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6,anactarr

AvionicVElectricalMaintenanceTraining Manual

AUTOFLIGHT
1. GENERAL
The automaticflight control system (AFCS)
supplies the tweaxis autopilot, the flight
directors,and attitudecorrection.
Also included in this chapter is the integrated
avionics processorsystem(IAPS). The IAPS
operatesas a data concentratorfor the avionics
systems,and suppliesthe housingfor the flight
controlcomputers(FCC).TheFCCsarethe two
primary componentsof the AFCS.

FCCs(theprimarycomponents
of
theAFCS)(2)
Maintenancediagnosticcomputer
(MDC) (1).

2. DESCRIPTION
A. Automatic Flight Control System
The AFCS supplies two primary modes
of operation:
Automatic control of the aircraft control
surfaces(autopilot)
Flight guidancecommandswhich the
flight crew usesto control the aircraft
(flight director).
B. Speedand Attitude Correction
TheAFCS suppliesspeedandattitudecorrection
through the Mach trim function and the yaw
dampingsystem.
C. Integrated Avionics ProcessorSystem
The IAPS operatesasa dataconcentratorfor the
avionicssystems.Itis a cardcagewhichholdsthe
line replaceable
units(LRU) that follow:
Powersupplies(4)
(IOC) (a)
Input/outputconcenfrators
Configurationstrappingunits (CSU) (2)

TRAINING REFERENCE ONLY

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Page32
Feb l3l95

canada,r
AvionicVElectrical
Maintenance
TraininsManual

AUTOMATIC FLIGTIT CONTROL SYSTEM


1. GBNERAL
The AFCS is an integrated autopilot/flight
director.The AFCS supplie,sdual independent
yaw dampers,dual indepenclent
flight directors,
a tweaxis auto-pilot, andautomaticpitch trim.

2. COMPONENT DETAILS
Referto Figure9.
FCC 1

A. Flight Control Computer

POWEFSUPPLY14

TheFCCis theprimarycoml)onentof theAFCS.


It suppliesthe flight director,the yaw damper,
and autopilot functions.There are two FCCs
installedin the IAPS card cage.The IAPS is
installedon the left side o1'the main avionics
The FCC I cardis installedin the
comparfinent.
guadrant1A.FCC
left sideof theIAPScardcag,3,
2 is installedin the right sidt:,quadrant2A.
The IAPS hasa front coverlvhich attachesto the
cardcagewith turnlockfast:ners.The FCC is a
module which moves into the card cage,and
atthetopandthe
locksintopositionwithtwotnbs
bottom.The FCC hasan elt:ctricalconnectorat
the rearwhich mateswith a c'onnectorin thecard
cage.
EachFCC operatesfrom re1;ulatedDC voltages
supplied by an IAPS porver supply that is
installedin the samequadrantas the FCC that it
supplies. The power supplies operate
of eachother.If powersupply1A
independently
fails, FCC I doesnot opera.e,but FCC 2 is not
affected.The DC voltagesirrclude:
+5 volts DC
+12voltsDC
-12 voltsDC
+28voltsDC.

TRAINING REFERENCE ONLY

POWERSUPPLY
24
e

roc 2A

@
c

NOTE:
The IAPSis shownwith
the frontcoverremoved.
Theviewis rotated180degrees.

8,
o

a
a

TAPSAND FCC- LOCATION/RECOGNITION


FIGIJRE9

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Feb13/95

c,anactatr
AvionicVElectrical MaintenanceTrainins Manual

B. FCC Interfaces
Refer to Figure 10, Figure 11, Figure 12,
Figure13,andFigure14.
The FCCs interfacewith other systemsthrough
the input/output concentator (IOC) modules
locatedin theIAPS.TherearefourlOCs, twoper
side,oneperquadrant.
ThenvoIOCson thesame
sideareredundant.Thus,a failureof onehasno
effect on FCC operations.

TRAIhIING REFERENCE ONLY

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Page34
Feb l3l95

TraininsManual
Avionics/Electrical
Maintenance

COPILOT

,-_-l]_19:l_-.

FCP-4002
FUGHT
CONTROL
PANEL

! DCP4mo(B) :
CoNTROL
i DrsPLAY
i
PANEL
!
t----;J;;;---J

tr-----------t

----r------rri

!
i
!

ARP4mo(B) :
AIRDATAREF i
PANEL
:

ARP4mo (B)

PANEL

niConini-eir !

a------------d

t---------+

I--------+

PwR4mo :
POWER

l--sgnl-v--.;
r

AHCs

FCC-4000
FUGHT
CONTROL
COMPUTER

FCG4000
FUGHT
CONTROL
COMPUTER

POWER

suppr-v :

AHCs

! nronrnins!

t------rr+

---------+

r---------J

: DCU4mo(R):
I DATACONCENI

i Dcu4mo(L)i

I DATACONCENT

! rnnronurur!

! rnnronururl
------------l

r--

PwR-4oooi

! rsrrlrrns I

r---------J

(A1)
roc-4ooo

l--------------l

roc4ooo(A2)

: l/o CoNoENTRATOR
l

: uo CoNCENTMTORi

t-------r

a---rr-r-r---r-r

lOG4ooo(B1)
I
I/O
CONCENTRATOR
:
.------------t

(Ba !
roc-4ooo
i
i
!- - -r/o
- -coNcEMrRAToR
----

ELEVATOR
PFCS

l.----'1

AIRCRAFT
P]TCHTRIM
SYSTEM

!serusons!
l---f
--I

I seruson{
L--T---l

.---l---,
!ensl

EFrs !

L-----J

L-----J

svL-4000
UNEARSEFN/O

svL-4000
UNEAFSEFVO

TEGEND

r-l B$'*
r-r

i--r

s
N

EoU|PMENT

at

CANADAIR
EOUIPMENT

r___ oTHER

q.
o

i couttls
EOU|PMENT

Y
ot
ol

5
E

AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM- INTERFACE OVERVIEW


FIGURE 10

TRAINING REFERENCE ONLY

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Page35
Feb 13/95

E,anacta,r
AvionicVElectricalMaintenanceTrainins Manual

PILOT

COPILOT

(B)
DCP-4ooo
DISPI.AY
CONTROL
PANEL

(B)
DCP-4ooo
DISPISYCONTROL
PANEL

ARP-/|()m(B)
AIR DATAREF
PANEL

l-l

I
I

PlrvR4ooo I
PowER I

I-W-J

(B)
ARP-4ooo
AIR DATAREF
PANEL

FCC.4000
FLIGHTCONTROL
COMPUTER

I PwB4ooo I
I POWER I

FCC-4000
FUGHT CONTROL
COMPUTEH

l-esru-l

l;;ilI
LEFTAHRS

l-^"Fl
Rrcr{rAHRS

I
FTUODER
SUFIFACE
POS

RUDDER SUBFACE POS

AIIFICNSUBFrcE PO

ALEFPN SUFFACE POS

EIEI/ATOBSURFACEPOS

EI.EVATOR SURFACE POS

loc4ooo (A1)
I/OCONCENTRATOR

loc4ooo (A2)
I/OCONCENTBATOR

(B1)
roc-4ooo

loO.4ooo(82)
I/OCONCENTRATOR

hO CONCENTRATOR
AII.EF}CN SFtr/O MOTOB B

ALErcN SEBVPTACH

AIIBON SEFIVO TACH S

ALERON SERVO EBBOR


AIIEFI3N SEFIVO EBF}38
AILEFPN SER!r'O MOTOR VOL
AII.EBON SEFIVO MOTOR VOLTS

EI..EVATOB
SEFIVO
E-Fr'ATOBSEB\,PTACH

EI.EVATOF SEB\O MOTOB B


EIVATOBSERTO

TACH B

ELF/ATOBSEBVO

ERrcB

SIGML DATATYPE KFT


ANALOG
SIGNAL

ELB/ATOB SEFI\O MOTOB VOL

TB|M I

TBIM RA]E
6
o

YD

YD

POSITION

DRIVE

svL-4000
LINEARSERVO

YD
YD
POSITTON DRTVE

svL-4000
LINEARSEHVO

st
Y
d
ot
x
x
6
N

AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM - ANALOG INTEREACE


FIGURE 11

TRAIMNG REFERENCE ONLY

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Page36
Feb13/95

canacta'r
AvionicVElectricalMaintenance
TrainingManual

COPILOT

PILOT

(B)
DCP-4o00
DISPLAYCONTFIOL
PANEL

DCP-4O00(A)
DISPI-AYCONTFIOL
PANEL

(B)
ARP-4ooo
AIRDATAHEF
PANEL

ARP-/tooo(A)
AIRDATAREF
PANEL

FCG4000
FLIGHTCONTROL
COMPUTER

FCG4000
FLIGHTCONTROL
COMPUTER
-l

I
I

Pl/R4o0O I
PowER I

l---wE!r-l

l;;-l
uerenns
I

FCPTO FCC
SEBIALBI,JS
FCCTO FCP
SERIALBI,JS

FCP TO FCC
SEBIAL BI.JS
FCCTO FCP
SERIALBIJS

AHCTO F@
SERIALBUS

AHCTO FCC
SERIALBUS

I rnnronururI

loc-4ooo(81)
l/O CONCENTRATOR

PWR4ooo I
POWER I

l-sry-l

fFl

I nrarnnnns
I
I Dcu4ooo(n I
IDATACONCEN{

(L) |
I Dcuntooo
IDATACONCEN-I
loc-4ooo(A1)
l/OCONCENTRATOR

I
I

t@lu
rocToFcc

locTo F@
SEFIIAL
BUS
FCCTOrOC
SERIALBUS
locTo Fcc
SERIALBUS

roc4ooo(A2)

SEFIIALBUS
FCCTOtOC
SEBIALBUS

I/O CONCENTRATOR

tocTo Fcc

toc4ooo (82)
I/OCONCENTMTOR

SEBIAL BUS

X-CI-IiANNEL
BUS
X.CFANNEL
BUS

X.CHANNELBUS
X.CHANNELBUS

//"G\\

qv

SIGML DATAWPE KEY


SEBIALBt'S

/.a.\

q.
o

lnncnnrr I
I PrrcHTB|M
I

a
li
Y

lsJ

I ATRCRAFT
I
SVL*4O0O
LINEARSERVO

l-'iT,H"'l

Ix r
x
5

SVL-/IOOO
LINEARSEFIVO

N
N

AUTOMANC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM- SERIAL BUS INTERFACE DIAGRAM


FIGIJRE12

TRAINING REFERENCE ONLY

22-00-00

Page37
Febl3l95

6,anacta'r
Avionics/ElectricalMaintenanceTrainine Manual

COPILOT

PILOT

FCP-40@
FLIGHT
CONTROL
PANEL

DCP-4ooo(A)
DISPI-AYCONTROL
PANEL
(A)
ARP-4Ooo
AIB DATAREF
PANEL

t--

A/CPOWERBUSI --

[+-

DCP-/tooo(B)
DISPI-AYCONTROL
PANEL
ARP4ooo(B)
AIB DATAREF
PANEL

DIMCTRLA
DIM CTRL B
+/-28VDCA
+/-28VDC B
+/-SVDCA
+/-5\/DC B

FCC-4000
FLIGHTCONTROL
COMPUTER

FCC'4mo
FLIGHTCONTROL
COMPUTER

DC VOLTAGES
POWER&SIGGND

DCVOLTAGES
POWER& SIG GND

+A V SEFIVOBIAS

+28 V SERVOBIAS

SVO PVt/Fl+28V A
SVO fftR+28V B
SVO P1A'R
GND

SVO PV1/R
+28VA
SVO PVtR +28V B
SVO PWFIGND

----l
----1
I

PwR-4oooI
PowER I
SUPPLY

\
--

-+l

| ATRCRAFTBIJS

tcl

^."* I
| RrGFnAHRs

I DCU4mo(UI
IDATAcoNcEN-l
I TRAToRUNITI

(D I
I Dcu4ooo

LEFTAHRS
I
I

IDATACONCEN{
I TRATORUNITI

(41)
IOC-/tooo
UOCONCENTMTOR

loHooo(A2)
I/OCONCENTMTOR

toc4ooo (82)
I/OCONCENTMTOR

roc-4000(B1)
CONCENTRATOR

SIGMLDATATYPE
KEY
POWER
N

e
o
e
ut
Y
oo,

svL4000
LINEARSEFVO

--J

E
o

r--

AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM - POWERINTERFACE DIAGRAM


FIGIJRE13

TRAINING REFERENCE ONLY

22-00-00

Page38
Feb 13/95

EanaE arr
AvionicVElectricalMaintenance
TrainineManual

FCP40@
FLIGHT
CONTROL
PANEL

PILOT
DCP4ooo(A)
DISPTAY
CONTBOL
PANEL

HDGA

COPILOT
DCPnlooo (B)
DISPTAYCONTBOL
PANEL

HDGB

ALT SEL A
ALT SEL B
SPEEDA

(B)
ARP-4ooo
AIRDATABEF
PANEL

SPEED
IAS/MACH
FCC{000
FUGHTCONTROL
COMPUTER

FCC-4000
FUGHT CONTROL
COMPUTEB

AP MONITOR
AP ENG LB/ER

AP MONITOB
AP ENG LE1/ER

II n^/Fffi]
POWER lI

suppr-v I

POWEBVAUD

CLUTCH
t
AILERON
CLUTCH
:

POWERVALID

SUPPLY I

^r"* I
I RGFrAHRS

-r"* |
I LEFTAHRS
I

I PWR*.*_-|
I PowER I

I
I
(R)|
I DCU-4ooo

(L) |
I DCU-4ooo
IDATACONCEN-I

IDATACONCEN{

IJWESNIU

LIEAIgUIU

roc4ooo(41)

toc-4ooo(A2)

YOCONCENTRATOB

l/O CONCETJTMTOR

(Bl)
roc-4ooo

roc-4om(Ba

I/lCCONCENTMTOR

TRIM FAIL
TRIMGNDDOWN
TRIMARM UP

-.-+l
- rt ntncnerr
ltncnarr p-I

I/O CONCENTMTOR

TFIIMFAIL
TRIMGND DOWN
TRIMARM UP

---{''J95'l-fl"1-

YD MONITOR - -{fFdmFrla - YD ENGAGE


IYD ENGAGEI
P A N E LF - - r
YD ENGAGE F - - l

YD MONITOR
YD ENGAGE
OTHEBYD ENGAG

9)
o-

srerunlonrnwpe rEv f;
si
DISCRETE ;
i
LOGIC

i'
I

svL-4000
UNEARSEFIVO

N
E

AUTOMATC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM_ DISCRETEINTERFACE DIAGRAM


FIGURE 14

TRAINING REFERENCE ONLY

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Page39
Feb l3l95

Avionics/ElectricalMaintenanceTrainine Manual

C. Integrated AvionicsProcessorSystem
Referto Figure15.
The IAPS is a setof avionicsmoduleswhich are
all installedin the samephysicalhousing.These
avionicsmodulessupplyfour primaryfunctions
asfollows:
Data concentrationand distribution
(input/output)
Flight control
Flight management
Maintenance
diagnostics.
The IAPS includesthe modulesthatfollow:
Cardcage(l)
IoCs (4)
Powersupplies(4)
CSUs(2)
FMCs (2)
FCCs(2)
MDC (1).

TRAINING REFERENCE ONLY

22-00-00

Page4O
Feb l3195

c,anactarr'
TrainingManual
Maintenance
Avionics/Electrical

STRAPPING
CENTRALIZED
UNIT
CARDCAGE
INPUT/OUTPUT
1B
CONCENTRATOR
ENVIRONMENTAL
1
CONTROLLER
POWERSUPPLY1B
FLIGHTCONTROL
ooMPUTER(FCC1

FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
COMPUTER

POWERSUPPLY1A
MAINTENANCE
DIAGNOSTIC
COMPUTER

LIGHTNING/HIRF
MODULE(L)
PROTECTTON

28
POWERSUPPLY

INPUT/OUTPUT
1A
CONCENTRATOR

FLIGHT
EMENT
COMPUTER

LIGHTN!NG/HIRF
(R)
MODULE
PROTECTTON

o
IRONMENTAL
o
2 t
CONTROLLER

INPUT/OUTPUT
2A
CONCENTRATOR

q
\ INPUT/OUTPUT
28;
CONCENTRATOR

24
POWERSUPPLY
NOTE
Viewrotated18d

@t

FLIGHTCONTROL
ooMPUTER(FCC)2

o
o
N

CENTRALIZED
STRAPPTNG
UN|T E

SYSTEM_ LOCATION/RECOGNMON
INTEGRAIED AVIONICSPROCESSOR
FIGURE 15

TRAINING REFERENCE ONLY

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Page4l
Feb 13/95

g,anacta'r
TrainingManual
AvionicVElectricalMaintenance

D. Ftight Control Panel


Refer to Figure 16.
The Flight Control Panel(FCP) is usedto control
the autopilot and/or flight director functions. It is
also used to rnodify some indications shown on
the electronic flight instruments. The FCP is
installed in the glareshieldwhere it is accessible
to both pilots. The panel is secured with four
turnlock fasteners and has two rear electrical
connectorswhich supply the electrical interface
with the other AFCS components.
The FCP has the following controls:
Lateral and vertical mode selection
switches
Vertical speed(VS/pitch wheel
Autopilot switches
Flight director switches
Coursecontrol knob
Speed control knob
Altitude conffol knob
Heading contol knob.

