a
2
a
EH FG
2
2a
2a
4
The length of the circumference of the inscribed circle can be earmarked in the
perimeter of the superscribed square.
Circumference of the circle =
BA + AD + DC + CH = a + a + a +
d= a=
14a
2a
2a
4
2a
4
14
2
4
14a
2a
4
Square ABCD
1
Side AB = 1
Diagonal = AC =
Take a paper and construct a square whose side is 1 (=10 cm) and diagonal 2 .
Fold the paper along the diagonal AC. Then bring the two points of A and C of
the folded triangle touching each other in the form of a ring, such that AC
becomes the length of the circumference of the circle whose value is
2 . Now
2 = d;
Circumference =
d=
1
2
; Area =
d2
=
4
x Area of circle =
2
2
4
2 1
4
2
4
1
2
Second method
This time let us bring A and D or D and C close together, touching just in such
a way they form a ring (= circle)
Side = AD = 1 (=10 cm);
1
d= ;
d2
4
1 1
4
Circumference = 1 = d;
1
; 2 x Area of circle = 2
4
1
4
1
2
The interrelationship between two areas of circle and triangle by , shows that
is not a special number called transcendental number.
14 2
= 3.14644660942 A
4
different approach is followed here by the blessings of the God. The areas of constituent rectangles of the
superscribed square, are estimated both arithmetically, and in terms of of the inscribed circle. And value
thus derived from this study of correct relationship among superscribed square, inscribed circle and constituent
rectangles of the square, is exact.
Keywords: Circle, diagonal, diameter, area, radius, side, square
I.
Introduction
Square is an algebraic geometrical entity. It has four sides and two diagonals which are straight lines.
A circle can be inscribed in the square. The side of the square and the diameter of the inscribed circle are same.
This similarity between diameter and side, has made possible to find out the exact length of the circumference
and the exact extent of the area of the circle, when this interrelationship between circle and its superscribed
square, are understood in their right perspective. The difficulty is, the inscribed circle is a curvature, though, its
diameter/ radius is a straight line as in the case of side, diagonal of the square. When we say a different
approach is adopted, it means, these are entirely new to the literature of mathematics. The universal acceptance
to the new principles observed in the following method is a tough job and takes time. However, as the
following reasoning ways are cent percent in accordance with the known principles, understanding of the idea is
easy.
To study the different dimensions, such as, circumference and area of circle, constant is inevitable.
Similarly, to understand perimeter and area of the square, 4a and a 2 are adopted and hence, no constant similar
to circle is necessary in square. In the present study, the area of the square is divided into five rectangles. The
areas of rectangles are calculated in two ways: they are: 1. Arithmetical way and 2. In terms of of the
inscribed circle. Finally, the arithmetical values are equated to formulas having , and the value of is derived
ultimately, which is exact.
II.
Procedure
Draw a square and its two diagonals. Inscribe a circle in the square.
1.
Square = ABCD, AB = Side = a
2.
Diagonals = AC = BD = 2a
3.
O Centre, EF = diameter = side = a
4.
The circumference of the circle intersects two diagonals of four points: E, H, F and G. Draw a parallel
line IJ to the sides DC, passing through G and F.
5.
OG = OF = radius = a/2
6.
Triangle GOF.
GF = hypotenuse = OG 2 =
a
2 =
2
2a
= GF
2
This author studied B.Sc., (Zoology as Major) and M.Sc., (Zoology) during the years 196368 in the Sri
Venkateswara University College, Tirupati, Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh, India. And hence this author
as a mark of his gratitude to the Alma Mater, this method is named after Universitys Honour.
www.iosrjournals.org
44  Page
Pi treatment for the constituent rectangles of the superscribed square in the study of exact area of ..
7.
IJ = side = a
8.
DI = IG = FJ = JC =
Side hypotenuse IJ GF
=
2
2
2a 1 2 2
= a
=
a = JC
2
2
4
2 2
9.
JC =
CB = side = a
4 a ,
2 2
2 2
a
JB = CB CJ = a
=
4
4 a
10.
Bisect JB twice of CB side of Fig2
JB JL + LB JK + KL + LM + MB
=
2 2
2 2
2 2
a
a
a
4
8
16
11.
Similarly, bisect IA twice, of AD side of Fig2
IA IP + PA IQ + QP + PN + NA
12.
Join QK, PL, and NM.
13.
Finally, the ABCD square is divided into five rectangles.
DIJC, IQKJ, QPLK, PNML and NABM
Out of the five rectangles, the uppermost rectangle DIJC is of different dimension from the other four bottomed
rectangles.
14.
Area of DIJC rectangle
= DI x IJ =
15.
2 2
2 2 2
a a =
a
4
4
The lower four rectangles are of same area. For example one rectangle
= IQKJ = IQ x QK =
16.
2 2
2 2 2
a a =
a
16
16
Area of 4 rectangles
www.iosrjournals.org
45  Page
Pi treatment for the constituent rectangles of the superscribed square in the study of exact area of ..
= IQKJ + QPLK + PNML + NABM =
2 2 2 2 2 2
4
a =
a
16
4
17.
Area of the square ABCD
= DIJC + 4 bottomed rectangles = a2
=
2 2 2
2 2 2
2
a 4
a a
4
16
PartII
18.
Let us repeat that
Area of the ABCD square = a2
d 2 a 2
Area of the inscribed circle =
; where diameter = side = a
4
4
19.
When side = diameter = a = 1
Area of the ABCD square = a2 = 1 x 1 = 1
d 2 a 2 11
20.
Corner area in the square (of Figs 1, 2, and 3)
= Square area circle area
=
4
4
21.
It is true that any bottomed 4 rectangles, is equal to
the corner area of the square of Figs 1, 2 and 3. Thus,
bottomed rectangle = corner area
2 2 2
a
16
2 2
2 2
11 =
16
16
PartIII
22.
2 2 2
a of
4
2 2 2
S.No. 14 and next lower 3 rectangles IQJK, QPLK and PNML, and each is equal to
16 a of S.No. 15
2
2 2 2
2 2 2 14 2 2 a
a 3
a =
a
4
4
16
16
a 2
24.
Area of the inscribed circle =
where a = 1
4
4
4
Area of the corner region =
(S.No. 20)
4
23.
The inscribed circle is equal to the sum of the areas of upper most rectangle DIJC =
4
4
25.
The sum of the areas of 4 bottomed rectangles
= Square area Uppermost rectangle DIJC
www.iosrjournals.org
46  Page
Pi treatment for the constituent rectangles of the superscribed square in the study of exact area of ..
2 2 2
a 2
a
4
26.
4 2
a
4
4 2
4
a =
4
2 2 2
a and
4
S. No. 14
this is equal to S.No. 16
As the area of the corner region is equal to any one of the 4 bottomed rectangles,
then it is =
27.
4 a 2
28.
Finally,
Area of the uppermost rectangle DIJC
= Square area 4 bottomed rectangles
= a 2 4 a 2 3 a 2
29.
CJ length = 3 a
Side = AB = IJ = a
30.
Area of the upper most rectangle DIJC
= CJ x IJ = 3 a a = 3 a 2
31.
Thus, the areas of five rectangles which are interpreted in terms of above, are
Uppermost rectangle DIJC = 3 a 2
4 bottomed rectangles = 4 a
4 2 2
a a
4
4
3 a 2 3
2 2 2 2 2
S.No. 21 where a = 1
a =
16
16
4
and 2. in terms of =
S.No. 20
4
4 2 2
then
4
16
14 2
4
1. Arithmetically =
III.
Conclusion
It is well known, that a2 is the formula to find out area of a square or a rectangle. In this paper besides
2
a , formulae, in terms of , of the inscribed circle in a square, are obtained, and equated to the classical
arithmetical values of a2. One has to admire the Nature, that, a circles area can also be represented exactly
equal, by the areas of rectangles, thus, the arithmetical values of these rectangles, are equated to that of a circle,
which thus give rise to new value
14 2
=3.14644660942 This author stands and bow down and
4
www.iosrjournals.org
47  Page
Pi treatment for the constituent rectangles of the superscribed square in the study of exact area of ..
dedicates this work to the Nature. The Nature is the visible speck of the infinite Cosmos. The Creator exists
in the invisible Energy form of this infinite Cosmos. We call this Creator as GOD and this author offers
himself, surrenders himself totally and prays to THE LORD of the Cosmos of His/ Hers/ Its infinite
goodness, as an infinitesimally, a small living moving body, as a mark of humble gratitude to THE LORD.
References
[1].
[2].
[3].
[4].
[5].
[6].
[7].
[8].
[9].
[10].
[11].
Lennart Berggren, Jonathan Borwein, Peter Borwein (1997), Pi: A source Book, 2 nd edition, SpringerVerlag Ney York Berlin
Heidelberg SPIN 10746250.
Alfred S. Posamentier & Ingmar Lehmann (2004), , A Biography of the Worlds Most Mysterious Number, Page. 25 prometheus
Books, New York 142282197.
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), New Method of Computing Pi value (Siva Method). IOSR Journal of Mathematics, eISSN:
22783008, pISSN: 23197676. Volume 10, Issue 1 Ver. IV. (Feb. 2014), PP 4849.
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), Jesus Method to Compute the Circumference of A Circle and Exact Pi Value. IOSR Journal of
Mathematics, eISSN: 22783008, pISSN: 23197676. Volume 10, Issue 1 Ver. I. (Jan. 2014), PP 5859.
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), Supporting Evidences To the Exact Pi Value from the Works Of Hippocrates Of Chios, Alfred
S. Posamentier And Ingmar Lehmann. IOSR Journal of Mathematics, eISSN: 22783008, pISSN:23197676. Volume 10, Issue 2
Ver. II (MarApr. 2014), PP 0912
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), New Pi Value: Its Derivation and Demarcation of an Area of Circle Equal to Pi/4 in A Square.
International Journal of Mathematics and Statistics Invention, EISSN: 2321 4767 PISSN: 2321  4759. Volume 2 Issue 5, May.
2014, PP3338.
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), Pythagorean way of Proof for the segmental areas of one square with that of rectangles of
adjoining square. IOSR Journal of Mathematics, eISSN: 22783008, pISSN:23197676. Volume 10, Issue 3 Ver. III (MayJun.
2014), PP 1720.
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), Hippocratean Squaring Of Lunes, Semicircle and Circle. IOSR Journal of Mathematics, eISSN: 22783008, pISSN:23197676. Volume 10, Issue 3 Ver. II (MayJun. 2014), PP 3946
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), Durga Method of Squaring A Circle. IOSR Journal of Mathematics, eISSN: 22783008, pISSN:23197676. Volume 10, Issue 1 Ver. IV. (Feb. 2014), PP 1415
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), The unsuitability of the application of Pythagorean Theorem of Exhaustion Method, in finding
the actual length of the circumference of the circle and Pi. International Journal of Engineering Inventions. eISSN: 22787461, pISSN: 23196491, Volume 3, Issue 11 (June 2014) PP: 2935.
RD Sarva Jagannadha Reddy (2014), Pi of the Circle, at www.rsjreddy.webnode.com
www.iosrjournals.org
48  Page
14 2
= 3.14644660942
4
Key words: Arbelos, area, circle, diameter, diagonal, Golden Ratio, Perimeter, value, side, square
I.
Introduction
The geometrical entitles and concepts such as circle, square, triangle, Golden Ratio have been studied
a
b
.
b ab
a
5 1
b
5 1
0.6180339887498948482045868343656, while the reciprocal
The ratio
=
b
2
a
2
extensively. The Golden Ratio is the ratio of two line segments a and b (when a < b) such that
1.6180339887498948482045868343656.
1
. (A.S. Posamentier and I. Lehmann, 2004,
It suggests that
14 2
=
4
3.14644660942 (unlike with official value 3.14159265358) is inseparable with radius and is, here,
humbly submitted to the World of Mathematics:
Area of the circle
7r
2r
2
r
r
4
2
6r
2r 2r
= 2r
2
In support of the above formulae, this paper also chooses and confirms that the real value is
3.14644660942
www.iosrjournals.org
14 2
=
4
33  Page
A study that shows the existence of a simple relationship among square, circle, Golden Ratio ..
II.
1.
Procedure
Draw a square ABCD. Draw two diagonals. Inscribe a circle with centre O and with radius
1
,
2
Triangle EAB,
EH =
AB = 1
EB = hypotenuse =
1
;
2
Golden Ratio = HB =
3.
1
,
2
5
4
HB = EB EH =
5 1
5 1
4 2
2
5 1
2
EN = Diameter = 1
5 1
= 0.61803398874
2
5 1 3 5
JN = EN EJ = 1
= 0.38196601126
2 = 2
EJ = HB =
4.
Draw two semicircles on EN. And one semicircle with EJ as its diameter, and second semicircle with
JN as its diameter.
5.
5 1
and
2
3 5
2
6.
The area present (which is shaded) outside the two semicircles (of EJ and JN) and within the larger EN
semi circle, is called arbelos of Archimedes.
7.
Draw a perpendicular line on EN at J which meets circumference at K.
KJ =
=
2
2
5 2 = 0.48586827174
www.iosrjournals.org
34  Page
A study that shows the existence of a simple relationship among square, circle, Golden Ratio ..
8.
Draw a full circle with diameter KJ. It has already been established that this area of the full circle is
equal to the area of the shaded region called arbelos.
9.
To calculate the area of the arbelos we have the following formulas.
2
q d q
h
and
4
2
h
= radius of LKM circle.
2
10.
q d q
4
3 5
q = JN =
2
d = EN = diameter = 1
3 5 3 5
2
=
=
4
4
= 0.23606797749
4
52
11.
KJ = diameter = h =
Radius =
5 2
diameter h
=
2
2
52
= 0.24293413587
2
12.
h
2
13.
q d q
or
4
14 2
, the time has come,
4
2a= 2
Perimeter of thesquare
1
Half of 7 times of side of square th of diagonal
4
16
4a
4
4
=
=
=
=
14 2
14 2
7a
2a
7
2
4
2
4
2 4
Diagonal =
www.iosrjournals.org
10
35  Page
A study that shows the existence of a simple relationship among square, circle, Golden Ratio ..
(when a circle is inscribed in a square, or when a square is created from the four equidistant tangents on a
circle, the length of the circumference of the inscribed circle can be demarcated in the perimeter of the
superscribed square. It is called rectification of the circumference of the circle).
Part III (Area of the arbelos)
Let us calculate now the area of the arbelos with the known two values, official value and new one called
Gayatri value.
15.
With official value
3.14159265358
0.23606797749 =
0.23606797749 = 0.18540735595
4
4
3.14644660942
0.23606797749 =
0.23606797749 = 0.18569382184
4
4
(S.No. 10)
5 1
= 0.61803398874
2
3
5 1
19.
Let us divide area of the arbelos of S.No. 17 with the Cube of Golden Ratio =
2 and
16
multiply it with
of the formula, derived in the S.No.14, which finally gives the area of the square
14 2
ABCD, equal to 1.
The value that gives the exact area of the square equal to 1 is confirmed as the real value. Here, the
Golden Ratio decides, the real value, by choosing the correct area of the arbelos of Archimedes of S.No. 17
20.
