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CE 243A Behavior & design of RC Elements

Prof. J. W. Wallace

Seismic Code Requirements


John
John W. Wallace,
Wallace, Ph.D.,
Ph.D., P.E
P.E.
Associate
Associate Professor
University
University of California,
California, Los
Los Angeles

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1971
San Fernando,
California Earthquake

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Fall 04

Olive View Hospital Complex

1971 San Fernando Earthquake


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Soft-story

1971 San Fernando Earthquake


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1971 San Fernando Earthquake


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1971 San Fernando Earthquake


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Confinement

Ties @ 18 o.c.

Spiral @ 3 o.c.

1971 San Fernando Earthquake


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Cal State Northridge

1994 Northridge Earthquake


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Cal State Northridge

1994 Northridge Earthquake


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Northridge Fashion Mall

1994 Northridge Earthquake


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10

Barrington Building

1994 Northridge Earthquake


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11

Barrington Building

Holiday Inn Van Nuys

1994 Northridge Earthquake


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12

1994 Northridge Earthquake


Major failures:
Steel moment-resisting frames
Precast concrete parking structures
Tiltup & masonry buildings with wood

roofs
Major successes
retrofitted unreinforced masonry
structures
retrofitted bridge structures
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13

1994 Northridge Earthquake


1997
1997 UBC
UBC & NEHRP
changes:
removal of pre
prequalified
qualified steel
connection
connection details
addition
addition of near
nearfault
fault factor
factor to base
shear
shear equ
equation
prohibition
prohibition on
highly irregular
structures
structures in nearnearfault
fault regions
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stricter detailing for


non-parti
cipat
non-partic
ipating
elements
deformation
compatibility
requirements
chords
chords & collectors
designed
designed for
for real
forces
redundancy
factor added
added to
design forces
14

Summary
Observation
Observation of the
the behavior
behavior of real
real buildings
buildings in
real
real earthquakes
earthquakes have
have been
been the
the single
single largest
influence
influence on the
the development
development of our
our building
codes
The
The lull
lull in earthquakes
earthquakes in populated
populated areas
betw
between
een approximatel
approximately 1940
1940 and
and 1970
1970 gave
gave a
false
false since
since of
of security
security at
at a time
time when
hen the
population
population of California
California was expanding
expanding rapidl
rapidly
Performance of newer buildings
ildings and
and bridges
bridges has
generall
generally been
been good
good in recent earthquakes;
how
however,
ever, older
older buildings
buildings pose
pose a substantial
hazard.
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15

Seismic Codes and Source Documents


SEAOC

NEHRP
ASCE 7

Standard
Build
Building
Code

BOCA National
Build
Building Code

Uniform
Build
Building
Code

Internatio
International
nal Build
Building Code
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16

IBC 2000, 2003


International
International Code
Council
Council (ICC),
established
established in 1994
Seismic
Seismic provisions
ASCE 7-02
Modeling
Forces
Material
Material codes
ACI,
ACI, ASCE
IBC 2003 (ASCE 7-02,
7-02,
ACI 318
318-02)
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17

Material Codes
Internatio
International
nal Build
Building Code

ACI 318-02
ACI 318R-02

MANUAL
OF
STEEL
CONSTRUCTION

LOAD &
RESISTANCE
FACTOR
DESIGN

Building Code Requirements


for Structural Concrete (ACI
318-02) and Commentary (ACI
318R-02)
An ACI
Standard Reported by ACI

Volume I

Committee 318

Structural
Members,
Specifications,
& Codes

aci

american concrete institute


P.O. BOX 9094
FARMINGTON HILLS, MI
48333

AISC

Second Edition

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18

Shake Table Test Flat Plate

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19

Earthquake Building Response


F4 = m4a4(t)
F3 = m3a3(t)
F2 = m2a2(t)
F1 = m1a1(t)
Note: Forces generally
Increase with height

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S
ha
ki
ng

V(t) = miai(t) i=1,4


Time
20

Building Response Analysis


In genera
general, three
three types
pes of
of ana
analyses
ses ar
are
done
done to
to de
design buildings
buildings subjec
subjected
ted to
ear
earthquake
thquakes

Linea
h to
Linearr or nonlinea
inearr approac
pproach
calcu
ses
calculate
late time
time vary
arying respon
responses
(P, M, V, )

