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CONTRASTIVE LIST

OF
THE ENGLISH AND
TURKISH VERBS
Yksel Gknel

2015

WWW.YUKSELGOKNEL.COM

CONTRASTIVE LIST OF THE ENGLISH AND TURKISH VERBS


BOTH TRANSITIVELY AND INTRANSITIVELY USED ENGLISH VERBS
Some English verbs are both transitive and intransitive. There are few verbs
used in this fashion in Turkish. Therefore, those who are studying English or
2Turkish as a second language face some difficulties in learning them. In the
following list, you can find frequently used English verbs that are used both
transitively and intransitively. The Turkish equivalents of such verbs and how
their allomorphs change are given in the examples below.
Note: There is only the indefinite article bir in Turkish which corresponds
to the indefinite English articles a or an. No articles like the are used in
Turkish when common nouns are in the subject positions. The absence of
this article before a common noun indicates that the noun is definite.
However, when the object pronouns, nominal phrases, even proper nouns
are used in the object positions, they are attached to the [i, , , u]
allomorphs to show that they are definite. If a common noun is used in the
object position, the bir (a or an) is used before a common noun if the noun
is indefinite. If it is definite, one of the [i, , , u] allomorphs is attached to a
common noun according to vowel harmony rules. For instance:
The bird flew away. [The work ended. The students arrived. The baby slept.]
Ku uup gitti. [ bitti. renciler geldi. Bebek uyudu.]
Jack saw me. [me, you, him, her, it, us, them]
Jack ben-i grd. [ben-i, sen-i, o-/n/u, biz-i, siz-i, onlar-]
Jack saw Mary. [Jane, George, Aye, Hasan, Mustafa]
Jack Mary-/y/i grd. [Jayn-i, George-u, Aye-/y/i, Hasan-, Mustafa-/y/]
Marys dog bit Jack.
Mary-/n/in kpei Jack-i srd.
As it has already been noted, the identical vowels that follow each other
combine, and the single underlined consonants detach from their
syllables and attach to the first vowels of the following allomorphs during
the syllabication process.
Note:
The blue underlines show the subjects.
The black underlines show the objects, noun clauses, and nouns.
The red underlines show the verbs.
The green underlines show the adverbs, adverbial pheases or clauses.
The purple underlines show the adjectives and the noun modifiers.
Follow the example sentences:
Yumurta-lar kayna-.yor.
(yu*mur*ta*lar / kay*n*yor )
The eggs are boiling. (Turkish and English verbs are intransitive.)

CONTRASTIVE LIST OF THE ENGLISH AND TURKISH VERBS


Fatma yumurta kayna-at-,yor. (Transitive)
(fat*ma / yu*mur*ta / kay*na*t*yor )
Fatma is boiling eggs. (Transitive)
In the first Turkish sentence above, the intransitive verb kayna has
changed into kayna-at (kay*nat) transitive verb frame to take the object
yumurta. However, the English verb boil has not changed. This shows us
that the English verb boil can be used both transitively and intransitively. In
the following sentences, the explanations in parentheses are about the
Turkish sentences. However, when necessary, both Turkish and English
verbs are explained in parentheses. In the following examples, the subjects
are blue, the objects are black, the verbs are red, the modifiers and articles are purple and the adverbs and adverbials are green.
Ate yan-.yor. (Intransitive)
(a*te / ya*n*yor )
The fire is burning.
Ate parmak-lar--/n/ yak-ar. (Transitive)
(a*te / par*mak*la*r*n / ya*kar )
Fire burns your fingers.
Dkkn-lar saat yedi-de kapa-an-r. (Reflexive)
(dk*kn*lar / sa*at / ye*di*de / ka*pa*nr )
Shops close at seven. (They close themselves.)
Onlar dkkn-lar- yedi-de kapa-at-r-lar. (Transitive)
(on*lar / dk*kn*la*r / sa*at / ye*di*de / ka*pa*tr*lar )
They close the shops at seven.
Note: When the Turkish common and proper nouns are used as objects,
they are suffixed by the [i, , , u] allomorphs. However, when the English
common nouns are used as definite objects, they are used with the article
the. Proper nouns do not take the article the in English.
Dkkn-lar saat yedi-de kapa-at-l-r. (Passive)
(dk*kn*lar / sa*at / ye*di*de / ka*pa*t*lr )
Shops are closed at seven.
Renk-ler sonbahar-da dei-ir. (Intransitive)
(renk*ler / son*ba*har*da / de*i*ir )
Colors change in the autumn.
(O) giysi-ler-i-/n/i dei-tir-i.yor. (Transitive.)
(o ~/ giy*si*le*ri*ni / de*i*ti*ri*yor )
He is changing his clothes.
imdi mutfak-ta yemek pi-ir-i.yor. (Turkish verb is transitive.)
(im*di / mut*fak*ta / ye*mek / pi*i*ri*yor )
She is cooking in the kitchen now. (English verb is intransitive.)