Area of the arbelos obtained with official value (S.No. 17)
0.18540735595
5 1
16
14 2
Let us use simple calculator for the value of cube of Golden Ratio, which gives 0.23606797748
0.18540735595
16
0.23606797748 14 2
0.18540735595
1.27127534534 = 0.99845732139
=
0.23606797748
21.
Area of the arbelos obtained with Gayatri value (S.No. 17). Let us repeat steps of S.No. 20 here:
0.18569382184
5 1
16
0.18569382184
1.27127534534 = 1
=
14 2 0.23606797748
www.iosrjournals.org
11
36  Page
A study that shows the existence of a simple relationship among square, circle, Golden Ratio ..
As the exact area of the superscirbed square is obtained, it is clear, therefore, that, the real value is
= 3.14644660942
III.
14 2
4
Conclusion
It is well known that there exists a simple relationship between circle and square. In the present study,
it is clear such simple relation also exists between Golden Ratio and arbelos of Archimedes. This paper
combines above two kinds of relations and decides the real value, as
14 2
= 3.14644660942
4
References
[1].
[2].
[3].
[4].
[5].
[6].
[7].
[8].
[9].
[10].
[11].
[12].
Lennart Berggren, Jonathan Borwein, Peter Borwein (1997), Pi: A source Book, 2 nd edition, SpringerVerlag Ney York Berlin
Heidelberg SPIN 10746250.
Alfred S. Posamentier & Ingmar Lehmann (2004), , A Biography of the Worlds Most Mysterious Number, Prometheus Books,
New York 142282197.
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), New Method of Computing Pi value (Siva Method). IOSR Journal of Mathematics, eISSN:
22783008, pISSN: 23197676. Volume 10, Issue 1 Ver. IV. (Feb. 2014), PP 4849.
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), Jesus Method to Compute the Circumference of A Circle and Exact Pi Value. IOSR Journal of
Mathematics, eISSN: 22783008, pISSN: 23197676. Volume 10, Issue 1 Ver. I. (Jan. 2014), PP 5859.
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), Supporting Evidences To the Exact Pi Value from the Works Of Hippocrates Of Chios, Alfred
S. Posamentier And Ingmar Lehmann. IOSR Journal of Mathematics, eISSN: 22783008, pISSN:23197676. Volume 10, Issue 2
Ver. II (MarApr. 2014), PP 0912
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), New Pi Value: Its Derivation and Demarcation of an Area of Circle Equal to Pi/4 in A Square.
International Journal of Mathematics and Statistics Invention, EISSN: 2321 4767 PISSN: 2321  4759. Volume 2 Issue 5, May.
2014, PP3338.
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), Pythagorean way of Proof for the segmental areas of one square with that of rectangles of
adjoining square. IOSR Journal of Mathematics, eISSN: 22783008, pISSN:23197676. Volume 10, Issue 3 Ver. III (MayJun.
2014), PP 1720.
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), Hippocratean Squaring Of Lunes, Semicircle and Circle. IOSR Journal of Mathematics, eISSN: 22783008, pISSN:23197676. Volume 10, Issue 3 Ver. II (MayJun. 2014), PP 3946
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), Durga Method of Squaring A Circle. IOSR Journal of Mathematics, eISSN: 22783008, pISSN:23197676. Volume 10, Issue 1 Ver. IV. (Feb. 2014), PP 1415
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), The unsuitability of the application of Pythagorean Theorem of Exhaustion Method, in finding
the actual length of the circumference of the circle and Pi. International Journal of Engineering Inventions. eISSN: 22787461, pISSN: 23196491, Volume 3, Issue 11 (June 2014) PP: 2935.
RD Sarva Jagannadha Reddy (2014), Pi of the Circle, at www.rsjreddy.webnode.com.
R.D. Sarva Jagannadha Reddy (2014). Pi treatment for the constituent rectangles of the superscribed square in the study of exact
area of the inscribed circle and its value of Pi (SV University Method*). IOSR Journal of Mathematics (IOSR JM), eISSN: 22785728, pISSN: 2319765X. Volume 10, Issue 4 Ver. I (JulAug. 2014), PP 4448.
www.iosrjournals.org
12
37  Page
www.iosrjen.org
14 2
= 3.14644660942.. It is an algebraic number. Squaring of a circle is done in this paper. With
4
this new value, exact area of the arbelos is calculated and squaring of arbelos is also done. Arbelos of
Archimedes chooses the real value.
Keywords:  Arbelos, area, circle, diameter, squaring, side
I.
INTRODUCTION
Circle and square are two important geometrical entities. Square is straight lined entity, and circle is a
curvature. Perimeter and area of a square can be calculated easily with a2 and 4a, where a is the side of the
square. A circle can be inscribed in a square. The diameter d of the inscribed circle is equal to the side a of
the superscribed square. To find out the area and circumference of the circle, there are two formulae r2 and
2r, where r is radius and is a constant. constant is defined as the ratio of circumference and diameter of
its circle. So, to obtain the value for , one must necessarily know the exact length of the circumference of the
circle. As the circumference of the circle is a curvature it has become a very tough job to know the exact value
of circumference. Hence, a regular polygon is inscribed in a circle. The sides of the inscribed polygon doubled
many times, until, the inscribed polygon reaches, such that, no gap can be seen between the perimeter of the
polygon and the circumference of the circle. The value of polygon is taken as the value of circumference of
the circle. This value is 3.14159265358
In March 1998, it was discovered the exact value from Gayatri method. This new value is
14 2
=
4
3.14644660942.
In 1882, C.L.F. Lindemann and subsequently, Vow. K. Weirstrass and David Hilbert (1893) said that
3.14159265358 was a transcendental number. A transcendental number cannot square a circle. What is
squaring of a circle ? One has to find a side of the square, geometrically, whose area is equal to the area of a
circle. Even then, mathematicians have been trying, for many centuries, for the squaring of circle. No body
could succeed except S. Ramanjan of India. He did it for some decimals of 3.14159265358 His diagram is
shown below.
Then the square on BX is very nearly equal to the area of the circle, the error being less than a tenth of an inch
when the diameter is 40 miles long.
S. Ramanujan
13
63  P a g e
Squaring of circle and arbelos and the judgment of arbelos in choosing the real Pi value (Bhagavan
With the discovery of
14 2
= 3.14644660942 squaring of circle has become very easy and is done
4
here.
Archiemedes (240 BC) of Syracuse, Greece, has given us a geometrical entity called arbelos. The shaded area
is called arbelos. It is present inside a larger semicircle but outside the two smaller semicircles having two
different diameters.
In this paper squaring of circle and squaring of arbelos are done and are as follows.
II.
1.
2.
EG = diameter =
4a 4
=
5
5
Semicircle on GF = EF EG = 1
GF = diameter =
3.
PROCEDURE
4 1
=
5 5
a 1
=
5 5
14
64  P a g e
Squaring of circle and arbelos and the judgment of arbelos in choosing the real Pi value (Bhagavan
Draw a perpendicular line at G on EF diameter, which meets circumference at H. Apply Altitude theorem to
obtain the length of GH.
GH =
4.
EG GF =
d 2
4
6.
2
=d
5
2 2
=
4 5 5 25
5.
4 1 2
=
5 5 5
14 2 1
14 2
=
100
25 4 25
d 2
= 1 1
4
4
4
7.
8.
Triangle KOL
d a 1
=
=
2 2 2
2d
2a
2
KL = hypotenuse =
=
=
2
2
2
Side hypotenuse
DJ = JK = LM = MC =
2
2a 1 2 2
2 2
= a
=
a =
4
2 2 4
OK = OL = radius =
So, DJ =
9.
2 2
4
2 2 2 2
a .
a =
4 4
JA = DA DJ = a
So, JA =
2 2
4
Bisect JA twice
JA JN + NA NP + PA
2 2
2 2
2 2
4
8
16
2 2
So, PA =
16
2 2 14 2
DP = DA side AP = 1
16 = 16
10.
15
65  P a g e
Squaring of circle and arbelos and the judgment of arbelos in choosing the real Pi value (Bhagavan
14 2
4
16
11.
DP
12.
2 2
,
16
AP =
13.
DP =
14 2
16
Draw a perpendicular line on AD at P, which meets semicircle at Q. Apply Altitude theorem to obtain
PQ length
PQ AP DP =
14.
2 2 14 2
=
16 16
26 12 2
16
Join QD
Now we have a triangle QPD
PQ
26 12 2
,
16
PD
14 2
16
QD =
15.
PQ PD
2
26 12 2 14 2 2
14 2
16
16
4
14 2
is the length of the side of a square whose area is equal to the area of the inscribed circle
4
14 2 14 2
, where
,
4
16
4
4
14 2
a
4
2
14 2
14 2
=
Area of the square = a2
16
4
Side =
14 2
= 3.14644660942 is based
4
So,
17.
14 2 1
14 2
14 2
=
, where
100
4
25 4 25
To square the arbelos, we have to obtain a length of the side of the square whose area is equal to area
of the arbelos
18.
of S.No.4
25
14 2
.
100
EG = diameter =
4
. I is the mid of EG.
5
16
66  P a g e
Squaring of circle and arbelos and the judgment of arbelos in choosing the real Pi value (Bhagavan
EI + IG = EG =
2 2 4
5 5 5
So EI =
2
5
19.
Side = RB = EI =
2
5
2
= side, and with Centre Z. The circle intersects RT and SB diagonals at K
5
and L. Draw a parallel line connecting RS side and BT side passing through K and L.
20.
Triangle KZL
1
5
2
1
KL = hypotenuse = 2 =
5
5
2
RB =
5
ZK = ZL = radius =
2 1 2 2
Side hypotenuse 2
=
5 5 2 = 10
2
2 2
= BU
22.
So, LU =
10
2
BT = Side of the square =
5
2 2 2 2 2
UT = BT BU =
5 10
10
21.
LU =
So, UT =
2 2
10
23.
Bisect UT twice
UT UV + VT VX + XT
2 2
2 2
2 2
10
20
40
2 2
So, XT =
40
2 2
2
24.
BT = ;
XT =
40
5
2 2 2
BX = BT XT =
5 40
14 2
BX =
40
2
as its diameter.
5
25.
26.
17
67  P a g e
Squaring of circle and arbelos and the judgment of arbelos in choosing the real Pi value (Bhagavan
XY length can be obtained by applying Altitude theorem
14 2 2 2
XY BX XT
40 40
=
27.
26 12 2
XY
40
BX
Triangle BXY
14 2
,
40
XY
26 12 2
40
2
14 2 26 12 2
2
2
=
BY BX XY =
40
40
14 2
10
BY is the required side of the square whose area is equal to the area of the arbelos of Archimedes.
Side =
14 2
=a
10
2
14 2
14 2
=
of S.No. 16
Area of the square on BY = a2 =
100
10
= Area of arbelos
PartIV (The Judgment on the Real Pi value)
In this paper, the correctness of the area of the arbelos of Archimedes can be confirmed. How ? Here are the
following steps.
14 2
14 2
gives area of the arbelos as
= 0.12585786437. Whereas the official
4
100
d 2
1
= 3.14159265358 x d x d x
value 3.14159265358 gives the area of the arbelos as
4
4
2
d = GH =
of S.No. 3
5
2 2 1
3.14159265358 = 0.12566370614
5 5 4
28.
New value
Thus, the following are the two different values for the same area of the arbelos.
Official value gives = 0.12566370614
New value gives = 0.12585786437
29.
2
5
2 2
4
=
5 5 25
1
1
25
2
4
d
4
25
25
30.
Area of arbelos, if multiplied with
we get the area of the inscribed circle in the ABCD square
4
d 2
Area of the circle =
4
Reciprocal of the square of the diameter =
18
68  P a g e
Squaring of circle and arbelos and the judgment of arbelos in choosing the real Pi value (Bhagavan
14 2
4
14 2
1 14 2
1 1 =
=
4
4
16
31.
Area of the arbelos reciprocal of the square of the arbelos circles diameter = Area of the
d = a = 1,
14 2 25
14 2
=
100
4
16
S. No. 16 S.No.29 S.No. 30
32.
Let us derive the following formula from the dimensions of square ABCD
ABCD square, AB = side = a = 1
AC = BD = diagonal =
4a
7a
2a
2
4
33.
4
7
2
2 4
4
16
14 2 14 2
4
In this step, above 2 steps (S.No. 29 and 32) are brought in.
Arbelos area x
25
16
As there are two values representing for the same area of the arbelos, let us verify, with the both the values,
which is ultimately the correct one.
Arbelos area of official value 3.14159265358
0.12566370614
25
16
= 0.99845732137 and
4 14 2
14 2
4
14 2 25
16
1
100
4 14 2
This process is done by understanding the actual and exact interrelationship among, 1. area of the ABCD
square, 2. area of the inscribed circle in ABCD square and, 3. area of the arbelos of Archimedes.
34.
For questions why, what and how of each step, the known mathematical principles are
insufficient, unfortunately.
So, as the exact area of ABCD square equal to 1 is obtained finally with new value. The new value equal to
14 2
is confirmed as the real value. This is the Final Judgment of arbelos of Archimedes.
4
III.
CONCLUSION
This study, proves, that squaring of a circle is not impossible, and no more an unsolved geometrical problem.
The belief in its (squaring of circle) impossibility is due to choosing the wrong number 3.14159265358 as
value. The new value
14 2
has done it. The arbelos of Archimedes has also chosen the real value in
4
association with the inscribed circle and the ABCD superscribed square.
19
69  P a g e
Squaring of circle and arbelos and the judgment of arbelos in choosing the real Pi value (Bhagavan
REFERENCES
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]
[10]
[11]
[12]
[13]
[14]
[15]
[16]
[17]
[18]
Lennart Berggren, Jonathan Borwein, Peter Borwein (1997), Pi: A source Book, 2nd edition,
SpringerVerlag Ney York Berlin Heidelberg SPIN 10746250.
Alfred S. Posamentier & Ingmar Lehmann (2004), , A Biography of the Worlds Most Mysterious
Number, Prometheus Books, New York 142282197.
David Blatner, The Joy of Pi (Walker/Bloomsbury, 1997).
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), New Method of Computing Pi value (Siva Method). IOSR Journal
of Mathematics, eISSN: 22783008, pISSN: 23197676. Volume 10, Issue 1 Ver. IV. (Feb. 2014), PP
4849.
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), Jesus Method to Compute the Circumference of A Circle and
Exact Pi Value. IOSR Journal of Mathematics, eISSN: 22783008, pISSN: 23197676. Volume 10,
Issue 1 Ver. I. (Jan. 2014), PP 5859.
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), Supporting Evidences To the Exact Pi Value from the Works Of
Hippocrates Of Chios, Alfred S. Posamentier And Ingmar Lehmann. IOSR Journal of Mathematics, eISSN: 22783008, pISSN:23197676. Volume 10, Issue 2 Ver. II (MarApr. 2014), PP 0912
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), New Pi Value: Its Derivation and Demarcation of an Area of
Circle Equal to Pi/4 in A Square. International Journal of Mathematics and Statistics Invention, EISSN:
2321 4767 PISSN: 2321  4759. Volume 2 Issue 5, May. 2014, PP3338.
