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Compiler-in-Chief

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Vice-Compilers-in-Chief

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TANG Chuanjian

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SliMtixhni Pujian# Education Press (Shanghai University of Traditional ('hiñese Medicine Press)

IÜ00 C'aiLun Koad» Shanghai, 201203, China

I )ÍMKnostics of Traditional Chínese Medicine

( ompiler-in-Chief Wang Lufen Translator-in-Chief Li Zhaoguo Bao Bai

(A Nt'wly Compiled Practical English-Chinese Library of TCM General Compiler-in-Chief

Zuo Yanfu)

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or

transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or

otherwise* without the prior permission in writing of the Publisher.

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Compilation Board of the Library

Honorary Director Zhang Wenkang

General Advisor

Advisors

Chen Keji

(Listed in the order of the number of strokes in the Chinese ñames)

Gan Zuwang

You Songxin

Liu Zaipeng

Xu Zhiyin

Sun Tong

Song Liren

Zhang Minqing

Jin Shi

Jin Miaowen

Shan Zhaowei

Zhou Fuyi

Shi Zhen

Xu Jingfan Tang Shuhua Cao Shihong Fu Weimin

Secondo

Scarsella (Italy) Raymond K. Carroll (Australia) Shulan Tang (Britain) Glovanni Maciocia (Britain) David Molony (America) Tzu Kuo Shih (America) Isigami Hiroshi

International Advisors

M

S. Khan (Ireland)

Alessandra Gulí (Italy)

(Japan)

Helmut Ziegler (Germany)

Director

Executive Director

Xiang Ping

Zuo Yanfu

Executive Vice-Directors

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Du Wendong

Li Zhaoguo

Vice-Directors

Huang Chenghui

Wu Kunping

Liu Shenlin

Wu Mianhua

Chen Diping

Cai Baochang

Members

(Listed in the order of the number of strokes in the Chinese ñames)

Ding Anwei

Ding Shuhua

Yu Yong

Wan

Lisheng

Wang Xu

Wang Xudong

Wang Lingling Wáng Lufen

Lu Zijie

Shen J unlong

Liu Yu

Liu Yueguang

Yan Daonan

Yang Gongfu

Min Zhongsheng

Wu Changguo

Wu

Yongjun

Wu Jianlong

He Wenbin

He Shuxun (specially invited)

He Guixiang

Wang Yue

Wang Shouchuan

Shen Daqing

Zhang Qing

Chen Yonghui

Chen Tinghan (specially invited) Shao Jianmin

Lin Xianzeng (specially invited)

Lin Duanmei (specially invited)

Yue Peiping

Jin Hongzhu

Zhou Ligao (specially invited)

Zhao Xia

Zhao Jingsheng

Hu

Lie

Hu

Kui

Zha Wei

Yao Yingzhi

Yuan Ying

Xia Youbing

Xia Dengjie

Ni Yun

Xu Hengze

Guo Haiying

Tang Chuanjian

Tang Decai

Ling Guizhen (specially invited)

Tan Yong

Huang Guicheng

Mei Xiaoyun

Cao Guizhu

Jiang Zhongqiu

Zeng Qingqi

Zhai Yachun

Fan Qiaoling

 
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Translation Committee of the Library

Advisors Shao Xundao Ou Ming Translators-in-Chief Zhu Zhongbao Huang Yuezhong Tao Jinwen

Executive Translator-in-Chief Li Zhaoguo Vice-Translators-in-Chief (Listed in the order of the number of strokes in the Chinese

ñames)

Xun Jianying

Li Yong’an

Zhang Qingrong

Zhang Dengfeng

Yang Hongying

Huang Guoqi Xie Jinhua

Translators

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Yu Xin

Wang Ruihui

Tian Kaiyu

Shen Guang

Lan Fengli

Cheng Peili

Zhu Wenxiao

Zhu Yuqin

Zhu Jinjiang

Zhu Guixiang

Le Yimin

Liu Shengpeng

Li Jingyun

Yang Ying

Yang Mingshan

He Yingchun

Zhang Jie

Zhang Haixia

Zhang Wei

Chen Renying

Zhou Yongming

Zhou Suzhen

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Zhao J unqing

Jing Zhen

Hu Kewu

Xu Qilong

Xu Yao

Guo Xiaomin

Huang Xixuan

Cao Lijuan

Kang Qin

Dong Jing

Qin Baichang

Zeng Haiping

Lou Jianhua

Lai

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Bao Bai

Pei Huihua

Xue Junmei

Dai Wenjun

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Director

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Vice-Directors

Shen Zhixiang

Chen Xiaogu

Zhou Zhongying

Wang Canhui

Gan Zuwang

Jiang Yuren

Members (Listed in the order of the number of strokes in the Chinese ñames)