Time

Respon
se Sp
Respons
Spectrum
ectrum Analysis
ysis

Sa

S
ha
ki
ng

Respon
se Histo
Respons
Historry Analysis

Sd
Linea
Linearr appr
pproach
ach to calcu
calculate
late moda
odal
respon
ses
s (pea
response
peak valu
alues)
es) and
combine modal
ses
dal respon
responses

Equi
Equivalent Lateral Forc
Force
Nonli
near
d for
onlin
ear ap
appro
proach
ach use
used
for
rehabilitation (e.g., FEM
FEMA 356)
h assu
Linearr approac
pproach
assume
Linea
respon
se is domi
nated
respons
domin
ated by first
mode respon
se (very comm
respons
ommon)

F4
F3
F2

F1
base

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21

Building Response Analysis


Response
Response Histor
History Anal
Analysis
Analy
Analyze stru
structur
cture by app
applying

accel
accelera
eration histo
history at base
of struc
structure
Typically req
requires use of
sev
several record
records
Elasti
Elastic or
or in
inelas
elastic
tic respo
response
Time
Time consu
consuming
ming and
and re
results
sults can
can vary
substanti
substantially bet
between
een records
ecords

Response
Response Spectrum
Spectrum Anal
Analysis
ysis
Sa

Elasti
Elastic re
response

Determine peak
peak respons
esponses for each
mode
mode of
of res
response

Combine
Combine mo
modal
dal re
respons
sponses (SRSS,

S
ha
ki
ng

CQC
CQC
)

Time
T
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22

Acceleration Response Spectrum


Maximum
Acceleration
Aground
Structural Period, T
T = 2 M

M
K

Shaking
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23

Time

Displacement Response Spectrum


Maximum
Displacement

Structural Period, T
T = 2 M

M
K

Shaking
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Time

24

Modal Analysis
Sd,1
Sd,2
Sd,3
T3
T

Tn = 2 n Mn nT Kn

T2

T1

= n S d ,n

max,n
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25

Dynamic Building Response


MDOF System
Model

SDOF

x=4

x=4
Story
Forces

Base Shear

Sd,n

Sd,n

x=2

x=2

x=1

x=1

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26

ADRS Spectrum
Alternative format
for response
response
spectrum

Spectra
Spectral
Accelera
Acceleratio
tion

T = constant

Cap
Capacit
acity Spectrum
approach
approach ATC
ATC 40
Spectrum
Spectrum for
for a given
earthquake
earthquake versus
smooth
smooth spectrum
Spectra
Spectral Displacement
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27

Code Analysis Procedures


UBC
UBC-97 and IBC
IBC-2000
Equivalent
Equivalent static
static anal
analysis
sis approach
Response
Response spectrum
spectrum approach
Response
Response (Time)
(Time) histor
history appro
approach
Other
Other (Peer
(Peer review
review)
FEMA
FEMA 273/356
273/356 & ATC 40
Linear
Linear Static
Static & Dynamic
namic Procedures
Procedures (LSP,
(LSP, LDP)
Nonlinear
Nonlinear Static
Static Anal
Analysis (NSP) pushov
pushover
Nonlinear
Nonlinear Dyn
Dynamic
amic Procedure
Procedure (NDP)

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28

1997 UBC Design Response Spectrum


2.5CA

Control Periods
TS = CV/2.5CA

V/
W
(A
c
c
el CA
e
ra
ti

T0 = 0.2TS

CV/T

Long-Period Limits

T0

TS

Period (Seconds)

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29

UBC-97: Response Spectrum Analysis

Vbase =

Cv I

Eq. (30 - 4)

W
RT
2.5Ca I
R
W

Eq. (30 - 5)

Vbase 0.11Ca
IW

Eq. (30 - 6)

Vbase

Ca = Seismic Coefficient (Acceleration)


Cv = Seismic Coefficient (Velocity)