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), Pythagorean way of Proof for the segmental areas of one square
with that of rectangles of adjoining square. IOSR Journal of Mathematics, eISSN: 22783008, pISSN:23197676. Volume 10, Issue 3 Ver. III (MayJun. 2014), PP 1720.
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), Hippocratean Squaring Of Lunes, Semicircle and Circle. IOSR
Journal of Mathematics, eISSN: 22783008, pISSN:23197676. Volume 10, Issue 3 Ver. II (MayJun.
2014), PP 3946
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), Durga Method of Squaring A Circle. IOSR Journal of
Mathematics, eISSN: 22783008, pISSN:23197676. Volume 10, Issue 1 Ver. IV. (Feb. 2014), PP 1415
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), The unsuitability of the application of Pythagorean Theorem of
Exhaustion Method, in finding the actual length of the circumference of the circle and Pi. International
Journal of Engineering Inventions. eISSN: 22787461, pISSN: 23196491, Volume 3, Issue 11 (June
2014) PP: 2935.
R.D. Sarva Jagannadha Reddy (2014). Pi treatment for the constituent rectangles of the superscribed
square in the study of exact area of the inscribed circle and its value of Pi (SV University Method*).
IOSR Journal of Mathematics (IOSRJM), eISSN: 22785728, pISSN: 2319765X. Volume 10, Issue 4
Ver. I (JulAug. 2014), PP 4448.
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), To Judge the CorrectNess of the New Pi Value of Circle By
Deriving The Exact Diagonal Length Of The Inscribed Square. International Journal of Mathematics and
Statistics Invention, EISSN: 2321 4767 PISSN: 2321 4759, Volume 2 Issue 7, July. 2014, PP0104.
RD Sarva Jagannadha Reddy (2014) The Natural Selection Mode To Choose The Real Pi Value Based
On The Resurrection Of The Decimal Part Over And Above 3 Of Pi (St. John's Medical College
Method). International Journal of Engineering Inventions eISSN: 22787461, pISSN: 23196491
Volume 4, Issue 1 (July 2014) PP: 3437
R.D. Sarva Jagannadha Reddy (2014). An Alternate Formula in terms of Pi to find the Area of a
Triangle and a Test to decide the True Pi value (Atomic Energy Commission Method) IOSR Journal of
Mathematics (IOSRJM) eISSN: 22785728, pISSN: 2319765X. Volume 10, Issue 4 Ver. III (JulAug.
2014), PP 1317
RD Sarva Jagannadha Reddy (2014) Aberystwyth University Method for derivation of the exact
value. International Journal of Latest Trends in Engineering and Technology (IJLTET) Vol. 4 Issue 2
July 2014, ISSN: 2278621X, PP: 133136.
R.D. Sarva Jagannadha Reddy (2014). A study that shows the existence of a simple relationship among
square, circle, Golden Ratio and arbelos of Archimedes and from which to identify the real Pi value
(Mother Goddess Kaali Maata Unified method). IOSR Journal of Mathematics (IOSRJM) eISSN:
22785728, pISSN: 2319765X. Volume 10, Issue 4 Ver. III (JulAug. 2014), PP 3337
RD Sarva Jagannadha Reddy (2014), Pi of the Circle, at www.rsjreddy.webnode.com.
20
70  P a g e
I. INTRODUCTION
The official value is 3.14159265358 It is considered as approximate value at its last decimal place,
always. It implies that there is an exact value to be found in its place. a2, 4a, ab etc are the formulas of square
and triangle which are derived based on their respective linesegments. Similarly, radius is a linesegment and a
need is there to have a formula with radius alone and without . The following formulas are discovered (March,
1998) from Gayatri method and Siva method.
7r
2r
2
r
= r and
2
4
1.
Area of Circle =
2.
Circumference of Circle = 6r +
2r 2r
= 2r ; where r = radius
2
2d 1
1 d
d d d
=
2 2 4 4
where d = diameter = side of the superscribed square
In the Fletchers geometrical construction there are two linesegments. They are radius and corner
length. To find out the area of the shaded region in which corner length is present Professor has given 1
1
.
4
133
21
ISSN: 2278621X
OK= radius =
2 ; Circle : EFGH,
Diagonal diameter AC JK
=
=
2
2
2 1
2
; OL =
;
2
4
1
1
2 2 2
; LK = OK OL =
=0.14644660942
=
2
2 4
4
From the diagram of Fletcher the area of the shaded segment cannot be calculated arithmetically. The
diagram of the Siva method helps in calculating the area of the shaded segment. How ?
Shaded area of Fletcher is equal to two S2 segments 19 and 20 of Siva method.
This author, in his present study, has utilized radius/ diameter as usual, and a corner length, in addition,
of the construction to find out the arithmetical value to the shaded area. A different approach is adopted here.
What is that ? As a first step the shaded area is calculated using four factors. They are of Fig2.
AC and BD, 2 diagonals
(2 2)
134
22
ISSN: 2278621X
KC corner length =
diagonal diameter AC JK 2 1
=
=
2
2
2
Professors formula
where, 1
a2
1
32
= 1 (of Fig.1, where radius = 1)
4
2 1
2 2
2
1
has been derived with radius equal to 1, and naturally, the diameter = side of the square
4
4
1
32
= 1
4
2 1
2 2
2
14 2
4
The accepted value for is 3.14159265358 With this , the area of shaded region is equal to
1
1 3.14159265358 = 0.21460183661...
4
And, with the new value derived above, the area of the shaded region is equal to
1 14 2 2 + 2
1
= 0.21338834764...
=
4 4
16
So, this method creates a dispute now.
14 2
= 3.14644660942...?
4
The study of this method is extended further to decide which value is the real value ?
To decide which is real, a simple verification test is followed here. What is that ? We have a line
segment LK =
2 2
= 0.14644660942...
4
1
1
= 4.65979236616
=
Area of the shaded region 0.21460183661of official
and with new
135
23
ISSN: 2278621X
1
1
16
=
=
= 4.68629150101...
Area of the shaded region 2 + 2 2 + 2
16
Then, this value when divided by 32, we surprisingly get KL length. It may be questioned why one should
divided that value. The answer is not simple. Certain aspects have to be believed, without raising questions like
what, why and how at times.
Official =
New =
4.65979236616
= 0.14561851144...
32
4.68629150101
= 0.1464466094...
32
2 2
=0.14644660942 and differs however with 0.14561851144 of official from 3rd decimal
4
onwards. If this argument is accepted, the present value 3.14159265358 is not approximate value from its
last decimal place, but it is an approximate value from the 3rd decimal.
IV. CONCLUSION
From the beginning to the end of this method, various linesegments are involved. Professor Fletchers
construction is analyzed arithmetically with the linesegments of the Siva method. This arithmetical
interpretation has resulted in the derivation of a new value, equal to
14 2
. The new value is exact,
4
algebraic number.
REFERENCES
[1]
[2]
C.R. Fletcher (1971) The Mathematical Gazettee, December, Page 422, London, UK.
R.D. Sarva Jagannadha Reddy (2014), Pi of the Circle, at www.rsjreddy.webnode.com
136
24
ISSN: 2278621X
Introduction
equal to 3.1415926 is an approximation. It has ruled the world for 2240 years. There is a necessity
to find out the exact value in the place of this approximate value. The following method givesthe total area of
the square, and also the total area of the inscribed circle. derived from this area is thus exact.
II.
Construction procedure
Draw a circle with center 0 and radius a/2. Diameter is a. Draw 4 equidistant tangents on the
circle. They intersect at A, B, C and D resulting in ABCD square. The side of the square is also equal to
diameter a. Draw two diagonals. E, F, G and H are the mid points of four sides. Join EG, FH, EF, FG, GH
and HE. Draw four arcs with radius a/2 and with centres A, B, C and D. Now the circle square composite
system is divided into 32 segments and number them 1 to 32. 1 to 16 are of one dimension called S 1 segments
and 17 to 32 are of different dimension called S2 segments.
III.
Calculations:
6 2 2
2 2 2
a
; Area of the S2 segment =
128
128 a ;
6 2 2
2 2 2
2
a
16
Area of the square = 16 S1 + 16S2 = 16
128
128 a a
6 2 2 2 2 2 14 2 2
Area of the inscribed circle = 16S1 + 8S2 = 16
128 a 8 128 a 16 a
d 2 a 2 14 2 2
General formula for the area of the circle
a ; where a= d = side = diameter
4
4
16
14 2
4
Area of the S1 segment =
IV.
Eq. (1)
www.iosrjournals.org
25
48  Page
a2
4
Eq. (2)
..
4 a2 a2
4a 2 a 2
(1) (2)
8S2 = a
= S2 =
4
4
4
32
32
2
2 a
(2)x 2 32 S1 + 16 S2 =
Eq. (3)
4
a2
16 S1 + 16 S2 = a2
V.
a2
a2
2
Eq. (1)
= S1 =
a 2 2 a 2
2
32
32
Both the values appear correct when involved in the two formulae
14 2
4
VI.
a)
A linesegment equal to the value of (  2) in S1 segments formula and second linesegment equal to the
value of (4  ) in S2 segments formula are searched in the above construction.
Official :  2 = 3.1415926  2 = 1.1415926.
Proposed :  2 = 14 2 2
= 6 2
4
6 2
and no linesegment for 1.1415926..
4
a
IM and LR two parallel lines to DC and CB; OK = OJ = Radius = ; JOK = triangle
2
2a
JK = Hypotenuse =
2
The following calculation gives a linesegment for
KM = IM JK a 2a 1 2 2 a ;
2
2 2 4
DC + CM = a 2 2 a 6 2 a
4
4
14 2 2 2
4
4
2 2
. How ?
4
2 2
2
a
4
VII.
Conclusion:
This diagram not only gives two formulae for the areas of S1& S2 segments andalso shows two linesegments for (  2) and (4  ). Linesegment is the soul of Geometry.
www.iosrjournals.org
26
49  Page
Introduction
The Holy Bible has said value is equal to 3. Mathematicians were not satisfied with the value. They
thought over. Pythagorean theorem came in the mean time. A regular polygon with known perimeter was
inscribed in a circle and the sides doubled successively until the inscribed polygon touches the circumference,
leaving no gap between them. Hence this method is called Exhaustion method. The value of the perimeter of
the inscribed polygon is calculated applying Pythagorean theorem and is attributed to the circumference of the
circle. This method was interpreted, first time, on scientific lines by Archimedes of Syracuse, Greece. He has
said value is less than 3 1/7.
Later mathematicians have refined the Exhaustion method and found many decimals. The value is
3.1415926 and this value has been made official.
From 15th century (Madhava (1450) of South India) onwards infinite series has been used for more
decimals to compute 3.1415926 of geometrical method. Notable people are Francois Viete (1579), Van
Ceulen (1596), John Wallis (1655), William Brouncker (1658) James Gregory (1660), G.W. Leibnitz
(1658), Isaac Newton (1666), Machin (1776), Euler (1748), S. Ramanujan (1914), Chudnovsky brothers
(1989). The latest infinite series for the computation of value is that of David Bailey, Peter Borwein and
Simon Plouffe (1996) and is as follows:
1 4
2
1
1
i
8i 4 8i 5 8i 6
i 0 16 8i 1
Using above formula Yasumasa Kanada of Tokyo University, Japan, calculated trillions of decimals
to 3.1415926.. with the help of super computer.
Mathematics is an exact science. We have compromised with an approximate value. Hence, many
have tried to find exact value. This author is one among the millions. What is ? It is the ratio of
circumference of a circle to its diameter. However, in Exhaustion method, perimeter of the inscribed polygon is
divided by the diameter of the outside circle. Thus 3.1415926. violates the definition of . This is about the
value of . Next, about the nature of . C.L.F. Lindemann (1882) has said is a transcendental number based
i
on Eulers formula e 1 0 . In Mathematical Cranks, Underwood Dudley has said s only position in
mathematics is its relation to infinite services (and) that has no relation to the circle. Lindemann proclaimed
the squaring of the circle impossible, but Lindemanns proof is misleading for he uses numbers (which are
approximate in themselves) in his proof.
Hence, preinfinite series days of geometrical method is approached again to find out exact value
and squaring of circle. This author has struggled for 26 years (1972 to 1998) and calculated the exact value of
in March, 1998. The following method calculates the total length of circumference and thus the exact value
has been derived from it.
4a 2 2a
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27
= esp
58  Page
a
th
of the inscribed circle is to the perimeter of the square (4a), i.e., 1/8 of it,
2
so also, is the end segment of the circumference of the circle, to the end segment of the perimeter
of the square.
So, the end segment of the circumference =
esc
esp
4a 2 2 a
x 3a
8
8
14a 2a
4
II.
14 2
4
Conclusion
value, derived from the Jesus proof is algebraic, being a root of x 56 x 97 0 but also that it
differs from the usually accepted value in the third decimal place, being 3.146..
2
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59  Page
Abstract: Till very recently we believed 3.1415926 was the final value of .And no body thought exact
value would be seen in future. One drawback with 3.1415926is, that it is not derived from any linesegment
of the circle. In fact, 3.1415926 is derived from the linesegment of the inscribed/ circumscribed polygon in
and about circle, respectively. Surprisingly, when any linesegment of the circle is involved two things
happened: they are 1. Exact value is derived and 2 that exact value differs from 3.1415926 from its 3rd
decimal onwards, being 3.1464466 Two geometrical constructions of Hippocrates of Chios, Greece (450
B.C.) and Prof. Alfred S. Posamentier of New York, USA, and Prof. Ingmar Lehmann of Berlin, Germany, are
the supporting evidences of the new value. They are detailed below.
Keywords: value, lune, triangle, area of curved regions
I. Introduction
In the days of Hippocrates, value 3 of the Holy Bible was followed in mathematical calculations.
He did not evince interest in knowing the correct value of . He wrote a book on Geometry. This was the first
book on Geometry. This book became later, a guiding subject for Euclids Elements. He is very famous for
his squaring of lunes. Prof. Alfred S. Posamentier and Prof. Ingmar Lehmann wrote a very fine
collaborative book on . They have chosen two regions and have proved both the regions, though appear very
different in their shapes, still both of them are same in their areas. These areas are represented by a formula
r 2 1 . The symbol r is radius. , here must be, the universally accepted 3.1415926
2
Every subject in Science is based on one important point. It would be its soul. In Geometry, the soul is
a linesegment. The study of right relationship between two or more linesegments help us to find out areas,
circumference of a circle, perimeters of a triangle, polygon etc. For example, we have side in the square, base,
altitudein the triangle. The same concept is extended here, to show its inevitable importance in the study of
two regions of Professors of USA and Germany. The lengths of the concerned linesegments have been arrived
at and associated with r 2 1 . 3.1415926 does not agree with the value of linesegments of two regions.
2
14 2
has agreed in toto with the linesegments of the two regions
4
of the Professors. This author does believe this argument involving interpretation of r 2 1 with the line2
segments, is acceptable to these great professors and the mathematics community. It is only a humble
submission to the World of Mathematics. Judgment is yours. If this argument in associating linesegment with
the formula looks specious or superficial, this author may beexcused.