Ding Renqiang

Ding Xiaohong

Wang Xinhua

You Benlin

Shi Yanhua

Qiao Wenlei

Yi Sumei

Li Fei

Li Guoding

Yang Zhaomin

Lu Mianmian

Chen Songyu

Shao Mingxi

Shi Bingbing

Yao Xin

Xia Guicheng

Gu Yuehua

Xu Fusong

Gao Yuanhang

Zhu Fangshou

Tao Jinwen

Huang Yage

Fu Zhiwen

Cai Li

General Compiler-in-Chief Zuo Yanfu

Executive Vice-General-Compilers-in-Chief Ma Jian Du Wendong

Vice-General-Compilers-in-Chief

(Listed in the order of the number of strokes in the

Chinese ñames) Ding Shuhua

Wang Xudong

Wang Lufen

Yan Daonan

Wu Changguo

Wang Shouchuan

Wang Yue

Chen Yonghui

Jin Hongzhu

Zhao Jingsheng

Tang Decai

Tan Yong

Huang Guicheng

Zhai Yachun

Fan Qiaoling

Office of the Compilation Board Committee

Directors Ma Jian Du Wendong Vice-Directors Wu Jianlong Zhu Changren

Publisher Zhu Bangxian

Chinese Editors

(Listed in the order of the number of strokes in the Chinese ñames)

Ma Shengying

Wang Lingli

Wang Deliang

He Qianqian

Shen Chunhui

Zhang Xingjie

Zhou Dunhua

Shan Baozhi

Jiang Shuiyin

Qin Baoping

Qian Jingzhuang

Fan Yuqi

Pan Zhaoxi English Editors Shan Baozhi Jiang Shuiyin Xiao Yuanchun Cover Designer Wang Lei Layout Designer Xu Guomin

 

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Foreword

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As we are walking into the 21st century, '‘health for all” is still an important task for the World Health Organization (WHO) to accomplish in the new century. The realization of “health for all” requires mutual cooperation and concerted efforts of various medical sciences, including traditional medi­ cine. WHO has increasingly emphasized the devel- opment of traditional medicine and has made fruitful efforts to promote its development. Currently the spectrum of diseases is changing and an increasing number of diseases are difficult to cure. The side effects of chemical drugs have become more and more evident. Furthermore, both the governments and peoples in all countries are faced with the prob- lem of high cost of medical treatment. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), the complete system of traditional medicine in the world with unique theory and excellent clinical curative effects, basically meets the need to solve such problems. Therefore, bringing TCM into full play in medical treatment and healthcare will certainly become one of the hot points in the world medical business in the 21st cen­ tury.

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Foreword

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As we are walking into the 21st century, “health for all” is still an important task for the World Health Organization (WHO) to accomplish in the new century. The realization of “health for all” rcquires mutual cooperation and concerted efforts of various medical sciences, including traditional medi­ cine. WHO has increasingly emphasized the devel- opment of traditional medicine and has made fruitful efforts to promote its development. Currently the spectrum of diseases is changing and an increasing number of diseases are difficult to cure. The side effects of chemical drugs ha ve become more and more evident. Furthermore, both the governments and peoples in all countries are faced with the prob- lem of high cost of medical treatment. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), the complete system of traditional medicine in the world with unique theory and excellent clinical curative effects, basically meets the need to solve such problems. Therefore, bringing TCM into full play in medical treatment and healthcare will certainly become one of the hot points in the world medical business in the 21st cen­ tury.