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30

Modal Analysis
Eigen
Eigen Anal
Analysis
Requires
Requires mass
mass (M)
(M) and
and stiffne
stiffness (K)
(K) matrices
M is often
often assum
assumed to be diagonal
K (e.g.,
(e.g., from
from direct
direct stiffness
stiffness assembl
assembly)
Frequencies
Frequencies (, T=2/) and
and mode
mode shapes
shapes ()
Mode
Mode shapes
shapes are
are columns
columns of
matrix (orthogonal
(orthogonal property
property)
Modal
Modal Anal
Analysis
sis solve
solve uncoupled
uncoupled equations
[M ]{v } + [C]{v } + [K ]{v} = {
p}(t);
T

M n = [] [M ][] = {m } [M ]
{n }

{v} = []{y}

m=n

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M n y n + Cn y n + K n yn = n
solve for yn
p(t)
Combine modal responses (e.g., SRSS, CQC)

31

UBC-97 Approach: Response Spectrum


MDOF System Model

Story
Forces

Equivalent SDOF
x=4
x=4
Sd,n

Sd,n

x=2

x=2

x=1

x=1

Base Shear
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32

UBC-97 Approach: Response Spectrum


st
Peak
, m
, odal responses 1 Mode
F1 = M 1Sa,1
{

1,4 }1

x=

11

21

31

41

}T

d,
1

M
T1 = 2

x=4
F =M S
1

1 a,1

K1

x=3

Sd,1

x=2
x=1

Vbase,
1

a,1

=
M 1S
2

T = C (h )

K1

3/

Sd ,1 = 1 Sa,1

A
cc
el
er
ati
o
n,

)
n
o
ti
a
r
e
l
c
c
e
(
A
W

Period (sec)

T0 T1
TSPe

Vbase,1

riod (Se conds)

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33

UBC-97 Approach: Response Spectrum


Peak modal responses 2nd to nth Mode
{ x=1,4 }2 = {12 ,22 ,32 ,42 }
T

T = {T ,T ,T ,T

F2 = M 2 S a,2

Sd ,2

x=4
F2=M2Sa,2

K2

x=3

Sd,2
x=2
x=1

T i = 2

Mi
Ki

Vbase,2 = M 2 Sa,2
2

S d ,2 = Sa,2 (T2 / 4 )

Vbase,2
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A
cc
el
er
ati
oT T
2 0
n,

)
n
o
ti
a
r
e
l
c
c
e
(
A
W

(Se conds)(sec)
TSPeriodPeriod

34

UBC-97 Approach: Response Spectrum


Modal Combinations
Peak
Peak modal
modal responses
responses do not
not occur
occur at the
the same
time, that
that is,
is, the
the peak
peak roof
roof displacement for mode
one occurs at t1 , whereas
ereas the
the peak
peak displacem
displacement
for
for mode
mode two occurs
occurs at t2, and
and so on.
on. Therefore,
peak
k
modal
l
responses
s
must
t
b
e
combined
pea moda response mus
combined based
on the
the correlation
correlation betw
between
een modes.
Modal
Modal Combination
Combination Approaches
SRSS:
summ-squa
squarres,
SRSS: Square
Square-rootroot-su
es, works
orks well
for
for system
stems with
ith wellell-separat
separated modes
modes (2D
models)
CQC: Complete
Complete-QuadraticQuadratic-Combination
Combination (3D)
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35

UBC-97 Approach: Response Spectrum


Mass Participation
The
The (force)
(force) participation
participation of each
each mode
mode can
can be
gauged
gauged by the
the mass
mass participation
participation factor.

PF
m,n

= { } [M ]{r = 1}
n

{ }T [M ]{ }
n

Typical
pical mass
mass participation
participation factors:
factors: PFm
st
Frame
Frame buildings:
buildings: 1 Mode
Mode 80 to 85%
Shear
Shear wall buildings:
buildings: 1st Mode
Mode 60 to 70%
To achieve
achieve 100
100% mass
ass participation,
participation, all
all modes
must
must be included
included in the
the modal
modal anal
analysis
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36

UBC-97 Approach: Response Spectrum


Specific Requirements
1631.5.2 - For
For regula
regular buildings,
buildings, include
include sufficient
modes
modes to capture
capture 90%
90% of participating
participating mass.
mass. In
general, this is relati
vely few modes
relatively
1631.5.3 - Modal
Modal combinations
combinations Use
Use appropriate
methods
methods (SRSS,
(SRSS, CQC).
CQC). For
For 3D models
models with
closel
closely spaced
aced modes
modes need
need CQC.
1630.5.4 R factors
s
and
d
limits
factor an limits on reducing
reducing base
shear
shear where response
response spect
spectrum anal
analysis is used
1630.5.5 Directional effects: consider
seismic forces
forces in any horizontal
horizontal direction
direction
(1630.1)
1630.5.6 Account
Account for
for torsion

