Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 51

Assignment Title:

Group Assignment

Module Code and Title:


Advanced Database Systems (CE00332-3)

Intake Code:
GF1131COM / GF1171COM

Submitted To:
Mr. Thangavel Saravanan
Submitted By:
Prasanga Wadanambi (CB003340)
Nilushi Silva (CB003423)
Eeshwaren Veerabahu (CB003120)

Date Assigned:
22nd August 2011

Date Due:
7th October 2011

Advance Database Systems - Group Project

GF1131COM / GF1171COM

Acknowledgment
It would be most appropriate first to have this opportunity to express our sincere thanks
for the people who guide and encourage throughout this project.
We sincerely thank our lecturer Mr. Thangavel Saravanan for all his support and passion
towards guiding us and providing assistance to clarify our doubts.
Next we sincerely thank our friends who had always been around to support us. Finally
would like to express or sincere gratitude for all people who gave their massive support
to make this project a success.

Advance Database Systems - Group Project

GF1131COM / GF1171COM

Table of Contents
Acknowledgment...............................................................................................................ii
List of Figures...................................................................................................................vi
1 Introduction.....................................................................................................................1
1.1 Project Scenario........................................................................................................1
1.2 Assumptions.............................................................................................................2
2 Conceptual Modeling......................................................................................................3
2.1 Entity Relationship Diagram....................................................................................3
2.1 Relational Mode.......................................................................................................4
3 Normalization..................................................................................................................6
3.1 First Normal Form (1NF).........................................................................................6
3.2 Second Normal Form (2NF)....................................................................................6
3.3 Third Normal Form (3NF).......................................................................................7
4 Database Administration Strategies................................................................................8
4.1 Backup and Recovery Strategies..............................................................................8
4.2 Security Strategies....................................................................................................9
5 Database Features and Implementation.........................................................................10
5.1 Constraints..............................................................................................................10
5.2 Views......................................................................................................................14
5.3 Triggers...................................................................................................................14
5.4 Stored Procedures...................................................................................................15
5.5 Functions................................................................................................................17
5.5.1 User Defined Functions...................................................................................17
5.5.2 System Functions............................................................................................18
5.6 Transaction.............................................................................................................19
3

Advance Database Systems - Group Project

GF1131COM / GF1171COM

6 Optimization Strategies.................................................................................................23
6.1 General Strategies..................................................................................................23
6.1.1 Containment of the result set of a query by only returning columns that are
necessary for the client rather than returning all the columns in a table..................23
6.1.2 Minimalize the usage of DISTINCT clause....................................................23
6.1.3 Include SET NOCOUNT ON statement in the Stored Procedures.................23
6.1.4 Usage of Cursors efficiently............................................................................24
6.1.5

The use of User Defined Function.............................................................24

6.1.6 Call objects using its fully qualified name......................................................24


6.1.7 Use stored procedures instead of heavy-duty queries.....................................24
6.2 Strategies Implemented By Means of Indexing.....................................................25
6.2.1 Clustered Index...............................................................................................25
6.2.2

Non-clustered Index...................................................................................25

6.3 Strategies Implemented When Designing Tables...................................................25


6.3.1 Importance on the usage of constraints rather than triggers, rules and defaults.
..................................................................................................................................25
6.3.2 Use of char or varchar in column instead of nchar or nvarchar......................26
6.3.3 Definition of Primary Key and Foreign Key relationships.............................26
6.3.4 Avoid using prefix sp_ in the stored procedure name, where the stored
procedure is only intended to run in the master database........................................26
7 Strengths and Limitations..............................................................................................27
7.1 Strengths.................................................................................................................27
7.2 Limitations.............................................................................................................28
8 Queries..........................................................................................................................29
8.1 Query No.1.............................................................................................................29
8.2 Query No.2.............................................................................................................30
4

Advance Database Systems - Group Project

GF1131COM / GF1171COM

8.3 Query No.3.............................................................................................................31


8.4 Query No.4.............................................................................................................32
8.5 Query No.5.............................................................................................................32
8.6 Query No.6.............................................................................................................33
8.7 Query No.7.............................................................................................................34
9 Validations.....................................................................................................................36
10 Test Plan......................................................................................................................38
11 Conclusion...................................................................................................................42
12 Reference.....................................................................................................................43
13 Appendix.....................................................................................................................45
13.1 Workload Matrix..................................................................................................45

Advance Database Systems - Group Project

GF1131COM / GF1171COM

List of Figures

Figure 1: Entity Relationship Diagram..............................................................................3

Advance Database Systems - Group Project

GF1131COM / GF1171COM

1 Introduction
1.1 Project Scenario
The solution developed is for a Malaysian company which revolves around important IT
related functions. The objective of the solution is to assist with the functions relating to
an IT Helpdesk, which would handle problems that might occur related to Computer
Hardware and Software within the company, which might cause a threat that will
interrupt the flow of IT systems functionality.
The most important task of the IT Helpdesk solution is to log and track the queries that
are directed at the IT Helpdesk. This information collected via this task will then be used
to as a reference for analysts to identify the overall performance and the efficiency of
both the equipments as well as the IT staff. The system would also provide the analysts
with information, which would allow them to determine whether the Helpdesk
specialists have sufficient resources to provide solution for problems in a given time
frame. A solution look up should be implemented by the system that would store
solutions for common problems, this solution look up will be used by the Helpdesk
Specialist as the main source of reference for arriving at solutions for problem, if a
problem pertains that has no solution in the solution look up ,the system is expected to
transfer, problem that could not be answered by the Helpdesk Specialist to an IT
Specialist, who then will analyze and solve the problem, while providing the Helpdesk
Specialist with an updated solution look up.

Advance Database Systems - Group Project

GF1131COM / GF1171COM

1.2 Assumptions
Discussed below are the assumptions that were made on the proposed database solution.

Operators are part of the organization as employees.

Equipments and Software within the organization is organized based o the


department they belong to.

Solution look up is only updated by the specialist one the problem had been
solved.

If a new solution is found to a peculiar problem, that problem type, sub problem
and problem that is under that sub problem is identified according to the
diagnosis of only the specialist assigned for the job.

Specialist are for a particular specialist defined as per the specialist reques .

Advance Database Systems - Group Project

GF1131COM / GF1171COM

2 Conceptual Modeling
2.1 Entity Relationship Diagram

Advance Database Systems - Group Project

GF1131COM / GF1171COM

Figure 1: Entity Relationship Diagram

The entities in the proposed ERD are Department, Employee, Caller, Specialist,
Operator, Specialist_Area, Software, Equipment, Call_Log, Problem, Solution,
Solution_Lookup, Problem_Type, Problem_ Assign, Reference_Problem. In the
proposed ERD, Employee entity is a generalized entity and Operator, Caller and
Specialist entities are derived and specialized entities of employee entity. And since each
employee belongs to one department there is 1-to-many relationship between Employee
entity and Department entity. There is 1-to-many relationship between Operator and
Call_Log entity, where one operator can create 1 or more call logs. And also there is a
many-to-many relationship between Specialist and Specialist_Area entities where one
specialist may belong to one or more specialist areas while one specialist area having
one or more specialists. Each unsolved problems in Problem entity have 1-to-1
relationship with Problem_Assign table while each problem problems in Problem entity
have 1-to-1 relationship with Equipment entity. Software and Equipment entities have
many-to-many relationship, since one software can be installed in many equipments
while one equipment may include one or more software in it.