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Various aspects of work need to be done to pro­ mote the course of the intemationalization of TCM, especially the compilation of works and textbooks suitable for international readers. The impending new century has witnessed the compilation of such a

series of books known as A Newly Compiled Vractical English-Chinese Library o f Traditional Chinese Medicine published by the Publishing House of Shanghai University of TCM, compiled by Nan- jing University of TCM and translated by Shanghai University of TCM. Professor Zuo Yanfu, the general compilei^in-chief of this Library, is a person who sets his mind on the intemational dissemination of TCM. He has compiled General Suruey on TCM Abroad, a monograph on the development and state of TCM abroad. This Library is another important works written by the experts organized by him with the support of Nanjing University of TCM and Shanghai University of TCM. The compilation of this Library is done with consummate ingenuity and according to the development of TCM abroad. The compilers, based on the premise of preserving the genuineness and gist of TCM, have tried to make the contents concise, practical and easy to understand, making great efforts to introduce the abstruse ideas of TCM in a scientific and simple way as well as expounding the prevention and treatment of diseases which are commonly encoun- tered abroad and can be effectively treated by TCM.

This Library encompasses a systematic summa- rization of the teaching experience accumulated in Nanjing University of TCM and Shanghai University of TCM that run the collaborating centers of tradi­ tional medicine and the intemational training centers on acupuncture and moxibustion set by WHO. I am sure that the publication of this Library will further promote the development of traditional Chinese med-

• Foreword

I

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k ine abroad and enable the whole world to have a l»« tter understanding of traditional Chinese med­ icine.

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Professor Zhu Qingsheng

 

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People’s Republic of China

 

Director of the State Administrative Bureau of TCM

 
 

December 14, 2000 Beijing

2000 ^

12 ^

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Foreword n

Before the existence of the modern medicine,

Imman beings depended solely on herbal medicines

mid other therapeutic methods to treat diseases and

preserve health. Such a practice gave rise to the es-

l/iblishment of various kinds of traditional medicine

wilh unique theory and practice," such as traditional

( hiñese medicine, Indian medicine and Arabian

medicine, etc. Among these traditional systems of

medicine, traditional Chinese medicine is a most ex-

traordinary one based on which traditional Korean

medicine and Japanese medicine have evolved.

Even in the 21st century, traditional medicine is

siill of great vitality. In spite of the fast develop­

ment of modern medicine, traditional medicine is

f

«lili disseminated far and wide. In many developing

nmntries, most of the people in the rural areas still

depend on traditional medicine and traditional medi­

cal practitioners to meet the need for primary health-

nirc. Even in the countries with advanced modern

medicine' more and more people have begun to ac-

ci'pt traditional medicine and other therapeutic meth-

<kIs , such as homeopathy, osteopathy and naturopa-

ihy, etc.

With the change of the economy, culture and

living style in various regions as well as the aging in

the world population, the disease spectrum has

chnnged. And such a change has paved the way for

the new application of traditional medicine. Besides,

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the new requirements initiated by the new diseases

and the achievements and limitations of modern med­

icine have also created challenges for traditional med­

icine.

WHO sensed the importance of traditional medi­

cine to human health early in the 1970s and have

made great efforts to develop traditional medicine.

At the 29th world health congress held in 1976, the

item of traditional medicine was adopted in the

working plan of WHO. In the following world

health congresses, a series of resolutions were pas-

sed to demand the member countries to develop, uti-

lize and study traditional medicine according to their

specific conditions so as to reduce medical expenses

for the realization of “health for all”.

WHO has laid great stress on the scientific con-

tent, saífe and effective application of traditional

medicine. It has published and distributed a series of

l>ooklets on the scientific, safe and effective use of

herbs and acupuncture and moxibustion. It has also

made great contributions to the intemational stand­

ardizaron of traditional medical terms. The safe and

effective application of traditional medicine has much

to do with the skills of traditional medical practition-

ers. That is why WHO has made great efforts to

train them. WHO has run 27 collaborating centers

in the world which have made great contributions to

the training of acupuncturists and traditional medical

practitioners. Nanjing University of TCM and

Shanghai University of TCM run the collaborating

centers with WHO. In recent years it has, with the

coo|>eration of WHO and other countries, trained

al>oiit ten thousand intemational students from over

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DO countries.