TRAIMNG REFERENCE ONLY

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Page42
Feb l3195

Eanacta,r
TrainineManual
AvionicVElectricalMaintenance

&

t.,utr coNrRoLPANEL

@@ E[E*
@

vewDAMPERPANEL

a
o
o
g,
Y
F:
o
ot
o
E

AFCS CONTROL PANELS_ LOCATION/RECOGNTNON


FIGURE 16

TRAIMNG REFERENCE ONLY

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Page43
Feb 13/95

canad,arr
TrainingManual
AvionicVElectrical
Maintenance

FCPcontol knobshavepushbuttonswitchesin the center.Their functionsareasfollows:


FUNCTION

swITcH, C0NTROLKNOB
CRS(1 and2) (outerknob)

Changesthe selectedcoursereferencevalue(CRS I changesthe pilot's side


coursereference,andCRS2 changesthe copilot'ssidecoursereference).

PUSH/DIRECT(innerknob)

Usedto makea directcourseselection.

FD switch

Usedto removethe flight director guidancecommandsfrom the PFD on


the uncoupledside.

APENG switch

Engagesand disengagesthe autopilot.

AP DISC bar

Disengages
theautopilot.

XFR swirch

Switches flight guidancecommandsfrom left to right side and vice versa.

TURB switch

Selectsand deselectsturbulence mode.

SPEEDswitch
SPEED(outerknob)

Selectsand deselectsthe IAS or the Mach mode selection.


Used to changethe selectedspeedreferencevalue.

IAS/MACH (innerknob)

Toggles between IAS and Mach mode.

APPRswitch

Selectsand deselectsapproachmode.

HDG switch
HDG (outerknob)

Selectsand deselectsheading mode.

PUSHSYNC (innerknob)

The heading markers on the PFDs and MFDs are synchronized to the
current aircraft heading.

NAV switch

Selectsand deselectsnavisation mode.

1/2BANK switch

Selectsand deselectshalf bank mode.

B/C switch

Selectsanddeselects
backcoursemode.

ALT switch
AIJT (outerknob)

Selects and deselectsaltitude hold mode.

Used to changethe selectedheading referencevalue.

Used to change the preselected altitude reference value.

PUSIVCANCEL(innerknob) Used to cancel the altitude alerts.


VS switch

Selects and deselectsvertical speedmode.

VS/pitchwheel

In VS mode,it is usedto changethe vertical speedreferencevalue while


the VS switch is pushed.
In pitch mode,it is usedto adjustthepitch altitude.

Therearetwo lights adjacentto the sidesof each


modeswitch.Theselights are modeindicators.
Whena modeswitch is selected,the FCP sends
a requestsignalto both FCCs.If the FCCsfind
that conditionsarecorrectfor the selectedmode,
they send an acknowledgesignal to the FCP
which makesthe lights comeon. FCC I makes
theleftlightcomeon,andFCCZmakestheright
light come on. The FCP provides bright/dim

TRAINING REFERENCE ONLY

panel lighting behind the pushbuttonswitch


legends and behind a pair of locator arcs
surrounding each knob on the panel. Four
independentRS-422 busestransfermode and
annunciatorinformation betweenthe FCC and
the FCP.Therearetwo busesfor eachFCC: one
for transmitting,onefor receivingdata.

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Feb l3195

AvionicV8lectrical
Maintenance
TrainincManual

THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

TRAINING REI'ERENCEOI{LY

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Page45
Feb 13195

6,anad,a,r'
AvionicVElectricalMaintenanceTrainine Manual

E. Yaw Damper Panel


Referto Figure17.
The yaw damperpanelis installedin the center
pedestal.It is attachedto the pedestalwith four
furnlock fasteners.A rear electricalconnector
suppliesthe electricalinterfacewith the FCCs
and the yaw damperlinear actuators.
Theyawdamperpanel
hastwo momentarypushbuttonswitchesto engageeachchannelof yaw
damper.Thereis also a momentarypushbutton
switchto disengage
the yaw dampermode.
F. Autopilot Disconnect Switch
Referto Figure17.
The autopilot disconnect switches are the
primary means of disengagingthe autopilot.
They are installedon the front outboardhom of
eachcontrolwheelandlabeledAP DISC.
Theswitchesaredouble-poled.Onepoleof each
switchis connected
in serieswith onepoleof the
other.Since the two remainingpoles are each
connectedto a separateFCC, pushingeither AP
DISC commandsboth FCCs to disengagethe
autopilot.

TRAINING REFERENCE ONLY

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Page46
Feb13/95

canactarr
TrainineManual
Avionics/Electrical
Maintenance

CK PUSHER
AUTOPI
LOT/STI
SWITCH
DISCONNECT

NOTE
Pilot'scontrolwheel
is shown. Copilot'scontrol
wheelis samebutwith
switchlocationon right
handoutboardside.
GO-AROUND
SWITCHES

@ t"o*t
FLIGHTDIRECTOR
SYNCSWITCH

I
:
at
Y

E
ol
x
x
6

@ nean

N
E

_ LOCATION
AFCSEXTERNAL CONTROL SWTTCTIES
FIGURE 17

TRAINING REFERENCE ONLY

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Page47
Feb 13/95

canacta'r
AvionicVElectricalMaintenanceTraining Manual

G. Flight Director SYNC Switch


Referto Figure17.
The flight directors are synchronizedto the
aircraftverticalandlateralreferenceswheneither
switchis pushedandtheautopilotis notengaged.
Therearetwo flight directorSYNCswitches,one
eachfor the pilot and copilot. The switchesare
installedon the outboardside of each control
wheel.
H. Go-Around Switch
Referto Figure17.
There are two switches located on the throttle
levers.They are double-poled,with a pole of
eachswitchin parallelwith theotherswitch.The
remainingpoleof eachswitchis connectedto an
FCC. Therefore,pushing a single gearound
switchcommandsboth FCCs.
Pressingthe gearound switch producesone of
the following:
Generatesa fixed pitch-up command
Maintainswings level (ground)/heading
memory(air)
Initiateswindshearrecoveryguidance
whenlow altitudewindshearis detected
Automaticdisengageof the autopilot.
a

I.

o
d

Yaw Damper Linear Actuators

g
o

Referto Figure18.
TheAFCS sendssignalsto the linear actuatorsto
move the rudder.There are two linear actuators,
onefor eachyaw damperchannel.The actuators
areinstalledin the vertical stabilizer.Eachlinear
actuatorhas a DC torque motor, a ball-screw
output ram, a motor-driven solenoidbrake,and
a linear variabledifferential transducer(LVDT).

TRAINING REFERENCEONLY

E
D
c,i
o
ol
o
o
o

8
N
a

AFCS LINEAR ACTUATOR


FIGURE 18

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Page48
Feb 13/95

canacta'r
Avionics/Electrical
Maintenance
TraininsManual

J.

Aileron Servo

Referto Figure 19.


The primary servosand their mountsprovide
precisedrive mechanismsfor controlling the
displacement
of the aileronandelevatorcontrol
surfaces.The servosffanslateelectricalinputs
from the FCC into confrolled rotational
mechanicaloutputto the surfaces.
The units consistof a permanentmagnetDC
motor,a dual rate generator,an electricalengage
clutch,anda precisionmultistagegeartain. The
servomount consistsof an overridesafetyslip
clutchanda capstanwhichconnectstheservoto
the aircraft control surfaces.

The AFCS sendssignalsto the aileron servoto


movetheaileroncontol surfacesin the roll axis.
The aileron servo consistsof a primary servo
whichattaches
to a servomount.Theassemblyis
installedin the RH main wheelwell. The servo
mount suppliesan easymethodto removeand
install the servo without interferencewith the
aircraftrigging.
K. Elevator Servo
Referto Figure19.
The elevatorservo is the sameas the aileron
servo.It is installedin theverticalstabilizerand
positions aircraft control surfaces in the
pitch axis.

ot\.

=
st

Y
d

5,
P

E
&

AFCS SERVOS
FIGURE 19

TRAIMNG REFERENCE ONLY

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Page{{
Feb13/95

6,anactarr'
AvionicVElectricalMaintenance
TrainineManual

Referto Figure20.
The pilot's flight director commands are
computedin theleft FCC andthecopilot'sin the
right FCC. The crew selectsone set of flight
directorcommands
to becoupledto theautopilot
by settingthe XFER pushbuttonswitch on the
flight control panel (FCP). The selectedflight
directorcommandsaresentto the attitudeloops
in bothcomputers,
whereidenticalcomputations
are performedusing the datafrom independent
setsof sensors.
Theaileronandelevatorservocommands
in each
FCCaresentto theanalogservoloop wherethey
are mixed with independentsenro position
signalsderivedfrom servotachometers.
Theyare
thencompared,voted,andtorquelimited before
beingappliedto the servomotor.
Each FCC containsa main processorand an
input/outputprocessor(VO processor).Using
two different processorsprovides dissimilar
softwareandhardwareredundancyfor protecting
the aircraftfrom hazardous
faults.
The VO processoracceptsserial, analog,and
discreteinputdataandstoresit in a memoryarea
accessibleto the main processor.The main
processorperforms all the control laws and
operationalcomputations.It then outputsdata
back to the common memory area for serial
transmission
by theVO processor.
The servoand
trim commandsfrom the main processorare
ouput directly to the servoloop.
The VO processorindependentlymonitorsraw
attitudeand trim rate datafor excessiveaircraft
responseor malfunctioningtrim responseand
openshardwareswitchesin theservoloopor trim
circuitry to halt any malfunctioningcommands
from the mainprocessor.

TRAIMNG REFERENCE ONLY

22-00-00

Page50
Feb13/95

canacta'r
Avionics/Electrical
Maintenance
TrainineManual

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FIGURE 20

TRAINING REFERENCE ONLY

22-00-00

Page51
Feb 13/95

E,anaEtalr
AvionicVElecrical
Maintenance
TraininsManual

3. OPERATION
A. Automatic Ftight Control System
Referto Figure21.
The APS-4000 is a digital autopilot system
designed for automatic control of high
performance airplanes. When engaged, it
maneuversthe aircraft while the pilot monitors
the flight path by observing information
displayedby the flight instrumentsystem.
When the autopilot is disengaged,the pilot
manually flies the aircraft in response to
commandsdisplayed on the PFDs command
bars.Whethertheautopilotis engagedor not,the
flight control systemprovidescommandsto do
thefollowing:
Hold a desiredattitude
Maintain a pressurealtitude
Hold a verticalspeed

When the flight directoris activated,the AFCS


suppliesvisual commandbarsto the PFDs.The
flight crew usesthesecommandsto manually
control the aircraft. When in the flight director
mode,theflight crewcanusetheFCPto do these
functions:
Seta courseandgo to the activenavigation
source
Setandhold a selectedairspeed,a vertical
speed,andan altimde
Seta navigation,heading,or approach
mode
Removeflight directorcuesfrom the PFD,
andchangeto basicpitch androll displays.
The AFCS uses sensordata to calculatethe
applicableflight path data.The AFCS usesthis
sensordatato supplyflight directorguidanceor
autopilotcontrol.It getssensorinformationfrom
the systemsandcomponents
thatfollow:

Hold a Mach number

Air datasystem(ADS)

Hold an indicatedairspeed

Navigationsystems

Captureand maintaina preselected


barometricallycorrectedaltitude

Instument landingsystems

Captureand track a preselectedheading


Captureand track a preselectedradio
course(VOR, LOC, GS)
Captureand track a lateral navigation
course(flight management
systemtFlvISl
generated)
Maintain a wings level, fixed pitch-up
attitudefor gearound
Windshearescapeguidance.

TRAINING REFERENCE ONLY

Attitudeheadingreferencesystem(AHRS)
(IRS option)
Radioaltimeter
Actuatorpositionsensors.
TheAFCSsendsconffolsignalsto theaileronand
elevator servos and the yaw damper linear
actuators.It also suppliescontrol signalsto the
horizontalstabilizertrim controlunit (HSTCU).
TheAFCSsuppliesinputsignalsto theelectonic
flight instrumentsystem(EFIS) and the engine
indicationandcrewalertingsystem(EICAS).

22-00-00

Page52
Feb13/95

d,anaE arr'
AvionicVElectricalMaintenance
TraininsManual

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FLIGHT
CONTROL
PANEL

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TRIMMOTOR
AFCS- BLOCK DIAGRAM
FIGURE21

TRAINING REFERENCE ONLY

22-00-00

Page53
Feb 13/95

Eanactarr
AvionicVElectrical MaintenanceTrainins Manual

B. Flight Control Computer


The softwarein the FCC suppliesthe flight
directorand autopilotfunctionsfor the AFCS.
FCC I receivessensordata,control signals,and
feedbacksignalsthroughthe IAPS IOCs.(1A is
primary, lB is backup.)FCC I getsthis sensor
data from the pilot's side navigationsystems,
ADS l, andAHRS/IRSl. Thecontrolsignalsare
from the FCP,ttre AFCS discreteswitches,and
the yaw damperpanel.The feedbacksignalsare
from the primary servosandthe left yaw damper
linear actuator.Each FCC also gets crosstalk
from the otherFCC.
Each FCC operatesthe same way but FCC 2
receives sensordata from the systemson the
copilot's side through the IAPS IOCs (2A
primary,28 backup).
The FCC uses the altitude, airspeed, and
navigationdatait getsto calculatetheapplicable
(speed,heading,
flight pathandflight parameters
attitude).In the flight director mode, it sends
flight guidancecommandsto the PFDs. If the
autopilotis engaged,it sendscontrol signalsto
the primary servos(aileron and elevator).Each
modesendscontrolsignalsto thelinearactuators
(yaw damper)to automaticallyconhol for dutch
roll and turn coordination.
TheFCChasservoamplifiercircuitswhichsend
a motor drive signal to one side of eachof the
servos. These circuits also monitor the rate
feedbackinputs from eachseryo.A trim circuit
sendsarm andcommandlogic to one channelof
thepitch trim system.It alsomonitorspitch trim
rate feedback.
The pitch TRIM ARM and command oulputs
help control the aerodynamicforces that the
primary seryohasto hold. As the elevatorsmove
to adjustthe trim, the servosmakerate feedback
signalswhich are sentto the monitor circuits in
eachFCC.

TRAINING REFERENCE ONLY

C. Ftight Control Panel


Referto Figure22 andFigure23.
The FCP is a single mode selectpanel.Thus,
whentheflight crewmakesaflight directormode
selection(whena pushbuttonswitchis pushed),
thatrequestis sentto eachFCC.If theconditions
arecorrect,anacknowledge
signalis sentbackto
the FCP.
TheFCPalsoincludestheautopilotengagelogic,
the flight director pitch command,the transfer,
andtheturbulencefunctions.Thesefunctionsare
(sentto eachFCC).In
alsosinglemodeselections
addition,theFCPsuppliesclutch(engage)power
to theaileronandelevatorservos.
TheFCPgetsdiscretedisengage
signalsfrom the
externalswitchesthat follow:
Go-aroundswitches(pilot's andcopilot's)
Autopilot disconnectswitches(pilot's and
copilot's)
Manualpitch-trim switches(pilot's and
copilot's)
Stallprotectioncomputer.
TheFCPletstheflight crewengagethedutopilot
(with theAP ENG pushbuttonswitch)if at least
oneyaw damperis engaged.
A secondcondition
for engagementis that the FCC continuous
self-monitorfinds no failures.A third condition
for engagement
is thatthe FCC finds no failures
in thepitch trim system.
When the autopilot is engaged,the automatic
pitch trim function operates.When the elevator
servofinds that it holdsoff a thresholdtorque,it
sendsthis informationto the FCC.The FCC then
sendsa controlsignalto theHSTCUto adjustthe
horizontalstabilizer.