2.1 Relational Mode


Department ( Dept_id, Dept_name)
Employee (Emp_id, Emp_name, Status, Emp_phone, Emp_mobile,
Emp_designation,Dept_id)
Caller (Caller_id, Emp_id)
Operator (Ope_id, Emp_id)
Specialist (Spe_id, Emp_id)
Specialist Area (Spe_area_id,Spe_area)
Specialist_Specialist Area (Specialist_area_id, Spe_id, Spe_area_id)
Call Log (Call_log_id, Call_type, Call_log_note, Count, Ope_id, Caller_id, Prob_id)
10

Advance Database Systems - Group Project

GF1131COM / GF1171COM

Problem (Prob_id, Prob_type, Prob_note, Prior_level, Prob_Status, Caller_id, Eqp_id,


Ope_id, Prob_type_id)
Equipment (Eqp_id, Eqptype, Eqp_made, Eqp_serial_number, Dept_id)
Equipment_Software (Sw_Eqp_id, Sw_id, Eqp_id)
Software (Sq_id, Sw_name, Sw_license)
Refference_Problem (Ref_id, Pre_Prob_id, Prob_id)
Problem Type (Prob_type_id, Prob_category, Sub_prob_type, Sub_sub_prob_type,
Sub_sub_prob_prior_level, Default_duration, Spe_area_id)
Problem Assign (Assign_id, Assign_time, Spe_id, Prob_id)
Solution Lookup (Lookup_id, Prob_type, Sol_note, Duration, Prob_type_id)
Solution (Sol_id, Sol_note, Prob_id, Spe_id, Ope_id)
Solution Looup_Solution (Sol_lookup_id, Lookup_id, Sol_id)

11

Advance Database Systems - Group Project

GF1131COM / GF1171COM

3 Normalization
According to Coronel et. al (2010, p.175) normalization is a process of correcting the
table design, to minimize the data duplications and data redundancy which leads to
increase efficiency and flexibility of the data in a database.

3.1 First Normal Form (1NF)


The relations are in 1NF, when relations contain atomic values (one and only one value)
at each row and column.
In this scenario, Call_Log entity may contain multiple values the prob_id field when one
Call log refer to one or more problems. Therefore Call_Log_Problem table created.
Call_Log_Problem (Call_log_id, Prob_id, Count)

3.2 Second Normal Form (2NF)


A relation is in 2NF when;

It is in INF
Every non key attributes are fully functional dependent on the key
attributes (primary key).
(Stephens, 2008)

This ER design is already in first normal form (1NF) and all the non key attributes in
fully dependent on primary keys defined in each table. Therefore second normal form
(2NF) can be skipped.
Functional Dependencies
Functional dependencies of the tables are shown below;
FD1: Dept_id - > Dept_name
FD2:

Emp_id

>

Emp_name,

Emp_designation, Dept_id
FD3: Spe_area_id - >Spe_area
12

Status,

Emp_phone,

Emp_mobile,

Advance Database Systems - Group Project

GF1131COM / GF1171COM

FD4: Call_log_id - > Call_type, Call_log_note, Ope_id, Caller_id, Prob_id


FD5: Prob_id - > Prob_type, Prob_note, Prior_level, Prob_Status, Caller_id,
Eqp_id, Ope_id, Prob_type_id
FD6: Eqp_id - > Eqptype, Eqp_made, Eqp_serial_number, Dept_id
FD7: Sq_id - > Sw_name, Sw_license
FD8: Ref_id - >Pre_Prob_id, Prob_id
FD9: Prob_type_id - >Prob_category, Sub_prob_type, Sub_sub_prob_type,
Sub_sub_prob_prior_level, Default_duration, Spe_area_id
FD10: Assign_id - > Assign_time, Spe_id, Prob_id
FD11: Lookup_id - > Prob_type, Sol_note, Duration, Prob_type_id
FD12: Sol_id - > Sol_note, Prob_id, Spe_id, Ope_id

3.3 Third Normal Form (3NF)


According to Elmasiri & Navathe (2011, p.366) a relation in Third Normal Form should
follow 2NF and it should not have transitive dependencies between non key attributes,
which simply means non key attributes should not functionally depend on another non
key attribute or set of attributes.
In-order to adhere to 3NF, the table structure should avoid transitive dependencies.
According to this table structure all the non key attributes are full functionally dependent
on key attributes (primary key) of each table and there no transitive dependencies
between non key attributes in each table. Therefore all the tables are in Third Normal
Form.

13

Advance Database Systems - Group Project

GF1131COM / GF1171COM

4 Database Administration Strategies


4.1 Backup and Recovery Strategies
It is important to have a backup and recovery strategy for each individual or business to
protect their data from data deletions, data corruption, device failures and natural
disasters. Therefore the database management system itself provides users to have their
own backup strategy by scheduling different types of backups as they required.
The strategy which we propose to take backups of the database can be shown as follows.
Task

Backup Type

Schedule

Partial Backup
Full Backup
Report Generation

Differential backup
Database backup
Reports

Every week - Thursday


Every week - Friday
Every Month

SQL Server Agent is the tool which we propose to schedule the backup strategy of this
system.
We have selected Full backup with Differential backup as our main strategy because,

It is also good when the conditions are intermediate.


Each differential backup includes all the project files changed since the last full

backup.
It takes less time and space than "Always Full", but more than

"Full+Incremental
Restoring is simpler than differential backup. (OrionSoftLab, 1999-2011)

14

Advance Database Systems - Group Project

GF1131COM / GF1171COM

4.2 Security Strategies

15

Advance Database Systems - Group Project

GF1131COM / GF1171COM

5 Database Features and Implementation


5.1 Constraints
Constraints are implemented to limit the data which is entered to the fields in a table. It
also ensures that consistency of data protected via primary key constraints and foreign
key constraints. These constraints can be assigned either with the table creation or either
as alteration to a created table.
(W3schools, 2011)
The constraints which are implemented in this proposed dataset are Primary Key,
Foreign Key, Not Null and Default.
PRIMARY KEY constraint
Primary key constraint offer uniquely identification of a record in a table. In the
proposed database every table in the database constraints with a primary key/ composite
keys to uniquely identify each record.
Following are some implementation of Primary Key constraint which is applied in the
proposed database.
//Creating table Department
CREATE TABLE Department(
Dept_id int PRIMARY KEY IDENTITY(100,1),
Dept_name varchar(100) Not Null
);
//Creating table Department
CREATE TABLE Software(
Sw_id varchar(50) PRIMARY KEY,
Sw_name varchar(100) Not Null,
Sw_license varchar(20) CHECK(Sw_license in('Yes','No'))
);

FOREIGN KEY constraint


The Foreign Key constraint is used to ensure referential integrity which means that the
relationship among each table remains consistent. Foreign Key is a field or set of fields
in the table which points out to a Primary Key field in another table.
16

Advance Database Systems - Group Project

GF1131COM / GF1171COM

Following are some implementation of Foreign Key constraint which is applied in the
proposed database.
//Primary key of Department table is the Foreign key of Equipment table
CREATE TABLE Equipment(
Eqp_id varchar(50) PRIMARY KEY,
Dept_id int Not Null,
Eqp_type varchar(100) Not Null,
Eqp_made varchar(100),
Eqp_serial_number varchar(100) Not Null,
FOREIGN KEY(Dept_id) REFERENCES Department(Dept_id)
);
//Primary key of Employee table is the Foreign key of Specialist table
CREATE TABLE Specialist(
Spe_id int PRIMARY KEY IDENTITY,
Emp_id varchar(20) Not Null,
FOREIGN KEY(Emp_id) REFERENCES Employee(Emp_id)
);

NOT NULL constraint


NOT NULL constraint is basically used when field should require containing a value.
(enforces not to accept Null values). NOT NULL constraint is used is several fields in
the proposed database according to their necessity. Some implementation NOT NULL
constraints in the database are as follow:
//Equiment table
CREATE TABLE Equipment(
Eqp_id varchar(50) PRIMARY KEY,
Dept_id int Not Null,
Eqp_type varchar(100) Not Null,
Eqp_made varchar(100),
Eqp_serial_number varchar(100) Not Null,
FOREIGN KEY(Dept_id) REFERENCES Department(Dept_id)
);
//Problem Assign table
CREATE TABLE Problem_Assign(
Assign_id int PRIMARY KEY IDENTITY,
Prob_id varchar(50) Not Null,
Spe_id int,
Assign_time datetime,
Assign_note nvarchar(225) ,
FOREIGN KEY(Prob_id) REFERENCES Problem(Prob_id),
FOREIGN KEY(Spe_id ) REFERENCES Specialist(Spe_id )
);

17

Advance Database Systems - Group Project

GF1131COM / GF1171COM

DEFAULT constraint
DEFAULT constraint allows to populate an default value from the database when the
input source is null. Therefore the default value specified will be populated to all the
new insertions which a specific value is not specified.