In order to further promote the dissemination of

The scientific. safe and effective use of tradi-

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traditional Chinese medicine in the world, A Newly ( \mpiled Pradical English-Chinese Library o f Traditional Chinese Medicine, compiled by Nanjing

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University of TCM with Professor Zuo Yanfu as the

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H»»ii(*ral compileHn-chief and published by the Pub- linlung House of Shanghai University of TCM, aims Al Mystematic, accurate and concise expounding of

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Mlnical therapeutic methods of traditional medicine Itocording to modern medical nomenclature of disea-

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■§». Undoubtedly, this series of books will be the

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k iic tical textbooks for the beginners with certain Bn^lish level and the intemational enthusiasts with Mrtnin level of Chinese to study traditional Chinese tlirdicine. Besides, this series of books can also irrvr as reference books for WHO to internationally I (Inndiirdize the nomenclature of acupuncture and Moxihustion.

ftloruil medicine will certainly further promote the de- V*lopment of traditional medicine and traditional lunlicine will undoubtedly make more and more con- Irlliutions to human health in the 21st century.

Zhang Xiaorui

*

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WHO Coordination Officer

December, 2000

2000 if 12|]

Preface

The Publishing House of Shanghai University OÍ TCM published A Practical English-Chinese Li- brury of Traditional Chinese Medicine in 1990. nhe Library has been well-known in the world ever ■llce and has made great contributions to the dis- letnination of traditional Chinese medicine in the World. In view of the fact that 10 years has passed lince its publication and that there are certain errors Iti the explanation of traditional Chinese medicine in the Library, the Publishing House has invited Nan- jiiiK University of TCM and Shanghai University of TCMto organize experts to recompile and transíate lile Library.

Nanjing University of TCM and Shanghai Uni- [VírMity of TCM are well-known for their advantages in liigher education of traditional Chinese medicine mui compilation of traditional Chinese medical text- IxKíks. The compilation of A Newly Compiled Jpradical English-Chinese Library o f Traditional ( límese Medicine has absorbed the rich experience ncc umulated by Nanjing University of Traditional ( límese Medicine in training intemational students n i’ traditional Chinese medicine. Compared with the l'i'evious Library, the Newly Compiled Library has fllide great improvements in many aspeets, fully il. iuonstrating the academic system of traditional ( hiñese medicine. The whole series of books has nyMtcmatically introduced the basic theory and thera-

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peutic methods based on syndrome differentiation,

expounding traditional Chinese pharmacy and pre-

scriptions; explaining 236 herbs, 152 prescriptions

and 100 commonly-used patent drugs; elucidating

264 methods for differentiating syndromes and trea-

ting commonly-encountered and frequently-encoun-

tered diseases in internal medicine, surgery, gyne-

cology, pediatrics, traumatology and orthopedics,

ophthalmology and otorhinolaryngology; introducing

the basic methods and theory of acupuncture and

moxibustion, massage (tuina), life cultivation and

rehabililation, including 70 kinds of diseases suitable

for acupuncture and moxibustion, 38 kinds of disea­

ses for massage, examples of life cultivation and

over 20 kinds of commonly encountered diseases

treated by rehabilitation therapies in traditional Chi­

nese medicine. For better understanding of tradition­

al Chinese medicine, the books are neatly illustra-

ted. There are 296 line graphs and 30 colored pie-

tures in the Library with necessary indexes, making

it more comprehensive, accurate and systematic in

disseminating traditional Chinese medicine in the

countries and regions where English is the official

language.

This Library is characterized by following fea-

tures:

1. Scientific Based on the development of

TCM in education and research in the past 10 years.

efforts have been made in the compilation to high-

light the gist of TCM through accurate theoretical

exposition and clinical praetice, aiming at introdu­

cing authentic theory and practice to the world.