II. Procedure
The two methods are as follows:
1. Hippocrates' Method of Squaring Lunes And Computation of The Exact Value
Archimedes's procedure for finding approximate numerical values of (without, of course, referring
to as a number), by establishing narrower and narrower limits between which the value must lie, turned out to
be the only practicable way of squaring the circle. But the Greeks also tried to square the circle exactly, that is
they tried to find a method, employing only straight edge and compasses, by which one might construct a square
equivalent to the given circle. All such attempts failed, though Hippocrates of Chios did succeed in squaring
lunes.
Hippocrates begins by noting that the areas of similar segments of circles are proportional to the
squares of the chords which subtend them
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9  Page
Supporting Evidences To The Exact Value From The Works Of Hippocrates Of Chios, Alfred S.
Consider a semicircle ACB with diameter AB. Let us inscribe in this semicircle an isosceles triangle
ACB, and then draw the circular arc AMB which touches the lines CA and CB at A and B respectively. The
segments ANC, CPB and AMB are similar. Their areas are therefore proportional to the squares of AC, CB and
AB respectively, and from Pythagoras's theorem the greater segment is equivalent to the sum of the other two.
Therefore the lune ACBMA is equivalent to the triangle ACB. It can therefore be squared.
The Circular arc AMB which touches the lines CA and CB at A and B
respectively can be drawn by taking E as the centre and radius equal to EA or EB.
AB = diameter, d.
DE = DC = radius, d/2; F = mid point of AC
N = mid point of arc AC
2d d
2d d
; MC =
2
2 2
2
With the guidance of the formulae of earlier methods of the author where a
Circle is inscribed with the Square, the formulae for the areas of ANC, CPB, ACM
NF =
2d d
DM =
d 2
2 1
1. Area of ANC = Area of CPB = 2 1
2 2
32
2. Area of AMB = Areas of ANC + CPB (Hippocrates)
2d
16
2 1
8
1 d
d
2 2
5. According to Hippocrates the area of the lune ACBMA is equivalent to the area of the triangle ACB
Lune ACBMA
=
triangle ACB
(ANC + ACM + BCM + CPB)
2
2d
1 d
2 1
d
16
i.e. 4 1
2
d
2 2
32
8 2 1 2 2
ANC + CPB
ACM+BCM
ACB
From the above equation it is clear that the devised formulae for the areas of different segments is
exactly correct.
6. Area of AMB = Areas of ANC + CPB
d 2
7. Area of the semicircle =
= Areas of ANC + CPB + ACM + BCM + AMB
8
8 Area of thesemicircle
8.
d2
2
2d
2
2
8
2 1
2 1
d
16
=
2
=
4 1
4 1
d2
2 2
2 2
32
32
8 2 1
14 2
4
30
10  Page
Supporting Evidences To The Exact Value From The Works Of Hippocrates Of Chios, Alfred S.
equal. His formula is r 2 1 for the above regions. This author is grateful to the professor of New York for
2
1
the reason through his idea this author tries to show that his new value equal to
14 2 is exactly right.
4
1.
Arc = BCA; O = Centre; OB = OA = OC = Radius = r
r
2.
Semicircles : BFO = AFO; E and D = Centres; OD=DA = BE = OE= radius=
2
2r
2r
2r 2 r
OF =
; FC = OC OF = r
=
2
2
2
2r
2r
r
2 r 2r 2 r
r
3.
Petal = OKFH; EK = ; ED =
; EJ =
; JK = EK EJ =
=
;
4
2
4
2
4
2
2r 2 r
JK = JH, HK = JH + JK =
2
2r 2 r
4.
So, FC of region A = HK of region B =
2
5.
BFAC = OKFH i.e. areas of A and B regions are equal (A.S. Posamentier and I. Lehmann).
r
Formula for A and B is r 2 1 2
2 2
Here r = radius = 1
From March 1998, there are two values. The official value is 3.1415926 and the new value is
14 2
= 3.1464466 and which value is exact and true ?
4
r2
2 , then
2
r2
r2
Official value = 3.1415926 2 =
1.1415926...
2
2
(It is universally accepted that 3.1415926 is approximate at its last decimalplace however astronomical
it is in its magnitude.)
Let us substitute both the values in
r2
r2
3.1464466 2 = 1.1464466...
2
2
2r 2 r
FC = HK (HJ + JK) line segments =
2
FC HK 2r 2r 1
2r 2 r
Half of HC and HK are same
= 0.1464466..
4
2
2
2
2
Area of A/B region equal to 1.1464466 is similar in decimal value of half of FC/HK line segment i.e.
0.1464466
Formulae a2, 4a of square and ab of triangle are based on side of the square and altitude, base of
triangle, respectively. In this construction, FC and HK are the line segments of A and B regions,
respectively.
New value =
6.
7.
8.
9.
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31
11  Page
Supporting Evidences To The Exact Value From The Works Of Hippocrates Of Chios, Alfred S.
As the value 0.1464466 which is half of FC or HK is in agreement with the area value of A/B region
1
equal to 1.1464466 in decimal part, it is argued that new value equal to
14 2 = 3.1464466
4
is exactly correct.
The decimals 0.1415926 of the official value 3.1415926 does not tally beyond 3rd decimal with the half
the lengths of HK and FC, whose value is 0.1464466, thus, the official value is partially right. Whereas, FC
& HK are incompatible with the areas of A & B calculated using official value. Then, which is real, Sirs?
III. Conclusion
3.1415926 agrees partially (upto two decimals only) with the linesegments of curved geometrical
constructions. When these linesegments agree totally and play a significant role in these constructions a
different value, exact value
.
14 2
14 2
= 3.1464466 invariably appears. Hence,
is the true valueof
4
4
Acknowledgements
This author is greatly indebted to Hippocrates of Chios, Prof. Alfred S. Posamentier, and Prof.
Ingmar Lehmann for using their ingenious and intuitive geometrical constructions as a supportive evidence of
the new value of .
Reference
[1]. T. Dantzig (1955), The Bequest of the Greeks, George Allen & Unwin Ltd., London.
[2]. P. Dedron and J. Itard (1973). Mathematics and Mathematicians, Vol.2, translated from French by J.V. Field, The Open
University Press, England.
[3]. Alfred S. Posamentier&Ingmar Lehmann (2004). A Biography of the Worlds Most Mysterious Number. Prometheus Books,
New York, Pages 178 to 181.
[4]. RD Sarva Jagannadha Reddy (2014), Pi of the Circle, a Canto online edition, in the free website: www.rsjreddy.webnode.com
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32
12  Page
14 2
= 3.14644660942 thus obtained
4
is an algebraic number and hence squaring of circle is also done in the second part (method3) of this paper.
in the derivation process then only the exact value can be found.
INTRODUCTION
METHOD1: Computation of tailend of the length of the circumference over and above three
diameters of the Circle
The Holy Bible has said value is 3. Archimedes (240 BC) of Syracuse, Greece has said value is
less than 3 1/7. He has given us the upper limit of value. In 3 1/7, 3 represents three diameters and 1/7
represents the tailend of the circumference of the circle (d = circumference)
14 2
= 3.14644660942 and its tailend of the
4
1
length of the circumference of a circle over and above its 3 diameters as equal to
when the diameter is
2 2 4
equal to 1.
1/7 of Archimedes = 0.142857142857
In March, 1998, Gayatri method said the value as
1
2 2 4
of Gayatri method =
1
= 0.14644660942
6.82842712474
In the days of Archimedes there was no decimal system, because there was no zero. Archimedes is
correct in saying the tailend length of the circumference is less than 1/7. How ? Gayatri method supports
1
Archimedes concept of less than 1/7 by giving
. The denominator part of the fraction, is
6.82842712474
1
has become possible
6.82842712474
because of the introduction of zero in the numbers 1 to 9 and further consequential result of decimal system of
his later period. If he comes back alive, with his past memory remain intact, Archimedes would say, what he
had visualized in 240 BC has become real.
actually, less than 7 of 1/7. He is a great mathematician. This fraction
II.
PROCEDURE
Let us see how this tailend value of circumference is obtained: Draw a circle with Centre O and
radius a/2. Draw four equidistant tangents on the circumference. They intersect at four prints called A, B, C
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33  P a g e
In this circlesquare composite system there are now 3 types of straight lines and one circumference
which is a curvature. The straight lines are 1. Perimeter of the square, 2. Two diagonals and 3. Diameter of the
circle. The values of these straight lines are known and exact. The length of the circumference is unknown and
hence this method is to find out its exact length with the help of known lengths of three types of straight lines.
Let us repeat here again the perimeter (4a) of the square and the sum of the lengths of two diagonals
2 2a are
circumference reflects its true length in all the straight lines of square and circle.
We know very well that there are three diameters and some length called tailend in the circumference.
Circumference = 3 diameters + tail end length
Tailend length is unknown and hence it is called x.
3d + x = circumference
Diameter is equal to side of the square i.e. d = a
Let us rewrite 3d + x as 3a + x
To find out the length of the x
We take the help of all the straight lines. The reciprocal of the two diagonals plus the perimeter of
the square and when this product is multiplied by the square of the diameter (= side), will give x value.
1
1
x
a
a
2 2a 4a
2 2 4
14 2
1
14 2
So, a
a
4
14 2
4
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34
34  P a g e
The denominator of
Archimedes has said is less than 1/7 is proved now to be
2 2 4 6.82842712474
Gayatri method 6.82842712474 is less than 7 of 1/7 of 3 1/7 of Archimedes.
1.
BD =
2 2
; CD =
4
AB = OB =
2.
3.
2 1
;
2
2
4
1
16
1
Area of a + b =
16
Area of ABC =
1
1
1
; OAB =
; Sector OAD
8
16
10
4.
Area of OAC =
5.
3
= 0.0375
80
1
= 0.025
40
6.
1
a is larger than b. So, a is greater than half of ABC .
16
1
b is smaller than a. So, b is lesser than half of ABC .
16
7.
Half of ABC =
8.
Let a y = s,
9.
Let us assume
1
=y
32
y b = t;
s
s=t
BD AC 2 2
;
16
128
CD AB 2 2
16
128
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35  P a g e
10.
a y = s; a = s + y =
11.
y b = t;
12.
13.
a + b = ABC
Inscribed circle consists of 16a and 8b
b=yt=
2 2
128
6 2 2 2 d 2
so, 16
8
4
128 128
Where d = 1
14 2
4
2 2
14 2
circumference of the circle is BA + AD + DC + CH = a + a + a +
a
a
4
4
The area of the circle is now bounded by a curvature called the circumference. In this method this area
can have a straightlined boundary. In this process the value of plays important role. The official value is
3.14159265358 With this value let us locate the area:
1. Square = ABCD, Side = AB = a; AC = BD = diagonals =
2. Inscribed a circle with centre O and radius =
3. OF = OG = Radius; FOG = triangle; OF =
a
;
2
2 a ; O = Centre
side = diameter = a
a
; FG = hypotenuse =
2
2a
;
2
4. EH = Side Parallel to CD = a
5. DE = EF = GH = CH =
EH FG
2a 1 2 2
a
=
a
2
2 2 4
2 2
14 2
6. BA + AD + DC + CH = a + a + a +
a =
a = circumference of the inscribed circle
4
4
(from Gayatri method).
7. Let us try to demarcate the extent of area of the inscribed circle with the help of official value
3.14159265358 = 3.14159265358
3.14159265358
0.78539816339
4
4
8.
3a 3
0.75 ; Let us suppose a = 1
4
4
14 2
4
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36  P a g e
14 2
4
14 2 1 14 2
4 4 4
16
14 2
;
4
3a 3
; where a = 1;
4 4
14 2 3 2 2
16
4
16
2 2
have to be located now. Let us see how
16
AB = a = 1; K = mid point of AB
17. AB = AK + KB =
a a
2 2
a
4
a a 3a
2 4 4
3a
4
3a
; Join ML
4
LB = MC =
a
= NH = MC
4
2 2 a 2 2 2
21. Area of MNHC rectangle = MN x NH =
a
a
4 4 16
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37  P a g e
14 2
2 2
, getting an area equal to
of S.No. 15 is thus possible.
16
4
23. Area of the inscribed circle
value
2 2 2 14 2 2
3
Areas of rectangles ALMD+MNHC = a 2
a
a
4
16
16
(S.No. 20) (S.No. 21)
24. Circle and square both can be inscribed and/ or circumscribed with each other. It means, both must be
finite entities, having finite magnitudes, and to be represented by finite numbers.
25. Official value cannot demarcate circles area. Whereas, Gayatri value demarcates. So is
14 2
= 3.14644660942 the real value ?
4
26. It is another way of squaring a circle.
3.14159265358 or
III.
CONCLUSION
New value is exact and it is an algebraic number and squaring of circle has be done by demarcating,
the area of a circle in a square.
REFERENCES
[1].
[2].
[3].
[4].
Lennart Berggren, Peter Borwein, Jonathan Borwein, Pi: A Source Book (Springer, 1996).
David Blatner, The Joy of Pi (Walker/Bloomsbury, 1997).
Alfred S. Posamantier, Pi: A mysterious number (Prometheus Books, 2004).
RD Sarva Jagannadha Reddy, Pi of the Circle (www.rsjreddy.webnode.com, 2014).
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38  P a g e
I.
Introduction
Official value is 3.14159265358 It is obtained from the Exhaustion method, which is a geometrical
method. This method involves the inscription of a polygon in a circle and increased the sides of the polygon,
until the inscribed polygon touches the circle, leaving no gap between them. The value 3.14159265358 is
actually the length of the perimeter of the inscribed polygon. And it is not the value of circle. There was no
method till yesterday to measure the circumference of a circle, directly or indirectly.
3.14159265358 has four characteristics: 1) It represents polygon, 2) It is an approximation, 3) It is a
transcendental number and 4) It says squaring a circle is impossible. And such a number is attributed and
followed as of the circle based on limitation principle, because of the impossibility of calculating, the length
of the circumference of circle and in such a situation this field of mathematics has been thriving for the last 2000
years.
From 1450 Madhavan of South India and a galaxy of later generations of mathematicians have
discarded geometrical construction and have introduced newly, the concept of infinite series.
In this paper geometrical constructions are approached again, for the derivation of value. New value has
14 2
been derived. It is
= 3.14644660942 It is an exact value, an algebraic number and makes squaring
4
of circle possible and done too.
II.
Procedure
Siva method for the area of the circle of 1st square ABCD
Construction procedure
Draw a square ABCD. Draw two diagonals. O is the centre.
Inscribe a circle with centre O and radius . E, F, H and J are
the mid points of four sides. Join EH, FJ, FH, HJ, JE and EF.
Draw four arcs taking A, B, C and D as centres and radius .
Now the circle square nexus is divided into 32 segments. Number
them 1 to 32. 1 to 16 segments are called S1 segments. 17 to 32
segments are called S2 segments. 17 to 24, S2 segments are
outside the circle. 25 to 32, S2 segments are inside the circle.
Draw KP, a parallel line to the side DC which intersects diagonals
at M and N.