(W3schools, 2011)

DEFAULT constraint is used in several places is the database. The tables which have
used DEFAULT constraint are shown as follow:
//By default when a login account is created password is set to 123 and later user will be able change as
needed.
CREATE TABLE Login(
User_name varchar(20) PRIMARY KEY,
Emp_id varchar(20) ,
User_type varchar(10) Not Null CHECK(User_type in('Specialist','Caller','Operator')),
Pwd varchar(30) DEFAULT '123',
FOREIGN KEY(Emp_id) REFERENCES Employee (Emp_id)
);
//For each for a specific problem by default at 1st call count is set to 0 and when a follow up call receives
from a problem ID which is created earlir the count will be incremented.
CREATE TABLE Call_Log_Problem(
Call_log_id varchar(30) ,
Prob_id varchar(50) ,
Count_occur int DEFAULT '0',
PRIMARY KEY (Call_log_id,Prob_id),
FOREIGN KEY(Prob_id)REFERENCES Problem(Prob_id)
);

CHECK constraint
CHECK constraint enforces limit the values which are inserted to a field in the database.
CHECK constraints offers validity of a value can be measured through a logical
expression.
The proposed database uses check constraints for validate mobile number filed, to
validate the status fields, to validate user types filed, to validate call type field and etc.
Following are some implementation of CHECK constraints which is applied in the
proposed database.

18

Advance Database Systems - Group Project

GF1131COM / GF1171COM

//Call type field is only required 3 types of values as mentioned below


CREATE TABLE Call_Log(
Call_log_id varchar(30) PRIMARY KEY,
Ope_id int Not Null,
Caller_id int Not Null,
Call_log_time datetime,
Call_type varchar(15) CHECK(Call_type in('Follow-Up','New','Reference')),
Call_log_note varchar(225),
FOREIGN KEY(Caller_id) REFERENCES Caller(Caller_id),
FOREIGN KEY(Ope_id ) REFERENCES Operator(Ope_id )
);
//Software license field is only allows to 2 types of values as mentioned below
CREATE TABLE Software(
Sw_id varchar(50) PRIMARY KEY,
Sw_name varchar(100) Not Null,
Sw_license varchar(20) CHECK(Sw_license in('Yes','No'))
);
//Mobile number field and the staus field have check constraints which will only allow specified values.
CREATE TABLE Employee(
Emp_id varchar(20) PRIMARY KEY ,
Emp_name varchar(50),
Status varchar(10) Not Null CHECK(Status in ('Yes', 'No')),
Emp_phone nvarchar(20) ,
Emp_mobile nvarchar(20) CHECK(Emp_mobile like '[0-9][0-9][0-9][0-9][0-9][0-9][0-9][0-9][0-9][0-9]
[0-9]'),
Emp_designation varchar(50) Not Null,
Dept_id int,
FOREIGN KEY (Dept_id) REFERENCES Department(Dept_id)
);

19

Advance Database Systems - Group Project

GF1131COM / GF1171COM

5.2 Views
A virtual table which consists with columns from one or more tables is known as a view.
It stored in the database though the query of the table consists in an object in the same
database and derives it data from one or more tables.
As an example, below view query list all the equipments along with the department
name it belongs to.
ALTER VIEW EQPDEPT AS SELECT Dept_name, Eqp_type, Eqp_made FROM
Department JOIN Equipment ON Department.Dept_id=Equipment.Dept_id
GROUP BY Dept_name, Eqp_type, Eqp_made
SELECT * FROM EQPDEPT

5.3 Triggers
According to mysqltutorial.org (2008), trigger is a statement or a set of SQL statements
which is stored to be activated or fired when an event associating with a database table
occurs. The trigger can be fired for any event which could be for an Insert, Update, or
Delete. According to msdn.microsoft (2011) trigger also can be referred as stored
procedure due to the procedural format of the code. But the main difference of a trigger
compared to a stored procedure is that trigger is activated implicitly when event
performed in the specified table and stored procedure is explicitly to perform an activity.
According to msdn.microsoft (2011) triggers are mainly useful when implementing
business rules etc.

Check Solution

This trigger is implement for solution table in the database. When a solution is
inserted to the Solution table the trigger will get fired and it will update the problem
status in Problem table as 'yes'.

ALTER TRIGGER trig_Solution


ON Solution FOR INSERT
AS
DECLARE @probID varchar(50)
SELECT @probID=Prob_id from inserted

20

Advance Database Systems - Group Project

GF1131COM / GF1171COM

UPDATE Problem SET Prob_status='Yes' WHERE Prob_id=@probID

Acknowledgment message
CREATE TRIGGER trig_I_Soft
ON Software FOR INSERT
AS
BEGIN
PRINT 'New Software details has been updated'
END
CREATE TRIGGER trig_I_Equipment
ON Equipment FOR INSERT
AS
BEGIN
PRINT 'New Equipment details has been updated'
END

5.4 Stored Procedures


According to TechTarget (2000), stored procedure is a set of structured query language
statements with an assigned name that's stored in the database in compiled form so that it
can be shared by a number of programs. It is widely used structure because it can
control accessibility to data, improves productivity of the query and protects data
integrity.
Some of stored procedures which we have implemented in this system can be shown as
below.
Insert values to Software table
The given stored procedure gets values from user and inserts into the Software table.
ALTER PROCEDURE proc_Software (@softName varchar(100),@softLicence varchar(20))
AS
DECLARE @sftID varchar(50)
DECLARE @temp int
SELECT @temp=Convert(int,substring(Max(Sw_id), 3,10)) FROM Software
SET @temp = @temp+ 1;
SET @sftID = 'SW' + Convert(varchar(20), @temp);
INSERT INTO Software VALUES (@sftID,@softName,@softLicence)

21

Advance Database Systems - Group Project

GF1131COM / GF1171COM

Example of Stored Procedure Execute query


EXEC proc_Software 'Micsdrosoft Office','No'

Add a new problem to Problem Table


This query takes values from user to validate the user entered data with other tables
before insert a new set of data to the Problem table.
ALTER PROCEDURE proc_NewProblem(@logID varchar(50),@callerID int,@eqID
varchar(50),@opeID int,@probTypeID varchar(50), @note varchar(225),@level int,@refStatus
varchar(10),@probStatus varchar(10),@callType varchar(50),@refProbID varchar(50),
@probID varchar(50) output)
AS
DECLARE
@temp int,@eqpNewID varchar(50)
SELECT @temp=Convert(int,substring(Max(Prob_id), 3,10)) FROM Problem
SET @temp = @temp+ 1;
SET @probID = 'PR' + Convert(varchar(20), @temp);