2. Systematic This Library contains 14 sepa-

38

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ni ir fascicles, i. e. Basic Theory o f Traditional

í hiñese Medicine, Diagnostics o f Traditional i hiñese Medicine, Science o f Chinese Materia Medica, Science o f Prescriptions, Intemal Medi­ cine of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Surgery o f Traditional Chinese Medicine, Gynecology o f Tra­

dicional Chinese Medicine, Pediatrics o f Tradition­ al ( hiñese Medicine, Traumatology and Orthopedics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Ophthalmology of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Otorhinolaryn- gology o f Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chinese Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Chinese Tuina ( Massage) , ara/ Lz/e Cultivation and Rehabilita­

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Practical Compared with the previous Librar-

y, the Newly Compiled Library has made great im- pi'ovements and supplements, systematically introdu- cing therapeutic methods for treating over 200 kinds of commonly and frequently encountered diseases, fo- Cusing on training basic clinical skills in acupuncture mui moxibustion, tuina therapy, life cultivation and Khabilitation with clinical case reports. 4. Standard This Library is reasonable in (tructure, distinct in categorization, standard in ter- minology and accurate in translation with full consid- rrnlion of habitual expressions used in countries and rcgions with English language as the mother tongue.

This series of books is not only practical for the licginners with certain competence of English to xtudy TCM, but also can serve as authentic text- lxx>ks for intemational students in universities and colleges of TCM in China to study and practice T( M For those from TCM field who are going to go

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abroad to do academic exchange, this series of books will provide them with unexpected convenience.

Professor Xiang Ping, President of Nanjing

University of TCM, is the director of the Compila­

tion Board. Professor Zuo Yanfu from Nanjing Uni­ versity of TCM, General Compiler-in-Chief, is in

charge of the compilation. Zhang Wenkang, Minis-

ter of Health Ministry, is invited to be the honorary director of the Editorial Board. Li Zhenji, Vice-Di-

rector of the State Administrative Bureau of TCM,

is invited to be the director of the Approval Commit- i«c. Chen Keji, academician of China Academy, is

invited to be the General Advisor. International ad­ visors invited are Mr. M. S. Khan,Chairman of Ire-

land Acupuncture and Moxibustion Fund; Miss

Alessandra Gulí, Chairman of “Nanjing Association”

in Rome, Italy; Doctor Secondo Scarsella, Chief Ed­

itor of YI DAO ZA ZHI; President Raymond K. Carroll from Australian Oriental Touching Therapy

College; Ms. Shulan Tang, Academic Executive of ATCM in Britain; Mr. Glovanni Maciocia from

Britain; Mr. David, Chairman of American Associa­

tion of TCM; Mr. Tzu Kuo Shih, director of Chi­

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merica; Mr. Helmut Ziegler, director of TCM Cen­

ter in Germany; and Mr. Isigami Hiroshi from Ja-

pan. Chen Ken, official of WHO responsible for the

Western Pacific Región, has greatly encouraged the

>w h o

compilers in compiling this series of books. After

the accomplishment of the compilation, Professor

Zliu Qingsheng, Vice-Minister of Health Ministry

i¥.

and Director of the State Administrative Bureau of

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TCM, has set a high valué on the books in his fore-

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Word for the Library. Zhang Xiaorui, an official

front WHO’s Traditional Medicine Program, has

|mid great attention to the compilation and written a

forcword for the Library. The officials from the edu-

nilmnal organizations of China in other countries

hit ve provided us with some useful materials in our

compilation. They are Mr. Zhang Yiqun, China

Cónsul to Manchester in Britain; Miss Yan Meihua,

Cónsul to Houston in America; Mr. Wang Jiping,

l'irst Secretary in the Educational Department in the

Knibassy of China to France; and Mr. Gu Shengy-

iriK• the Second Secretary in the Educational Depart-

mnit in the Embassy of China to Germany. We are

Kinteful to them all.

The Compilers

December, 2000

2000 íp 12 ) j

Note for Compilation

Diagnostics of TCM is a subject concentrating on diagnosis of diseases and differentiation of syndromes (hrough examination based on the theory and metho- dology of TCM. It serves as a bridge to connect the l>asic theory of TCM with clinical specialties and is the essential course for all clinical subjects.

This book, focusing on elucidation of the theory and methods of TCM in examining pathological condi- tions as well as analyzing and differentiating syn­ dromes, is composed of introduction, diagnostic methods and syndrome differentiation. It is a sys­ tematic in itself and, at the same time, keeps a cióse association with the clinical specialties so as to pre­ serve the systematic and integral characteristics of TCM.