22-00-00

Page54
Febl3l95

c,anactarr
AvionicVElectricalMaintenanceTraining Manual

SPEEDSELECT
KNOB

AIR DATAREFERENCE
PANEL-PILOT'SSIDE

"-ff

ALTSELECT
KNOB

AIRDATAREFERENCE
SIDE
PANEL-COPILOT'S

--tr

CRS1 KNOB
CRS2 KNOB
HDGKNOB

trfr

trfr
CONTROLPANEL
DISPLAY
. COPILOT'S
SIDE

CONTROLPANEL
DISPLAY
- PILOT'S
SIDE
AP ENG
AP DIS
TURB
AP XFR
. LEFTFD
RIGHTFD
ALT
HDG
NAV
1/2BANK
SPEED
VS
PITCHA/S
WHEEL
APPR
B/C

FLIGHT
CONTROL
COMPUTER
(FCC1)

FLIGHT
CONTROL
COMPUTER
(FCC2)

DCBUS2
(IAPSRIGHTAFCS)

DC ESSENTIAL
(IAPSLEFTAFCS)

INTEGRATED
AVIONICS
PROCESSOR
SYSTEM

INTEGRATED
AVtONICS
PROCESSOR
SYSTEM

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DCBUS2
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FLIGHT CONTROL PANEL - BLOCK DIAGRAM


FIGIJRE 22

TRAINING REFERENCE ONLY

22-00-00

Page55
Feb 13/95

E,anacta,r
AvionicVElectricalMaintenanceTraining Manual
I

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FIGURE 23

TRAINING REFERENCE ONLY

22-00-00

Page56
Feb 13/95

c,anactatr
Avionics/Electrical
Maintenance
TraininsManual

The FCP also lets the flight crew disengagethe


autopilot in one of two ways. First, the autopilot
can be disengagedby a second push of the AP
engage switch. Second, the disengage can be
accomplishedwith the AP DISC switch bar.This
switch bar controls toggle switches which
disconnect the aileron and elevator servo
clutches.It is necessaryfor the switch bar to be in
the up position to engagethe autopilot.
The XFR pushbuttonswitch on the FCP changes
the flight guidance commands from the pilot's
channelto the copilot's channel,or the opposite.
The pilot's side is the default side.
The TURB switch engagesthe turbulencemode
which decreasesthe autopilot gains when there
are turbulent flight conditions.
With the FD switch the flight crew can remove
the flight director guidancecommandsfrom the
PFD on the uncoupledside (push the applicable
FD switch). The FD switch on the coupled side
has no function. The remaining switches and
knobs on the FCP are used for selection of the
flight director modes and for control of these
modes.
There are two course control knobs on the FCP.
The coursecontrol knobs adjustthe coursesetting
in relation to the active course, as shown by the
current navigation source. The CRSI knob is
used to make the pilot's course selection, as
shown on the left PFD. The CRS 2 knob is used
to make the copilot's course selection,as shown
on the right PFD. The courseselectionon the side
which is in operation is used by the navigation
mode.
The PUSTVDIRECT pushbutton switch in the
CRS knob causes the course pointer and the
digital value on the PFD to show the direct course
to the tuned VOR station.The direct courseis the
direct line to the selected station with no
corrections for winds.

TRAIMNG REFERENCE ONLY

22-00-00

Page57
Feb 13/95

Eanactarr
Avionics/Electrical
Maintenance
TrainingManual

D. Autopilot DisconnectSwitch
Referto Figure17.
This switch disengagesthe autopilot function.
The flight crew usually use this switch to
disengage
the autopilot.
E. Flight Director SYNC Switch
Referto Figure17.
The flight directors are synchronizedto the
aircraft vertical and lateral referencesthat are
currently being flown. The vertical references
includeIAS, Machspeed,verticalspeed,altitude
hold, and pitch angle.The synchronizedlateral
referencesinclude the bank angle and heading
memoriesof roll mode.
The SYNC switch has no function when the
autopilotis engaged.
n

GeAround Switch

whenthe
A lateralgearound modeis disengaged
autopilotis engaged,
or if a differentlateralmode
is selected.A vertical gearound mode is
disengaged
whentheautopilotis engaged,SYNC
switch is operated,or if there is an automatic
captureof a different vertical mode.
The gearound is switchis alsousedto initiate
windshearescapeguidanceduring low altitude
windsheardetectionconditions.
G. Visual Indications
Referto Figure24.
Flight guidanceannunciationis providedon the
PFD attitudedirectionindicator(ADD andHSI.
The ADI displaystheflight guidancecommands
bars and flight director mode status.The HSI
provides navigation source annunciationand
navigationinformation.Someof theinformation
displayedon the PFD which the flight director
usesfor someof its modesis asfollows:
Selectedairspeed

Referto Figure 17.

Selectedairspeedfield

This switch is usedto supplya fixed pitch-up


command in the vertical mode for either an
on-the-ground or an airborne condition. In an
airbornecondition,when the switch is pushed,
theFCC suppliesa commandin the laleral mode
to holdtheheadingatthemomentofagearound
selection.In an on-the-groundcondition,when
the switchis pushed,the FCC suppliesa wings
level commanduntil takeoff. After takeoff, the
FCC suppliesheadinghold steeringcommands.

Preselectaltitudereference

When go-around is selected,the autopilot is


disengaged
andall otherflight directormodesare
cleared.Theyawdamperfunctionis notchanged.
The lateral and vertical go-around modes are
clearedby engagingthe autopilot,SYNC switch
operation, or by selection of any other flight
directormode.

TRAINING REFERENCE ONLY

Coursepointerreadout
Selectedheadingbug
Selectedheadingbug vector
Digital selectedheading.
SelectedAirspeed
Selectedairspeedis shownby a magentanotched
block placedon theairspeedscale.
SelectedAirspeedField
The selectedairspeedfield providesa three-digit
readout.The selectedairspeedfield range from
4Oto 400knotsin increments
of I knot.Thedigits
preceded
are
by the same box pointer that is
presented on the airspeed scale for selected
airspeed.The selectedairspeedfield is magenta.

22-00-00

Page58
Feb l3l95

c,anaEtarr
Avionics/Electrical
TraininsManual
Maintenance

AUTOPI
LOTOPERATIONAL.STATUS
INDICATORS

LATERALMODE
(ARMED)

GLIDESLOPE
INDICATION

DR rLOGI -ST
250 IALTS GS
VERTICAL
MODES
(ARMED)

I-ATERALMODE
(cAPTURED)
VERTICAL
MODE
(oAPTURED)

AUTOPILOTSTATUS
INDICATOR
FLIGHT-DIRECTO
INDICATOR
YAW.DAMPER
D]SENGAGE
!NDICATOR
ELEVATOR
MISTRIM
INDICATOR
AILERONMISTRIM
INDICATOR

FLIGHT-DIRECTOR
COMMANDBARS

PRIMARY FLIGHT DISPLAY


FIGURE 24

TRAINING REFERENCE ONLY

22-00-00

Page59
Feb l3l95

6,anaEtarr
AvionicVElectricalMaintenanceTraining Manual

PreselectAltitude Reference

H. Flight Director Symbology

The preselectaltitudefield providesa five-digit


readoutandis displayedabovethe altitudetape.
It rangesfrom -1000 to 50 000 feet.

Symbolog5r

The referencealso consists of four parallel


horizontallinesplacedon thealtitudetapecoarse
andfine scales.The preselectaltitudereferences
disappearbehindthealtitudetapewindowasthey
moveoff the scale.
The preselectaltitudedigits and referencesare
normallymagenta,but canbe yellow or cyan.
CoursePointer Readout
Selectedcourseis displayedby a solid,singlebar
arrow pointing to the angularposition on the
compassrose correspondingto the selected
course.
Selectedcourse is displayedin a three-digit
readoutprefixed by CRS. The coursereadout
rangeis from 001to 360in l-degreeincrements.
The color of the coursepointer/readout
matches
thenavigationsourceannunciationcolor.
SelectedHeading Bug
The selectedheadingbug consistsof a magenta,
notched block placed on the periphery of the
compassrose.
SelectedHeading Bug Vector

Theflight directorsymbologypresentspitchand
roll guidanceand selectedmodeinformationto
thepilot.
SteeringCommands
The flight director symbology is selectable
betweena V-shapedsinglecueor split cue.If a
singlecue aircraftsymbolis selected,the flight
directorsymbologyconsistsof a V-shapedsingle
cue symbol.If a crosspointeraircraftsymbolis
selected,
theflight directorsymbologyconsistsof
a split cuesymbol.Theflight directorsymbology
is double-strokedmagenta.
Cross-,SideFlight Director Source
Theflight directortransferannunciationconsists
of the grcen letters FDI or FD2. The flight
director transfer annunciation comes on
wheneverthe offsideflight directorinformation
is displayed.
Flight Director Flag
The flight directorflag consistsof thered letters
FD displayedto the left and below the aircraft
symbol on the PFD. The flag comeson when
either the flight director pitch or roll data
becomesinvalid, or if directedby the FCC.The
flightdirectorflagstatusis alsoannunciated
with
a statusmessage
on EICAS.
Synchronization

Whenthe selectedheadingbug is offthe scale,a


magenta,dashedline is displayed,originatingat
the center of the compassarc and extending
radially towardthe selectedheading.

Wheneverthe SYNC switch is operated,the


yellow letters SYNC are displayedabove the
armedmodeson thePFD.

Digitat SelectedHeading

lVindshear

Selectedheadingis displayedin a three-digit


field prefixed by IIDG. The digital selected
headingreadoutrange is from 001 to 360 in
Digital selectedheadingis
l-degree increments.
only displayedwhenthe selectedheadingbug is
not in view or during the time the headingknob
is rotatedand thereafterfor 3 seconds.

The PFD displays an amber WINDSHEAR


message if the WINDSIIEAR CAUTION
discreteis active.A red WINDSIIEAR message
is displayed if the WINDSHEAR WARNING
discreteis active.Thismessage
is displayedatthe
bottom of the ground raster, just above radio
altitude.

TRAIMNG REFERENCE ONLY

22-00-00

Page60
Feb l3l95

6,anacta,r'
Avionics/Electrical
Maintenance
TrainineManual

DEFINITION

ANNUNCIATION
An alpha basedpitch limit marker is displayed
during a windshearwarning or windshearcaution
alert below 1500 feet radio altitude. The pitch
limit marker is displayed for a minimum of
60 seconds. The pitch limit marker is
double-stroked yellow.
Flight Control System Mode Annunciation
Capture and Armed Modes
All flight control system capture (current) and
armed (next) modesare annunciatedon the PFD.
Vertical modes appearbelow lateral modes and
the capturemode in each axis is to the left of the
armed modes.
All mode transitions,from armed to capture,are
annunciatedby flashing the new mode statefor
5 secondsbefore becoming steady.
Loss of any or all FCC mode datais indicated by
displaying a red bar through the affected lateral
and/or vertical mode annunciation.
A cyanvertical line is displayedwhenevera flight
control system mode annunciation is presentto
separatethe armed field from the capture field.
Lat er al M ode Annunciatio n
The lateral modeannunciationis divided into two
sections;lateral captureand lateral armed.
The lateral capture mode annunciation is green
and the lateral armed mode annunciation is
white. Lateral mode annunciationsare mutually
exclusive.
The lateral capture annunciator is capable of
displaying the following annunciations:

TRAINING REFERENCE ONLY

ROLL

Roll hold (basicmode)

HDG

Heading select

LOCI

LOCI capture

LOC2

LOC2 captue

B/Cl

BackcourseLOCI capture

Btc2
voRl
voR2

BackcourseLOC2 capture

FMS

FMS capture

FMSI

FMSI capture

FMS2

FMS2capture

GA

Go around

TO

Take-off

VORI capture
VOR2 capture

The lateral armed annunciator is capable of


displaying the following annunciations:
DEFINITION

ANNUNCIATION
LOCl

LOC1ARM

LOCZ

LOC2ARM

B/C1

BACK COURSELOCI
ARM
BACK COURSE LOCa
ARM
VORI ARM

Btc2
voRl
voR2

VOR2 ARM

FMS

FMS ARM

FMSI

FMSI ARM

FMS2

FMS2ARM

Vertical Mode Annunciation


The vertical mode annunciation is divided into
two sectionsas follows:
Vertical capture
Vertical armed.
The vertical capturemode annunciationis green
and the vertical armed mode annunciationsare
white. The vertical mode annunciation is
mutually exclusive.

22-00-00

Page61
Feb13i95

Eanacta'r
Avionics/Electrical
Maintenance
TrainingManual

The vertical captureannunciatoris capableof


displayingthefollowing annunciations:
ANNUNCIATION

DEFTNITION

IAS XXX

IAS hold (where XXX=referenceIAS)

MACH.XX

(where
Mach
mode
.XX:reference Mach)

vsx.x*

Vertical speed (where


X.X-reference
vertical
speedand *-up or down arrow)

GS

Glideslope

ALT

Altitude hold

ALTS CAP

Selectaltitude capture

GA

Go around*PITCH"

GA/WS

Escape guidance during


windshear

PTCH

Pitch hold (basic mode)

ALTS

Selectaltitude track

TO

Escape guidance during


windshear

For the vertical armed annunciations,the GS


annunciationis mutually exclusiveand the two
ALIS annunciations
aremutuallyexclusive.
The vertical armed annunciatoris capableof
displayingthefollowing annunciations:
ANNUNCIATION

DEFINITION

GS

ILS GS armed

ALTS

Selectaltinrdearmed

ALTS

Select altitude abort (yellow


flashing)

I.

AutopilotAnnunciation

Automatic pitch trim failure


Autopilot takeoff warn annunciation
Yaw damper annunciation.
Autopilot Engage/DisengageAnnunciation
The autopilot engagement annunciation AP is
displayed in steady green when the autopilot is
engaged. If disengagement occurs, the AP
annunciationflashesin red. A white left or right
arrow is displayed without the letters AP when
the autopilot is disengaged.
When the autopilot is manually disengaged,an
aural calvary charge is sounded for 3 seconds.
Manual disengages,including disengagescaused
by manual pitch trim, disengaging the yaw
damper function and selecting go around when
the autopilot is engaged.
When the autopilot disengagesautomatically due
to a failure detectedwithin the AFCS or due to the
stall system initiating a stick pusher (during
which the stall system also sends a disconnect
signal to the AFCS), a continuous aural cavalry
charge is sounded. The aural alert can be
cancelled by pressing the AP DISC pushbutton
switch on either control wheel. The aural alert
always soundsfor a minimum of 3 seconds.
Elevator Mistrim
When the autopilot detects an elevator mistrim
condition, a yellow annunciationE enclosedin a
yellow box is displayed.

The autopilotannunciations
areasfollows:
Autopilot engage/disengage
annunciation
Elevatormistrim
Aileron mistrim

TRAIMNG REFERENCE ONLY

Autopilot elevator mistrim conditions are also


annunciatedwith a yellow caution messageon
the EICAS when the PFD annunciationhas been
displayed for 3 seconds.

22-00-00

Page62
Feb 13/95

c,anacta'r
TraininsManual
Avionics/Electrical
Maintenance

AileronMistrim
Whenthe autopilotdetectsan aileronmistrim
condition, a yellow A enclosedin a yellow box is
displayed.
Autopilot aileron mistrim conditions are
annunciatedwith a yellow caution messageon
the EICAS when the PFD annunciationhasbeen
displayed for 3 seconds.
Automatic Pitch TFim Failure
When the autopilot detects failure in the
horizontal stabilizer trim system or within the
internal AFCS pitch nim computations,ayellow
caution AP PITCH TRIM messageis displayed
on the EICAS.
Autopilot Takeoff Warn Annunciation
If the pilot attempts to take off; i.e., N1>70
percent, with the autopilot engaged, a red
warning CONFIG AP messageis displayed on
the EICAS. Along with the red message,the
voice message "config autopilot" is also
generated.
Yaw Damper Annunciation
When both yaw dampers are not engaged, a
yellow YD is displayed on the PFD. Also, a
yellow caution message is displayed on the
EICAS.
When only one yaw damper is engaged,white
statusmessagesYD I INOP or YD 2 INOP are
displayed on the EICAS.
J.