IF(@callType='New')
BEGIN
INSERT INTO Problem VALUES (@probID
,@callerID,@eqID,@opeID,@probTypeID,@note,@level,@refStatus,@probStatus)
END
ELSE if (@callType='Reference')
BEGIN
SELECT @eqpNewID=Eqp_id from Problem where Prob_id=@refProbID
INSERT INTO Problem VALUES (@probID
,@callerID,@eqpNewID,@opeID,@probTypeID,@note,@level,@refStatus,@probStatus)
INSERT INTO Reference_Problem VALUES (@probID ,@refProbID)
END
INSERT INTO Call_Log_Problem (Call_log_id,Prob_id) VALUES(@logID,@probID)
PRINT 'New Prroblem created successfully !';

22

Advance Database Systems - Group Project

GF1131COM / GF1171COM

5.5 Functions
Functions are mostly used to run frequently used logics. According to msdn.microsoft
(2011) there are mainly two types of functions as built-in functions and as user defined
functions. System functions are sub part of built-in functions in SQL server. The
function. The functions which have implemented in the proposed database are
mentioned as follow:
5.5.1 User Defined Functions
User defined functions are defined by the user and in-order to create functions user need
to get granted appropriate permissions.
Selected function which has implemented in the proposed database are as follow:
//This function is used to returns the problem resolved date and time if the problem is
resolved.
CREATE FUNCTION dbo.function_Resolve(@probID varchar(30))RETURNS datetime
AS
BEGIN
DECLARE @time datetime
IF Exists (SELECT * FROM Problem WHERE Prob_status='Yes' AND Prob_id=@probID)
SELECT @time=Resolve_time FROM Solution WHERE Prob_id=@probID
ELSE
SET @time='-'
RETURN @time
END

//This function is used in-order calculate the average resolve time of a specific problem
CREATE FUNCTION dbo.function_Duration(@typeID AS varchar(100)) RETURNS float
AS
BEGIN
DECLARE @avgTime float
IF exists (SELECT Duration FROM Solution_Lookup WHERE Prob_type_id=@typeID)
SELECT @avgTime=AVG(Duration) FROM Solution_Lookup WHERE Prob_type_id=@typeID
ELSE
SELECT @avgTime=Default_duration FROM Problem_Type WHERE Prob_type_id=@typeID
RETURN @avgTime
END

23

Advance Database Systems - Group Project

GF1131COM / GF1171COM

5.5.2 System Functions


System functions are functions which is pre-defined functions that are offered by the
SQL Server.
Function

Purpose

GetDate ()

Get the current date time

Dateadd

Add two dates


Returns the specified partpart of

Datepart

the specified date.

24

Advance Database Systems - Group Project

GF1131COM / GF1171COM

5.6 Transaction
In the system, transactions are used in most queries where it required a rollback process
to restore the database into previous state. It is required to overcome issues occur due to
execution of invalid queries.
As an example, adding an employee is a task which requires the data insertion for
multiple tables. When an employee registers with the system, the data also need to insert
into Employee, Login and Caller/Specialist/Operator. If the process fails within that
duration, the database needs to rollback to its previous state. Therefore transaction
required in order to overcome such scenarios.
Given below are examples of transactions which we used in this system.
Add new Employee
This query inserts a new employee into the employee table as well as creates a login in
the Login table and adds the employee into table according to the user type.
ALTER PROCEDURE proc_NewEmployee (@empName varchar(50),@depName varchar(100),
@empPhone nvarchar(20),@empMobile nvarchar(20),@empDesignation varchar(50),@userType
varchar(10))
AS
DECLARE @empID varchar(20)
DECLARE @temp int
DECLARE @depID int
BEGIN TRANSACTION
BEGIN TRY
SELECT @temp=Convert(int,substring(Max(Emp_id), 2,10)) FROM
Employee
SET @temp = @temp+ 1;
SET @empID = 'E' + Convert(varchar(20), @temp);
SELECT @depID=Dept_id FROM Department WHERE
Dept_name=@depName
INSERT INTO Employee VALUES
(@empID,@empName,'Yes',@empPhone,@empMobile,@empDesignation,@depID)
INSERT INTO Login (User_name,Emp_id,User_type)
VALUES(@empID,@empID,@userType)
IF (@userType='Caller')
INSERT INTO Caller (Emp_id) values(@empID)
ELSE IF (@userType='Specialist')
INSERT INTO Specialist (Emp_id) VALUES(@empID)
ELSE

25

Advance Database Systems - Group Project

GF1131COM / GF1171COM

INSERT INTO Operator (Emp_id) VALUES(@empID)


PRINT 'New Employee created successfully !';
COMMIT
END TRY
BEGIN CATCH
RAISERROR ('Error adding the data values.Please check your inputs', 16,1 );
ROLLBACK
END CATCH

Add a New Call


This query creates a call log in the Call log table and creates a problem in Call Log
Problem table with using the id of call log table to make the connection between Call log
and Problem tables.
ALTER PROCEDURE proc_NewCall(@empID_Operator varchar(50),@empID_Caller
varchar(50),@callType varchar(50), @callLogNote nvarchar(20),@eqpID varchar(100),@probTypeID
varchar(20),@note varchar(225),@level int,@followProbID varchar(50),@refID varchar(50))
AS
BEGIN TRANSACTION
BEGIN TRY
DECLARE
@temp int,@opeID int, @callerID int,@count int,
@logDate_Time datetime,
@logID varchar(50),@probID varchar(50),@refStatus
varchar(10),@probStatus varchar(10)

SELECT @temp=Convert(int,substring(Max(Call_log_id), 4,10)) FROM


Call_Log
SET @temp = @temp+ 1
SET @logID = 'LOG' + Convert(varchar(20), @temp)
SELECT @logDate_Time=GETDATE()
SELECT @callerID=Caller.Caller_id FROM Caller,Employee WHERE
Caller.Emp_id=Employee.Emp_id AND Employee.Status='Yes' AND Caller.Emp_id=@empID_Caller
SELECT @opeID=Ope_id FROM Operator WHERE
Emp_id=@empID_Operator
INSERT INTO Call_Log VALUES (@logID
,@opeID,@callerID,@logDate_Time,@callType,@callLogNote)
PRINT 'Log created successfully !';
IF(@callType='New')
BEGIN
SET @refStatus ='No'
SET @probStatus='No'

26

Advance Database Systems - Group Project

GF1131COM / GF1171COM

EXEC proc_NewProblem
@logID,@callerID,@eqpID,@opeID,@probTypeID,@note,@level,@refStatus,@probStatus,@callType ,
@refID, @probID OUTPUT
END
ELSE IF (@callType='Follow-Up')
BEGIN
SELECT @count=MAX(Count_occur) from Call_Log_Problem
where Prob_id=@followProbID
SET @count = @count+ 1;
INSERT INTO Call_Log_Problem
VALUES(@logID,@followProbID,@count)
END
ELSE
BEGIN
SET @refStatus ='Yes'
SET @probStatus='No'
EXEC proc_NewProblem
@logID,@callerID,@eqpID,@opeID,@probTypeID,@note,@level,@refStatus,@probStatus,@callType ,
@refID, @probID OUTPUT
END
PRINT 'Call successfully created !'
COMMIT
END TRY
BEGIN CATCH
RAISERROR ('Error adding the data values.Please check your inputs', 16,1 );
ROLLBACK
END CATCH

Add a New Solution


This

query

inserts

set

of

data

into

solution

table

as

Solution_Lookup_Solution table while using sol_id as the foreign key.