In the compilation, the authors have tried to preserve the unique features of TCM and demón­ strate the profound contení of TCM diagnostics on one hand, and unite theory and practice so as to Kiiide the clinical practice on the other. In the com­ pilation, the authors have also tried to make it con- i ise, easy to read, fluent and accurate. For this pur- |x)se, some illustrations and colour pictures are in- cluded. We hope that this book will be beneficial to lx>th the intemational students with certain level of Chinese in learning traditional Chinese medicine and lite readers in China who are studying traditional Chí­ nese medicine or going abroad.

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Contents

Introduction

 

i

1

Diagnostic methods

7

 

1.1

Inspection

 

8

 

1.1.1 Inspection of the whole body

8

 

1. 1.1.1 Inspection

of

spirit

9

1. 1. 1. 2 Inspection of complexión

12

1. 1. 1. 3 Inspection of body

 

17

1. 1. 1. 4

Inspection of postures

19

 

1.

1. 2

Inspection of local regions

22

 

1. 1. 2. 1 Inspection of head and hair

22

1. 1. 2. 2 Inspection of the five sense organs

25

1. 1. 2. 3 Inspection of neck

 

30

1. 1. 2. 4 Inspection of skin

31

1.1.

2. 5 Inspection of infantile index finger veins

35

1.1.

2. 6 Inspection of excreta

38

 

1.1. 3 Inspection of tongue

 

42

 

1. 1. 3.1 Methods for inspection of tongue

42

1. 1. 3. 2 Normal states of the tongue

44

1. 1. 3. 3 Inspection of the tongue body

44

1. 1. 3. 4 Inspection of tongue fur

52

1. 1. 3. 5 Comprehensive analysis of the body of the tongue and tongue fur

58

 

1. 2 Listening and olfaction

 

60

 

1.

2. 1

Listening to sounds

60

 

1. 2. 1. 1 Speech

 

61

1. 2. 1. 2 Respiration

63

1. 2. 1. 3 Cough

65

1. 2. 1.4 Hiccup and belching

66

 

1.2.2

Olfaction

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2. 2. 2 Odor in the room

69

1.3

Inquiry

69

1.3.1

General information

70

1.

3. 2

Inquiry of chief complaint and history of present illness

71

1. 3. 2. 1 Inquiry of chief complaint

71

1. 3. 2. 2 Inquiry of the history of present illness

72

1.

3. 3

Inquiry of the present symptoms

73

1. 3. 3. 1 Inquiry of fever and coid

73

1. 3. 3. 2 Inquiry of sweating

80

1. 3. 3. 3 Inquiry of pain

84

1. 3. 3. 4 Inquiry of sleep

90

1. 3. 3. 5 Inquiry of diet and partiality

92

1. 3. 3. 6 Inquiry of urination and defecation

97

1. 3. 3. 7 Inquiry of the head and face

102

1. 3. 3. 8 Inquiry of chest and abdomen

106

1. 3. 3. 9 Inquiry of the symptoms over the loins, back and four limbs

108

1. 3. 3. 10 Inquiry of symptoms in andropathy

109

1. 3. 3. 11 Inquiry of symptoms in gynecology

111

1. 3. 3. 12 Inquiry of symptoms in pediatrics

114

1.3.4

Inquiry of anamnesis

116

 

1. 3. 4. 1 Inquiry of past physique

117

1. 3. 4. 2 Inquiry of previous illness

117

I. 3. 5

Inquiry of family history

117

1.4 I’ulse-taking and palpation

118

1. 4. 1

Pulse-taking

118

 

1.4. 1. 1 Regions and methods for taking pulse

119

1. 4.1. 2 Normal pulse

123

1. 4.1. 3 Morbid pulse

125

1.4.2

Palpation

131

 

1. 4. 2. 1 Methods for palpation

132

1. 4. 2. 2 Pressing the chest and abdomen

133

1. 4. 2. 3 Palpation of the four limbs

136

 

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2

Differentiation of syndrome

138

2.

1

Syndrome differentiation with eight principies

 

138

2.

1.

1 Extemal and internal differentiation of syndromes

139

 

2.1.

1.

1 Extemal syndrome

 

140

2.1.

1. 2 Internal syndrome

141

Appendix: Half external and half internal syndrome

142

 

2.