CONTRASTIVE LIST OF THE ENGLISH AND TURKISH VERBS


O, balk pi-ir-i.yor. (Transitive)
(o / ba*lk / pi*i*ri*yor )
She is cooking fish.
Yemek pi-ti. (Intransitive)
(ye*mek / pi*ti )
The meal has cooked.
Meyve-ler olgun-la-n.ca aa-lar-dan d-er. (Intransitive)
(mey*ve*ler / ol*gun*la*n*ca / a*a*lar*dan / d*er )
Fruits drop from trees when they ripen.
Kalem-i-/n/i d-r-d. (Transitive)
(ka*le*mi*ni / d*r*d )
She dropped her pencil.
Baz nehir-ler yaz-n kuru-ur. (Intransitive)
(ba*z / ne*hir*ler / ya*zn / ku*rur )
Some rivers dry up in the summer.
El-ler-in-i ben-im havlu-um-da kuru-la-ma. (Transitive)
(el*le*ri*ni / be*nim / hav*lum*da l ku*ru*la*ma )
Dont dry your hands on my towel.
Sava son-a er-di. (Son-a er = end) (Intransitive)
(sa*va / so*na / er*di )
The war ended.
Sava- son-a er-dir-di-ler. (Transitive)
(sa*va* / so*na / er*dir*di*ler )
They ended the war.
Bir bomba patla-d. (Intransitive)
(bir / bom*ba / pat*la*d )
A bomb exploded.
Bir bomba patla-at-t-lar. (Transitive)
(bir / bom*ba / pat*lat*t*lar )
They exploded a bomb.
nekler tarla-da besle-en-i.yor-lar. (Reflexive)
(i*nek*ler / tar*la*da / bes*le*ni*yor*lar )
The cows are feeding (grazing) in the field. (Intransitive)
Kpek-im-i her sabah besle-er-im. (Transitive)
(k*pe*i*mi / her / sa*bah / bes*le*rim )
I feed my dog every morning.
Sokak-lar k-n amur-la dol-ar. (Intransitive)
(so*kak*lar / k*n / a*mur*la / do*lar )
The streets fill up with mud in winter.

CONTRASTIVE LIST OF THE ENGLISH AND TURKISH VERBS


Kalem-im-i siyah mrekkep-le dol-dur. (Transitive)
(ka*le*mi*mi / si*yah / m*rek*kep*le / dol*dur )
Fill my pen with black ink.
henz bit-me-di. (Intransitive)
(i / he*nz / bit*me*di )
The work hasnt finished yet.
-im-i henz bit-ir-me-di-im. (Transitive)
(i*i*mi / he*nz / bi*tir*me*dim )
I havent finished my work yet.
Ku-lar hava-da u-ar. (Intransitive)
(ku*lar / ha*va*da / u*ar )
Birds fly in the sky.
ocuk-lar uurtma u-ur-u.yor-lar. (Transitive)
(o*cuk*lar / u*urt*ma / u*u*ru*yor*lar )
The boys are flying kites.
Patates-ler kzar-.yor. (Intransitive)
(pa*ta*tes*ler / k*za*r*yor )
The potatoes are frying.
O, balk kza-art-.yor. (Transitive)
(o~ / ba*lk / k*zar*t*yor )
She is frying fish.
Pamuk Adanada yeti-ir. (Intransitive)
(pa*muk / a*da*na*da / ye*ti*ir )
Cotton grows in Adana.
Adanada pamuk yeti-tir-ir-ler. (Transitive)
(a*da*na*da / pa*muk / ye*ti*ti*rir*ler )
They grow cotton in Adana.
Kap-/n/n arka-/s/-/n/a sakla-an-.yor. (Reflexive)
(ka*p*nn / ar*ka*s*na / sak*la*n*yor )
He is hiding behind the door. (He is hiding himself.)
Mektup-lar--/n/ sakla-ar. (Transitive)
(mek*tup*la*r*n / sak*lar )
She hides her letters.
Zorluk-lar-m.z art-.yor. (Intransitive)
(zor*luk*la*r*mz / ar*t*yor )
Our difficulties are increasing.
Hz-n- art-r-ma. (Transitive)
(h*z*n / ar*tr*ma )
Dont increase your speed.