AnnunciationSummary

The flight director annunciations,symbols,color,


location, methods of activation and cancellation
are summarizedin the following table:

TRAINING REFERENCE ONLY

22-00-00

Page63
Febl3l95

Avionics/Electrical
Maintenance
TraininsManual

.{NNUNCIATION SYMBOL COLOR LOCATION


Irft FCC FD Invalid

FD I EAIL

White

EICAS

Flag

Red

PFD

No V-ban
Right FCCFD Invalid

ACTIVATED BY:

CANCELLED BY:

InvalidI-eft FD

Valid Left FD

InvalidRight FD

ValidRight FD

PFD

FD 2 FAIL

White

EICAS

Flag

Red

PFD

No V-bars

PFD

Synchronization

SYNC

Yellowl

PFD

SeeFlight Director
Functions

SeeNote l

SteeringCommandsin
View

Sleering
command

Magenta

PFD

Flight Directoron

Flieht Directoroff

Cross-sideFD Source FD2

Green

Pilot'sPFD

FDI

Green

Copilot'sPFD

Flight Directoris displaying Flight Directoris displaying


commandsgeneratedby
commandsgenerated
by
otherflight guidancechannel sameflight guidancechannel

White

PFD

Transfermodeis setand AP
is not engaged

Transfermodeis not setor


AP disengaged

Green

PFD

AP engagedandTransfer
modeis set

AP disengagedor Transfer
modeis not set

White

PFD

Transfermodeis not setand Transfermode is set or AP


AP is not engaged
disengaged

Green

PFD

AP engagedand Transfer
modeis not set

AP disengagedor Transfer
modeis set

Right Arrow
TransferMode
kft Arrow

SeeNote2

FCP

Transfermodeis set

Transfermodeis not set

Lateral GrAround

GA

Green

L:teral PFD
freld

I-ateralGeAround
activation

I:teral GeAround
deactivation

Vertical GeAround

GA

Green

VerticalPFD
field

VerticalGeAround
activation

VerticalGo-Around
deactivation

Vertical GeAround,
Windshearsubmode

GA/WS

Green

VerticalPFD
held

Windshearsubmode
activation

Windshearsubmode
deactivation

Pitch Mode

PTCH

Green

PFD3

Pitch mode activation

Pitch mode deactivation

Roll Mode

ROLL

Green

PFd

Roll mode activation

Roll mode deactivation

Heading Hold Mode

ROLL

Green

PFD

Heading Hold mode


activation

Heading Hold mode


deactivation

HeadingSelectMode

HDG

Green

PFD

Heading Select mode active

Heading Select mode


inactive

Navigationmodearmed

Navigation mode deselected

SeeNote4
NavigationMode
Armed

FCP

SeeNote5

White

PFD lateral
armedfield

HDG

Green

PFD lateral
capturefield

SeeNote6

FCP

NavigationMode
Capture

See Note 5

Green

PFD lateral
capturefield

Navigationmodecapture

Navigationmodedeselected

DeadReckoning

DR

White

PFD

Deadreckoningoperation

Not deadreckoning
operation

SeeNote7

White

PFD lateral
armedfield

TRAIMNG REFERENCE ONLY

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AvionicsiElectrical
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TraininsManual

ANNUNCIATION SYMBOL COLOR LOCATION


ApproachMode
Armed

HDG

Green

SeeNote 8

PFD lateral
capturefield

ACTIVATEDBY:

CANCELLEDBY:

Approachmodearmed

Approachmodedeselected
or captured

FCP

ApproachMode
Capture

SeeNote 7

Green

PFD lateral
armedfield

Approachmodecapture

Approach mode deselected

GlideslopeMode
Armed

GS

White

PFD vertical
armedheld

Glideslopemodearmed

Approachmodedeselected
or captured

GlideslopeCapture

GS

Green

PFD vertical
capturefield

Glideslopecapture

Approach mode deselected

See Note 7

White

PFD lateral
armedfield

Back Coursemodearmed

HDG

Green

PFD lateral
capturefield

Back Coursemode
deselected
or captured

BackCourseMode
Armed

FCP

See Note 9

Back CourseMode
Capture

See Note l0

Green

PFD lateral
field

Approachmodecapture

Back Coursemode
deselected

Half Bank Mode

I/2 BNK

White

PFD

Half Bank mode selected

Half Bank mode deselected

FCP

See Note I I

vslz

Green

Vertical SpeedMode
SeeNote 13
MACHI4

Green

SeeNote 15
Green

SeeNote 15
Overspeed

PFD vertical
capture freld

Mach mode selected

Mach mode deselected

PFD vertical
capturefield

IAS mode selected

IAS mode deselected

Overspeed
conditionexists

For IAS submode,IAS less


thanVmo. For Mach
submode,Mach lessthen
Mmo

FCP
Flashing
yellow

PFD
FCP

See Note 15

AUT

deselected

FCP

IAS Mode
IAS or
MACH

Vertical Speedmode selected VerticalSpeedmode

FCP

Mach Mode
IASIb

PFD vertical
capturefield

Green

AltitudeHold Mode
SeeNote 17

PFD vertical
capturefield

Altitude Hold mode active

Altitude Hold mode


deselected

FCP

AltitudePreselect
Armed

AUTS

White

PFD vertical
armedfield

Altitude Preselectarmed

Altitude heselector
Glideslopecapture

Altitude Preselect
Capture

ALTS CAP

Green

PFD vertical
capturefield

AltitudePreselect
capture

Altitude Preselecttrack,
Glideslopecapture,or
Ovenpeed

Altitude heselect
Track

AUTS

Green

PFD vertical
capturefield

Altitude preselecttrack

Selectionor captureof
anotherverticalmode

Altitude Abort

ALTS

Flashing
yellow

PFD

SeeNote 18

SeeNote 19

TRAIMNG REFERENCE ONLY

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Avionics/Electrical
Maintenance
TrainineManual

ANNUNCIATION SYMBOL COLOR LOCATION

ACTIVATED BY:

CANCELLEDBY:

NOTE:
l.

Pulsesfor 3 secondsor for thedurationof the SYNC switchoperation,whicheveris longer.

2.

Lights the indicatorsat the side of the XFER switch.

3.

Whenthe flight directoris on. Thereis no annunciation


whentheflight directoris off.

4.

Lights the indicatorsat the side of HDG switch.

5.

Messages
identifythenavigationsource(VORl,I-OC?, FMS, etc.).

6.

Lights theindicatonat the sideof the NAV switch.

7.

Whennot BackCoune,VORI, LOC2,FMS, etc.WhenBackCourse,B/Cl, etc.

8.

Lights the indicatorsat the sideof the APPR swirch.

9.

Lightsthe indicatorsat the sideof the B/C switch.

10. B/Cl, etc.


I l.

Lights the indicatorsat the sideof the ll2 Bank switch.

12. followedby a digitaldisplayof the VS referencevalue.


13. Lightsthe indicatorsat the sideof the VS switch.
14. Followedby a digital displayof the Mach rcferencevalue.
15. Lightsthe indicatorsat thesideof the SPEEDswitch.
16. Followedby a digitaldisplayof the IAS referencevalue.
17.

Lightsthe indicatorsat thesideof the ALI switch.

18. Clearingaltitudecapturewithouta subsequent


selectionof altitudetrackor armed.
19. Cancelsautomaticallyaftera timeoutperiod.Yellowaltitudereferencedigitscontinueto flashuntil thepreselect
altitudeis changed.

K. Monitor Functions
The FCC has a 60 secondhardwarepower-up
function which, when the power is energized,
doesthe operationsthat follow:
The two processors
in the FCC arereset
The RAM memoryis cleared
The intemrpt vectorsfor the processorsare
set

The servocommandsareverified.
The autopilot cannot be engageduntil the
power-up testsare complete,with no failures.
The FCC continuously monitors the AFCS
operation,in additionto its power-uptest.These
continuoustestsinclude:
ROM checksum
RAM write-read

The programmablehardwaretimers are


loaded

Pitch,roll, andyaw servocommand


wraparound

The serialinpuVoutputdataregistersare
loaded

Excessiveattitude/altitude
rate

The intemrptsareenabled(theprocessors
then starttheir backgroundtasks)
The monitorcircuitsareverified

TRAINING REFERENCE ONLY

Serialinput/outputwraparoundthroughthe
crosschannelandpanelbuses
Autopilotdisengage
Yaw damperdisengage.

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AvionicVElectricalMaintenance
TrainingManual

of theautopilotoccurs
Automaticdisengagement
when the FCC finds a failure condition.
Engagementof the autopilotis also prevented
whenthe FCC finds a failure condition.This is
alsotruefor the yaw damperfunction.A failure
conditionis definedas two consecutiverelated
problemsof the sametype,asfoundby eitherthe
autopilotor the yaw dampermonitorcircuits.
Theautopilotpitchtrim monitorfunctionis done
beforeand after engagementof the autopilot.If
beforeengagement
apitchtrim failureis detected
If
is prevented.
of theautopilot,thenengagement
a pitch trim failure is detectedafter autopilot
engagement, then the automatic pitch-trim
function stops, but the autopilot function
continuesto operate.
If the FCC finds a failure in the datait getsfrom
its usual IOC, it automaticallychangesto a
secondIOC asthe datasource.
The other componentsof the AFCS do not have
power-up testsor self-monitorfunctions.The
FCC suppliesthis functionfor the system.
L, Diagnostics
Diagnosticsaresuppliedby theFCCto helpwith
the AFCS fault isolation. The FCP supplies
control of the diagnostic function, and the
multifunctiondisplay(MFD) suppliesthevisual
displayof the diagnosticdata.
to all
Thediagnosticreportmodesuppliesaccess
the resultsof the FCC monitorfunctions.There
are additionaldiagnosticmodeswhich showall
the FCC inputs,and which let the userchange
someoutputs.

The list that follows showsthe possiblevisual


failure indicationsfor theAFCS:
AFCSVISUAL FAILIJRE INDICATIONS
STATUS

WARNING
(RED)

CAUTION
(AMBER)

AFCS MSGS
FAIL

AP PITCH
TRIM
AP TRIM IS
LWD

IAPS
DEGRADED

AP TRIM IS
ND
AP TRIM IS
NU
AP TRIM IS
RWD
YAW
DAMPER

SPEEDREFS
INDEP

(wHrTE)

IAPS
OVERTEMP

YD I INOP
YD 2INOP
FD GUIDE 1
FD GUIDE 2

Failures that occur in the IAPS can have an effect


on the AFCS. If thereis anoverheatcondition, the
IAPS monitor circuits stop the FCC operation.
The FCC on the pilot's side (FCC 1) stops
operation if there is an overheatcondition on the
left side of the IAPS. The FCC on the copilot's
side (FCC 2) stops operation if there is an
overheatcondition on the right side. The EICAS
shows the indication IAPS OVERTEMP when
there is an IAPS overheatcondition on the left or
right side.

M. Aural and Visual Failure Indications


The EICAS showsthe visualfailure indications
for theAFCS.Aural indicationsaresuppliedby
the EICAS through the flight compartment
speakers.A cavalry chargesoundswhen the
autopilotis disengaged.

TRAIMNG REFERENCE ONLY

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6,anacta'r
Avionics/Electrical
Maintenance
TrainingManual

FLIGHT DIRECTOR
1. GENERAL
The flight director is that portion of the AFCS
that provides the flight guidance commands to
the autopilot and the steering commands and
associatedannunciationsto the PFD. Each FCC
contains a flight director.
Dual flight director channelsprovide pitch and
roll guidance commandsto the autopilot (when
coupled)and to the PFD (when selected).Sensors
and computations comprising these commands
are derived from single sources such as NAV
sourcesor ADC, and therefore,have single fault
possibilities. Faults in the flight guidance
computations are indicated by a red FD
annunciation on the PFD.
At FCC power-up the flight director is inactive
and no fl ight director fl ight guidance information
is displayed on the PFD. The onside flight
director is madeactive when autopilot is engaged
or when a lateral or vertical flight mode is
selected.The pilot's and copilot's flight director
mode selection are synchronized.
Manual mode selections,suchaspushing a mode
switch, simultaneously select the same mode in
both flight director channels.
The onside flight director couples to both
autopilot channels when autopilot is engaged.
Whenever both flight directors are off, all lateral
and vertical modes clear.
Except as noted, the roll limit is 27 degrees. (In
discussion of the flight director modes, limit
values are in bold type.).

2. FLIGHT DIRECTORMODES,
GENERAL
The flight director provides guidancefor the
following lateral(roll) modes:

TRAINING REFERENCE ONLY

SI]BMODE

MODE

Roll AttitudeHold Roll Hold, Heading Hold


N/A

Heading Select

Navigation

HeadingSelect,FMS, Localizer,VOR/DME,VOR

Approach

Heading Select, FMS, Localizer, VOR/DME, VOR

BackCourse

Heading Select,Incalizer

Go Around

N/A

Hdf Bank

N/A

TO

N/A

The flight director provides guidance for the


following vertical (pitch) modes:
MODE

SUBMODE

Pitch Attitude Hold

N/A

Altitude Hold

N/A

Altitude Preselect

N/A

Vertical Speed

N/A

Speed

IAS,IAS Overspeed,
Mach,MachOverspeed
N/A

GlideslopeApproach
GeAround

Windshear

TO

Windshear

3. FLIGHT DIRECTOR MODE


SELE CTI ON/DESELECTI ON
Theprimarymeans
of selectinganddeselecting
the
flight directormodesis pushingthe appropriate
swirch on the FCP.Initially pushingthe switch
whenthe flight directormodeis inactiveactivates
the mode. Pushing the switch a second time
deactivatesthe mode. The flight director lateral
modeselections/
deselections
areasfollows:

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E,anacta,r
Avionics/Electrical
Maintenance
TrainingManual

MODE

FCP
SYMBOL

Roll Attitude Hold

DESELECTIONI

SELECTIONI
Automatic when no other lateral
mode is selectedand the FD is
on

Selection of anotherlateral mode

HeadingSelect

HDG

Selection of anotherlateral mode

Navieation

NAV

Selection of another lateral mode

ChangeNAV sourceor frequency


LateralApproach

APPR

Selection of another lateral mode

ChangeNAV sourceor frequency


BackCourse

B/C

Selection of anotherlateral mode

ChangeNAV sourceor frequency


LateralGeAround

Half Bank

1/2BNK

Push throttle
Go-around switch

Autopilot engagement

SeeNote 2

Back Coursecapture

Climbingthroughtransition
altitude2'3

Descending
throughtransitionaltituder

Selection of anotherlateral mode

APPR mode capture


Localizer capture

Lateral Tirke-off

Pushthrottlego-aroundswitch
with aircraft on groundandboth
enginesrunning.

Autopilot engagement
Selection of another lateral mode.

NOTE:
The primary method of selecting/deselecting all of the lateral modes except Roll Attitude Hold
and GeAround is by pushing the appropriate switch on the FCP.
Pushing the l/2 BANK switch has no effect if the Roll Attitude Hold mode is active.

3 . The Half Bank mode is automatically selected when climbing through the half bank transition
altitude (31 600 feet of pressure altitude) or if the aircraft is above the half bank transition
altitude when the flight director is turned on. Conversely, the Half Bank mode is automatically
cleared when descending through the half bank transition altitude. The automatic mode
transition logic preventsnuisancemode changeswhen operating near the transition altitude.

TRAIMNG REFERENCE ONLY

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Page69
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Eanacta'r
AvionicVElectrical MaintenanceTraining Manual

The flight director vertical mode selections/


deselections
areasfollows:
MODE

FCP
SYMBOL

Pitch Attitude
Hold

DESELECTIONI

SELECTIONI

Automatic when no other vertical


modeis selectedandthe FD is on

Selectionor automaticcaptureof
anothervertical mode

Rotatingthe VS/pitch wheel on


the FCP (when not in Vertical
Speedmodeor glideslopecapture)
Changingthe preselectedaltitude Conditionsmet for captureof new
during Altitude Preselectcapture2 PreselectAltitude
Altitude Hold

ALT

Altitude
11"r"1".1NOTAG

Vertical Speed
Select

VS

Speed

SPEED

Automaticif altitudepreselector
settingis changedwhile in
Altitude Preselecttrack

Selectionor captureof another


verticalmode

Automatically armed when the FD


is turned on4

Glideslope capture

Automatically armedwhen
altitudepreselectorsettingis
changed

Go-Around selection

Automatically armed when


vertical gearound is cleared

When captured or in track,


automatically cleared by manual
selectionor automatic capture of
another vertical mode
Selection or capture of another
vertical mode

When an overspeedcondition
occurs5

Selection of another vertical mode


when overspeed condition has been
corrected6
Selection or capture of another
vertical mode

Glideslope
Approach

Armed after a front course


localizercapturein Approach
modewith valid glideslopedata

Back course mode selection

Lossof Approachmode
ChangeNAV sourceor frequency
Gearound mode selection

Vertical
GeAround

Pushthrottle gearound switch

Autopilotengagement,
selection,or
automaticcaptureof anothermode
SYNC switchoperation

Vertical Tiake-off

Pushthrottle go-aroundswitch
with both enginesrunning and
aircraft on the ground.

TRAIMNG REFERENCEONLY

Autopilotengagement,
selection,or
automaticcaptureof anothermode
SYNC switch operation

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c,anacta,r
Avionics/Electrical
MaintenanceTrainineManual

FCP
SYMBOL

MODE

SELECTIONI

DESELECTIONI

NOTE:
1. The primarymethodof selecting/deselecting
all of theverticalmodesexceptPitch Attitude
Hold andAltitudeheselectis by pushingthe appropriateswitchon theFCP.
2. Altitude heselectre-armsandcapturesthe new preselected
altitudeunlesstheALT knob is
slewedthroughthe currentaltitude.
3. Altitude preselectarmeddoesnot inhibit the selectionof otherverticalmodes.
4. Altitude preselectis not automaticallyarmedwhentheFD is tumedon by overspeed
or
GeAround mode.
5. 0.03MachaboveMmo while abovethe IAS/Machtransitionaltitude(typically31 600 feetof
pressurealtitude)or 10knotsaboveVmo while belowtheIAS/Machtransitionaltitude.
6. If in IAS submode.
whenIAS is lessthanVmo. If in Machsubmode.whenmachis less
than Mmo.
Definitions of terms when discussingthe flight director are as follows:
TERM

DEFINITION

Active (or on)

Flight directoris supplyingflight guidanceto thePFD

Inactive (or ofl)

Flight directoris not supplyingflight guidanceto thePFD

Coupled

Channel is supplying flight guidance to the AFCS

Uncoupled

Channel is not supplying flight guidance to the AFCS

Onside

The pilot's channel when not transferred

Offside

The copilot's channelwhennot ransferred

Armed

Mode selectedbut not active

Hold

Mode which storesthe value of aparticularflightparameterat the momentof mode selection

Capture

Mode that generatescommands to smoothly acquire and then fly along a predefined line in
space

Track

Commands are being generatedto maintain a predefined line in space

4. FLIGHT DIRECTOR MODES


A. Lateral Modes

unless the roll angle upon initiation is over


5 degrees.In this case,commandsaregenerated
to hold theroll angleinstead.

Roll modeis thebasiclateralmodeof thesystem.