1. 2

Syndrome differentiation of coid and

heat

142

 

2. 1.

2.

1 Coid syndrome

 

143

2.

1. 2. 2 Heat syndrome

144

 

2.

1.

3 Syndrome differentiation of asthenia and sthenia

145

 

2.

1. 3. 1 Asthenia syndrome

 

145

2.

1. 3. 2 Sthenia syndrome

147

 

Z. 1. 4

Syndrome differentiation of yin and yang

 

148

 

2.

1. 4. 1 Yin

syndrome and yang syndrome

 

148

2.

1. 4. 2 Yin asthenia syndrome and yang asthenia syndrome

150

2.

1.

4. 3 Yin

depletion syndrome and yang depletion syndrome

152

 

2.

1. 5 Relationship among the eight principal syndromes

154

 

2. 1. 5.1 Relationship between two principies in a pair

154

2.

1. 5. 2 Relationship

between

different pairs of

principies

167

2. 2

Syndrome differentiation of qi, blood and body fluid

172

 

2.

2.

1 Syndrome differentiation of qi disorders

 

172

 

2.

2.

1.

1 Qi

asthenia syndrome

 

173

2.

2. 1. 2 Qi

sinking syndrome

173

2.

2.

1.

3 Qi

stagnation syndrome

174

2.

2.

1.

4

Qi

reversión syndrome

175

 

2.

2.

2 Syndrome differentiation of blood disease

 

176

 

2.

2. 2. 1 Blood

asthenia syndrome

 

176

2.

2. 2.

2 Blood

stasis syndrome

177

2.

2. 2. 3 Blood coid syndrome

179

2.

2.

2.

4

Blood heat

syndrome

. 180

 

2. 2. 3

Syndrome differentiation of simultaneous disorder of qi and blood

181

 

2.

2. 3.1 Asthenia of both qi and blood

 

181

2.

2. 3. 2 Qi asthenia and hemorrhagia syndrome

 

182

2.

2. 3. 3 Depletion of qi with bleeding syndrome

183

2.

2. 3.

4

Qi nmhenifl and blood stasis syndrome

183

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184

 

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185

 

2.

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185

2.

2.

4.

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186

2.

2. 4. 3 Fluid-retention syndrome

188

2.

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189

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Syndrome differentiation of viscera

191

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192

 

2.

3. 1.1 Asthenia of heart qi

192

2.

3.1. 2 Heart yang asthenia syndrome

193

2.

3. 1. 3 Sudden loss of heart yang syndrome

195

2.

3. 1.4 Heart blood asthenia syndrome

196

2.

3. 1. 5 Heart yin asthenia syndrome

196

2.

3. 1.6 Heart vessels obstruction syndrome

197

2.

3. 1.7 Exuberance of heart fire syndrome

199

2.

3. 1. 8 Mind confusion by phlegm

200

2.

3. 1. 9 Disturbance of the heart by phlegmatic fire

201

 

2.

3. 2

Syndrome differentiation of lung disease

202

 

2.

3. 2. 1 Pulmonary qi asthenia syndrome

203

2.

3. 2. 2

Lung yin asthenia syndrome

204

2.

3. 2. 3 Syndrome of wind coid encumbering lung

205

2.

3. 2. 4 Wind heat invading lung syndrome

206

2.

3. 2. 5 Syndrome of dryness attacking lung

207

2.

3. 2. 6 Syndrome of accumulation of pathogenic heat in lung

208

2.

3. 2. 7 Syndrome of phlegmatic dampness retention in lung

209

2.

3. 2. 8 Syndrome of confliction of wind and fluid in lung

210

 

2.

3. 3

Syndrome differentiation of spleen disease

212

 

2.

3. 3. 1 Syndrome of asthenia of splenic qi

212

2.

3. 3. 2 Syndrome of asthenia of splenic yang

213

2.

3. 3. 3 Syndrome of sinking of splenic qi

215

2.

3. 3. 4 Syndrome of

failure of the spleen to govern blood

216

2.

3. 3. 5 Syndrome of coid and dampness encumbering the spleen

217

2.

3. 3. 6 Syndrome of damp heat encumbering the spleen

218

 

2.

3. 4

Syndrome Differentiation of liver disease

219

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