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37

UBC-97 Approach: Response Spectrum


Dead & Live
Loads

Combine response
esponse
spec
spectrum analy
alysis
resul
results with ana
analysis
resu
results
lts for grav
gravity force
forces

Load
Load combi
combinations
ations (161
(1612)
Same
Same as
as ne
new ACI
ACI load
combinations

Dri
Drift limi
limits (1630.1
630.10)
hs = Sto
Story height
s = Displ
spl. for

code level forces

m = 0.7R s
T < 0.7 sec : m <
0.025hs T 0.7 sec : m
< 0.025hs
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38

1997 UBC Equivalent Static


2.5CA

Control Periods
TS = CV/2.5CA

V/
W
(A
c
c
el CA
e
ra
ti

T0 = 0.2TS

CV/T

Long-Period Limits

T0

T1

TS

Period (Seconds)

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39

UBC-97 Base Shear Equations


Equivalent Static Analysis
Eq. (30 - 4)
C I
Vbase = v
W
RT

2.5Ca I

R
W

Eq. (30 - 5)

Vbase 0.11Ca
IW

Eq. (30 - 6)

Vbase

Ca = Seismic Coefficient (Acceleration)


Cv = Seismic Coefficient (Velocity)

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40

UBC-97 Approach: Equivalent Static

Cv =
0.40N v
Ca =
0.40N a

For Z = 0.4,
SB For Z =

R) (Table16 -

0.4, SB

Q)

(Table16 -

Z = Seismic Zone Factor (0.075 to 0.4)


S = Soil Profile Type
Nv = Near Source Coefficient (velocity)
Seismic Source A (M > 7.0, SR > 5
mm/yr) Distance = 5 km -+ Nv = 1.6
(Table 16-T)
Na = Near Source Coefficient (acceleration)
Seismic Source A (M > 7.0, SR > 5
mm/yr) Distance = 5 km -+ Na = 1.2
(Table 16-S)
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41

UBC-97 Equivalent Static Analysis


Vbase =
I =
W=
R =
T =

Cv I

Eq. (30 - 4)

W
RT

Importance Factor (1.0 to 1.25; Table 16-K)


Building Seismic Dead Load
Force Reduction Coefficient (Table 16-N)
Fundamental Structural Period

T = Ct (h ) 3 / = 0.02(48 ft)3 / = 0.37 sec


4
n

Ct = Coefficient (e.g., 0.02 for rc walls)


hn = Building height (feet)
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42

Equivalent Static Lateral Forces


Dead & Live
Loads

Ft

F4

F =
hx x

F3
F2

(Vbase Ft )wx
n

wi hi

i=1

Ft = 0.07TV T > 0.7 sec


T < 0.7 sec
Ft = 0.0

F1

Vbase
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43

Lateral Force Resisting System


LFRS

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Gravity System

44

Details of a
building in
Emeryville
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45

Non-Participating System
Also
Also referred
referred to
to as:
as: Gravit
Gravity System
Flat plate floor systems (Gravity loads)
Efficient
Efficient and
and economical
Eas
Easy to form, low story heights
Strong
Strong column
column weak
eak beam
beam concept

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46

Perimeter LFRS and Interior GFRS

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47

UBC-97: LFRS Design


Equivalent Static or Response Spectrum
12 ft

LFRS
Model

12 ft

100 ft
12 ft
12 ft

50 ft
Floor Plan

Note: Neglecting torsion


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Elevation View LFRS


48

UBC-97 Equivalent Static Analysis


Vbase

=
W

Cv I

0.4(1.6)(1.0)
3/4

RT

= Ct hn )

R(T
W4 = (100' x 50')(100 psf) = 500 kips
W3 = (100' x 50')(100 psf) = 500 kips
W2 = (100' x 50')(100 psf) = 500 kips
W1 = (100' x 50')(100 psf) = 500 kips
W = 500 kips (4 floors) = 2000 kips
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49