Square = ABCD
Side = AB = 1 = EH = diameter
Areas of S1 and S2 segments
16S1 + 16S2 = Area of square
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39
6 2
2 2
; S2 =
128
128
6 2
2 2
16
16
1
128
128
S1 =
17  Page
Pythagorean way of Proof for the segmental areas of one square with that of rectangles of ..
16S1 + 8S2 = Area of circle
6 2 2 2 14 2
16
8
16
128 128
KP MN
2 1 2 2
6.
DK = KM = NP = PC =
= 1
2
2 2
4
7.
So, CP =
2 2
, PB = CB CP
4
2 2 2 2
= 1
4
4
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40
18  Page
Pythagorean way of Proof for the segmental areas of one square with that of rectangles of ..
8.
Bisect PB. PB PQ + QB QR + RB
9.
QB =
10.
Bisect CQ CS + SQ
2 2
, CB = 1, CQ = CB QB
8
2 2
2 2
2 2
4
8
16
2 2 6 2
= CQ = 1
8
8
6 2
6 2
8
16
2 2
2 2
, and PB =
. In the second step
4
4
2 2
2 2
6 2
and QB =
. In the third step CQ =
is bisected into CS =
PB is bisected into PQ =
8
8
8
11.
6 2
6 2
and SQ =
.
16
16
12.
CS =
6 2
6 2
2 2
2 2
, SQ =
, QR =
and RB =
16
16
16
16
13.
2nd Square BZTC is divided horizontally into four parts: CS, SQ, QR and RB.
14.
Now BZ side of 2nd square is divided into 8 parts. So, each length is 1/8.
15.
Finally, the 2nd square is divided into 16 rectangles of one dimension equal in area to S1 segments of 1st
square and 16 rectangles of 2nd dimension, equal in area to S2 segments of 1st square.
16.
Square BZTC consists of first two rows are of S1 and 3rd & 4th rows are of S2 segments.
17.
6 2
1
and other side =
16
8
6 2 1 6 2
16
8
128
2 2 1 2 2
16
8
128
2 2
1
and other side =
16
8
19.
The areas of 16S1 and 16S2 segments of 1st square
a2
a2
20.
The area of all the 32 rectangles.
6 2
2 2
nd
16
16
= 1 = Area of the 2 square
128
128
21.
The area of the inscribed circle in the 1st square = 16S1 segments + 8S2 segments
6 2 2 2 14 2
= 16
= Area of the circle in the 1st square
8
16
128 128
22.
The areas of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd rows of rectangles of 2nd square.
6 2 6 2 2 2 14 2
8
8
8
16
128 128 128
23.
14 2 d 2
16
4
14 2
where side = diameter = d = 1
4
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19  Page
Pythagorean way of Proof for the segmental areas of one square with that of rectangles of ..
24.
When is equal to
14 2
, the length of the inscribed circle in the 1st square is = d = a =
4
14 2
14 2
1
where side = diameter = 1
4
4
25.
Perimeter of the rectangle QXWTCS is equal to the circumference of the inscribed circle in the 1st
square.
QX = 1 = TC; XW = WT = CS = SQ =
6 2
16
QX + XW + WT + TC + CS + SQ = 1
6 2 6 2
6 2 6 2 14 2
16
16
16
16
4
In the first square we have seen that the length of the circumference of the inscribed circle is the outer edge of
the 16 S1 segments. In the 2nd square also the outer edges of the 1st and 2nd rows of 16 rectangles are equal to
14 2
.
4
26.
14 2
obtained by earlier Gayatri, Siva, Jesus
4
methods.
27.
And also, the curvy linear 16S1 and 16S2 segments of 1st square are all squared in the 2nd square.
III.
Conclusion
Two squares of same sides are drawn with one common side. Circle is inscribed in one square. Areas
of square and its inscribed circle are calculated from their constituent curvy linear segments. The correctness of
areas of constituent segments are verified with that of the areas of rectangles of the adjoining square. All the
values thus are proved correct.
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42
20  Page
14 2
. It is a very tough job to convince the
4
world that the new finding is the real value. In this paper, the exact length of the diagonal of the inscribed
square form the length of an arc of the superscribed circle is obtained as a proof.
INTRODUCTION
The geometrical constant, called , is as old as human civilization. In the ancient days, contributions
on was very admirable from the Eastern parts of the World. The Founding Father of Mathematics:
Hippocrates of Chios (450 BC) has not touched the value of . But his work on the nature of circular entities
such as squaring of lunes, semicircle and full circle is unparalled in the History of Mathematics.The present
value, 3.14159265358 could not understood Hippocrates work and its greatness. What is the reason ? This
number is not the of the circle. It is the value of the polygon. It was derived using Pythagorean theorem.
Pythagorean theorem gives exact length to a hypotenuse which is a straight line. Circumference of a circle is
not a straight line. It is a curvature. Hence, 3.14159265358 of polygon has failed to understand the greatness
of Hippocrates. In other words, 3.14159265358 is not a number at all.
After a long waiting of 2000 years by trillions of scholars NATURE has revealed its true length of a
circumference of circle and its value. The value is
14 2
= 3.14644660942 derived from Gayatri
4
method. It was discovered in March 1998. This worker is the first and fortunate humble man to see this
fundamental truth, and at the same time, made this author responsible to reveal to the whole world, its total
personality. He was cautioned by the Nature, through Inner Voice, further, not to shirk his responsibility till the
end, till the world welcomes it, and continue to search speck by speck naturally, respecting the Cosmic mind
of the Nature, with indomitable determination, and fight single handedly against the conservative attitude and
die like a warrior defeated, if situation of reluctance to acceptance still persistsFrom the remote past to the
present, the period of study of is divided into two periods: the period of geometrical dependence in the
derivation of value and the 2nd period from 1660 AD onwards till today, the period of dependence on infinite
series,
dissociating totally geometrical analysis in the derivation of value. In the present and second period, the
number 3.14159265358 is considered as a number only and nothing to do with the definition of the ratio of
circumference and diameter of a circle. The paradox is, geometry is forgotten in the derivation of value but
searched for the same, in squaring of a circle. Finally, this number 3.14159265358 has gained four
characteristics: 1. Though it is a polygon number, established itself as a number of circle. 2. Though an
approximate number it ruled the world for many centuries as a final value. 3. Though it doesnt belong to a
circle has commented squaring of circle as an unsolved geometrical problem. 4. Though it has gained a status
of transcendental number with the definition of the fact that cannot be calculated by a combination of the
operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and square root extraction (Ref.1) is derived
actually in Exhaustion method, applying the Pythagorean theorem, and invariably with the involvement of 3 .
Further, the moment this number discared the association of Geometry, it has started a new relationship in
www.ijmsi.org
43
1Page
13.14
1 0 . Is it right and acceptable ?It may not be wrong in calling that 3.14159265358 is a
transcendental number but it is definitely wrong when number is called a transcendental number and with a
consequential immediate statement squaring of a circle is impossible. The major objection is, the very
definition of is the ratio of circumference and diameter of a circle. So, this discrepancy led to the conclusion
that 3.14159265358 is not, infact, a number.In its support, we have the work of Hipporcrates. Hippocrates
had squared a circle even before any text book on Mathematics was born; His text book is the basis of Euclids
Elements too. As Hippocrates did square the circle it implied an algebraic number. Further, Lindemann is
also right in calling 3.14159265358 as transcendental number and not right, if he calls number as
transcendental. Here, there is a clarity of opinion thus. 3.14159265358 is a polygon number (and attributed
to circle).
In this paper the diagonal length is obtained from the actual length of the circumference of the circle.
II. PROCEDURE
Draw a square ABCD. Draw two diagonals AC and BD. O is the centre.
AB = Side = a;
AC = BD = diameter =
2a
d diameter d
=
=
2
2
2a
2
Diameter = AC = 2a = d
Perimeter of ABCD square = 4 x a = 4a
1/4th of the circumference CB =
d 2a
=
4
4
3.14159265358 2a
2a
d
1.11072073453
=
=
=
a
4
4
4
4
[3]
[4]
Let us use the following formula to get the length of the diagonal (known of course i.e.,
above value.
[5]
2a
2a ) from the
Perimeter of thesquare
1
Half of 7 times of side of square th of diagonal
4
www.ijmsi.org
44
2Page
4a
16
14 2
[7]
In the 3rd step, let us multiply the above value with the 1/4th of the circumference of the circle, to give the
diagonal AC of the square ABCD.
[9]
[10]
[11]
7a
2a
2
4
4
14 2
4
[8]
[6]
7
2
2 4
3.14159265358 2a
16
4
14 2
1.11072073453 a
2a = 1.41421356237.
14 2
4
14 2 2
a
16
[12]
Now, let us repeat the above steps with the new value =
[13]
d 2a
=
4
4
[14]
[15]
a.
14 2
1
2a
=
4
4
Perimeter of thesquare
1
Half of 7 times of side of square th of diagonal
4
16
4a
7a
2a
14 2
2
4
[16]
[17]
[18]
14 2
16
so,
2
16
2a
a
14
14 2
is the real value.
4
III. CONCLUSION
In circle, there are circumference, radius and diameter. In square, there are perimeter, diagonal and
side. When a circle is superscribed with the square, circumference, side, diagonal and perimeter of square coexist in an interesting relationship. In this paper, this relationship is studied and the diagonal length is obtained
from the arc of the circumference. This is possible only when the exact length of the circumference is known.
A wrong length of circumference obtained using a wrong value gives only wrong length of diagonal.
REFERENCES
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
Lennart Berggren, Jonathan Borwein, Peter Borwein (1997), Pi: A source Book, 2nd edition, SpringerVerlag Ney York
Berlin Heidelberg SPIN 10746250.
Alfred S. Posamentier & Ingmar Lehmann (2004), , A Biography of the Worlds Most Mysterious Number, Prometheus
Books, New York 142282197.
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), New Method of Computing Pi value (Siva Method). IOSR Journal of Mathematics, eISSN: 22783008, pISSN: 23197676. Volume 10, Issue 1 Ver. IV. (Feb. 2014), PP 4849.
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), Jesus Method to Compute the Circumference of A Circle and Exact Pi Value. IOSR
Journal of Mathematics, eISSN: 22783008, pISSN: 23197676. Volume 10, Issue 1 Ver. I. (Jan. 2014), PP 5859.
www.ijmsi.org
45
3Page
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]
[10]
[11]
[12]
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), Supporting Evidences To the Exact Pi Value from the Works Of Hippocrates Of Chios,
Alfred S. Posamentier And Ingmar Lehmann. IOSR Journal of Mathematics, eISSN: 22783008, pISSN:23197676. Volume
10, Issue 2 Ver. II (MarApr. 2014), PP 0912
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), New Pi Value: Its Derivation and Demarcation of an Area of Circle Equal to Pi/4 in A
Square. International Journal of Mathematics and Statistics Invention, EISSN: 2321 4767 PISSN: 2321  4759. Volume 2
Issue 5, May. 2014, PP3338.
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), Pythagorean way of Proof for the segmental areas of one square with that of rectangles of
adjoining square. IOSR Journal of Mathematics, eISSN: 22783008, pISSN:23197676. Volume 10, Issue 3 Ver. III (MayJun.
2014), PP 1720.
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), Hippocratean Squaring Of Lunes, Semicircle and Circle. IOSR Journal of Mathematics, eISSN: 22783008, pISSN:23197676. Volume 10, Issue 3 Ver. II (MayJun. 2014), PP 3946
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), Durga Method of Squaring A Circle. IOSR Journal of Mathematics, eISSN: 22783008,
pISSN:23197676. Volume 10, Issue 1 Ver. IV. (Feb. 2014), PP 1415
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), The unsuitability of the application of Pythagorean Theorem of Exhaustion Method, in
finding the actual length of the circumference of the circle and Pi. International Journal of Engineering Inventions. eISSN:
22787461, pISSN: 23196491, Volume 3, Issue 11 (June 2014) PP: 2935.
RD Sarva Jagannadha Reddy (2014), Pi of the Circle, at www.rsjreddy.webnode.com.
R.D. Sarva Jagannadha Reddy (2014). Pi treatment for the constituent rectangles of the superscribed square in the study of
exact area of the inscribed circle and its value of Pi (SV University Method*). IOSR Journal of Mathematics (IOSRJM), eISSN: 22785728, pISSN:2319765X. Volume 10, Issue 4 Ver. I (JulAug. 2014), PP 4448.
www.ijmsi.org
46
4Page
22
, 3.14, 3.1416, 3.14159265358 are being used as values at schoollevelcalculations and at
7
the researchlevel calculations. Many more numbers are found in the literature for . A method, therefore, is
necessary to decide which number is, the real value.
14 2
=
4
I. Introduction
Circle and square are basic geometrical constructions. To find out perimeter and area of a square there
are present two formulae 4a and a2, where a is the side of the square. Similarly, to calculate the circumference
and the area of a circle, there are two formulae, 2r and r2, where r is the radius and is a constant. The
concept represents, the ratio of the circumference and the diameter of its circle. Thus, the constant is a
natural and divine concept. We have radians equal to 1800, which is a human creation and convenience.
For the last 2000 years, 3.14159265358 . has been ruling the mathematical world as the value. In
March 1998, a new value
14 2
=3.14644660942 was discovered by Gayatri method and supported by
4
more than one hundred different geometrical proofs in the last 16 years. The time now has come to decide,
which value, is present value or is new value, real ? Here is a simple procedure.
The nature has created a square and a circle. All the celestial bodies in the Cosmos are spherical in
shape. It shows the basic architectural design of the physical world from the Cosmic mind. We see on paper
that it has not only created an exact relationship between the circumference and the diameter of a circle and also,
the Nature has established an interesting relationship between square and its inscribed circle too. This
relationship is taken as the guiding principle to decide the real value from many numbers. Hence, this
method is called the Natural Selection.
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47
Page  34
The Natural Selection Mode To Choose The Real Pi Value Based On The
II. Procedure
Draw a square. Inscribe a circle.
Square = ABCD, Side = AB = a, AC = BD = diagonal, O centre.
EF = diameter = d = a
Area of the square = a2
Area of the circle =
d 2 a 2
4
4
where a = d
Square area
Corner area
a 2
4 2
=
a
4
4
a2
a2
4
x
4 2 4
a
4
Divide x by 32. In Siva method, it is found that when the circle square composite geometrical
construction is divided symmetrically, the number of segments are 16 + 16 = 32
4
1
x 4 1
=
=
=
32 4 32 32 4 8 4
Thus, we obtain finally, the formula
1
=3
32 8
1
which is equal to the value over and above 3. As
32 8
of the diagonal of a square, so also 2 is for the circumference of the inscribed circle, and it is an established
fact by this work. And further, the number 32 represents a common associating factor of the inscribed circle
and the square.
The procedure followed here is in 4 steps.
Step 1, Calculates the areas of square and circle
Step 2, Obtains corner area by deducting circle area from the square area
Step 3, =
Square area
and
Corner area
Square area 1
Corner area 32
Step 4, =
At the 1st step while calculating the area of the circle, known value is used. In this paper two
values are chosen:
3.14159265358 the official value and
3.14644660942 the new value =
14 2
4
Any value enters at the 1st step, and its decimal part reappears at the 4th step. Thus, the resurrection of the
decimal part of value is observed at the 4th step. And this happens only when the real value is taken in the
1st step. Any other number, if used, does not reappear fully, at the 4th step.