The mode occurs automaticallywhen no other
lateralmodeis active,andtheflight directoris on.
Roll mode generatescommandsto hold the
headingthat existswhen the modeis initiated,

When in basic roll mode, the bank limit is


increased
to 32 degrees.Half bankselectiondoes
not alter the bank limits in this mode.
Synchronizationto a new headingor new roll
angleoccursuponcouplingor tansferringto roll
mode,or whenthe syncswitch is pushedwhen
the autopilotis not engaged.

TRAINING REFERENCE ONLY

22-00-00

Roll Modes

PageTl
Feb l3195

6,anacta|r
AvionicVElectrical
MaintenanceTraininsManual

Heading SelectMode
Headingselectmodeis selectedandclearedwith
the HDG switch on the FCP. Selectionof the
headingselectmodeoverridesall activelateral
flight directormodes.
When the headingmode is active, it provides
lateral commandsto capture and maintain the
headingbug displayedon the PFD or the HDG
BUG digital readouton the MIrD. The selected
headingis controlledby the HDG knob on the
FCP.
The heading selectmode automaticallyclears
when a different lateral mode is selectedor
captured.
When a heading change is selectedon the
horizontal situation indicator (HSI) using the
headingbug,theflight directorprovidessteering
commands
to fly theselectedheading.
Thelateral
commands
duringthismodeis bankanglelimited
by the bank limit or half banklimit selection.
Heading SelectSubmode
Heading select submode is automatically
activatedwheneverNAV B/C or APPRmodeis
selected.The mode is active until the selected
modeis captured.
Headingselectsubmodeis annunciated
asHDG
in thelateralmodeareaof thePFDwith thearmed
mode annunciatedin the lateral armed mode
locationof the PFD. The indicatorsnext to the
I{DG pushbuttonswitchon theFCPdo not come
on, while thosenext to the selectedarmedNAV
APPR or B/C pushbuttonswitch are on. Lateral
commandsin the headingselectmodeareas for
headingmode.

Prior to capture,the flight director operatesin the


currently active lateral mode; either heading
select or roll mode. The navigation mode arms
the navigation signal displayed on EFIS which
include VOR, localizer (LOC), and FMS.- At
capture, the previous active lateral mode is
cleared.
When armed, navigation mode is cleared by
manual selection of either approach or
go-around, changingthe sourceof the navigation
signal, or deselectingthe mode. When captured,
navigation mode is cleared by manual selection
of another lateral mode selecting gearound,
changingthe sourceof the navigation signalorby
deselectingthe mode.
The indicators at the side of the NAV switch on
the FCP come on when navigation mode is
selected.When navigationmode is selectedwhile
coupled and airborne,the FCC inhibits radio test

(voR/Locl, yoR/Loc2, MLS t, MLS 2)

operation in the LRU sourcing the navigation


signal.
FMS Navigation Mode
If the lateral navigation signal selected for
display by the EFIS is from the FMS, the FMS
determines the capture point, after which the
flight director follows the lateral roll commands
generatedby the FMS.
NOTE: The FMS coursedisplayed on the PFD
is also controlled by the FMS.
N on-F M S N avi gation M odes

General

For non-FMS operation, the flight director


performs an all-angle adaptive capture. (An
intercept which differs from the final course by
more than 90 degrees is not recommended.).
Navigation capture clears the heading select
submode.

Navigation mode is selectedand cleared by


pushingthe NAV switch.Navigationmodearms
when selected,but does not capture if the
navigationdata sourceis invalid or when not
within thecapturingrangeof the selected
course.

The CRS I knob on the FCP is used to selectthe


pilot's course, displayed on the left PFD.
Conversely,the CRS 2 knob on the FCP is used
to select the copilot's course, displayed on the
right PFD.

Navigation Mode

TRAINING REFERENCE ONI.Y

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Avionics/Electrical
Maintenance
TraininsManual

VORMode

Signal Dropout

VOR Armed

Should the VOR signal become so weak during


VOR capture or overstation that it becomes
invalid, then the flight director continues to
provide guidance for a specific period of time
after which annunciation of the condition is
annunciated.

Whenthenavigationsourceselectedfor display
is a VOR signal,selectionof thenavigationmode
arms the lateral guidancefor the VOR radial
selectedwith the courseknob and activatesthe
headingselectsubmode.
While the aircraft is outsidethe capturerangeof
theradial,theflight directorflies headingbugin
headingselectsubmode,and annunciateVOR
armedandHDG on the PFD.
VOR Capture
Dependingon the angleof intercept,the flight
directorinitiatesa VOR captureat the optimal
point to provide smoothcaptureof the radial.
VOR captureis annunciatedon the PFD. Lateral
commandsto capturethe VOR arelimited to the
bankanglelimit or the half banklimit selection.

The indicators at the side of the NAV switch on


the FCP come on when VOR mode is selected.
LOC Mode
LOC Armed
When the navigation source selectedfor display
is a localizer signal, selection of the navigation
mode arms the lateral guidance for the LOC
beam.
While the aircraft is outside the capturerange of
the beam, the flight director flies headingbug in
heading select submode and annunciate LOC
ARM and HDG on the PFD.

VOR Track

LOC Capture

Oncecaptured,the VOR modecontinuesto fly


the VOR radial, into or away from the VOR
station.VOR captureis annunciated
on thePFD.

Depending on the intercept, the flight director


initiates captureof the LOC beam at the optimal
point to provide smooth capture of the beam.
LOC capture is annunciatedon the PFD. When
LOC captures, half bank and turbulence
functions are cleared. LOC capture is
annunciatedon the PFD.

For VOR operationwith valid DME, the VOR


control law gainsareprogrammedas a function
of DME distance.For non-DME operation,the
gain cannot be programmed. Therefore, the
controllawsareoptimizedfor a fixed distanceof
60 nautical miles.
VOR Overstation
When flying over a VOR station, the flight
director automaticallygoesinto deadreckoning
(DR) operation,which is annunciatedwith a
white DR on the PFD.
For VOR/DME operation,the DR region is
approximatelywhere the horizontal distanceto
the station is less than the altitude abovethe
station.

LOC Track
Once captured, the LOC mode continues to fly
the LOC beam.
Approach Mode
The approach mode generates commands to
capture and track the selected lateral navigation
course in a similar fashion to the navigation
mode. Approach mode switches the flight
guidance commands to a dual independent
configuration.

For VOR only operation,deadreckoningis based


on high rate of VOR deviation.

Approach mode is selected and cleared by


pushing the APPR switch. The indicators at the
side of the APPR switch on the FCP come on
when approachmode is selected.

TRAINING REFERENCE ONLY

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Page73
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canactarr
Avionics/Electrical
Maintenance
TrainingManual

Back CourseMode
Back coursemode is selectedand clearedby
pushing the B/C switch. A localizer must be
selectedas the navigationsourceto allow back
coursemodeselectionandretention.
Back course mode arms when selected,but
cannotcaptureuntil the localizerdatasourceis
valid and the back coursegeomefiryis present;
i.e.,selectedcoursediffersfrom headingby more
than 105degrees.
Prior to the adaptivecapture,the flight director
operatesin headingselectsubmode.
Back coursecaptureclearsturbulence,and half
bankmodesandthe headingselectsubmode.
When armed, back course is automatically
clearedby manual selectionof anotherlateral
mode(eithernavigation,approach,
or gearound
modes),by changingthesourceof thenavigation
signalor by deselectingthe mode.
Back coursemodeswitchesthe flight guidance
commandsto a dual independent
configuration.
The FCC has two localizertest inhibit ouq)uts,
VOR/LOC I TEST INHIBIT and VOR/LOC z
TEST INHIBIT. When back course mode is
selectedwhile coupledand in flight, the FCC
inhibits test operationin the LRU sourcingthe
localizersignal.
'lhe
indicatorsatthesideof theB/C switchon the
FCPcomeonwhenbackcoursemode
is selected.
Hatf Bank Mode
The half bank mode is automaticallyselected
with oneof thefollowing conditions:
When the aircraft movesup through
the transitionaltitudeof 31 600 feet
(9631.7meters)
WhenFD is selectedabovethe transition
altitude.
Thehalf bankmodeis automaticallyclearedwith
:ne of thefollowing conditions:

TRAIMNG REFERENCEONLY

When the aircraft descendsthrough the


transition altitude
During approach mode
During lo calizer capture.
The half bankmode can be overridden by manual
selectionof the 1/2 BANK pushbuttonswitch on
the FCP.
The half bank mode reduces the maximum
commanded bank angle from 27 degrees to
15 degrees in heading and navigation modes.
The mode has no effect in roll mode.
Approach mode capture, or any localizer capture
automatically clears the half bank mode.
The indicators on the sides of the l/2 BANK
pushbuttonswitch on the FCPcome on when half
bank modeis selectedand annunciatesa white I /2
BANK in a dedicatedlocation on the pFD.
B.

Vertical Modes

Pitch Mode
Pitchmode is the basicvertical mode of the flight
director. The mode is selected automatically
whennovertical directormode is selectedandthe
flight director is on.
Rotating the VS/pitch wheel manually selects
pitch mode when in" nignt director is on, unless
in glideslope capture or VS mode.
On selection of pitch mode, the pitch reference,
displayedasthepitchcommandonthepFD, is set
to the current pitch angle. Commands are
generatedto maintain the pitch attitude.
The pitch referencevalue can be changedusing
the VS/pitch wheel. Wheel rotation changesthe
pitch referenceby an amount that is proportional
to the rotation angle. The position of the
command bars on the PFD indicatesthe selected
pitch attitude.
When not engaged,the pitch referencemay also
be changed to the current pitch attitude by
pushing the SYNC switch except when in
overspeedor vertical capture modes.Engaging

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canactarr
Avionics/Electrical
Maintenance
TrainineManual

the autopilot of selecting XFER to pitch mode


synchonizes the pitch reference.

when the aircraft is operatingnear the transition


altitude.

Vertical Speed Mode

Pushing the concentric IAS/MACH pushbutton


in the the SPEED knob togglesbetweenIAS and
Mach modes.When switching modes,the initial
reference is set to a value corresponding to the
previous speedmode reference.

Vertical speedmode is selectedand cleared by


pushing the VS switch. Upon selection of VS
mode, the VS reference is set to the current
vertical speed.
Commands are generated to maintain the VS
reference value, except when using the
cross-side ADS; i.e., ADC reversion selected.
VS/pitch wheel rotation changes the VS
reference value by an amount proportional to the
maximum value of + 15 000 feet/minute
( t4560 meterVminute).
When using the cross-side ADS, the VS
referencecannotbe changed.The VS referenceis
reset to the current vertical speedwheneverthe
SYNC switch is pushedwhile the autopilot is not
engaged.
The VS/pitch wheel has no function when
glideslope is captured.
Vertical speedmode is automatically clearedby
selection or automatic capture of another vertical
mode.
The indicators at the side of the VS switch on
the FCP come on when vertical speed mode
is selected.
Speed Mode
General
Pushing the SPEED pushbutton switch on the
FCP selectsand clears either IAS or Mach speed
hold mode basedupon the aircraft altitude. If the
aircraft is below the IAS/Mach transition
pressurealtitude of 31 600 feet (9631.7 meters)
at the moment the SPEED switch is pushed,IAS
mode is selected.

Mach Mode
When the Mach mode is selected from a
condition other than IAS mode, the Mach
referenceis set to the current Mach. The current
speedreferenceis shown by the digital readoutin
the flight director annunciationareaon the PFD.
Commands are generated to maintain the Mach
reference value. The Mach reference can be
changed up to Mmo using the SPEED knob,
except when using the cross-side ADS. When
using the cross-side ADS, the Mach reference
cannot be changed.
The Mach referenceis resetto the current Mach,
up to Mmo, whenevertheSYNC switchispushed
while the autopilot is not engaged.
Mach mode is cleared by deselectionor manual
selectionor automaticcaptureof anothervertical
mode.
The indicators at the sides of the SPEED
pushbutton switch on the FCP come on when
Mach mode is selectedand annunciatesMach in
the vertical mode location of the PFD followed
by a digital readoutof the Mach referencevalue.
Mach OverspeedMode
Mach overspeedmode is automatically selected
when an overspeedof 0.03 Mach above Mmo
occurs while above the IAS/Mach transition
altitude. Upon automatic overspeedselection of
Mach mode, the previously active vertical mode
is cleared,and the Mach referenceis initially set
to a fixed bias of 0.02 Mach below Mmo.

The speed mode automatically transitions


between IAS and Mach as the aircraft climbs or
descends through the ffansition altitude. The
transition logic preventsnuisancemode changes

While an overspeedexists, the mach reference


never increases,but may decreaseto maintain the
minimum bias below Mmo.

TRAII{ING REFERENCE ONLY

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c,anacta,r'
AvionicVElectricalMaintenance
TrainingManual

When Mach overspeedmode is automatically


selected,it cannotbedeselected
until thecurrent
Machhasdecreased
to below Mmo.
The indicators at the side of the SPEED
pushbuttonswitch on the FCP come on when
Mach overspeed mode is selected and
annunciatesMach overspeedwith a flashing
yellow MACH andspeedreferenceon the PFD.
IASMode
When IAS mode is selectedfrom a condition
otherMachmode,theIAS referenceis setto the
current IAS. The current speed reference is
shownby thedigitalreadoutin theflight director
annunciation area on the PFD. Also, a
corresponding
speedreferencebugis shownnext
to the airspeedtapeon the PFD.
Commandsare generatedto maintain the IAS
referencevalue.The IAS referencevaluecanbe
changedup to VmousingtheSPEEDknobonthe
FCR except when using the cross-sideADS.
Whenusingthe cross-sideADS,IAS reference
cannotbe changed.
The IAS referenceis resetto the currentIAS, up
to Vmo wheneverthe SYNC switch is pushed
while the autopilotis not coupled.
IAS modeis clearedby deselectingthe modeor
by selection or automatic capture of another
verticalmode.
The indicators at the side of the SPEED
pushbuttonswitch comeon when IAS mode is
selectedand a green IAS is displayedin the
verticalmodelocationof the PFD followedby a
digital displayof the IAS referencevalue.
IASOverspeedMode
IAS overspeedmode is automaticallyselected
when an overspeedof 10 knots above Vmo
occurs, while below the Mach/IAS transition
altitude.Upon automaticoverspeedselectionof
IAS mode,thepreviouslyactiveverticalmodeis

TRAIMNG REFERENCE ONLY

cleared,andtheIAS referenceis initially setto a


fixed biasof 5 knots belowVmo.
When IAS overspeed mode has been
automaticallyselected,it cannotbe deselected
until thecurrentIAS hasdecreased
belowVmo.
The indicators on the sides of the SPEED
pushbuttonswitchontheFCPcomeon whenIAS
overspeedmode is selectedand annunciatesa
flashingyellow IAS andspeedreferencevalueon
thc PFD.
Altitude Hold Mode
Altitude hold mode is selectedand clearedby
pushingthe ALI pushbuttonswitchon theFCP.
Commands are generated to maintain the
pressurealtitudeexistingat the time of altitude
hold mode selection.The altitude referenceis
resetto thecurrentpressure
altitudewheneverthe
SYNCswitchis pushedwhile theautopilotis not
coupled.Altitude hold mode is automatically
clearedby selectionor automaticcaptureof
anotherverticalmode.
Theindicatorsat thesidesof theALT pushbutton
switch on the FCP comeon when altitudehold
mode is selectedand annunciatesALT in the
verticalcapturemodelocationon the PFD.
Altitude PreselectMode
Referto Figure25.
Altitude Selections
Altitudepreselectmode(AUIS) is automatically
armedwhen the altitude preselectorsettingis
changed,whenverticalgearound is cleared,or
when the flight director bars are initially
displayedon the PFD, exceptwhen they come
into view as a resultof overspeedor gearound
mode.
ALIS armed is cleared by altitude capture,
glideslopecapture,gearound selection,or when
the flight director bars are removed from the
PFD.
Altitude preselectarmedis annunciatedwith a
white AUIS in a dedicatedlocationof the PFD.

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Feb l3195

6,anacta,r
Avionics/Electrical
Maintenance
TraininsManual

ALT ERROR= +1000

AUTOMATIC
CANCEL
ALT ERROR= +200

DEVIATIONRANGE
-f1,

T2 = SECONDALERTTONE

I
@I=
EI

ALT ERBOR= +200

= PRESELECTDIGITSFI.ASHMAGENTA
PRESELECT
DIGITSFLASHYELLOW
= MAGENTA
RANGE
ACQUISITION

ALT ERROB= +1000

(r,
Y
o-t
x
6

AUIITUDE PRESELECTMODE
FIGURE 25

TRAIMNG REFERENCE ONLY

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Page77
Feb 13/95

6,anaEtarr
AvionicVElectricalMaintenance
TraininsManual

Altitude preselectcapture(AUIS CAP) occurs


when the flight path of the aircraft nears the
altitudesetwith the ALT selectknobon theFCP.
Capturedoesnot occurwhenthealerteris slewed
throughthe currentaltitude.
The capturepoint is a function of closurerate,
with the capturepoint moving away from the
preselectaltitude for high closurerates.After
capture,the previouslyactive vertical mode is
cleared.If the altitudecaptureoccurswhile the
VS/pitch wheel is in motion,the flight director
clearsaltitudecaptureandcontinuestheVS/pitch
wheeloperationwithout intemrption.
Barometric altitudes are used for AIiIS
computations.ALTS cap is annunciatedwith a
flashing greenALIS CAP in the vertical mode
locationofthePFD.AIjfS capmodeisclearedby
manualselectionor automaticcaptureof another
verticalmode.
During ALTS capturemaneuver,if the preselect
altitudeis changed,pitch modeis automatically
selectedandALTS modeis armed.