CREATE PROCEDURE proc_NewSolution (@empID_Updater varchar(50),@probID
varchar(50),@lookupID varchar(50),@solNote varchar(225))
AS
BEGIN TRANSACTION
BEGIN TRY
DECLARE @speID int
DECLARE @opeID int
DECLARE @solID int
DECLARE @empType varchar(50)
DECLARE @resolveTime datetime

SELECT @empType=User_type FROM Login WHERE


Emp_id=@empID_Updater

27

well

as

to

Advance Database Systems - Group Project

GF1131COM / GF1171COM

IF (@empType='Specialist')
BEGIN
SELECT @speID=Spe_id FROM Specialist where Emp_id=@empID_Updater
END
ELSE IF (@empType='Operator')
BEGIN
SELECT @opeID =Ope_id FROM Operator where
Emp_id=@empID_Updater
END
ELSE
BEGIN
PRINT 'Operator ID or Specialist ID Not Found !'
END
INSERT INTO Solution(Prob_id,Ope_id,Spe_id,Sol_note,Resolve_time)
VALUES (@probID,@opeID,@speID,@solNote,GETDATE())
SELECT @solID=Sol_id from Solution where Prob_id=@probID
INSERT INTO Solution_Lookup_Solution (Lookup_id,Sol_id) VALUES
(@lookupID,@solID)
END TRY
BEGIN CATCH
RAISERROR ('Error adding the data values.Please check your inputs', 16,1 );
ROLLBACK
END CATCH

28

Advance Database Systems - Group Project

GF1131COM / GF1171COM

6 Optimization Strategies
As the name suggests Optimization Strategies are advanced techniques for efficient
server or database management. It is important that efficient management of the
database or server is addressed since; adopting these management techniques to optimize
a database will greatly satisfy the ever evolving IT infrastructure and network traffic.
Hence the following part of this report will discuss the Optimization strategies that are
very important for database optimization as well as the optimization strategies that we
implemented in developing this database.

6.1 General Strategies


6.1.1 Containment of the result set of a query by only returning columns that are
necessary for the client rather than returning all the columns in a table.
This strategy benefits by resulting in better performance of the server since, the server
needs to only return particular columns to the client. This strategy effectively reduces the
network traffic and also boosts the performance of the query. The proposed solution
implements this strategy to a considerable extent where most queries designed by us
return only columns that are crucial for the requirements of the client.
6.1.2 Minimalize the usage of DISTINCT clause.
Usage of DISTINCT clauses have been known to degrade the performance, hence the
usage of DISTINCT clauses have been minimalized in the provided salutation. Although
in some scenarios DISTINCT clauses were used to contain the unwanted retrieval of
columns when using the COUNT(*) function.
6.1.3 Include SET NOCOUNT ON statement in the Stored Procedures.
Adopting this statement in stored procedure can reduce the network traffic, since it stops
the constant acknowledgment message that the server out puts, every time a row gets
affected by a T-SQL statement. This strategy was taken into consideration when building
the stored procedures for the given solution.

29

Advance Database Systems - Group Project

GF1131COM / GF1171COM

6.1.4 Usage of Cursors efficiently.


Cursors degrade the servers performance, compared to select statement. They cause
massive over heads, since they make people apply a procedural mindset to a set based
environment. The proposed solution does not completely avoid cursors since cursors are
able to fetch any row of data from a result set without fetching the entire row of data
from the result set. Due to this one cannot completely write off cursors as inefficient, by
applying cursors in only required places in the solution give, we have understood, that
cursors are very efficient if used properly.
6.1.5

The use of User Defined Function

User Defined Functions (UDFs) encapsulate a number of T-SQL statements, which can
be used again. This allows for reduced network traffic and code reusability. The
proposed solution uses UDFs to encapsulate T-SQL that helps to filter the result set in a
custom way.
6.1.6 Call objects using its fully qualified name.
This Optimization technique makes a significant contribution to Database Optimization.
When called by its full name which has four identifiers (server name, database name,
owner name and object name) an object in the server can react faster, in a situation
where there are multiple databases and owners, because calling an object by its full
name eliminates any confusion. Since when developing this solution, there were not
many databases in the server, hence it was identified that this optimization technique
will not make a significant difference.
6.1.7 Use stored procedures instead of heavy-duty queries.
Using stored procedure allows for reduced network traffic, because by implementing
stored procedure in the proposed solution we believe that the user; now needs to only
relay the stored procedure he wants to execute along with the parameters for that given
stored procedure hence this strategy allows for users to avoid using, complicated and
heavy resource consuming queries.
o Security aspect of using stored procedure
Stored Procedures can also be used to apply security measures by means
of designating users with the permission to use certain stored procedures
30

Advance Database Systems - Group Project

GF1131COM / GF1171COM

that deal with restricted data. Even though we havent implemented this
feature being that we have a number of important stored procedures, it is
very important this was highlighted under this topic.

6.2 Strategies Implemented By Means of Indexing


Indexing allows for data to be retrieved from the database, far quickly than when data in
the database is not indexed. Considering a situation where there are thousands of data in
a table, indexing will allow for the server to obtain information based on a particular
order. This allows us to obtain results faster. Indexes are of two types
6.2.1 Clustered Index
Clustered index makes sure that all the data in a particular table where indexing is
applied is ordered in that particular order, which enables the retrieval and grouping of
data efficient and fast. The use of Clustered index in the proposed solution was ensured
by the use of defining a primary key column in all tables. This helped to retrieve data
fairly quickly when using queries that incorporate data from multiple tables.
6.2.2

Non-clustered Index

Non - Clustered Index allows for ordering the records in a logical manner.

6.3 Strategies Implemented When Designing Tables


When designing tables for the proposed database the following optimization strategies
were used.
6.3.1 Importance on the usage of constraints rather than triggers, rules and
defaults.
Constraints were used when designing tables for the proposed database, since constraints
prove to be more efficient that triggers. Also constraints are more consistent and reliable
compared to triggers, rules and defaults; since hand coding errors can be made when

31

Advance Database Systems - Group Project

GF1131COM / GF1171COM

trying to replicate those actions of constraints by using above mentioned alternative


methods. Constraints also boost performances to better levels.
6.3.2 Use of char or varchar in column instead of nchar or nvarchar.
This strategy directly evaluates the optimization of the storage of the database. When
designing tables for the proposed database, we concluded that it was best to use char or
varchar columns and only use nchar or nvarchar columns when theres a need for storing
Unicode data. This decision was taken, since char or varchar values only uses one byte
to store a character, whereas nvarchar and nchar uses two bytes to store a single
character. By applying this strategy we were able to design tables with columns that
would use two times less storage.
6.3.3 Definition of Primary Key and Foreign Key relationships.
Primary keys and foreign keys were added to the table to uniquely identify each row of
the table. Defining the primary key of a table allows for the creation of a clustered index,
which is unique to that table, this essentially makes the queries execute faster. Defining
the foreign key, allows for faster execution of queries which make use of the
participation of multiple tables.
6.3.4 Avoid using prefix sp_ in the stored procedure name, where the stored
procedure is only intended to run in the master database.
It is advised that the prefix sp_ needs to be only used for when the stored procedure is
meant to run in databases other than the master data base, because using this prefix can
result in the server searching for a stored procedure beginning with sp_. This can
affect the execution time of the stored procedure negatively. This technique was used by
us, since we completely refrained from using this prefix, since the need to use this prefix
didnt present itself, since there were no situations where a stored procedure needed to
be executed out of the master database.