Side = diameter = a = 1
Area of the square :
a2 = 1 x 1 = 1
I. With official value 3.14159265358
Area of the circle =
d 2
1
= 3.14159265358 x 1 x 1 x
= 0.78539816339
4
4
Square area
Corner area
1
0.21460183661
= 4.65979236616
Square area 1
4.65979236616
=
= 0.14561851144
32
Corner area 32
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48
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The Natural Selection Mode To Choose The Real Pi Value Based On The
The decimal part of the official value is 0.14159265358 Only first two decimals 0.14 reappeared in the 4th
step, instead of all the decimals.
II. Let us repeat the above process with the new value 3.14644660942
Area of the circle =
d 2
1
= 3.14644660942 x 1 x 1 x
4
4
= 0.78661165235
Square area Circle area = Corner area = 1 0.78661165235 = 0.21338834765
Square area
1
= 4.68629150097
Square area 1
4.68629150097
=
= 0.1464466094
32
Corner area 32
The decimal part of the new value is 0.14644660942
All the decimals have now reappeared in the 4th step.
There are some more numbers if one looks at the Internet. Prominent numbers that are attributed to , besides
22
of Archimedes, are 17 8 3 (Laxman S. Gogawale), 3.125 (Mohammadreza Mehdinia), 3.144605511
7
(from PHI) etc. All these values too have failed when processed in the above steps, to resurrect at the 4th step.
S. No.
Proposed/accepted numbers to
1.
22
= 3.142857142857
7
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
0.14561851144
0.14595873078
17 8 3 = 3.1435935396
3.125
3.144605511029
3.2
0.14285714285
0.14613140674
0.15625
0.14644660942
14 2
=3.14644660942
4
Archimedes
22
is much nearer to the real value than 3.14159265358 though it has been
7
considered as final value to . 3.125 is farthest low value to . number of Golden Ratio is the next closest to
the real value attributed to . Out of all the numbers attributed to value detailed in the above Table, only
one number 3.14644660942 of
above 3. Hence
14 2
has resurrected itself at the end, with its all the decimals, over and
4
14 2
is the true value. Other numbers have succeeded in coming back with one or two
4
first decimals only beyond 3. Hence, these numbers have, failed in the race to qualify themselves, in the
selection, by the natural geometrical construction as a true value.
III. Conclusion
There are many values in the literature. Two values
Third value equal to
22
and 3.14159265358 are very popular.
7
14 2
= 3.14644660942 is added now to the existing values saying that the new
4
www.ijeijournal.com
49
Page  36
The Natural Selection Mode To Choose The Real Pi Value Based On The
value is the only true value. In this paper a simple method is found, to choose, the real value. This method
chooses
14 2
as the real value, which is the exact and an algebraic number.
4
REFERENCES
[1].
[2].
[3].
[4].
[5].
[6].
[7].
[8].
[9].
[10].
[11].
[12].
Lennart Berggren, Jonathan Borwein, Peter Borwein (1997), Pi: A source Book, 2 nd edition, SpringerVerlag Ney York Berlin
Heidelberg SPIN 10746250.
Alfred S. Posamentier & Ingmar Lehmann (2004), , A Biography of the Worlds Most Mysterious Number, Prometheus Books,
New York 142282197.
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), New Method of Computing Pi value (Siva Method). IOSR Journal of Mathematics, eISSN:
22783008, pISSN: 23197676. Volume 10, Issue 1 Ver. IV. (Feb. 2014), PP 4849.
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), Jesus Method to Compute the Circumference of A Circle and Exact Pi Value. IOSR Journal
of Mathematics, eISSN: 22783008, pISSN: 23197676. Volume 10, Issue 1 Ver. I. (Jan. 2014), PP 5859.
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), Supporting Evidences To the Exact Pi Value from the Works Of Hippocrates Of Chios,
Alfred S. Posamentier And Ingmar Lehmann. IOSR Journal of Mathematics, eISSN: 22783008, pISSN:23197676. Volume 10,
Issue 2 Ver. II (MarApr. 2014), PP 0912
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), New Pi Value: Its Derivation and Demarcation of an Area of Circle Equal to Pi/4 in A
Square. International Journal of Mathematics and Statistics Invention, EISSN: 2321 4767 PISSN: 2321  4759. Volume 2 Issue
5, May. 2014, PP3338.
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), Pythagorean way of Proof for the segmental areas of one square with that of rectangles of
adjoining square. IOSR Journal of Mathematics, eISSN: 22783008, pISSN:23197676. Volume 10, Issue 3 Ver. III (MayJun.
2014), PP 1720.
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), Hippocratean Squaring Of Lunes, Semicircle and Circle. IOSR Journal of Mathematics, eISSN: 22783008, pISSN:23197676. Volume 10, Issue 3 Ver. II (MayJun. 2014), PP 3946
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), Durga Method of Squaring A Circle. IOSR Journal of Mathematics, eISSN: 22783008, pISSN:23197676. Volume 10, Issue 1 Ver. IV. (Feb. 2014), PP 1415
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), The unsuitability of the application of Pythagorean Theorem of Exhaustion Method, in
finding the actual length of the circumference of the circle and Pi. International Journal of Engineering Inventions. eISSN: 22787461, pISSN: 23196491, Volume 3, Issue 11 (June 2014) PP: 2935.
RD Sarva Jagannadha Reddy (2014), Pi of the Circle, at www.rsjreddy.webnode.com.
R.D. Sarva Jagannadha Reddy (2014). Pi treatment for the constituent rectangles of the superscribed square in the study of exact
area of the inscribed circle and its value of Pi (SV University Method*). IOSR Journal of Mathematics (IOSR JM), eISSN: 22785728, pISSN:2319765X. Volume 10, Issue 4 Ver. I (JulAug. 2014), PP 4448.
www.ijeijournal.com
50
Page  37
3 3 2
Introduction
14 2
= 3.14644660942 Both
4
the values have their own supporting arguments. Triangle is another geometrical entity. Its area is calculated
using the formula ab, where a = altitude and b = base. In this paper, a different formula has been derived to
find out the area of the equilateral triangle based on the of its inscribed circle. The formula ab gives the
area of the triangle. No other formula is necessary for the area of triangle. The main purpose of derivation of
new area formula of triangle is, to test the correctness of value involved in the new formula.
One advantage in using the new formula for area of the triangle is, the resulting value tallys exactly
with the value of ab only, when the chosen value is correct one. If the wrong/ approximate value is
involved in the new formula, it does not give exact value of the triangle. In other words, out of the two numbers
3.14159265358 and
14 2
= 3.14644660942 only one number, gives the exact area of the triangle.
4
The number which fails in giving exact value to the area of the triangle is decided as the wrong value.
Procedure
Draw a circle with centre O and radius
d
. Draw three equidistant tangents on the circle. The tangents
2
intersect at A, B and C, creating an equilateral triangle ABC. DE is the hypotenuse of DOE triangle or the
chord of the circle.
Calculations:
Centre = O
Radius = OD = OE =
Diameter = DF = d
Triangle = ABC
d
2
Side = AB = BC = AC = a =
3d
This author was awarded Merit Scholarship by Atomic Energy Commission, Trombay, Bombay for his
M.Sc., (Zoology) study in S.V. University College, Tirupati, Chittoor Dt. A.P.,India, during 196668. This
author is highly indebted to the AEC and hence this paper is named in the AECs Honour.
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51
13  Page
An Alternate Formula in terms of Pi to find the Area of a Triangle and a Test to decide the ..
Altitude = DC =
3d
2
Radius = OE = OD =
d
2
Hypotenuse = Chord = DE =
d
2 =
2
2d
2
3 3 2
1
1 3d
1
ab = DC AB = 3d =
d
2
2 2
2
4
3 3d = 3 3d
4 times of perimeter of the ABC triangle
14 times of diameter DFof circle 2 times of chord DE
4 3 3d
2d
14d 2
12 3
14 2
To find out the area of the ABC triangle, multiply the area of the circle with
12 3
14 2
d 2
Area of the circle =
4
Area of the ABC triangle = Area of the circle x
12 3
14 2
3 3 2
d 2 12 3
=
where d = diameter of the inscribed circle
d
4 14 2 14 2
3 3 2
Thus,
14 2 d is the new formula to find out the area of the superscribed triangle about a circle.
14 2
4
3 2
a
4
where a =
3d
2
3 3 2
3
3 3 2
1 3d
=
3d =
3d
d =
4 d
2 2
4
4
3 3 2
So, the value
4 d as the area of the ABC triangle, should also be obtained, using the above new
3 3 2
d should be equal to
14 2
3 3 2
d
4
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52
14  Page
An Alternate Formula in terms of Pi to find the Area of a Triangle and a Test to decide the ..
The unknown one in the above is . Let us write formula with two different values.
3 3 3.14159265358 2
d
14
3 3 2
OR
d should be
4
14 2
3 3
2
4
14 2
3 3 3.14159265358
11
14 2
where d = 1
3 3
= 1.29903810567
4
3 3
as the value of the area of ABC triangle. On the
4
14 2
3 3
has given
as the area of ABC triangle. This shows, that the new
4
4
14 2
is the real value.
4
3 2
a to new formula
4
3 3 2
II.
Conclusion
3 3 2
d is
14
ab is the formula to find out the area of a triangle. In this paper, a new formula
derived. This formula by giving the exact area of ABC triangle shows, that circle and the equilateral triangle
are clearly interrelated and are not very different as we have been believing. The benefit we derive by using
this formula is, this formula chooses the real value, discarding other approximate values attributed to . This
method alone, for the first time in the history of mathematics, acts as a testing method of and boldly says
Archiemedes upper limit of 3
1
22
or
is a lower value compared to the real number.
7
7
Post script
As it is proved in this paper that the real value is
14 2
based on the area of the triangle ABC, it has made
4
possible to demarcate the length of the circumference of the inscribed circle in the straightlined perimeter of
the ABC triangle. How ?
Let us know first the length of the circumference of the inscribed circle with the known value
Diameter = d
Circumference = d
www.iosrjournals.org
53
14 2
4
15  Page
An Alternate Formula in terms of Pi to find the Area of a Triangle and a Test to decide the ..
=
14 2
4
3d
2
d
2
DE = hypotenuse = Chord =
G is the mid point of DE
2d
2
2d
4
So, DG = GE = OG =
OG =
14 2
.
4
2d
4
GH = Radius OG =
d
2d 2 2
=
4 d
2
4
3d
2
2 2
IJ = GH =
4 d
CI = DC =
14 2
d , So, the demarcated length DCJ in the perimeter of the ABC
4
14 2
3d 3d 2 2
d =
d
2
2 4
4
Thus the straight lined length equal to length of the curvature of the circumference of the inscribed
circle is called rectification of circumference of a circle. It was done never before. People tried earlier in the
perimeter of the square but never in the perimeter of the triangle.
References
[1].
[2].
[3].
[4].
[5].
[6].
[7].
Lennart Berggren, Jonathan Borwein, Peter Borwein (1997), Pi: A source Book, 2 nd edition, SpringerVerlag Ney York Berlin
Heidelberg SPIN 10746250.
Alfred S. Posamentier & Ingmar Lehmann (2004), , A Biography of the Worlds Most Mysterious Number, Prometheus Books,
New York 142282197.
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), New Method of Computing Pi value (Siva Method). IOSR Journal of Mathematics, eISSN:
22783008, pISSN: 23197676. Volume 10, Issue 1 Ver. IV. (Feb. 2014), PP 4849.
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), Jesus Method to Compute the Circumference of A Circle and Exact Pi Value. IOSR Journal of
Mathematics, eISSN: 22783008, pISSN: 23197676. Volume 10, Issue 1 Ver. I. (Jan. 2014), PP 5859.
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), Supporting Evidences To the Exact Pi Value from the Works Of Hippocrates Of Chios, Alfred
S. Posamentier And Ingmar Lehmann. IOSR Journal of Mathematics, eISSN: 22783008, pISSN:23197676. Volume 10, Issue 2
Ver. II (MarApr. 2014), PP 0912
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), New Pi Value: Its Derivation and Demarcation of an Area of Circle Equal to Pi/4 in A Square.
International Journal of Mathematics and Statistics Invention, EISSN: 2321 4767 PISSN: 2321  4759. Volume 2 Issue 5, May.
2014, PP3338.
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), Pythagorean way of Proof for the segmental areas of one square with that of rectangles of
adjoining square. IOSR Journal of Mathematics, eISSN: 22783008, pISSN:23197676. Volume 10, Issue 3 Ver. III (MayJun.
2014), PP 1720.
www.iosrjournals.org
54
16  Page
An Alternate Formula in terms of Pi to find the Area of a Triangle and a Test to decide the ..
[8].
[9].
[10].
[11].
[12].
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), Hippocratean Squaring Of Lunes, Semicircle and Circle. IOSR Journal of Mathematics, eISSN: 22783008, pISSN:23197676. Volume 10, Issue 3 Ver. II (MayJun. 2014), PP 3946
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), Durga Method of Squaring A Circle. IOSR Journal of Mathematics, eISSN: 22783008, pISSN:23197676. Volume 10, Issue 1 Ver. IV. (Feb. 2014), PP 1415
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), The unsuitability of the application of Pythagorean Theorem of Exhaustion Method, in finding
the actual length of the circumference of the circle and Pi. International Journal of Engineering Inventions. eISSN: 22787461, pISSN: 23196491, Volume 3, Issue 11 (June 2014) PP: 2935.
RD Sarva Jagannadha Reddy (2014), Pi of the Circle, at www.rsjreddy.webnode.com
R.D. Sarva Jagannadha Reddy (2014). Pi treatment for the constituent rectangles of the superscribed square in the study of exact
area of the inscribed circle and its value of Pi (SV University Method*). IOSR Journal of Mathematics (IOSRJM), eISSN: 22785728, pISSN:2319765X. Volume 10, Issue 4 Ver. I (JulAug. 2014), PP 4448
www.iosrjournals.org
55
17  Page
Abstract: Hippocrates has squared lunes, circle and a semicircle. He is the first man and a last man. S.
Ramanujan is the second mathematician who has squared a circle upto a few decimals of equal to
3.1415926 The squaring of curvature entities implies that lune, circle are finite entities having a finite
magnitude to be represented by a finite number.
Keywords: Squaring, lune, circle, Hippocrates, S. Ramanujan, , algebraic number.
I.
Introduction
Hippocrates of Chios was a Greek mathematician, geometer and astronomer, who lived from 470 until
410 BC. He wrote a systematically organized geometry text book Stoicheia Elements. It is the first book. And
hence he is called the Founding Father of Mathematics. This book was the basis for Euclids Elements.
In his days the value was 3 of the Holy Bible. He is famous for squaring of lunes. The lunes are
called Hippocratic lunes, or the lune of Hippocrates, which was part of a research project on the calculation of
the area of a circle, referred to as the quadrature of the circle. What is a lune ? It is the area present between
two intersecting circles. It is based on the theorem that the areas of two circles have the same ratio as the
squares of their radii.