5. LATERAI,/VERTICALMODES
A. Approach Mode
VOR/LOC Approach
Approach mode is selectedand cleared by
pushingtheAPPRpushbuttonswitch.Approach
but
modearmseitherILS or VOR,whenselected,
doesnotcaptureif thenavigationdataselectedon
the PFD is invalid or when not within the
capturingrangeof the selectedcourse.
Prior to capture,the FCC operatesin heading
selectsubmode.Lateralapproachcapture,either
VOR or LOC, clearsthe half bankfunctionand
the headingselectsubmode.Localizer capture
also clearsturbulencemode. Approachmode,
either VOR or LOC, is cleared by manual
selectionof anotherlateralmode,or by changing
the sourceof the navigationsignal.
When flying a VOR, DR operationis provided
during VOR station passage.For VOR/DME
operation,the DR region is where the DME
distanceto thestationis small;e.g.,lessthan0.6
nauticalmiles.For VOR-only operation,DR is
basedon a high rateof VOR deviation.

Altitude captureswhich are cleared 'without


subsequentselectionof ALTS track or armed,
flashesa yellow AUIS in the dedicatedAUIS
armedlocation on the PFD.

When in approachmode while coupledand in


flight, the FCC inhibits test operationof the
LRU(s) sourcing the navigation signal
(VOR/LOC I and VOR/LOC 2) through the
inhibit signals.

ALTS Track

Glideslope

When the aircraft levels off at the preselected


altitude after ALIS capture,it goes into ALTS
Track.AUIS Track is annunciatedwith anALTS
in theverticalcapturemodelocationof thePFD.
AUIS Track is automaticallyclearedby manual
selectionor automaticcaptureof anothervertical
mode.If thepreselectaltitudeis changedwhile in
AUIS Track, ALT hold mode is automatically
selectedandALTS modeis rearmed.

TRAIMNG REFERENCE ONLY

TheonsideFCCarmsfor glideslopecaptureafter
a front courselocalizercapturein approachmode
if glideslopedata is valid. The offside FD also
requiresthe onsideglideslopeto capturebefore
arming for glideslope capture.At glideslope
capture, all other vertical modes are
automaticallycleared.When the onside FCC
capturesglideslope,theoffsideFCCgoestopitch
mode until glideslope capture. Glideslope
capture is cleared by back course, loss of
approach,or lossof localizer.

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Feb l3195

canactalr
TrainineManual
Avionics/Electrical
Maintenance

B.

Go-Around/Takeoff Mode

General
The go-around/takeoff mode is selected by
pushing the go-around/takeoff switches on the
throttle quadrant. Go-around/takeoff selection
turns on ttre flight directors and generatesa fixed
pitch up command in the vertical axis, and a
heading hold command in the lateral axis. The
fixed pitch up commandgeneratedin the takeoff
mode is +15"NU with the aircraft on the ground
and both engines running. The command
generated in the go-around/takeoff mode is
+10oNU while in the air.
In the capture locations of the PFD, lateral and
vertical takeoffare indicatedby the letters"TO",
and lateral and vertical go-around are indicated
by the letters "GA".
Selection of the go-around/takeoff switches
disengages the autopilot (but not the yaw
dampers) and clears all other modes. Lateral and
vertical go-around/takeoff may be cleared by
engagingthe autopilot orby selectingthe SYNC
switch operation. Both of theseselectionsresult
in automatic selection of pitch mode. Vertical
go-around/takeoffmayalsobe clearedby manual
selection or automatic capture of another vertical
mode.
Autopilot disengageannunciationresulting from
the go-around/takeoff selection, may be
cancelled by a second push of the
go-around/takeoff switch, or by pushing the
autopilot disconnectswitch.
Selecting the vertical go-around/takeoff mode,
switchesthe flight guidancecommandsto a dual
independent configuration and automatically
enters windshear guidancemode if low altitude
windshear is detected. If windshear detection
occurs while not in the go-around/takeoff mode,
windshear guidance occurs immediately upon
go-around/takeoffmode selection.
While on the ground (weight on wheels),
additional pushes of the go-around/takeoff

TRAINING REFERENCE ONLY

switch resynchronizesthe heading hold memory


to the current heading. The bank limit is
decreased ( * 5 degrees) when in lateral
go-around/takeoff.
NOTE: While in vertical take-offmode, with
the aircraft in the air, a failure of an
engine would automatically bring the
commandbars down to 10"NU on the
pitch scale.
Windshear Guidance
The windshear warning and recovery guidance
system provides windshear detection (caution
and warning) alerts and computed flight director
escape guidance during takeoff and approach
below 1500 feet radio altitude.
The PFD provides windshear alert annunciation
and displays an alpha margin indicator (AMD
when a windshear has been detected.The stall
protection computer provides the alpha margin
signal for displaying the AMI on the PFD.
The FCC provides the flight director windshear
escape guidance in response to the windshear
detection alert discretes from the ground
proximity warning system (GPWS).
When windshear guidance becomes active, the
FCC providesa pitch steeringsignalto the GPWS
to enable it to inhibit the ground proximity
warning alerts,except windshear.
Vertical windshear escape control laws are
provided by the FCC through the goaround control laws. It is the standardgearound
control laws modified when the windshear
guidance is active. Selection of gearound with
the GA/TO switch disengagesthe autopilot and
initiates windshearguidance.Vertical windshear
guidance is annunciated by "GA/WS" or
"TO/IVS" on the PFDs.
Roll connol, after initiation of windshearescape
guidance, is rolled out to wings level with the
gearound (GA) or take-off (TO) mode
annunciated.

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Feb l3l95

c,anactarr
AvionicslElectricalMaintenanceTraining Manual

On indicationof a valid windshearcautionalert


(exceedingthe increasingperformancelimits)
from the GPWS, the PFD displays an arnber
WINDSIIEAR. Any tansition into a windshear
warningis indicatedby a red WINDSIDAR.
The warning annunciationhas priority over the
cautionannunciation.
Both cautionandwarning
annunciations
arepositionedabovethenumerical
radio altitude readout on the PFD and have
priority overdecisionheight@H) annunciation.
On the first occurrenceof a valid windshear
warningfrom the GPWS,the EICAS initiatesa
WINDSIIEAR andrepeatsit three
voicemessage
times. Subsequentwindshearwarningsdo not
produceauralalerts.Aural alertsarenotprovided
for windshearcautions.
Windshearescapeguidanceis initiated in two
waysasfollows:
Alert initiated

Once initiated, windshearescapeguidanceis


latched,irrespectiveof the GPWS windshear
alertstatus.
The latch ensuresthat escapeguidanceis still
givenwhentheGA switchis pressed,evenif the
warning alert from the GPWShas ceased.The
latchedalert is resetwhen escapeguidanceis
entered,or groundlogic is set,or the windshear
monitoris invalid.
When escapeguidanceis initiated, all armed
vertical and lateral modes are cleared.Once
escapeguidanceis active,the crew may arm or
re-axrnanypitch or roll modes.
Once anothervertical mode has beenentered,
windshearescapeguidanceis clearedandis only
given againwhena new conditionfor initiating
it is met.

6. FLIGHT DIRECTOR
FT]NCTIONS

GA/TO switchinitiated.
Alert Initiated
Whenin gearound or take-offmodes,windshear
escapeguidanceis initiatedwhena warningalert
is givenif radio altitudeis lessthan 1500feet.
GAITOSwitchInitiated
When not in ge-around or take-off modes,
windshearescapeguidanceis initiatedwhenthe
GA/TO switchis pressed,providedthat the FCC
below15@feet
haslatcheda windshearwarning
radio altitude. The latch ensuresthat escape
guidanceis still givenwhentheGA/TO switchis
pressed,
evenif thewarningalertfromtheGPWS
Thelatchedalertis resetwhenescape
hasceased.
guidanceis entered,or groundlogic is set,or the
windshearmonitoris invalid.

TRAINING REFERENCE ONLY

A.

Sync Function

The flightdirector SYNC switchesarelocatedon


the outboard side of each control wheel. The
onsideflight director SYNC switch is usedwhen
the autopilot is not engagedto synchronize the
vertical and lateral references to those currently
being flown. The vertical reference synchronized
is as follows:
VERTICAL
REFERENCE

IS SYNCHRONIZEDIF
IN:

IAS

IAS SPEEDmode

MACH

MACH SPEEDmode

VS

VS mode

Altitude hold memory ALT hold mode


Pitch anglememory

22-00-00

PITCH mode

Page80
Feb 13/95

c,anactarr
TrainingManual
AvionicVElectricalMaintenance

The only lateral references synchronized are the


bank and heading memories of roll mode.
Vertical go around is cleared by SYNC switch
operation.Overspeedand vertical capturemodes
are not affected by SYNC switch operation.
The offside flight director SYNC switch is
functional only when the offside flight director is
independent, i.e., in approach and back course
modes.
Synchronization of any reference is annunciated
with a timed out yellow SYNC on the PFD.
B. Flight Director Functions
FD switches override the automatic on and off
logic of the flight directors. At power-up both
flight directors are off. The onside flight director
is turned on by engagingthe autopilot or selecting
a vertical or lateral mode. When autopilot
engagementturns on the flight director, pitch and
roll modes are automatically selected.
Anytime one flight director is on, the other flight
director can always be turned offby pushing the
FD switch. When the onside flight director is
turned off, it also turns off the other (offside)
flight director.
Both flight directors turn on automatically upon
selection of go-around mode, ild when a
significant overspeed occurs. Refer to Mach
Overspeed Mode and IAS Overspeed Mode,
above. Once a significant overspeedoccurs, the
flight directors cannot be turned off until the
overspeedcondition is corrected.

TRAINING REFERENCE ONLY

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Page8l
Feb 13/95

Eanacta'r
Avionics/ElectricalMaintenanceTraining Manual

C. ThansferFunction
Referto Figure26.
Transferis selectedand clearedby pushingthe
XFER pushbuftonswitch on the FCP.Transfer
modecontrolsthe routingof the flight guidance
commandsto the autopilotanddisplays.
At power-up the left flight directoris initially
usedto provideguidancecommandsto thePFDs
and the autopilot,if it is engaged.Selectingthe
transferfunction switchesthe flight directorin
commandto the right flight director. The right
flight directorthen beginsto provide guidance
commandsto the PFDsandautopilot.
Approach and back course modes switch the
flight guidancecommandsto a dualindependent
configuration. This means that although the
transfer function determined which flight
guidancecommandsare usedby the autopilot,
each display shows the flight guidance
commandsgeneratedby theflight directoron that
side.
When the transferfunction is transferredleft, a
yellow FD I is displayedon theright FD. When
the autopilotis coupled,a greenarrow pointing
left is displayedon both PFD.Whentransferred
right, a yellow FD 2 is displayedon the left PFD.
If theautopilotis coupled,a greenarrowpointing
right is displayedon bothPFDs.

TRAINING REFERENCE ONLY

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Page82
Feb 13/95

6'anaE arr
aEG,oN^Ll%fi

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Avionics/ElectricalMaintenanceTrainins Manual

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FIGTJRE26

ONLY
REFERENCE
TRATNTNG

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Page83
May 27196

E,anactarr
AvionicMElectrical
Maintenance
TrainingManual

AUTOPILOT
1.. GENERAL
Refer toFigure?T.
The autopilot is that part of the AFCS which
provides the control signals to drive the aileron
and elevator servosand horizontal stabilizer trim
in response to the flight guidance commands
from the flight director portion of the system.
The autopilot synchronizes to hold the mode
references, and follows the existing flight
director commands prior to engagement for
capture modes.
Modules in both flight control computers(FCC)
working together provide the redundant
computations to form the fail passive autopilot
and automatichorizontal stabilizertrim function.
Each FCC is comprisedof identical hardwareand
software. Each module containstwo dissimilar
microprocessorsand analog servo loops for each
of the threeaxis.
The pilot's flight director commands are
computed in one FCC and the copilot's in the
other. The crew selectsone set of flight director
commands to be coupled to the autopilot by
settingthe XFER pushbuttonswitch on the FCP.
The selectedflight director commandsare sentto
the attitude loops in both computers, where
identical computations are performed using the
data from independentsetsof sensors.
The aileron and elevatorservocommandsin each
module are sent to the analog servo loop where
they are mixed with independentservo position
signals derived from servo tachometers then
compared,voted, and torquelimited before being
sent to the servo motor.

TRAIMNG REFERENCE ONLY

Each FCC contains a main processor and an


input/output processor (VO processor). Using
two different processors provides dissimilar
softwareandhardwareredundancyfor protecting
the aircraft from hazardousfaults.
The VO processor accepts serial, analog, and
discreteinput data and storesit in a memory area
accessible to the main processor. The main
processor performs all the control laws and
operational computations. It then outputs data
back to the common memory area for serial
transmissionby the VO processor.
The servo and trim commands from the main
processorare output directly to the servo loop.
The VO processorindependentlymonitors raw
attitude and trim rate data for excessiveaircraft
responseor malfunctioning trim responseand
openshardwareswitchesin the servoloop or trim
circuitry to halt any malfunctioning commands
from the main processor.
The servocommandinputsfor all axis go through
switches which can zero the commands as a
function of measuredresponseto the aircraft.
Cutoutlogic operatesin all modesthroughoutthe
flight. The logic driving these switches are
containedin theVO processorin eachFCC where
they are independentfrom the normal command
path computedin the main processor.
The pitch computations are derived from dual
acceleration and pitch rate signals. The roll
computationsare derived from a combination of
dual attitude and attitude rate signals. These
computationsactivate the cutout switches when
values are excessive.

22-00-00

Page84
May 27196

canada//r'

r00|^)5

Avionics/Elcctrical
Maintenancc
TraininsManual

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AFCS_ SCHEMATIC
FIGURE27 (SHEET9)
'I'RA
INING RIiIIIIRENCBONLY

22-00-00

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AvionicyElectrical MaintenanceTraining Manual

The use of these cutout switches is not critical


sincethe normal commandpath in the processor
includes response limiting. Normal operation
(absence of hardware and software faults that
prevent the main processorfrom receiving valid
AHRS data)from only one of the fourprocessors
in the systemlimits the responseof the aircraft to
safelevels.
Redundantlimiting of the autopilot attitude loops
limits the aircraft responseresulting from flight
director malfunctions to a level that is no worse
than normal maneuvers.
All flight director mode changes, autopilot
engagement, and transfer are synchronized to
provide smooth transition between modes.
Magnitude and rate limiters are progftunmed into
the main processor to further enhance smooth
operation. Roll commands are limited to 4
degreesper secondroll rate and27 degreesbank.
Pitch commands are also pitch rate limited. The
g rate is also limited to ensure smooth low g
captures.
Autopilot can be engagedonly if both autopilot
monitors are valid, the autopilot disconnect
inputs are valid, and manual trim, go-around, and
the stall stick shaker are not activated. It is
necessaryfor the AP DISC switch bar to be in the
up position to engagethe autopilot.

2. SERVOCONTROLLOOP
THEORY OF OPERATION
Referto Figure28.
The servo(SVO) loop controlin eachof theaxis
arethe fastestrespondingfeedbackloopsin the
system.The SVO loop responseoperatesin all
modesthroughoutthe flight.
The main processor performs the FCC
theChannel
computationfunctionsandgenerates

TRAINING REFERENCE ONLY

A elevator,aileron, and rudder SVO commands.


The main processorsharesinformation with the
input/output (VO) processor.
Computed SVO commands are sent through a
digital to analog (D/A) converter to the three
SVO amplifier circuits. The commands are
removed by the VO processor during cutout
conditions. The applicable aileron or elevator
SVO amplifier processes this command and
applies a voltage to one of the SVO motor
terminals. The B channel of the SVO amplifier
(FCC no. 2) operates in the same way, but it
generatesa SVO motor commandthat is equal in
value but opposite in polarity to the channel A
command. The voltage differential at the two
motor terminals causes the motor to run as
desired.
The analogelevator SVO command is applied to
an inverting input of the summing amplifier. The
SVO RATE A analog feedback from the rate
generator in the elevator SVO is applied to a
noninverting input of the summing amplifier.
This SVO RATE A analogis integratedto derive
a SVG-position reference,which is applied to an
inverting input of the summing amplifier. The
result of this summing operation represents the
channel A SVO+rror correction required to
properly position the elevator SVO.
When the SVOmoves the aircraftelevatorsto the
angularposition specifiedby the computedSVO
command,the summing amplifierzeroes and the
SVO nulls. The SVO ERROR A voltage is sent
to the SVO monitor and midvalue voter circuits
in both FCCs.
The midvalue voter circuit compares the SVO
ERROR A voltage, SVO ERROR B voltage, and
ground. The voter sendsthe middle voltage level
to the torque limiter. The voter is a safety device
that prevents faults from causing rotation of
the SVO.