32

Advance Database Systems - Group Project

GF1131COM / GF1171COM

7 Strengths and Limitations


The database solution provided, has Strengths that enhance the overall efficiency of the
database in the contrary, it also has limitations which if it had been addressed, could
have enhanced the database solution even further. Below is a list of key strengths and
limitations of this database solution.

7.1 Strengths

The database solution provided, has been developed in such a manner that,
measures with regard to assuring the relationships between tables are generalized
as well as specialized to obtain consistent and redundant free data.

Data has been Normalized up to 3rd normal form to support the strength
discussed above as well as achieve a clear view of the business logic from the
perspective of the system.

Accuracy level is high with the information entered into the system, since
validity of information has been achieved via the use of strict constraints
implemented within tables.

User Friendliness has been give great importance in the system by means of
requiring very little effort from the users to invoke functions. This is done by
automating the invoking of the function by methods such as stored procedure,
Triggers and user defined functions.

Views and reports were used to allow the user to obtain information in an
organized manner.

33

Advance Database Systems - Group Project

GF1131COM / GF1171COM

7.2 Limitations

Non-Clustered indexes which could have proven to be very useful in increasing


the efficiencies of queries was not used,

Problem types are not addressed In-depth; this could prove to reduce the
exclusivity of a problem.

Problem is solved by problem level rather than first come first serve basis, which
would be the ideal when considering a large IT company.

34

Advance Database Systems - Group Project

GF1131COM / GF1171COM

8 Queries
8.1 Query No.1
Create a query to show which users have called more than twice within a weeks time at
any time during the last year, along with the specialist name assigned for the job.
--Call_log_time
CREATE FUNCTION dbo.ufnweekyearcheck(@date datetime) RETURNS bit
AS
BEGIN
DECLARE
DECLARE
DECLARE
DECLARE
DECLARE

@handles bit
@vardate datetime
@weeknum datetime
@currentyear datetime
@lastyear datetime

SET @weeknum = datepart(wk,@date)


SET @currentyear = datepart(dy,@date)
SET @lastyear = @currentyear -(@currentyear+364)
-- Identifies any calls made within the date criteria and pattern
IF exists (SELECT * FROM Call_Log WHERE @date =
convert(varchar(10),datepart(wk,@date))AND @date BETWEEN
convert(varchar(10),@lastyear) AND convert(varchar(10),@currentyear))
SET @handles= 1
ELSE
SET @handles= 0
RETURN @handles
END
--Caller_id Counter
CREATE FUNCTION dbo.ufncountcheck(@callid int) RETURNS bit
AS
BEGIN
DECLARE @cnthandles bit
--Counts Number of times a caller has called and compares whether the
number is greater than 1
IF exists (SELECT COUNT(*)cnt FROM Call_Log WHERE Caller_id = @callid
Group by Call_log.Caller_id Having COUNT (*) >1)

35

Advance Database Systems - Group Project

GF1131COM / GF1171COM

SET @cnthandles = 1
ELSE
SET @cnthandles = 0
RETURN @cnthandles
END

SELECT Call_Log.Caller_id AS 'Caller ID', Call_Log.Call_log_time Group


by Call_Log.Caller_id AS 'Dates on Which Calls were Made',
Call_Log_Problem.Prob_id +' | '+ Problem_Assign.Assign_id AS 'Problem
ID & Assign ID', Specialist.Emp_id +' | '+ Employee.Emp_name AS
'Specialist Emp ID & Name'
FROM Call_Log,Call_Log_Problem,Problem_Assign,Specialist,Employee
WHERE Call_Log.Call_log_id = Call_Log_Problem.Call_log_id AND
Call_Log_Problem.Prob_id = Problem_Assign.Prob_id AND
Problem_Assign.Spe_id = Specialist.Spe_id AND Specialist.Emp_id =
Employee.Emp_id AND dbo.ufnweekyearcheck(Call_Log.Call_log_time)='1'
AND dbo.ufncountcheck(Call_Log.Caller_id)

8.2 Query No.2


Create a query to display a list of problem types along with the number of specialists
available for each type.
Select Problem_type.Prob_type_id AS 'Problem Type ID', 'Error or
Breakdown in' +' '+ Problem_type.Prob_category +' '+
Problem_Type.Sub_prob_type +' '+ Problem_Type.Sub_sub_prob_type AS
'Problem Category', Problem_type.Spe_area_id AS 'Specialist Area
ID',Specialist_Area_Specialist.Spe_id AS 'Specialist ID'
FROM Problem_Type,Specialist_Area_Specialist,Specialist
WHERE Problem_Type.Spe_area_id=Specialist_Area_Specialist.Spe_area_id
AND Specialist_Area_Specialist.Spe_id=Specialist.Spe_id

36

Advance Database Systems - Group Project

GF1131COM / GF1171COM

8.3 Query No.3


Create a query which shows, the status of each call, received during the last week. The
date and the time of resolving the issue should be displayed for resolved issues.
--returns the last duration
CREATE FUNCTION dbo.function_Time(@logID varchar(30),@date datetime) RETURNS bit
AS
BEGIN
DECLARE @status bit
DECLARE @TodayDayOfWeek int
DECLARE @EndOfPrevWeek datetime
DECLARE @StartOfPrevWeek datetime
--get number of a current day (1-Monday, 2-Tuesday... 7-Sunday)
SET @TodayDayOfWeek = datepart(dw, GetDate())
--get the last day of the previous week (last Sunday)
SET @EndOfPrevWeek = dateadd(dd, -@TodayDayOfWeek, GetDate())
--get the first day of the previous week (the Monday before last)
SET @StartOfPrevWeek = dateadd(dd, -(@TodayDayOfWeek+6), GetDate())
IF exists (SELECT * FROM Call_Log WHERE @date BETWEEN CONVERT(varchar,
@StartOfPrevWeek,7) AND CONVERT(varchar, @EndOfPrevWeek+1,7) AND Call_log_id=@logID)
SET @status= 1
ELSE
SET @status= 0
RETURN @status
END

--returns the problem resolved date and time if the problem is resolved
CREATE FUNCTION dbo.function_Resolve(@probID varchar(30))RETURNS datetime
AS
BEGIN
DECLARE @time datetime
IF Exists (SELECT * FROM Problem WHERE Prob_status='Yes' AND Prob_id=@probID)
SELECT @time=Resolve_time FROM Solution WHERE Prob_id=@probID
ELSE
SET @time='-'
RETURN @time
END

SELECT Call_Log.Call_log_id AS 'Call Log ID',Call_Log.Call_log_time AS 'Call Log Date and Time'
,Problem.Prob_id AS 'Problem ID',Problem.Prob_status as 'Problem
Status',dbo.function_Resolve( Problem.Prob_id) AS 'Problem Resolved Date and Time'
FROM Call_Log,Problem,Solution,Call_Log_Problem
WHERE Solution.Prob_id=Problem.Prob_id AND Call_Log.Call_log_id=Call_Log_Problem.Call_log_id
AND Call_Log_Problem.Prob_id=Problem.Prob_id AND
dbo.function_Time(Call_Log.Call_log_id,Call_Log.Call_log_time)='1' AND Call_Log.Call_type='New'

37

Advance Database Systems - Group Project

GF1131COM / GF1171COM

8.4 Query No.4


Create a query which lists the problem types n order of increasing average time to
resolve.
CREATE FUNCTION dbo.function_Duration(@typeID AS varchar(100)) RETURNS float
AS
BEGIN
DECLARE @avgTime float
IF exists (SELECT Duration FROM Solution_Lookup WHERE Prob_type_id=@typeID)
SELECT @avgTime=AVG(Duration) FROM Solution_Lookup WHERE Prob_type_id=@typeID
ELSE
SELECT @avgTime=Default_duration FROM Problem_Type WHERE Prob_type_id=@typeID
RETURN @avgTime
END