CONTRASTIVE LIST OF THE ENGLISH AND TURKISH VERBS


iek-ler sabah-le.yin a-ar. (Intransitive)
(i*ek*ler / sa*bah*le*yin / a*ar )
Flowers open in the morning.
Sabah-le.yin pencere-ler-i a-ar-z. (Transitive)
(sa*bah*le*yin / pen*ce*re*le*ri / a*a*rz )
We open the windows in the morning. (The verb "a" is used both
transitively and intransitively in Turkish as it is used in English.)
At-lar yar-.yor. (Intransitive)
(at*lar / ya*r**yor )
The horses are racing.
At-lar- yar-tr-.yor-lar. (Transitive)
(at*la*r / ya*r*t*r*yor*lar )
They are racing the horses.
Elma-lar scak hava-da olgun-la-r. (Intransitive)
(el*ma*lar / s*cak / ha*va*da / ol*gun*la*r )
Apples ripen in warm weather.
Note: "Ol" is a verb root, "ol-gun" is an adjective stem, "ol-gun-la" is an
intransitive verb frame, "ol-gun-la-tr" is a transitive verb frame.
Scak hava elma-lar- olgun-la-tr-r. (Transitive)
(s*cak / ha*va / el*ma*la*r / ol*gun*la*t*rr )
Warm weather ripens the apples.
Zil al-.yor. (Intransitive)
(zil / a*l*yor )
The bell is ringing.
Zil-i al. (Transitive)
(zi*li / al )
Ring the bell.
("al" and "ring" verbs are used both transitively and intransitively in Turkish
and English.)
Bazen kaya-lar tepe-ler-den aa yuvarlan-r. (Intransitive)
(ba:*zen / ka*ya*lar / te*pe*ler*den / a*a* / yu*var*la*nr )
Sometimes rocks roll down the hills.
Baz kimse-ler tepe-den aa kaya-lar- yuvarla-.yor-lar. (Transitive)
(ba:*z / kim*se*ler / te*pe*den / a*a* / ka*ya*la*r / yu*var*l*yor*lar )
Some people are rolling rocks down the hill.
Baz kz-lar nehir-de yz-.yor. (Intransitive)
(ba:*z / kz*lar / ne*hir*de / y*z*yor )
Some girls are swimming in the river.

CONTRASTIVE LIST OF THE ENGLISH AND TURKISH VERBS


ocuk-lar model kayk-lar--/n/ yzdr-.yor. (Transitive)
(o*cuk*lar / mo*del / ka*yk*la*r*n / yz*d*r*yor )
The children are sailing their modal boats.
Yer sarsl-.yor. (Reflexive)
(yer / sar*s*l*yor )
The ground is shaking. (Intransitive)
la- i-me-den nce ie-/y/i alkala (sars). (Transitive)
(i*la*c / i*me*den / n*ce / i*e*yi / al*ka*la )
Shake the bottle before you take the medicine.
kinci Dnya Sava/n/-da birok gemi bat-t.
(i*kin*ci / dn*ya: / sa*va*n*da / bir*ok / ge*mi / bat*t )
A lot of ships sank during The Second World War. (Intransitive)
kinci Dnya Sava/n/-da birok gemi bat-tr-d-lar. (The t-t combine.)
(i*kin*ci / dn*ya: / sa*va*n*da / bir*ok / ge*mi / ba*tr*d*lar )
They sank a lot of ships during The Second World War. (Transitive)
Gmlek-im-e ay dk-l-d. (Reflexive)
(gm*le*i*me / ay / d*kl*d )
Tea spilled on my shirt.
Seyhan Nehri Akdeniz-e dk-l-r. (Reflexive)
(sey*han / neh*ri / ak*de*ni*ze / d*k*lr )
The Seyhan River pours into the Mediterranean Sea. (Intransitive)
Limonata-/y/ yer-e dk-t-m. (Transitive)
(li*mo*na*ta*y / ye*re / dk*tm )
I have spilled (spilt) the lemonade on the floor.
Araba-lar dur-du. (Intransitive)
(a*ra*ba*lar / dur*du )
The cars stopped.
Polis araba-lar- dur-dur-du. (Transitive)
(po*lis / a*ra*ba*la*r / dur*dur*du )
The police officer stopped the cars.
Tekerlek-ler dn-.yor. (Intransitive)
(te*ker*lek*ler / d*n*yor )
The wheels are turning.
Motor tekerlek-ler-i dn-dr-r. (Transitive)
(mo*tor / te*ker*lek*le*ri / dn*d*rr )
The engine turns the wheels.
Parmak--/n/a bir ine bat-t. (Intransitive)
(par*ma**na / bir / i*ne / bat*t )
A needle stuck in her finger.