His work is written by Eudemus of Rhodes (335 BC) with elaborate proofs and has been preserved by
Simplicius.
Some believe he has not squared a circle. This view has become very strong with the number
3.1415926 a polygons value attributed to circle, arrived at, from the Exhaustion method (EM) prevailing
before Archimedes (240 BC) of Syracuse, Greece, and refined it by him, hence the EM is also known as
Archimedean method. This number 3.1415926 has become much stronger as value, and has been
dissociated from circlepolygon composite construction, with the introduction of infinite series of Madhavan
(1450) of South India, and independently by later mathematicians John Wallis (1660) of England, James
Gregory (1660) of Scotland.
With the progressive gaining of the importance of 3.1415926 as value from infinite series, the
work of squaring of circle of Hippocrates has gone into oblivion. When the prevailing situation is so, in the
mean time, a great mathematician Leonhard Euler (17071783) of Switzerland has come. His recordsetting
output is about 530 books and articles during his lifetime, and many more manuscripts are left to posterity. He
had created an interesting formula ei +1 = 0 and based on his formula, Carl Louis Ferdinand Lindemann
(18521939) of Germany proved in 1882 that was a type of nonrational number called a transcendental
number. (It means, it is one that is not the root of a polynomial equation with rational coefficients. Another
way of saying this is that it is a number that cannot be expressed as a combination of the four basic arithmetic
operations and root extraction. In other words, it is a number that cannot be expressed algebraically).
Interestingly, the term transcendental number is introduced by Euler.
When all these happened, naturally, the work on the Squaring of circle by Hippocrates was almost
buried permanently.
14 2
This author with his discovery in March 1998 of a number
= 3.1464466 from Gayatri
4
method, and its confirmation as value, from Siva method, Jesus proof etc. later, has made the revival of the
work of Hippocrates. Hence, this submission of this paper and restoring the golden throne of greatness to
Hippocrates has become all the more a bounden duty of this author and the mathematics community.
II.
Procedure
I. Squaring of Lunes(1)
Hippocrates has squared many types of lunes. In this paper four types of lunes are studied.
Consider a semicircle ACB with diameter AB. Let us inscribe in this semicircle an isosceles triangle
ACB, and then draw the circular are AMB which touches the lines CA and CB at A and B respectively. The
segments ANC, CPB and AMB are similar. Their areas are therefore proportional to the squares of AC, CB and
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56
39  Page
4.
1.
2.
3.
N = midpoint of arc AC.
5.
NF =
2d d
2 2
, DM =
AB = diameter = d
DE = DC = radius = d/2
F = midpoint of AC
2d d
, MC =
2
2d d
2
d
2
16
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
d2
2
8
d2
4
16
1 d
d2
Area of ACB triangle = d
2 2
4
According to Hippocrates the area of the lune ACBMA is equal to the area of the triangle ACB.
Area of Lune ACBMA
= Area of triangle ACB
(ANC + CPB + ACM + BCM)
d2
d2
d2
2 2 2 4
16
16
4
Squaring of Lunes(2)
11. Let ABC be an isosceles right angled triangle
inscribed in the semicircle ABOC, whose centre is O.
AB and AC as diameters described semicircles as in
figure. Then, since by Ecu. I, 47,
Sq. on BC = Sq. on AC + Sq on AB.
Therefore, by Euc. XII, 2,
Area semicircle on BC = Area semicircle on AC + Area semicircle on AB.
Take away the common parts
Area triangle ABC = Sum of areas of lunes AECD and AFBG.
Hence the area of the lune AECD is equal to half that of the triangle ABC.
12. BC = diameter = d,
13. OB = OC = radius = d/2
2d
14. AB = AC =
= diameter of the semicircle ABF = ACD
2
2d 2d
15. GI = EJ =
4
16. Sq. on BC = Sq. on AC + Sq. on AB
d 2
17. Area of the larger semicircle = BAC =
8
18. Area of the smaller semicircle = ABF = ACD
Diameter =
On
the
2d
2
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40  Page
2d
2
2
d
d 2
Area =
8
8
16
18. a) Areas of two smaller semicircles = 2
19.
20.
21.
22.
d 2 d 2
16
8
1
base altitude
2
d
Base = BC = d, Altitude = OA =
2
2
1
d d
Area = d
2
2 4
Segment AIBG = Segment AJCE
d2
d2
d2
Areas of AIBG + AJCE =
2 2 2
16
16
8
Lune AGBF = lune AECD
Area of the lune (AGBF or AECD)
= Semicircles (ABF & ACD) Segments (AIBG & AJCE)
Area of the triangle ABC =
2
2 2 2 d
d
d
4
8
8
Squaring of lunes(3)
There are also some famous moonshaped figures. The best known
of these are the crescents (or lunulae) of Hippocrates. By the
theorem of Thales the triangle ABC in the first figure is right
angled: Thus p2 = m2 + n2. The semicircle on AB = p has the area
AAB = p2/8; the sum of the areas of the semicircles on AC
and BC is
AAC+ABC= (n2 + m2)/8 and is thus equal to AAB.
From this it follows that:
The sum of the areas of the two crescents is the area of the
triangle.
23. AB = diameter = d
24. BC = radius = d/2
25.
26.
3d
2
DF = d/4
AC =
29.
2d 3d
4
3d d
EF =
4
GH = d/4
30.
GJ =
27.
28.
31.
32.
33.
DE =
3d
4
3d d
3d d
4
4
4
Area of the semicircle BDCF
d
d d 1
= d 2
where BC = diameter =
2
2 2 8 32
Area of the semicircle AGCJ
HJ = GJ GH =
3d 3d 1 3 2
d
2
2 8 32
where AC = diameter =
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58
3d
2
41  Page
37.
38.
39.
3 2
1
1 3d d
AC BC
=
d
2
2 2
2 8
2 3 3 2
Area of the curvature entity BDCE =
d
48
1
Area of the curvature entity AGCH = Circle AGCH
3
2
4 3 3 2
d 3 3 2 1
d =
d
4
16
3
48
3 3 2
3
Area of the triangle =
, where side = AC =
16 d
2 d
32
48
96
(S.No. 32)
(S.No. 35)
Area of the lune AHCJ
4 3 3 2 6 3 2
3
Semicircle AGCJ AGCH segment = d 2
d =
d
48
32
96
(S.No. 33)
(S.No. 36)
Sum of the areas of two lunes = area of the triangle
(S.No. 37) + (S.No. 38)
(S.No. 34)
6 3 2 6 3 2
3 2
=
=
96 d 96 d
8 d
42.
AO = OC =
43.
EF =
44.
FG =
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
2d d
2
2d d
2
d 2
4
Where diameter = 2d
1
d 2 2
2d 2d =
d
4
2
2
Area of the semicircle DECG
d 2 2
Where DC = diameter = d =
d
8
8
2 2
Area of the curvature entity DECF =
d
8
Area of the lune DFCG
2 2 d2
Semicircle DECG Curvature entity DECF = d 2
d
4
8
8
The sum of the areas of 4 lunes = the area of the square
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42  Page
58.
59.
60.
61.
62.
d 2 1 2
Area of sector OAFB =
d
4 6 24
3 2
Area of the triangle OAB =
16 d
2 3 3 2
6 3 3 4 2
= d2
d
d x
48
96
32
2 6 3 3 4 2
Area of 3 lunes = 3
=
d
d
96
32
2 2 6 3 3 4 2 6 3 2 3 3 2
d
d
=
=
d
d
d
32
32
32
32
16
3 3 2 3 3 2
Area of 3 lunes + semicircle on OA =Area of trapezium =
16 d 16 d
(S.No. 60)
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60
43  Page
64.
65.
66.
67.
OH
6
OK =
d
2
4
69.
3 2
2
OK
d
4
Radius of the third circle
3 2
= GI = 2 x KI =
2 d
70.
71.
OH 6
d
2
4
6
3 3 2
1 3 2
=
d
d =
d
2 2
4
8
Area of the AOB triangle
68.
KI =
OI
1
GI HK
2
HK
OA = AB =
AP =
OA d
2
4
3
=
;
4 d
3 2
1
1 d 3
Area = OA PB
d
d
2
2 2 4
16
Area of the hexagon = Area of the triangle AOB x 6
3 2
6 3 2 3 3 2
=
16 d 6 16 d 8 d
PB =
72.
d
;
2
AB AP
2
74.
d 2 2
d
4
4
Area of the segment GH = Segment HI
75.
d 2
4
6
Where d =
=
2 d 2
6d = 6d 6d
4 4
73.
76.
6 2
d
1
6
Area of the larger circle is divided into 6 sectors = d 2 d 2
6 4
4
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44  Page
78.
79.
80.
3 3 2
Area of the triangle OGH = OHI = GHI =
8 d
(S.No. 70)
Area of the GH segment = HI segment
3 3 2
3 3 2
8
4
8
4
(S.No. 76) (S.No. 77)
3 3 2 2 3 3 2
There are two segments GH and HI = 2
d
d
4
8
4
Similarly, GNIK is also another segment which is the part of the sector GNIQ. It consists of the triangle
GIQ and GNIK segment.
To find out the area of the sector GNIQ, let us first find out the area of the circle whose diameter is equal
to that of the third circle.
3 2
Diameter of the third circle = riadus x 2 =
2 d 2 3 2 d
(S.No. 69)
d 2
1
1
9
Area =
= 3 2 d 3 2d = 18 d 2 d 2
4
4
4
81.
82.
1 9 2 1 9 2 3 2
Then let us find out the area of the sector = th = d d d
4
6 2 6 12
1
Now let us find out the area of the triangle GIQ = GI KQ
2
GI
3 2
1
3 2
Where KI =
d
d
2 2
2 4
GI = QI = GQ = Radius of the third circle.
2
KQ
QI KI
2
3 2 3 2
3 6
d
d =
d
2 4
4
9 3 2
1
1 3 2 3 6
GI KQ =
d
d
d
2
2 2 4
8
Area of the segment GNIK = Sector Triangle
(S.No. 81)
(S.No. 82)
Area =
83.
84.
85.
86.
9 3 2 6 9 3 2
3
d 2
d
d
8
4
8
6 3 3 2
Area =
d
d
d 4 d 4 d
4
4
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62
45  Page
3 3 2
3 3 2
87. Area of lune + Circle =
= Area of triangle+ hexagon =
4 d
4 d
(S.No. 85)
(S.No. 86)
So, the sum of the areas of lune and circle is equal to the sum of the areas of triangle and hexagon.
V.
Post Script
References
[1].
[2].
[3].
[4].
[5].
T. Dantzig (1955), The Bequest of the Greeks, George Allen & Unwin Ltd., London.
P. Dedron and J. Itard (1973) Mathematics and Mathematicians, Vol.2, translated from French, by J.V. Field, The Open University
Press, England.
W.W. Rouse Ball (1960), A short Account of the History of Mathematics, Dover Publications, New York.
W.G.H. Kustner and M.H.H. Kastner (1975). The VNR Concise Encyclopedia of Mathematics, Van Nostrand Rusinhold Company.
R.D. Sarva Jagannadha Reddy (2014). Pi of the Circle at www.rsjreddy.webnode.com
www.iosrjournals.org
63
46  Page
Keywords: Exact Pi value = 1/4 (14 2 ), Squaring of circle, Hippocrates squaring of lunes.
I.
Introduction
Squaring a circle is defined as constructing a square having an area equal to that of a given circle. It is
also called as quadrature of the circle.
This concept has been there from the days of Rhind Papyrus (1800 B.C) written by a scribe named
Ahmes. Hippocrates of Chios (450 B.C) has squared lunes, full circle and semicircle along with lunes. He
fore saw the algebraic nature of the value. value 3.1415926 has failed to find a place for it in the squaring
of lunes. Though the World of Mathematics has accepted his squaring of lunes, they became silent for why
3.1415926 is a misfit in his constructions. Further, there is a false opinion that Hippocrates could not square
a circle. However, Hippocrates did square a full circle and a semicircle along with a lune. In both the cases
14 2
has explained perfectly well the
4
constructions of Hippocrates. Thus the propositions of Hippocrates which remained theoretical all these 2400
squaring a lune, squaring a circle along with a lune the new value,
14 2
. It is clear therefore, we have
4
misunderstood Hippocrates because, we believed 3.1415926 as the value of . I therefore apologize to
Hippocrates on behalf of mathematics community for the past mistake done by us. And to atone the
academic sin committed by us, I bow my head and dedicate the explained parts (for details: Pi of the
Circle, last chapter: Latest work, Pages from 273 to 281) to Hippocrates, in www.rsjreddy.webnode.com
James Gregory (1660) has said squaring of circle is impossible. His view has been confirmed by
C.L.F. Lindemann (1882) based on Eulers formula ei+1 = 0. Von K. Weiertrass (18151897) and David
Hilbert (1893) have supported the proof of Lindemann by their proofs.
S. Ramanujan (1913) has squared a circle upto some decimals of 3.1415926 Prof. Underwood
Dudley doesnt accept Lindemanns proof because this is based on numbers which are approximate in
themselves.
1
Now, the exact value is discovered. It is
14 2 . It is an algebraic number. The following is
4
the procedure how to square a circle.
II. Procedure
We have to obtain a side of the square
whose value is
1
14 2
; when
, then
4
2
1
1 14 2
14 2
2
2
4
4
CD = a, OK = OF = radius =
2a
a
, FK =
, JK =
2
2
FG = GC,
GC
JG KF
1
2
2a 1
a
2 2
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64
14  Page
a ; GB = BC GC = a
a =
a ;
4
4
4
2 2
Bisect GB. GH = HB =
a . Bisect HB.
8
2 2
a = HI = BI
16
2 2
14 2
14 2 2
CI = BC BI = a
a =
a = ; Area of the circle =
a
4
16
16
16
CB = diameter = a;
a
1
Draw a semicircle on CB, with radius and center O;
CO = OB = where a = 1
2
2
Draw a perpendicular line on CB at I, which meets semicircle at Y. Apply altitude theorem to obtain IY length.
14 2 2 2
26 12 2
CI IB
16
16 16
Connect YC which is the side of the square CYUT whose area is equal to that of the inscribed circle in the
square ABCD.
Apply Pythagorean theorem to get CY from the triangle CIY.
IY =
2
14 2 26 12 2
14 2
CI IY
16
4
16
14 2 14 2
Area of the square CYUT =
= area of the inscribed circle in the square ABCD.
4
16
III.
Conclusion
14 2
is the exact value of circle. Hence, squaring of circle is done now. The misnomer Circle
4
squarer will sink into oblivion. Hippocrates will now gets his deserving throne of greatness though delayed
unfortunately for 2400 years.
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65
15  Page
I. Introduction
The Holy Bible has said value is 3. The formula for circumference of a circle is d, where is a
constant and d is the diameter. When the diameter is 1 the circumference is equal to value.