SELECT Prob_type_id AS 'Problem Type ID',Prob_category AS 'Main Catergory',Sub_prob_type AS


'Problem Category',Sub_sub_prob_type AS 'Sub Problem Category',
dbo.function_Duration(Prob_type_id) AS 'Average Resolve Time' FROM Problem_Type

8.5 Query No.5


Create a query which provides, for each call received during the last month, the total
number of calls/follow up calls received, the problem type, and assigned specialist.
CREATE FUNCTION [dbo].[ufnTimePeriod] ( ) RETURNS INT
AS
BEGIN
-- Declaration of the return variable
DECLARE @handlecount int
DECLARE @currentdate datetime
DECLARE @date4weeksprior datetime

SET @currentdate = GETDATE()


-- Identifies the date 4 weeks prior to current date by
substracting 28 days from current date
SET @date4weeksprior = @currentdate-28
-- Checking if their are record that exist that meet the criteria
"calls handled by operators within current date and 4 weeks prior to
current date"
IF exists (SELECT * FROM Call_Log WHERE Call_log_time BETWEEN
@date4weeksprior AND @currentdate)
SET @handlecount = 1
ELSE

38

Advance Database Systems - Group Project

GF1131COM / GF1171COM

SET @handlecount = 0
RETURN @handlecount
END
SELECT Call_Log_Problem.Prob_id as 'Problem
ID',Call_Log_Problem.Call_log_id as 'Call Log ID',Employee.Emp_id as
'Specialist ID' ,Employee.Emp_name as 'Specialist Name'
,Call_Log_Problem.Count_occur as 'Occurance of the Call'
from Call_Log,
Call_Log_Problem,Problem,Problem_Assign,Specialist,Employee
where Call_Log_Problem.Call_log_id=Call_Log.Call_log_id AND
Call_Log_Problem.Prob_id=Problem.Prob_id
AND Problem.Prob_id=Problem_Assign.Prob_id AND
Problem_Assign.Spe_id=Specialist.Spe_id
AND Specialist.Emp_id=Employee.
Emp_id
AND
dbo.ufnTimePeriod()='1'

8.6 Query No.6


Create a query which shows the number of calls handled by each operator during the last
4 weeks.
CREATE FUNCTION [dbo].[ufnTimePeriod] () RETURNS INT
AS
BEGIN
-- Declaration of the return variable
DECLARE @handlecount int
DECLARE @currentdate datetime
DECLARE @date4weeksprior datetime

SET @currentdate = GETDATE()


SET @date4weeksprior = @currentdate-28
IF exists (SELECT * FROM Call_Log WHERE Call_log_time BETWEEN
@date4weeksprior AND @currentdate)
SET @handlecount = 1
ELSE
SET @handlecount = 0
RETURN @handlecount
END
SELECT Ope_id as 'Operator ID',COUNT(*) as 'No of calls Recieved' from
Call_Log where dbo.ufnTimePeriod()=1 group by Ope_id

39

Advance Database Systems - Group Project

GF1131COM / GF1171COM

8.7 Query No.7


Develop one additional query which provides information that would be useful for the
business.
The reports are implemented under this section. The reports are as follow:

Identifying the specialist areas which problems belongs most


This report displays the specialist areas which problems are made most. With the
use of this report, authorized users of the company will be able to allocate more
specialists for those specialist areas to increase the efficiency.
SELECT Specialist_Area.Spe_area AS 'Speccialist Area',COUNT(*) AS
'No total Problems'
FROM Problem,Problem_Type,Specialist_Area
WHERE Problem.Prob_type_id=Problem_Type.Prob_type_id
AND Problem_Type.Spe_area_id=Specialist_Area.Spe_area_id
GROUP BY Specialist_Area.Spe_area ORDER BY 'No
total Problems' DESC

The departments which creates problems most


This report displays the departments which creates problems in the Help Desk.
Through is report authorized users of the company will be able to give more
consideration to those departments in-order to solve problems which arries most
in those departments.

SELECT Department.Dept_name AS 'Deparment Name', COUNT (*) as 'No


of Problems'
FROM Department,Employee,Caller,Problem
WHERE Department.Dept_id = Employee.Dept_id AND
Employee.Emp_id = Caller.Emp_id AND
Caller.Caller_id=Problem.Caller_id
GROUP BY Department.Dept_name ORDER BY 'No
total Problems' DESC

The Equipments which generates problems most


This report reffered to equipments which creates problems in the Help Desk.
With use of this report authorized users of the company will be able to give more
consideration to track those equipments.

40

Advance Database Systems - Group Project

GF1131COM / GF1171COM

SELECT Equipment.Eqp_type AS 'Equipment Type', COUNT (*) AS 'No


of Problems'
FROM Equipment,Department,Employee,Caller,Problem
WHERE Equipment.Dept_id = Department.Dept_id AND
Department.Dept_id = Employee.Dept_id AND Employee.Emp_id =
Caller.Emp_id AND Caller.Caller_id=Problem.Caller_id
GROUP BY Equipment.Eqp_type

41

Advance Database Systems - Group Project

GF1131COM / GF1171COM

9 Validations

Employee status can only be set as Yes or No


Status varchar(10) Not Null CHECK(Status in ('Yes', 'No')),

Employee mobile number only can have numbers in a length of 11digits


Emp_mobile nvarchar(20) CHECK(Emp_mobile like '[0-9][0-9][0-9][0-9][0-9][0-9][09][0-9][0-9][0-9][0-9]'),

'Specialist','Caller' and 'Operator' are only User types that can have on Login
table
User_type varchar(10) Not Null CHECK(User_type in('Specialist','Caller','Operator')),

Call type of the call log table can only have type 'Follow-Up or 'New' or
'Reference'
Call_type varchar(15) CHECK(Call_type in('Follow-Up','New','Reference')),

Software license in Software table can only have values Yes or No


Sw_license varchar(20) CHECK(Sw_license in('Yes','No'))

Reference status in problem table can only have values Yes or No

Problem status in problem table can only have values Yes or No

Ref_status varchar(10) CHECK(Ref_status in('Yes','No')),


Prob_status varchar(10) Not Null CHECK(Prob_status in('Yes','No')),

Exception Handling
Ex: ALTER PROCEDURE proc_AssignProblem(@probID varchar(50),@empID_Specialist
varchar(30),@assignNote varchar(225))
AS
BEGIN TRY
DECLARE @speID int,@speName varchar(100)
SELECT @speID=Spe_id FROM Specialist WHERE Emp_id=@empID_Specialist
SELECT

@speName=Emp_name

FROM

Employee

WHERE

Emp_id=@empID_Specialist
INSERT

INTO

Problem_Assign

(@probID,@speID,GETDATE(),@assignNote)
PRINT 'Problem successfully assigned to Specialist '+ @speName
END TRY

42

VALUES

Advance Database Systems - Group Project

GF1131COM / GF1171COM

BEGIN CATCH
RAISERROR ('Error adding the data values.Please check your inputs', 16,1 );
END CATCH

43

Advance Database Systems - Group Project

GF1131COM / GF1171COM

10 Test Plan
Employee Registration
Table 1: Test plan for Employee Registration

Test Case
1

Expected Result

Possibility of inserting Should


numeric

values

Employee

display

Actual Output

message Message

displayed

to Numeric Values Cannot be Numeric Values Cannot


name, Added

be Added

Department name and etc.