CONTRASTIVE LIST OF THE ENGLISH AND TURKISH VERBS


Parmak--/n/a bir ine bat-tr-d. (The t-t combines and verbalizes as t.)
(par*ma**na / bir / i*ne / ba*tr*d )
She stuck a needle into her finger. (Transitive)
Bu pul iyi yap-ma-.yor. (Intransitive)
(bu / pul / i*yi / ya*p*m*yor )
This stamp doesnt stick well.
TURKISH VERBS THAT ARE FORMED BY INDEFINITE OBJECTS
FOLLOWED BY VERBS
O ben-im-le
subj

adverbial

alay

etti.

ben-i affetti. O

indef obj trans verb subj def obj

verb

biz-i

deli

etti

subj def obj indef obj verb

ET
acele et (a*ce*le / et) (hurry), alay et (a*la*yet) (make fun), affet (af*fet)
(forgive), armaan et (ar*ma*ga*net) (present), ba et (ba*et) (manage),
beraat et (be*ra*a*tet) (be acquitted), beyan et (be*ya:*net) (declare), dava
et (da:*va: / et) (litigate), davet et (da:*ve*tet) (invite), dahil et (da:*hi*let)
(include), daktilo et (dak*ti*lo / et) (type), dans et (dan*set) (dance), deli et
(de*li / et) (make someone mad), dert et (der* det) (occupy oneself with
problems), devam et (de*va:*met) (continue), dikkat et (dik*ka*tet) (be
careful), dua et (du*a: / et) (pray), elde et (el*de / et) (obtain), gayret et
(gay*re*tet) (try hard), g et (g*et) (migrate), haberdar et (ha*ber*da:*ret) (inform), hakaret et (ha*ka:*re*tet) (insult), hapset (hap*set) (imprison), hareket et (ha*re*ke*tet) (act, behave, start), hata et (ha*ta: / et)
(make a mistake), hayl et (ha*y:*let) (dream, imagine), hazmet (haz*met) (digest), hizmet et (hiz*me*tet) (serve, assist), idare et (i*da:*re* / et)
(manage, control), iftira et (if*ti*ra: / et) (slander), ihanet et (i*ha:*ne*tet)
(betray), ikram et (ik*ra:*met) (offer someone to eat or drink something),
ihll et (ih*l:*let) (violate), ikna et (ik*na: / et) (convince, persuade), ihra
et (ih*ra:*cet) (export, expel), ikaz et (i:*ka:*zet) (warn), ima et (i:*ma: / et)
(imply), imza et (im*za: / et) (sign), iml et (i:*m:*let) (manufacture), inat et
(i*na*tet) (persist), intihar et (in*ti*ha:*ret) (commit suicide), iptal et (ip*ta:*let) (cancel), ikna et (ik*na: / et) (convince), isabet et (i*sa:*be*tet) (hit the
mark), israf et (is*ra:*fet) (vaste), istifa et (is*ti*fa: / et) (resign), istifade et
(is*ti*fa:*de / et) (benefit from), istirahat et (is*ti*ra*ha*tet) (have a rest), itaat et (i*ta:*a*tet) (obey), ithl et (it*h:*let) (import), itiraf et (i:*ti*ra:*fet)
(confess), iyi et (i*yi / et) (cure, do the right thing), iyilik et (i*yi*li*ket) (do a
favor), kabalk et (ka*ba*l*ket) (be rude), kabul et (ka*bu:*let) (accept), kr
et (k:*ret) (profit), kavga et (kav*ga /et) (fight, quarrel), kontrol et
(kon*tro*let) (check), koordine et (ko*or*di*ne / et) (coordinate), kfr et
(kf*ret) (swear), mecbur et (mec*bu:*ret) (oblige), megul et (me*gu:*let) (occupy someone), memnun et (mem*nu:*net) (make someone happy), muhafaza et (mu*ha:*fa*za / et) (keep, preserve), mutlu et (mut*lu / et)
(make happy), nefret et (nef*re*tet) (hate), niyet et (ni*ye*tet) (intend), nderlik et (n*der*li*ket) (lead), raz et (ra:*z / et) (persuade), rica et (ri*ca: /
et) (request), sabret (sab*ret) (be patient), sakat et (sa*ka*tet) (make phy-