When, a hexagon is inscribed in a circle of as its radius, the perimeter of hexagon is equal to 3. It
means, the circumference is greater than 3, because hexagon is an inscribed entity in the circle. With the unit
diameter of circle, circumference and/or value is exchangeable, because, both are represented by a single
number. There were many values for .
142
= 3.155 (Wang Fau,
45
250 AD), 3.14159 (Liu Hui, 263 AD), 3.1415 (Aryabhata, 499 AD). From Francois Viete (1579) onwards
the value 3.1415926 has become an accepted value.
It is a well established fact that the value is 3.14159265358 However, two things which are
associated with this number have not satisfied some scholars of mathematics. They are 1. 3.14159265358 is a
borrowed number of polygon, attributed to circle, believing in the logic of limitation principle and being an
approximate number, made super computers too have failed to find the exact value and 2. Assertively, this
number has said, squaring a circle impossible, being it is a transcendental umber. High school students, now
and then ask, when mathematics is an exact science, how is it possible we have many values are being used, for
example
22
, 3.14, 3.1416, 3.14159265358.
7
Nature has been kind. Exact value has been found at last. A few papers in support of the exact
value have been published (in Reference). Surprisingly the new value is struggling very hard still for its
approval. All the time, the work done on has been cited, saying, the past generation or the present workers
could not be wrong. Thus, the new value (through was discovered 16 years ago, in March 1998 is yet to be
accepted.
From March 1998, with the discovery of
14 2
= 3.14644660942, this worker has been struggling
4
to find evidences in support of new value, and also struggling much more in search of an error in the
derivation of 3.14159265358
There are some similarities and some differences between present and new values.
The similarity is, in Exhaustion method a polygon is inscribed in a circle and in the new method a
circle is inscribed in a square.
The differences are many: 1. Present value 3.14159265358 represents the perimeter/ area of the
polygon and attributed to circle; the new value represents the area of the inscribed circle only in a square
(called Siva method in Reference). Here, square helps but does not lend its value to circle. 2. Present value is
derived applying Pythagorean theorem meant for straight lines. New value is derived adopting entirely a new
approach for which no previous proofs/ statements are available. 3. Present value is a transcendental number
and new value is an algebraic number. 4. Present value says squaring of a circle is an impossible idea and
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66
Page  29
The unsuitability of the application of Pythagorean Theorem of Exhaustion Method, in finding the
whereas the new value squared a circle. It also, circled a square (i.e., constructing a circle whose
circumference and/or area equal to the perimeter and/ or area of a square respectively. For example, if the side
of a square is 1, the perimeter would be 4 and its area would be 1. Circling a square means we have to find out a
radius geometrically of circle whose length of the circumference is 4 and/ or area of the circle is 1.
In this paper, present valueto some decimal places is obtained using the new value 14 2 ,
4
showing, circle, polygon and square are not different geometrical entities and their interrelationship, if
understood correctly, may help in the derivation of present value from the new value also.
If this idea is accepted, an algebraic number like
14 2
is also, capable of giving rise to, a
4
transcendental number like 3.14159265358. It leads to the creation of a new doubt, is 3.14159265358 is
really a transcendental number ?
There are 3 examples cited below, linking present and new values 3.14159265358 and
3.14644660942 =
14 2
.
4
To drive to the point an elaborate explanation is chosen and here and there repetitions too appear.
II. PROCEDURE
Example1
The following formula gives the present value upto 5 decimal places.
When my work on deriving the new value of equal to
14 2
= 3.1464466.. was submitted, I was
4
advised by many to think how to derive the present value 3.1415926 cautioning me as the new one was
wrong.
In obedience, I hereby submitted the following formula giving the number exact upto five decimal
places.
9
14 2
3.14159... where
200
4
To get the same value (3.14159) from the Classical method of Archimedes, we have to travel a long way
using the following general formula to calculate the length of the perimeter of the inscribed polygon of 1536
sides starting from 6 sides, in a circle
Side = s 2n
2r 2 r
4r
s n2
9
3
14 2
9
9 4 = 3.14159
200
200
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Page  30
The unsuitability of the application of Pythagorean Theorem of Exhaustion Method, in finding the
Example2
Archimedes inscribed a polygon of 96 sides with the circle and gave perimeter of the polygon as equal
to 3 10/71 = 3.140845 When the diameter of the superscribed circle is 1 unit, the perimeter = value. Prof.
Constantine Karapappopulos of University of Patra, Patra, Greece has suggested a formula for the
10
10
1
3
to 3
1
in the range of 3
71
70
3
3
14 2
The proposed formula for =
gives the circumference of the circle as equal to
1
2
3 1
2
2
3
1
3 1
x
3
Perimeter of Polygon x
3 3
2
3 3
2 2
2 1
3 1
=
=
1
2 14 2
3 1
2
2
4
Circumference of Circle
is obtained by the calculation method. One need not set aside it on the reason that the
3 1
2 1
above factor is based on the calculation method. This factor or circle connecting link can be viewed as a clue
or guiding factor for further analysis. On close observation one finds the denominator and the numerator of the
link are symmetrical and give us a right relationship between the inscribed polygon and the superscribed circle.
Example3
Classical method involves the inscription of polygon in the circle. Starting with the known perimeter of a
regular polygon (here we start with a regular hexagon) of n sides inscribed in a circle, the
perimeter of the inscribed regular polygon of 2 n sides can be calculated by the application
of Pythagorean theorem. Let C be a circle with centre O and radius r, and let PQ = s be a
side of a regular inscribed polygon of n sides having a known perimeter. Then the apothem,
2
OM = u is given by
s
r 2 hence the sagetta, MR = v = r u is known. Then the
2
2
s
v 2 hence the perimeter of this
2
polygon is known.
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Page  31
The unsuitability of the application of Pythagorean Theorem of Exhaustion Method, in finding the
First Side PQ
=s
ns
Perimeter =
Circumferen
ce =
s/2 = t
0.5
3.0
0.25
2.
12
0.258819045
3.1058828544
0.129409522
3.
24
0.13052619
3.132628565
0.065263095
4.
48
0.065403125
3.139350157
0.032701564
5.
96
0.032719082
3.141031907
0.016359541
6.
192
0.016361731
3.141452431
7.
384
8.
768
S.
No
.
1.
9.
10.
153
6
307
2
0.0081811394
95
0.0040906039
72
0.0020453062
62
0.0010226536
68
3.141557566
3.14158385
3.141590424
3.141592067
Apothem
r2 t2 u
0.43301270
1
0.48296291
3
Sagetta
ru=v
0.008180657
05
0.004090569
748
0.002045301
986
0.001022653
133
0.49892946
1
0.49973229
3
0.49993306
9
0.49998326
7
0.49999581
6
0.49999865
4
0.0669872
99
0.0170370
87
0.0042775
7
0.0010705
39
0.0002677
07
0.0000669
31
0.0000167
33
0.0000041
84
0.0000010
4
0.49572243
Succeeding
side
v2 t 2 w
0.258819045
0.13052619
0.065403128
0.032719082
0.016361731
0.0081811394
95
0.0040906039
72
0.0020453062
62
0.0010226536
68

Let us analyse the above Table. The calculation is started with a regular polygon of 6 sides having the perimeter
equal to 3. The sides of polygon are doubled for 9 times and now the inscribed polygon has 3072 sides and its
perimeter = circumference of circle = value is equal to 3.141592067 Thus, the number of sides are
increased 512 times finally
3072
512 . The length of the perimeter has increased from
6
1
6 = 3.000000
2
to 3.141592067 The correct value is 3.14159265358 From the above Table, it is possible to find the exact
length only upto 3.141592 i.e. 6 decimal places only with 3072 sides of the polygon.
ABCD = Square; EFGR = Circle; AB = Side = NQ = diameter = 1;
2 ; AN = QC = Corner length;
Diagonal diameter = AC NQ = 2 1 ; Hexagon = STGUVE
AC = Diagonal =
In the Classical method of calculating perimeter/ circumference/ in the above table, number of sides of the
inscribed polygon plays an important role. The derivation is started with 6 sides and ended with 3072 sides.
The perimeter of the hexagon is 3 and the perimeter of the polygon of 3072 sides has increased to
3.141592067
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The unsuitability of the application of Pythagorean Theorem of Exhaustion Method, in finding the
Starting no. of sides of the polygon = 6
Ending no. of sides of the polygon = 3072
Starting perimeter = 3
Ending perimeter = 3.141592067
Present value = 3.14159265358
New value =
14 2
= 3.14644660942
4
In the following formula a relation is shown between two values: present value and new value as in the
above two examples.
14 2
6 6 899 67 2
= 3.14159254422
2 1
256
3072
899 67 2
.
256
The lengthy process involved in the above Exhaustion method is represented in a single formula
In the Exhaustion method Pythagorean theorem is applied.
calculation. The result 3.14159254422 obtained from the above formula using 2 is much more accurate at
7th decimal place than what it is (3.141592067) obtained in the Exhaustion method in the table.
In the Exhaustion method RQ is the hypotenuse and is the side of the inscribed polygon.
And in the above formula diagonal diameter = corner lengths on either side of the diameter also play an
important role. Hence, it has become possible that the new value has given the present value (to some
decimals).
Let us understand, in much more clear terms, the above formula.
There are four factors in the Exhaustion method. They are
No. of sides of the hexagon = 6
Perimeter of the hexagon = x 6 = 3
No. of sides of the final polygon = 3072
Perimeter of the final polygon = 3.141592067
1.
Let us divide final sides by the sides of the beginning polygon i.e. hexagon
2.
3.
3072
512 .
6
2 1
2 1
= 0.00080901086
512
2 1
6 =
512
Multiply the above value with the no. of sides of the beginning polygon (hexagon)
0.00485406516
4.
14 2
= 3.14644660942 which gives the present
4
14 2 6 2 6 899 67 2
= 3.14159254424
4
256
512
5.
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The unsuitability of the application of Pythagorean Theorem of Exhaustion Method, in finding the
6.
7.
8.
9.
Diagonal diameter
2
AC NQ
2 1
QC
=
2
2
Divide QC by 2
2 1 1
2 1 2 2
=
2 2 2 2 4
Corner length QC =
=
10.
2 2 14 2
4
4
When we compare two ways of arriving the exact length of circumference of a circle, it is clear in
Exhaustion method the perimeter of the inscribed polygon is increased slowly by doubling the number of
sides of the previous polygon. Thus, the number of sides have been increased from 6 to 3072, it means it
has been increased 512 times. In other words, we have divided corner length into 512 parts.
In the second approach in the arrival of length of the circumference, the corner length is
divided at one stroke with
So, 3 sides +
11.
12.
2 2
4
QC
= 3
Corner length QC
2
2 1 1 14 2
=
4
2 2
Thus there are two values for the length of the circumference of the circle.
1. 3.14159265358 of Exhaustion method and
2. 3.14644660942 of Gayatri method
We can thus visualize a diagram of 2, containing a hexagon whose perimeter STGUVE is 3, next to
hexagon, 3.14159265358 of inscribed polygon of 3072 sides and further next and the circle EFGR, whose
circumference is equal to 3.14644660942 with radius .
III. Conclusion
There are now two values 3.14159265358 and 3.14644660942 =
14 2
. In the Exhaustion
4
method, perimeter of the polygon is attributed to the circumference of the circle. As the inscribed polygon is
smaller one, the value 3.14159265358 must be lesser than the exact length of the circumference of circle.
This paper clearly shows the calculation error involved in the arrival of the actual length of the circumference
(= ) of the circle. Hence, Exhaustion method is not suitable in arriving the of the circle. However, this study
shows that both the values have a commonness in their nature. In Exhaustion method while doing
calculations involving squaring, square root etc. and only a few decimals have been taken. All the numbers are
infinite numbers. So, the prolongation of roundofferror is universal throughout the calculations. And this
has resulted in a lower value 3.14159265358 instead of the actual value. However, the new work has tried to
overcome the error supposed to be in the Exhaustion method by adopting Gayatri method, Siva method, Jesus
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71
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The unsuitability of the application of Pythagorean Theorem of Exhaustion Method, in finding the
method etc. and found the actual length of the circumference and real value, i.e.
14 2
=
4
3.14644660942
REFERENCES
[1.]
[2.]
[3.]
[4.]
[5.]
[6.]
[7.]
[8.]
[9.]
Lennart Berggren, Jonathan Borwein, Peter Borwein (1997), Pi: A source Book, 2nd edition, SpringerVerlag Ney York
Berlin Heidelberg SPIN 10746250.
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), New Method of Computing Pi value (Siva Method). IOSR Journal of Mathematics, eISSN: 22783008, pISSN: 23197676. Volume 10, Issue 1 Ver. IV. (Feb. 2014), PP 4849.
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), Jesus Method to Compute the Circumference of A Circle and Exact Pi Value. IOSR
Journal of Mathematics, eISSN: 22783008, pISSN:23197676. Volume 10, Issue 1 Ver. I. (Jan. 2014), PP 5859.
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), Supporting Evidences To the Exact Pi Value from the Works Of Hippocrates Of Chios,
Alfred S. Posamentier And Ingmar Lehmann. IOSR Journal of Mathematics, eISSN: 22783008, pISSN:23197676. Volume
10, Issue 2 Ver. II (MarApr. 2014), PP 0912
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), New Pi Value: Its Derivation and Demarcation of an Area of Circle Equal to Pi/4 in A
Square. International Journal of Mathematics and Statistics Invention, EISSN: 2321 4767 PISSN: 2321  4759. Volume 2
Issue 5, May. 2014, PP3338.
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), Pythagorean way of Proof for the segmental areas of one square with that of rectangles of
adjoining square. IOSR Journal of Mathematics, eISSN: 22783008, pISSN:23197676. Volume 10, Issue 3 Ver. III (MayJun.
2014), PP 1720.
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), Hippocratean Squaring Of Lunes, Semicircle and Circle. IOSR Journal of Mathematics, eISSN: 22783008, pISSN:23197676. Volume 10, Issue 3 Ver. II (MayJun. 2014), PP 3946
RD Sarva Jagannada Reddy (2014), Durga Method of Squaring A Circle. IOSR Journal of Mathematics, eISSN: 22783008,
pISSN:23197676. Volume 10, Issue 1 Ver. IV. (Feb. 2014), PP 1415
R.D. Sarva Jagannadha Reddy (2014), Pi of the Circle, at www.rsjreddy.webnode.com
www.ijeijournal.com
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Page  35
Mother
Dhanalakshmi
2.
Father
Venkata Reddy
3.
Date of Birth
13.04.1946
4.
Native Place
Bandarupalli Village
Yerpedu Mandal,
Chittoor District, AP, India.
5.
Phone No.
08772244370
6.
rsjreddy1341946@gmail.com
7.
19973/D3,
Sri Jayalakshmi Colony,
S.T.V. Nagar,
Tirupati 517 501, INDIA
8.
Education
9.
Books
1.
Origin of Matter
2.
3.
4.
Pi of the Circle
Telugu Books
5.
Sarvam Pavithram
6.
Pavana Prapancham
7.
Mahabhagavatham Maanavaavirbhavam
8.
Abhinandana
9.
Mattipella
11.
Wife
Late Savithri
Children
Profession
73
12.
Donation
constant
74
75
76
77