2

fields.
Inserting different data to Should

Department name field


Invalid data
Inserting 11 or more Should display
digits

to

the

number
Inserting

designation type
Successfully register

message Message

displayed

Invalid data
message Message

displayed

Phone Invalid Phone Number

employee

display

different Should

display

Invalid Phone Number

message Message

displayed

Invalid input.
Invalid input.
a Should display message Message displayed New
New

Employee

created Employee

created

successfully
successfully
Occurrence of any other Should display message Message displayed Error
error

Error

adding

the

data adding

the

data

values.Please check your values.Please check your


inputs

inputs

44

Advance Database Systems - Group Project

GF1131COM / GF1171COM

Add a Problem
Table 2: Test plan for Add a Problem

Test Case
1

Expected Result

Actual Output

Inserting different data Should display message Message displayed Error


for the Call type field

Error

adding

the

data adding

the

data

values.Please check your values.Please check your


2

Switching

tables

inputs
inputs
by If it is a new call it should Allows the user to add

selecting Call type as allow


3

new.
Switching

tables

adding

details.
by Should

problem new problem details.

allow

searching Allows the user to check

selecting Call type as previous problems


4

follow-up or reference.
Leaving
empty
or Should display message Message displayed Error
inserting different value Error
to problem status field

previous problem details

Inserting

character

priority level field

adding

the

data adding

the

data

values.Please check your values.Please check your


inputs
inputs
to Should display message Message displayed Error
Error

adding

the

data adding

the

data

values.Please check your values.Please check your


6

Successfully
problem

adds

inputs
inputs
a Should display message Message
New

Problem

successfully

45

created New

displayed

Prroblem

successfully

created

Advance Database Systems - Group Project

GF1131COM / GF1171COM

Add a Solution
Table 3: Test Plan for Add a Solution

Test Case
1

Expected Result

Inserting different data Should display message Message displayed Error


for Operator id, Problem Error
id fields.

Actual Output

Inserting

adding

the

data adding

the

data

values.Please check your values.Please check your


inputs
from Should display

values

inputs
message Message displayed Enter

different format to the Enter values in following values in following format


3

Resolve time field.


Successfully
add

format hr:mn:s yy/mm/dd


hr:mn:s yy/mm/dd
a Should display message Message displayed

solution

New

Solution

added New

successfully

Solution

added

successfully

Add a Solution Lookup


Table 4: Test plan for Add a Solution Lookup

Test Case
1

Expected Result

Inserting different data Should display message Message displayed Error


for Problem type fields.
(Type

that

are

Error

adding

the

data adding

the

data

not values.Please check your values.Please check your

available in the Problem inputs


2

Actual Output

inputs

Type table)
Inserting different data Should display message Message displayed Error
for Specialist id fields.
(Type

that

are

Error

adding

the

data adding

the

data

not values.Please check your values.Please check your

available in the Specialist inputs


3

table).
Inserting character value Should

for the float value


Successfully
add

inputs
display

message Message displayed Insert

Insert a float value


a float value
a Should display message Message displayed
46

Advance Database Systems - Group Project

Problem Lookup

New

GF1131COM / GF1171COM

Problem

added successfully

47

Lookup New

Problem

Lookup

added successfully

Advance Database Systems - Group Project

GF1131COM / GF1171COM

11 Conclusion
This project takes consideration of database functionalities of an automated helpdesk
system. The system database and related features of the database has created with use of
Microsoft SQL Server 2005. The proposed database design has addressed all the key
areas which could be able to cause data duplications and efficiency problems.
In-order to maintain the consistency of proposed Help desk database, the Entity
Relationship Diagram (ERD) which creates at the initial stage was normalized. The
normalized table structure ensures the logical relationships are in correct. Therefore the
table structure is mainly developed based on the ER diagram. Considering possibilities
of user inputs, the fields in the table structure of the database are validated with use of
constraints. These constraints will make sure that no invalid data is been entered to any
table.
Optimization of a database is an essential factor when considering of databases. It is
more required when large dataset is available. Therefore in this project optimization
strategies of a database is considered and several strategies are implemented in-order to
increase the efficiency and performance of the query retrieval.
The other main features which are implemented in this project are transactions, triggers,
views and stored procedures. If these features applied according to their necessity, these
features may enhance the performance of the database transactions. In this project
considering all the necessity, the key features are implemented. And finally the proposed
database solution for Help desk system is tested in-order to ensure that all the required
requirements met.

48

Advance Database Systems - Group Project

GF1131COM / GF1171COM

12 Reference

Coronel, C., Morris, S. & Rob, P. (2010). Database systems: design,


implementation, and management. [Online] USA: Cengage Learning, Available
from:http://books.google.lk/books?
id=vX_KShZ95L8C&pg=PA175&dq=what+is+normalization:
+pdf&hl=en&ei=hM6NTrGbD8r4rQeux4ifAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=resul
t&resnum=10&ved=0CF8Q6AEwCQ#v=onepage&q=what%20is
%20normalization%3A%20pdf&f=false [Accessed: 3rd October 2011]

Elmasiri, R. & Navathe, S.B. (2011), Fundamentals of Database Systems,


[Online] India: Dorling Kindersley, Available from:
http://books.google.lk/books?id=uqFjVEBxtgC&pg=PA366&dq=what+is+3NF+normalization&hl=en&ei=BgKOTu
DyA4HwrQeHpNmHAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=10&ved=
0CF8Q6AEwCQ#v=onepage&q=what%20is%203NF%20normalization&f=false

[Accessed: 6th October 2011]


Mysqltutorial.org (2008), Introduction to SQL Triggers [Online]. Available from:
http://www.mysqltutorial.org/sql-triggers.aspx [Accessed: 1st October 2011]

OrionSoftLab. (2009-2011). Which backup mode to use [Online] Available from:


http://www.orionsoftlab.com/backup/incremental%20backup.htm [Accessed: 1st

October 2011]
Stephens, R. (2008). Beginning Database Design Solutions , [Online] USA:
John Wiley and Sons , Available from: http://books.google.lk/books?
id=qGgpYBighBcC&pg=PA137&dq=what+is+normalization&hl=en&ei=HsNTp2bE4qyrAeM5GeAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDQQ6AEwAQ#
v=onepage&q=what%20is%20normalization&f=false [Accessed: 5th October
2011]

49

Advance Database Systems - Group Project

TechTarget.

(2009-2011).

GF1131COM / GF1171COM

Stored

Procedure

[Online]

http://searchoracle.techtarget.com/definition/stored-procedure

Available
[Accessed:

from:
2nd

October 2011]
W3school (2011) Constraints [Online]. Available from:
http://www.w3schools.com/sql/sql_constraints.asp [Accessed: 5th October 2011]

50

Advance Database Systems - Group Project

GF1131COM / GF1171COM

13 Appendix
13.1 Workload Matrix
Task

Prasanga

Nilushi

Eshwaran

33.3%

33.3%

33.3%

33.3%
33.3%

33.3%
33.3%

33.3%
33.3%

40%

30%

30%

35%

30%

35%

30%
33.3%

40%
33.3%

30%
33.3%

30%

40%

30%

33.3%
33.3%
30%
35%
30%
35%
33.3%
33.3%

33.3%
33.3%
30%
35%
30%
35%
33.3%
33.3%

33.3%
33.3%
40%
30%
40%
30%
33.3%
33.3%

Planning and Analysis


Analyze

the

problem

requirements
Identify the main processes
Workload Matrix
Logical Design
Develop ERD
Finalize
Entities,
Relationships and attributes
Normalize the ERD
Finalize the database
Physical Design
Create
Tables
and
Relationships
Constraints
Queries
Triggers
Stored Procedures
Optimization Strategies
Transactions
Testing
Documentation
Signature

51