CONTRASTIVE LIST OF THE ENGLISH AND TURKISH VERBS


sically disabled), seyret (sey*ret) (watch, observe), sohbet et (soh*be*tet)
(chat, talk), sz et (s*zet) (talk about), tamir et (ta:*mi:*ret) (repair, mend,
fix), tahsil et (tah*si:*let) (be educated), takip et (ta:*ki:*bet) (follow), taklit
et (tak*li:*det) (imitate), rahatsz et (ra*hat*s*zet) (disturb), sitem et (si*te*met) (reproach), takdir et (tak*di*ret) (appreciate), tasarruf et (ta*sar*ru*fet)
(economize on), tasavvur et (ta*sav*vu*ret) (fancy, imagine), tasvir et
(tas*vi:*ret) (describe), tavsiye et (tav*si*ye / et) (recommend), tedavi et
(te*da:*vi: / et) (cure), teklif et (tek*li:*fet) (offer), telefon et (te*le*fo*net)
(telephone, make a telephone call, ring up), tembellik et (tem*bel*li*ket)
(act or behave lazily), tembih et (tem*bi:*het) (warn), tercme et (ter*c*me / et) (translate), tekrar et (tek*ra:*ret) (repeat), tenkit et (ten*ki:*det)
(criticize), tercih et (ter*ci:*het) (prefer), terk et (ter*ket) (abandon, leave,
desert), tesadf et (te*sa:*d*fet) (meet by chance, come across), temsil et
(tem*sil / et) (represent), tertip et (ter*ti:*ped) (organize), teslim et (tes*li:*met) (deliver, hand over), teebbs et (te*eb*b*set) (attempt), teekkr
et (te*ek*k*ret) (thank), tevik et (te*vi:*ket) (encourage), tra et (t*ra*et) (shave), yardm et (yar*d*met) (help)
When the above "et" verbs are attached to the allomorphs of [ER], [.YOR],
or [E.CEK], which all begin with vowels, the /t/ consonants change into the
voiced /d/; but when they are attached to the allomorphs of [D] and [M],
which begin with consonants, they do not change. For instance:
acele ed-er, acele ed-i.yor, acele ed-e.cek, acele et-ti, acele et-mi, teklif
et-ti, teklif et-mi, istifa et-ti, istifa et-mi, tercme et-ti, tercme et-mi.
If the [me] negation allomorph is used, the stress goes onto the verb et:
alay et-me (a*lay / et*me) (a*la*yet*me), af et me (af*fet*me), armaan etme (ar*ma*a*net*me), yardm et-me (yar*d*met*me), terk et-me (ter*ket*me) (Liaisons)

YAP
alveri yap (do shopping), arama yap (carry out a search), by yap
(cast a spell on someone), ay yap, kahve yap (make tea or coffee), cmle
yap (make a sentence), elinden geleni yap (do your best), ev ii yap (do
housework), giri yap (enter), hazrlk yap (get ready), hesap yap
(calculate), i yap (do work, do business), ibirlii yap (work together),
iyilik yap (do a favour), kaza: yap (have an accident), konuma yap (make
a speech), makyaj yap (do ones make up), dev yap (do homework),
rejim yap (go on a diet), rol yap (rol / yap) (pretend), aka yap (make a
joke, kid), tatil yap (have a holiday, vacation), tica:ret yap (trade), toplant
yap (hold a meeting), yanllk yap (make a mistake), yata yap (make the
bed), yemek yap (cook, do the cooking), yorum yap (comment on
something).