22-0V00

Page103
Feb13/95

Sz
AvionicVElectrical MaintenanceTraining Manual

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TRAINING REFERENCE ONLY

GRAM

22-00-00

Page104
Feb l3l95

6,anactarr
Avionics/Electrical
Maintenance
TrainingManual

The torquelimiter functionswith the torquerate


limiter to generateandsendprogrammedtorque
commandvoltagesto the power amplifier.The
torquelimiter limits thepeakcommandvoltage.
The torque rate limiter integratesthe voltage
inputto causeit to build at a preciselycontrolled
rate.Theresultingprogrammed
torquecommand
voltageis poweramplifiedand sentasthe SVO
MOTOR A voltageto pin Pl-B of the elevator
SVO.TheSVOMOTORAvoltageisalsosentto
theSVO monitorandto thecross-channel
FCC.
The power amplifier converts the torque
commandvoltage input to a currentoutput to
drivetheSVOmotor.Whenno inputis sentto the
amplifier,the outputis set at approximately14
volts DC, or half of the 28 volt DC busvoltage.
Sinceboth motor terminalsare at 14 volts DC,
thereis no motor current.
.When a nonzerotorque commandis sent, the
power amplifier converts this voltage to a
specificSVOmotordrivecurrent.Because
theB
Channel SVO command is of the opposite
polarity,onepoweramplifier sourcescurrentand
other sinks current.The resultingcurrentflow
causesthe motor to run in the corresponding
directionuntil the SVO ratefeedbackequalsthe
computedSVOcommand(plusposition)andthe
amplifiernulls.
The SVO-85 B elevator SVO and SMT
SVO mount function as a precise drive
mechanismto contol the displacementof the
aircraft primary elevatorconffol surfaces.
The SVO consists of a permanentmagnet
DC motor, a dual rate generator,an electromechanical engage clutch, and a precision
multistagegeartrain.TheSVOmountconsistsof
an overridesafety slip clutch and a capstanthat
connectsthe SVO to the aircraft control surface.

TRAINING REFERENCE ONLY

Seryemotor drive is sentfrom both channelsof


the servo amplifier as previously described.
ChannelA motor drive is provided by the left side
FCC, and Channel B motor drive is provided by
the right side FCC. The voltage differential
across the motor leads causescurrent to flow,
which turns the servo motor.
When the motor operates,the dual rate generator
also turns a corresponding amount. This
generator provides two individual feedback
ouputs to the FCC servo amplifier circuits. The
SVO RATE A output is sent to a summing
amplifier in the left sideFCC, andthe SVO RATE
B output is sent to a summing amplifier in the
right side FCC.
When the autopilot is engaged, 28 volt DC
engage clutch power is sent from the FCP to
energizethe SVO clutch coil. When this coil is
energized, the clutch couples the motor torque
through the precision gear train to turn the
capstan. The capstan mechanically moves the
linkage connectedto the aircraft control surface.
The aileron servo amplifier circuits are identical
to thosedescribedfor the elevator amplifier. The
main microprocessor generates aileron servo
commands and sends them to the summing
amplifier. This circuit sendsthe Channel A motor
drive to the aileron servo.
The aileron SVO-85A servo and its associated
SMT mount conffol the displacement of the
aircraft primary aileron control surfaces.
The rudder (yaw damper) SLV-4000 actuator
controls the displacement of the aircraft primary
mdder control surface. The computed servo
command is sent through a digital to analog
convefter to the rudder servo error circuit.
Command is removed by the input/output
processorduring cutout conditions. The enabled
rudder seryo eror circuit processes this
command and sends a yaw damper (YD) drive
signal to the rudder actuator.

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6,anactarr
AvionicVElectrical MaintenanceTraining Manual

The analog rudder servo command is sent


throughthecutoutswitchto aninverting input of
the summing amplifier. The analog YD
POSHON A feedbackfrom the SVL position
transducer is sent to the position amplifier
(inverter).Theamplifier sendsthepositionsignal
to the cutout position amplifier and to the
inverting input of the summingamplifier.
The resultof this summingoperationrepresents
the ChannelA servoerror correctionrequiredto
properly position the rudder linear actuator.
When the actuatormovesthe aircraft rudder to
the angularpositionspecifiedby the computed
servo command,the summingamplifier zeroes
andthe sewonulls.
If a fault is detectedin the ruddercomputations,
the input/ouQut processoroperatesthe rudder
seryo cutout switch. The cutout position
amplifierinvertsandamplifiesthepositionsignal
by a smallamount.This CUTOUT SVO CMD is
sent through the cutout switch to the summing
amplifier.The CUTOUT SVO CMD signal is
slightly greater than the position signal and
causesthe rudder to slowly move to the center
(neutral)position.
The SVL-4000 linear actuator operatesas a
precise drive mechanism to control the
displacement of the aircraft rudder control
surfaces. The SVL consists of a permanent
magnetDC motor,a positiontransducer,a brake,
anda precisiongeartrain.
YD DRIVE A is sent from the servo error
amplifier aspreviouslydescribed.Whenthe yaw
damperis engaged,
a 28 volt DC YDI ENGAGE
signal releasesthe brake. The actuator ram
extendswhenthe YD DRI- A voltageis more
negativethantheYD DRIVE A reference.When
the actuator ram is extended, the position
transduceroutput (YD POSHON A) is more
positive than the YD POSITION A reference.
feedbackto the
Thepositiontransducerprovides
FCC servo error circuit. The YD POSHON A
outputis sentto a positionamplifier in the left
sideFCC.

TRAINING REFERENCEONLY

3. ATTITUDE LOOPS
Theattitudecontrolloopsaredesignedto provide
a fail passiveautopilotsystemwhichis protected
against internal single faults and limits any
malfunctioningcommandappliedto the input of
the attitudeloopsto a conffolledresponse.
Thepitchandroll attitudeloopsarecomprisedof
dual independentlimiters, one in each FCC,
which acceptcommandsfrom a single flight
director.The attitude commandfrom the flight
director (pitch and roll only) is therefore the
worstcasesinglepoint failurein thesystem.The
attitudecommandlimits are4 degreespersecond
in roll and3 degreespersecondor 0.2g's in pitch.
In approach, the pitch command limits are
increased.
Each FCC contains complete attitude loop
computationsthat oulput a servo command
which is mixed with servoposition.It is voted
with the command in the opposite computer
beforebeingappliedto the servo.
Singlefaultsinternalto theattitudeloopsor in the
attitudesensorswhich causeerrorsto occur in
one channelare voted out by the voting placein
the servoloop. The avoid exposureto multiple
fault sequence,dual comparatorsmonitor the
servo commandsand disengagethe autopilot if
they do not agree.
The attitudeloop computationsareperformedin
the main processor, which outputs servo
commandsdirectly to the servoloop.
The VO processor performs the cutout
computations
describedearlierandis capableof
vetoingthe main processorcommands.Normal
operation including single failures does not
requirethecutoutfunction.However,it provides
a dissimilarredundantsoftwarecomputationto
protecttheaircraftin theeventof a softwareerror
in the main processor.
Both signal processing channels accept an
attitude command from the flight guidance
computations and are independentfrom the
selectedmode.

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AvionicVElectrical
Maintenance

Engagesynchronizationoccursindependentlyin
both FCCs to ensurethat stepinputs are not into
the servo system.
Flight director commands are limited in each
FCC to ensure that no commands causing an
excessiveaircraft responseare allowed to occur.
Mode synchronization in the flight director
occurs to prevent any stepsfrom being input to
the attitude loops. This synchronization is not
critical to flight safety but ensuressmooth mode
transitions without deviation from the intended
flight path.
The worst case failures in the single flight
director computations result in at worst a
command limited by the dual attitude limiters.
Manual inputs to the autopilot are allowed
through the VS/pitch wheel. These commands
are input prior to the dual flight director
command limiters so they can be no worse than
the statedflight director faults.

TRAIMNG REFERENCE ONLY

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AvionicVElectricalMaintenanceTrainins Manual

4. AUTOMATIC PITCH TRIM


Referto Figure29.
Automaticpitch trim is providedwheneverthe
autopilot is coupled. Both FCCs function
together to apply trim control through the
HSTCU which drives the horizontalstabilizer
trim actuator(HSTA).
Automatic control of the aircraft trim systemis
includedin the FCCs.This control consistsof
dualcomputations
which measureelevatorservo
torqueandcommandtrim speedin proportionto
torque being held by the servo to relieve the
forceson the elevatorsurface.
whilethe
OneFCCoutputstrim speedcommands
otherFCCperformsanidenticalcomputationand
ouQutsa trim commandwhich doesnot contain
speedinformation.Both FCCsmust signalthe
needfor trim beforeany trim activity occurs.The
FCC responsiblefor the trim speedcommand
dependson which directionof trim is required.
Trim monitoring is accomplishedin the VO
processorindependentfrom the main processor
which generatesthe trim commands.The VO
processormonitorsthe trim commandsissuedby
the main processor,trim rate feedbackfrom the
HSTCU,andelevatorservotorqueto detectfor
thefollowing enoneousoperations:
Trim is being commandedby the FCC
whenno torqueis beingheldby the
elevatorseryo
The polarity of the trim rate feedbackfrom
theHSTCUis in oppositedirectionto FCC
trim commands
Trim output hardwarehasfailed suchthat
by
continuoustrim is beingcommanded
the FCCs
No trim is occurringwhenthe FCCsare
requestingtrim.
If any of the above conditions are detected,
activatetheAPTRIMFAIL signal,
computations
and
whichissenttotheEICAStopostamessage,

TRAINING REFERENCEOI\LY

the HSTCU to indicatethe failure.For the first


threefailureslistedabove,thesystemdeactivates
a relaywhich takesthemainprocessorout of the
loop, stoppingfurthertrim action.
The autopilot monitoring is performedbefore
Failuresdetected
andafterautopilotengagement.
prior
to autopilotengagement
by the monitors
failuresdetected
preventsautopilotengagement,
causethe HSTCU to
after autopilotengagement
cease operation, but the autopilot remains
engaged.All detectedfailuresare annunciated
with a messageon EICAS.
A testof the trim systemis performedeverytime
the autopilot is engaged.Trim outputs are
exercisedto detecthardwarefailure.If theseare
found, the FCC preventsautotrim engagement
the trim fail on theEICAS.
andannunciates
The HSTCU and FCC are integratedwith each
otherto operatealongthe following logic:
Trip up arm andtrim up commandsignals
mustbothbe valid for theHSTCUto
commandtheHSTA.Lack of eithersignal
shutsoff trim motion.
Trim down arm and trim down command
signalsmustbothbe valid for the HSTCU
to commandthe HSTA.Lack of either
signalshutsofftrim motion.
Autopilot trim operationis inhibited with
the absenceof elevatorservoclutch power,
or by the lack of autopilotengagelogic.
The HSTCUprovidesmanualtrim signals
to the autopilot,which causesthe autopilot
whenthe pilot
to automaticallydisengage
usesmanualtrim.
Autopilot trim fail signalsareprovidedto
the HSTCUto indicateanyfailures
detectedby the autopilotpitch trim
monitors.Activationof the signalcauses
the HSTCUto ceasecommandingtrim.

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Feb l3195

6,anada,r
AvionicsiElectrical
TrainingManual
Maintenance

TR|M FA|L (A)

UP(B)
ooMMAND
(A)
TR|MD]SENGAGE
MANUAL
TRIMRATEHiLA
ARMuP (A)

TR|MFA|L(B)
ooMMANDUP (A)
(B)
MANUALTR|MDTSENGAGE
TRIMRATEH/L B
ARMUP (B)
CANADAIRRJ
HSTCU

AUTOMATIC PITCH TRIM


FIGIJRE 29

TRAINING REFERENCE ONLY

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Page109
Feb l3195

Avionics/ElectricalMaintenanceTraining Manual

YAWDAMPER
1. GENERAL
Each FCC in the IAPS containsa yaw damper
function, making it a dual channelsystem.It
operatesindependentlyof the automatic flight
system.Itsuppliesyaw damping,turn entry,turn
exit, and steady-stateturn coordinationfor the
full flight envelope.Each FCC commandsits
own linearactuator.
The movementfrom the two linear actuatorsis
mechanicallysummedthrougha walking beam
structure which driv.eshydraulic valves that
move the nrdder. Due to this arrangement,a
single yaw damper can command rudder
movement,eventhoughbothyaw damperswork
together.
The travelof the linear actuatoris mechanically
limited to 10.3 inch which correspondsto
t3 degrees of rudder for dual yaw damper
operationand+1.5 degreesof rudderfor single
yaw damper operation. In addition, the yaw
damper commandsto the linear actuatorsare
limitedto *0.285 inch.
Eachyaw damperis selectedthroughpushbutton
switcheson theyaw damperpanel.A singleyaw
damperdisconnect
pushbuttonswitchon theyaw
damper panel disengagesthe engaged yaw
damper(s).The autopilot function can engage
only whenat leastone yaw damperis selected.
The autopilot automaticallydisengageswhen
both yaw dampers are either manually or
automaticallydisengaged.

2. COMPONENT DBTAILS
A. Yaw Damper Panel
Referto Figure30.
The yaw damperpanelis installedin the center
pedestalandsecuredwith four turnlockfasteners.
There is one rear electrical connector which

TRAINING REFERENCE ONLY

suppliestheelectricalinterfacewith theFCCand
the yaw damperlinearactuators.
The yaw damper panel has two momentary
pushbuttonswitcheswith the legendsYD I and
YD 2, respectively.They independentlyengage
eachchannelof the yaw damper.Thereis alsoa
momentarypushbuttonswitch labelled DISC
whichis usedto disengage
theyawdampermode.
B. Yaw Damper Linear Actuator
Referto Figure18.
Therearetwo linear actuators(onefor eachyaw
damperchannel).The actuatorsare installed in
the verticalstabilizer.
Eachlinearactuatorhasa brushlessDC motor,a
ball screwoutputraln,a motoroperatedsolenoid
brake,andan LVDT.

3. OPERATION
The dual independent
yaw damperssupplyyaw
dampingand turn coordination.Yaw damping
makes aircraft longitudinal stability better by
damping oscillationsin the yaw axis. These
oscillations,if not corrected,causedutch roll.
The turn coordinationfunction helpsthe aircraft
into andout of turns.
The yaw damper channels can be engaged
togetheror separately.
It is necessary
for oneyaw
damper channel to be active to engagethe
autopilot.Both yaw damperscan be engaged
independentlyof the autopilotthroughthe yaw
damperpanel.
The YD I pushbuttonswitchon the yaw.damper
panelengageschannel1. The YD 2 pushbutton
switch engageschannel2. T\e yaw dampers
engageif the FCC finds no unusualattitudesor
rates.

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Pagell0
Feb l3l95

6,anaEtarr
TrainingManual
AvionicVElectricalMaintenance

@@ mm@
YAW DAMPER PANEL - LOCATION
FIGURE30

TRAINING REFERENCE ONLY

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Febl3l95

canadarr
TrainineManual
AvionicVElectricalMaintenance

When the yaw damper is engaged,the FCC


monitorsfor aircraftyawing.If aircraftyawingis
found,theFCCsendsyaw dampingsignalsto the
two linear actuatorsin the vertical stabilizer.
Theyawdampingsignalis appliedtotheactuator
motor,which extendsor retractsthe outputram.
The LVDTs measurethe position of the output
rod, andsendthis positionsignalto the FCC for
controlfunctions.
To disengage
theyaw dampers,the DISC switch
on the yaw damperpanel is pushed.When the
DISC switchis pushed,the input voltageto the
actuatormotor decreasesto 0 volt DC. This
causesthebraketo set,whichpreventsoutputram
channel.
movementfor the disengaged
Disengagementof the two yaw dampersalso
autopilot. Automatic
disengages the
of a yaw damper occurs if a
disengagement
failure condition is detected while the FCC
monitors the yaw damper.The primary flight
displayshowsayellow YD symbolwhentheyaw
damperis disengaged.
A. Yaw Damper Monitoring
Referto Figure31.
Theyaw damperpositioncommandis calculated
by the control laws in the main processorand is
senttotheservoloop.Thecommandis compared
to the actualposition fed backfrom the actuator
to produceanerror signal.This signalthendrives
the actuatoruntil its position matchesthat of the
command.
An excessiveerror signal or position at the
of the
mechanicalstop causesdisengagement
respectiveyaw damper.

TRAINING REFERENCE ONLY

22-00-00

Pagell2
Feb 13/95

tr,anad,arr
TrainingManual
Maintenance
AvionicVElectrical

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FIGURE 31

TRAIMNG REFERENCE ONLY

22-00-00

Pagell3
Feb 13/95

Avionics/ElectricalMaintenanceTraining Manual

B. SingleYaw Damper Operation


Referto Figure32.
When operatingwith a single yaw damper,the
gainis doubledto maintainthe desiredposition.
However,maximum rudder travel is reduced
by half.