UBC-97 Equivalent Static Analysis


V
=

Cv I

(W = 2000 kips)

0.4(1.6)
(1.0)
3/4

base

R( = C h
T

RT

t n

R = Force Reduction Coefficient (Table 16-N)


Accounts for nonlinear response of building
(Building strength, ductility, damping)
R = 1 is associated with elastic response

Typical Values:
R = 8.5 for a rc special moment frame
R = 5.5 for a rc wall building
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50

UBC-97 Equivalent Static Analysis


Vbase = Cv I = 0.4(1.6)
(1.0)
W
W
RT
R(0.63)
0.64
1.73 g
=
=
=
Vbase
R
1.73
R
W
M
R(0.37)
W
Vbase

2.5Ca I
R
W

2.5(0.4)
(1.2)
W
R

1.2 g
R
M

Vbase = 1.2(2000) / R = 1 = 2400 (elastic)


kips
Vbase = 2400 /(R = 5.5) = 435
(design)
kips
R > 1.0 requires inelastic response
Structure must be specially detailed to
control inelastic behavior
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51

1997 UBC Seismic Criteria


(Seismic Zone 4, Soil Type SB, Na =Nv =1)
1.5
Response Spectrum
Design Spectrum (CN)
Design Force - R/I =
4.5 Design Force - R/I
= 8.5

1.25
V/
1
W
(A 0.75
c
c
0.5
el
er
0.25
at
io
0
0

0.25

0.5

0.75

1.25

1.5

1.75

Period (Seconds)
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52

Confinement

Ties @ 18 o.c.

Spiral @ 3 o.c.

1971 San Fernando Earthquake


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53

UBC-97 Equivalent Static Analysis


F4

Fx =

F3
F2
F1

(Vbase Ft )wx hx
n

i=1 wi hi
Ft =
0.07TV
Ft
= 0.0

T > 0.7 sec


T < 0.7 sec

Base Shear Vbase = 435 kips


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54

UBC-97 Equivalent Static Analysis


n

F4

wi hi

i=1

= (500 kips)(12'+24'+36'+48')
= 60,000 kip - ft

F3

(435 0)(500 )(48' )


k
= 0.4V = 174
Fx=4 =
ft k
60,000
k
(435 0)(500 )(36' )
k
= 0.3V =
Fx=3 =
131
ft k
60,000

F2
F1

Fx=2
Fx=
14

Base Shear
Vbase = 435 kips

(435 0)(500 )(24' )

= 0.2V =

ft k
60,000 87
k
(435 0)(500 )(12' )
k
=
= 0.1V = 43
ft k
60,000

Fx

x=1

= 174 +131+ 87 + 43 = 435 kips

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55

UBC-97 Equivalent Static Analysis


Dead & Live Loads

F4
F3
F2
F1

Base Shear =
Eh
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Load
Load Combinations
UBC
UBC-97 - S16.12.2.1
U = 1.2D
1.2D + 0.5L
0.5L + 1.0E
U = 0.9D
0.9D +/+/- 1.0E
Where: E = Eh+
Ev Ev=0.5C
=0.5CaID =
0.24D
U = 0.9D
0.9D +/+/- 1.0(
1.0(Eh+ Ev)
U = (0.9+/0.24)D +/- Eh
.9+/-0.24)D
= redundancy
redundancy fact
factor 1.0
Conduct static
analysis e.g., use
SAP2000
56

UBC-97 Equivalent Static Analysis


Dead & Live Loads
F4
F3
F2
F1

Vbase

Load
Load Combinations
UBC
UBC-97 - S16.12.2.1
U = 1.2D
1.2D + 0.5L
0.5L + 1.0E
U = 0.9D
0.9D +/+/- 1.0E
Where: E = Eh+
Ev Ev=0.5C
=0.5CaID =
0.24D
U = 0.9D
0.9D +/+/- 1.0(
1.0(Eh+ Ev)
U = (0.9+/0.24)D +/- Eh
.9+/-0.24)D
= redundancy
redundancy fact
factor 1.0
Conduct static
analysis e.g., use
SAP2000

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57

UBC-97: Drift & Drift Limits


1630.9 Drift for all
analysis is defined

Defines drift for

Code level
Design forces: Story Displ.: s
(e.g., R=8.5)
s,x=4

Maximum Inelastic
Response Displacement
(M ) and for Design
Seismic Forces (S ): M
= 0.7RS