OL
abone ol (a*bo*ne / ol) (subscribe), destek ol (des*te*kol) (support, back
up), dost ol (dos*tol) (make friends), gerek ol (ger*e*kol) (come true),
kayt ol (kay*dol) (enroll), raz ol (ra:*z / ol) (be willing, consent), sahip ol

CONTRASTIVE LIST OF THE ENGLISH AND TURKISH VERBS


(sa:*hi*bol) (possess), ahit ol (a:*hi*tol) (witness), ehit ol (e*hi:*dol)
(die while fighting for Islam or his country), teslim ol (tes*li:*mol)
(surrender), ye ol (*ye / ol) (be a member), drst ol (d*rs*tol) (be
honest), kahrol (be depressed), mal ol (ma:*lol) (cost), ait ol (a:*it*tol)
(belong), bal ol (ba*l / ol) (depend on), var ol (va:*rol) (exist), sahip ol
(sa:*hi*pol) (have), borlu ol (bor*lu / ol) (owe).
In addition to the verbs above, there are some other verbs that are used
following indefinite objects. They are as follows:
baar sala (succeed), cinayet ile (commit a murder), gnaha gir (g*na:*ha / gir) (commit a sin), ilerleme kaydet (make a progress), su ile
(commit a crime), n kazan (be famous), yar-a gir (take part in a race),
dn ver (*dn / ver) (lend), ark syle (ar*k / sy*le) (sing), satn al
(sa*t*nal) (buy), sz ver (sz / ver) (promise), yalan syle (ya*lan / sy*le)
(lie), gzden geir (gz*den / ge*ir) (review), intikam al (in*ti*kam / al)
(revenge), yant ver (ya*nt / ver) (respond), ortadan kaybol (or*ta*dan /
kay*bol) (vanish), satn al (sa*t*nal) (buy), selam ver (se*lam / ver) (salute), zr dile (*zr / di*le) (apologise), dn ver (*dn / ver) (concede),
karar ver (ka*rar / ver) (decide), kopya ek (kop*ya / ek) (cheat in the examination), izin ver (i*zin / ver) (allow), haber ver (ha*ber / ver) (inform),
sz ver (sz / ver) (promise), nlem al (n*le*mal) (take measures).
DIRECT AND INDIRECT OBJECTS
There are two kinds of objects in English; direct objects and indirect objects.
However in Turkish, there are only direct objects. Indirect objects of the English language are expressed either in [e] or [a] allomorph, or in prepositional
phrases such as ben-in iin, biz-im iin, annem iin, etc, both of which
have adverbial functions.
My father bought me a bicycle. My father bought a bicycle for me.
According to English grammars, in the sentences above, there are two kinds
of indirect objects; me and for me, the second of which is a prepositional
phrase describing for whom the bicycle was bought. Here, the pronoun
me is the object of the preposition for. The me indirect object and for
me prepositional phrase are both defined as indirect objects in English
grammars. In my opinion, for me is a prepositional phrase functioning as
an adverbial phrase in the sentence above. Additionally, if someone asks
what the first me means, the answer to this question will be for me.
Therefore, both me and for me have adverbial functions that may be
defined as adverbs instead of indirect objects.
Compare the following Turkish sentences with the English ones:
Jack Mary-/y/e bir demet iek ald. Jack Mary iin bir demet iek ald.
Jack bought Mary a bunch of flowers. Jack bought a bunch of flowers for Mary.
In short, we can say that there are not any indirect objects in Turkish; there
are adverbials instead.

10

CONTRASTIVE LIST OF THE ENGLISH AND TURKISH VERBS


The following English sentences are taken from English Grammmar |
LearnEnglish | British Council | double object verbs
Karm bana bir email gnderdi. = My wife sent me an email.
Karm bana bir email gnderdi. = My wife sent an email to me.
O anne-/s/i-/n/e bir demet iek ald. He bought his mother a bunch of flowers.
O anne-/s/i iin bir demet iek ald. He bought a bunch of flowers for his mother.
Tm dostlar-/n/a gzel bir yemek piirdi. She cooked all her friends a delicious meal.
Tm dostlar iin gzel bir yemek piirdi. She cooked a delicious meal for her friends.
Note:
If you wish to learn more about Turkish and English sentences, please consult my
free book titled English Turkish grammar functional and transformational Yuksel
Goknel on the internet.

Yksel Gknel

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