#1 SENSORS

,----J---.r

lr

WALKING: i RUDDER
^,
BEAM-i--4
---1'---r

ll

L-------

#2SENSORS
COMMAND

a
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ts

4RFRAME-I

+YAWDAMPET

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oi

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N

RI.'DDER SUBSYSTEM- FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM


FIGURE 32

TRAIMNG REFERENCE OI{LY

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a

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Feb 13/95

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AvionicVElectricalMaintenanceTrainins Manual

THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

TRAIMNG REFERENCE ONLY

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Page115
Feb l3l95

6,anacta,'Avionics/Electrical
Maintenance
TrainingManual

FCSDIAGNOSTICS
1. GENERAL
The FCS diagnosticsprovidea meansto isolate
faultswithin theFCS.Thediagnosticsareusedif
an autopilotor flight directorproblemexiststhat
cannot be isolatedafter viewing the avionics
statuspage.The FCSdiagnosticsarecontrolled
by theFCCsandnot by the MDC.
AFCSdiagnostics
consistof threebasicmodesas
follows:
Input mode- displaysselectedinputsto
thc FCCS
Reportmode- displaysselectedinternal
FCC monitor information
Outputmode- displaysandcontrol
selectedFCC outputs.

AP engagecode - an attempt to engagethe


autopilot failed
AP disengagecode - an abnormal autopilot
disengageoccurred
YD engage- an attempt to engage the yaw
damper failed
YD disengagecode - an abnormal yaw
damper disengageoccurred.
The MDC records the diagnostic codes in
nonvolatile memory thus allowing retrieval of
these codes after the aircraft is powered down.
The FCC diagnostic codesrecordedduring flight
are available for display on the avionics fault
history page. This display provides historical
information on fault sequences from several
flight legs.

Eithertheleft, right,orbothFCCscanbeputinto
diagnosticmodeby theuseof the appropriateFD
pushbuttonswitch. When the FD pushbutton
gooff
switchisset,all AFCSmodeannunciations
from the correspondingPFD.

Whether FCC diagnostic codes can be recorded


during a flight dependson the number of LRU
faults the MDC can record during a given flight
and the number of faults already recordedwhen
the diagnostic codesare sent.

The FCC that is in diagnosticmode drives the


MFD display.Whenboth FCCsarein diagnostic
mode,theAPXFRpushbuttonswitchontheFCP
is usedto selectwhichFCCprovides
displaydata
to the MFD. A blue arrowon the diagnosticpage
indicateswhich FCC is driving the display.

Refer to Figure 33 forproceduresto enterandexit


AFCS diagnostics.

The FCC computersdo not storediagnosticsin


nonvolatile memory.The FCC computersbegin
recording dataat power-up and retain this data
only while powerremainson. It is importantto
record all six digits of any nonzero code for
REPAIR,AP DIS, AP ENG, YD DIS, YD ENG,
and STEERcodesbeforepower shutdown.
Certain FCC diagnostic codes are sent to the
TheFCCsendsthe
MDC forrecordingpurposes.
following codesto theMDC:
Repaircode- a nonzerorepair code
existedwhenweighton wheelsoccurred

TRAIMNG REFERENCE ONLY

2. REPORT MODE
Referto Figure33.
To enterthereportmode,performthefollowing:
1. Set pilot reversionarysourceselectswitch
locatedbehindpilot's seatto MAINT. The
MFD displaystheMAINTENANCE MENU
page.
2. Move the MFD cursor to the FCC
DIAGNOSTICS position using the BRG
pushbuttonswitcheson the display control
panel.
3. Pressthe RDR pushbuttonswitch on the
display control panel to select FCC
DIAGNOSTICS.TheMFD displaystheFCC
DIAGNOSTICSinstructionpage.

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c,anacta'r'
TrainingManual
Maintenance
AvionicVElectrical

ENTERFCSDIAGNOSTICS:
to the MAINTposition.
o Turnthe pilotreversionary
sourceselectsvttitch
on the MFD'
MENUpageis displayed
TheMAINTENANCE
.

positionusingthe DCPBRG
Movethe cursortothe FCCDIAGNOSTICS
pointerselectswitches.Pushthe DCPRDRbuttonto selectFCCDIAGNOSTICS.

page.Turnthe DCPFORMATknobone
o The MFDdisplaysan instruction
detentwhilepushingthe DCPRDRbutton.Thistransferscontrolof the MFD
displayfromthe MDCto the FCC.
on howto enterFCCdiagnostics:
tn" MFDdisptaysinstructions
.
the autopilot.
1. Disengage
pushanytwo FCPmodeselectbuttonsandthe FD
2. Simultaneously
buttonand holdfor onesecond'The REPORTMODEdiagnostic
pageis thendisPlaYed
on the MFD.
pushanytwo FCPmodeselectbuttonsto cycle
3. Simultaneously
throughthe REPORTMODE,INPUTMODE,andOUTPUTMODE
diagnosticpages.
EXITFCSDIAGNOSTICS:
o Simultaneously
pushanythreeFCPmodeselectbuttonsto exitFCC
DIAGNOSTICS.
o Turnthe DCPFORMATknobonedetentwhilepushingthe DCPRDRbutton.
Thistransferscontrolof the MFDdisplayfromthe FCCto the MDC.
MENUpage.
The MFDdisplaysthe MAINTENANCE

a
@

B
st
Y
a

!r
x
6

N
E

ENTERING FCC DIAGNOSTICSPAGES


FIGURE33

TRAINING REFERENCE ONLY

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Febl3l95

Eanacra'r
AvionicVElectricalMaintenanceTrainins Manual

4. Pressandhold theRDR switchandrotatethe


FORMAI knob on the displaycontol panel
onedetent.This actiontransfers
controlof the
MFD displayfrom the MDC to theFCC.The
MFD then displaysinstructionson how to
enterFCC diagnostics.
5. Disengageautopilot.
6. Push and hold any two FCP mode select
pushbuttonswitchesand the FD pushbutton
switch for I second.The REPORTMODE
diagnosticpage is then displayedon the
MFD.
7. PushanyFCPmodeselectbuttonto movethe
cursorto the next line.
8. Turn the FCP pitch wheel to changethe
parameternext to the cursor.
pressingany two FCPmode
9. Simultaneously
selectpushbutton
switchescyclesthroughthe
REPORT MODE, INPUT MODE, and
OUTPUTMODE diagnosticpages.
10.Pressthe left FD pushbuttonswitchfor the
left FCCrepaircodesummary.Presstheright
FD pushbutton switch for the right FCC
repair code summary.Pressingeither switch
a secondtime returnsto the reportmode.
11.Pressandhold the left FD pushbuttonswitch
for 3 secondsto manuallyclear the left side
reportmodedata.The sameactionwith the
right FD pushbuftonswitch clearsthe right
sidereport mode data.
12.Simultaneouslypush any two FCP mode
selectpushbuttonswitchesto selectinput
mode.
To exit AFCS diagnostics, perform the
following:
l. Simultaneouslypressany three FCP mode
selectpushbuttonswitches.
2. Pressandhold theRDR switchandrotatethe
FORMAI knob one detent. Control of the
MFD is tansferred from the FCC to the

TRAIMNG REFERENCE ONLY

MDC.
The
MFD
displays the
MAINTENANCE MENU pageon theMFD.
Referto Figure34.
The reportmodeprovidesa reporton the internal
flight control system monitoring activity
performedby the FCC computers.
The report mode diagnosticpage displaysfive
lines of reportparameters.
Eachline containsa
pararnetername,a LEFT diagnosticcode,anda
RIGHT diagnosticcode.FCP modepushbutton
switchesselectreportmodeoperations.
The name column lists five report mode
parameters.
TheLEFT codecolumndisplaysthe
hexadecimalcodefrom theFCCNo.l computer.
The RIGHT code column displays the
hexadecimalcodefrom theFCCNo.2 computer.
Parameternamesthat denoteerrorsindicatedthe
total numberof errors that have occurredsince
power-up.
The most useful report mode parametersare
describedbelow:
The REPAIRCODE summarizesall errors
detecledby theFCC monitors.This code
collectsdataon all eventsthat occur after
power-up.If the REPAIRCODE is
nonzero,Figure34 describesthe displayed
code.If thecodeis 000000.no faults have
beendetected.
The AP DIS CODEexplainswhy the
autopilotdisengaged
itself.If the AP DIS
CODE is nonzero,Figure34 describesthe
code.This codenamesall conditionsthat
arecurrentlypreventingthe AP engage.
The AP ENG CODEexplainswhy the
autopilotdoesnot engage.Ifthe AP ENG
CODE is nonzero,Figure34 describesthe
code.This codenamesall conditionsthat
arecurrentlypreventingtheAP engage.

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controlsystem
monitoring
The reportmodeprovidesa reporton the internalflight
activityperformedby the FCCcomputers.The reportmodediagnosticpage
displaysfive linesof reportparameters.Eachlinecontainsa parametername,
code. FCPmodebuttonsselect
a LEFTdiagnostic
code,anda RIGHTdiagnostic
reportmodeoperations.

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REPORT
. MODE DIAGNOSTICPAGE
FIGURE 34

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TrainineManual

The YD DIS CODEexplainswhy the yaw


damperdisengaged
itself.If the YD DIS
CODEis nonzero,Figure34 describesthe
code.This codelatchesto identify the
causeof thelastdisengage.
The YD ENG CODEexplainswhy
theyaw damperdoesnot engage.If the YD
ENG CODEis nonzero,Figure34
describesthe code.This codenamesall
conditionsthat arecurrentlypreventingthe
YD engage.
The STEERCODEexplainswhy flight
directortail (FD) is annunciated
on the
PFD.If thESTEERCODEiSNONZCTO,
Figure34 describesthe code.This code
namesall conditionsthat arecurrently
causingthe flight directorto fail.
The left MFD is manuallyclearedof reportmode
codes by pressing and holding the left FD
pushbuttonswitchon theFCC.Theright MFD is
manually cleared of report mode codes by
pressingand holding the right FD pushbutton
switchon theFCC.
The cursoralwaysdisplaysat theleft edgeof the
name column. The cursor indicates which
pararneterline is active.The FCPpitch knob can
be usedto selectparameters.Pushingany FCP
modeselectpushbuttonswirchmovesthe cursor
to the nextline.
T[rning the FCP pitch wheel changes the
pararneterdisplayedon the cursoredline to the
previous or next item in the report mode
parameterlist. The report mode parametersare
listed in alphanumericorder.

Pushingtheright FD pushbuttonswitchdisplays
an explanationof the code displayed in the
RIGHT columnof thecursoredline. Operationis
asdescribedfor the LEFT columnabove.
Simultaneouslypushing any two FCP mode
selectpushbuttonswitchescycletheMFD to the
nextFCSdiagnosticmode.Whenthepushbutton
switchesare pushedin report mode, the MFD
displaysthe input modediagnosticpage.
Simultaneouslypushing any three FCP mode
select pushbutton switches exits FCC
diagnostics.Turning the display control panel
FORMAT knob one detent while pushing the
RDR pushbutton switch displays the
maintenance
menupageon theMFD.
The radar mode line annunciatesthe radar
receiver/transmitter operating mode. TCAS
messages
may annunciatebelowthis line by the
right edgeof thedisplay.
The display sourceindicator is an arow that
points left or right to indicate which FCC is
providingdisplaydatato theMFD. Notethatboth
left andrightFcc datadisplay,but only oneFCC
actuallytransmitsASCtr text to the MFD.

3. INPUT MODB
Referto Figure35.
To entertheinput mode,performthe following:
1. Set pilot reversionarysourceselectswitch
located behind pilot's seat to MAINT.
The MFD displays the MAINTENANCE
MENU page.

Pushingtheleft FD buttondisplaysa shortsimple


Englishexplanationof the codedisplayedin the
LEIT column of the cursoredline. This is a
dynamicdisplayandupdatesasthecodechanges.

2. Move the MFD cursor to the FCC


DIAGNOSTICS position using the BRG
pushbuttonswitcheson the display control
panel.

The lines of explanationdisplay in order of


priority (topline is highestpriority).If morethan
oneproblemexists,the highestpriority problem
shouldbesolvedfirst. Thatway,relatedproblems
may alsodisappear.

3. Press the RDR pushbutton switch on


the display control panel to select FCC
DIAGNOSTICS.TheMFD displaystheFCC
DIAGNOSTICSinstructionpage.

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The inputmodedisplaysa readoutof selectedsignalscomingintothe FCC. This


usefulforisolatingafailedLRUthatsuppliesdatato the FCC.
modeis especially
pagedisplaysfive linesof inputsignals.Eachline
The inputmodediagnostic
containsthe signalname,a LEFTValue,a RIGHTvalue,and a unitof measure
(if applicable).FCP modeselectbuttonsand pitchwheelselectthe inputmode
operations.

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INPUT MODE DIAGNOSTICPAGE


FIGURE 35

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4. PressandholdtheRDR switchandrotatethe
FORMATknob on the displayconrol panel
onedetent.Thisactiontransfers
controlof the
MFD displayfrom the MDC to the FCC.The
MFD then displaysinstructionson how to
enterFCC diagnostics.
5. Disengageautopilot.
6. Push and hold any two FCP mode select
pushbuttonswitchesand the FD pushbunon
switch for I second.The MFD displaysthe
REPORTMODE diagnosticpage.
7. Simultaneouslypress any two FCP mode
select pushbuttonswitchesto display the
INPUT MODE diagnosticpage.
8. PushanyFCPmodeselectbuttonto movethe
cursorto thenextline.
9. Tum the FCP pitch wheel to changethe
parameternext to the cursor.
performthesesteps:
To exit AFCS diagnostics,
1. Simultaneouslypressany three FCP mode
selectpushbuttonswitches.
2. Pressand hold the RDR switch and rotate
the FORMAI knob one detent.Control of
the MFD is transferredfrom the FCC to
the MDC. The MFD displays the
MAINTENANCE MENU pageon the MFD.
The input mode displays a readoutof selected
signalscoming into the FCC. The input mode
diagnostic page displays five lines of input
signals.Eachline containsthe following:
Signalname
LEFT value
RIGHT value
Unit of measure(if applicable).
FCP mode selectpushbuttonswitchesand pitch
wheelselectthe input modeoperations.
The name column lists five input signals.The
LEFIT column displays the signal value at the

TRAINING REFERENCE ONLY

input of the No. I FCC computer.The RIGHT


columndisplaysthe signalvalueat the input of
the No. 2 FCC computer.Dashesare displayed
insteadof a signalvalueif that input is missing,
invalid, or not used. (No systemuses every
parameter.).
Thecursoralwaysdisplaysat theleft edgeof the
namecolumn.The cursorindicateswhich signal
line is active.

4. OUTPUTMODE
Referto Figure36.
To enterthe outputmode,performthefollowing
steps:
1. Set pilot reversionarysourceselectswitch
locatedbehindpilot's seatto MAINT. The
MFD displaystheMAINTENANCE MENU
page.
2. Move the MFD cursor to the FCC
DIAGNOSTICS position using the BRG
pushbuttonswitcheson the display control
panel.
3. Press the RDR pushbuttonswitch on the
display control panel to select FCC
DIAGNOSTICS.TheMFD displaystheFCC
DIAGNOSTICSinstructionpage.
4. Pressandhold the RDR switchandrotatethe
FORMAI knob on the displayconfrol panel
onedetent.Thisactiontransferscontrolof the
MFD displayfrom the MDC to theFCC.The
MFD displaysinstructionson how to enter
FCC diagnostics.
5. Disengageautopilot.
6. Push and hold any two FCP mode select
pushbuttonswitchesand the FD pushbutton
switch for I second.The REPORTMODE
diagnosticpageis displayedon the MFD.
7. Simultaneouslypress any nvo FCP mode
select pushbuttonswitchesto display the
OUTPUTMODE diagnosticpage.

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The outputmodeprovidesreadoutand controlof selectedFCC outputs.The output


featureof this modeis enabledonlywhenboth FCC'sarein diagnostic
controlling
modeandthe aircraftis on the ground.The outputmodediagnosticpagedisplays
five linesof outputsignals. Eachlinecontainsthe signalname,LEFToutput,RIGHT
output,and modityoptions(if applicable).Linekeysselectthe outputmodeoperations.

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OUTPUT MODE DIAGNOSTIC PAGE


FIGURE 36

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8. PushanyFCPmodeselectpushbuttonswitch
to movethe cursorto thenextline.
9. Turn the FCP pitch wheel to changethe
parameternext to the cursor.
To exit AFCS diagnostics, perform the
following:
l. Simultaneouslypressany threeFCP mode
selectpushbuttonswitches.
2. Pressandhold the RDR switchandrotatethe
FORMAI knob one detent. Control of the
MFD is ransferred from the FCC to the
MFD
displays the
MDC.
The
MAINTENANCE MENU pageon theMFD.
The output modeprovidesreadoutandcontrol of
selectedFCC ouputs. The output controlling
featureof this mode is enabledonly when both
FCCsarein diagnosticmodeandtheaircraftis on
the ground. The ouqputmode diagnosticpage
display five lines of output signals.Each line
containsthe following:
Signalname
LEFT output
RIGHT output
Modify options(if applicable).
Line keys selectthe outputmodeoperations.
The namecolumnliss five outputsignals.The
LEFT columndisplaysthe outputsignalfrom the
No. I FCC. The RIGHT column displaysthe
outputsignalfrom the No.2 FCC.
Thecursoralwaysdisplaysat theleft edgeof the
namecolumn.The cursorindicateswhich signal
line is active.

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