1630.10 Drift limits defined


Drift < 0.025 times
story height if T < 0.7
sec

Drift < 0.02 times


story height if T 0.7

Elevation View

s,x=3

s,x=2
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s,x=1
58

UBC-97 Requirements
1633
1633 Det
Detailed
ailed systems
stems design
design requirements
1633.1
1633.1 General:
Onl
Only the
the elements
elements of the
the designated
designated LFRS
shall
shall be used
used to resist
resist design
design forces
Consider
Consider both
both seismic
seismic and
and gravit
gravity (D,
(D, L, S)
For some structures (irregular)
(irregular),, must
must consider
orthogona
a
l
effects:
:
100
0
%
o
f
seismic
orthogon effects 10
seismic forces
forces in
one
one direction,
direction, 30% in the
the perpendicular
direction

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59

UBC-97 Requirements
16333.2 Structural Framing Systems
1633.2.1 General:
Defined
Defined by the
the types
pes of vertical
vertical elements
elements used
1633.2.2 For
For structures
structures with
ith multiple systems,
must
must use
use requirements
requirements for
for more
more restrictive
system
1633.2.3 Connections
Connections if resisting
resisting seismic
forces,
forces, then
then must
must be on draw
drawings
1633.2.4 Deformation
Deformation compatib
compatibilit
ility

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LFRS and Deformation Compatibility


LFRS

Gravity System

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LFRS and Deformation Compatibility


Code level
Design forces:
(e.g., R=8.5)

s,x=4
Story Displ.: s
s,x=4
s,x=3
s,x=2
s,x=1

Elevation View
CE243A

diaphragm

Plan View: Roof


Rigid diaphragm
Flexible diaphragm
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UBC-97 Requirements
1633.2.4 Deformation
Deformation compatib
compatibilit
ility
Requires
Requires that
that non
non-participating
participating structural
elements
elements be designed
designed to ensure
ensure compatibilit
compatibility
of deformations
deformations with
ith lateral
lateral force
force resisting
system
NonNon-participating
participating elements must be capable of
maintaining
maintaining support
support for
for gravity loads at
deformations
deformations expected
expected due
due to seismic
seismic forces
Design
n
o
f
LFRS:
Desig
Model LFRS and appl
pply desig
design seismic force
forces
Neglec
Neglect lateral stiffne
stiffness and stre
trength of nonpartici
g elements
participatin
pating

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UBC-97 Requirements
1633.
1633.2.4 Defor
Deformation
compatibili
compatibility

Code level
Design forces:
(e.g., R=8.5)

Story Displ.: s

For LFRS
M = 0.7RS

s,x=3

for
lateral frame at each
story

s,x=4

s,x=2

That is, com


compute
stor
story displacements
for design seismic
for
forces applied to the
LFRS, then multiple
by them by 0.7R

s,x=1

Elevation View
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UBC-97 Requirements
1633.2.4 Deformation compatibility
Non-participating frame
Model the system (linear - element stiffness)
Shear and flexural stiffness limited to gross
section values

Must consider flexibility of diaphragm and


foundation

Impose story displacements on the model of nonparticipating frame

The imposed displacements produce element


forces, consider these to be ultimate

check stability (support for gravity loads)


Detailing requirements: 21.11 in ACI 318-02
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UBC-97 Requirements
Other items of interest
Collectors (1633.2.6)
Must provide collectors to transfer seismic
forces originating in other portions of the
structure to the element providing the
resistance to these forces

Diaphragms (1633.2.9)
Deflection of diaphragm limited by the
permissible deflection of the attached elements

Design forces specified in (33-1)

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Reinforced Concrete: ACI 318-02


Chapter 21 Seismic Provisions
Provide
Provide transverse
transverse steel
- Confinement,
Confinement, buckling
- Maintain gravity loads
StrongStrong-column,
column, weakeak-beam
- Beam flexural yielding
Cap
Capacit
acity design
- Beam
Beam & column
column shear
- Joint
Joint regions
Prescriptive
Prescriptive requirements
- Little
ttle flexibili
exibility
- Quick,
Quick, easy,
easy, and
and usually
conser
conservative
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