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Electric Power

Generation through
Tidal Energy
Energy Conversion (EE-454) Presentation Assignment
Authored by

EE-072
EE-097
EE-110

Zain Alam
Saud Khalid
Syed Daniyal Javed

Tidal Energy or Tidal Power, as it is also called, is another form of hydro power that utilizes large amounts of energy within
the oceans tides to generate electricity. Tidal Energy is an "alternative energy" that can also be classed as a "renewable
energy source", as the Earth uses the gravitational forces of both the moon and the sun everyday to move vast quantities of
water around the oceans and seas producing tides.

Electric Power Generation through Tidal Energy


Energy Conversion (EE-454) Presentation Assignment

Authors: EE -072,097,110

Instructor : Ms. Arjumand Samad

Introduction
The world is facing enormous environmental issues as human consumption has begun to stress the
Earths resources and its ability to sustain our existence in the way we are accustomed. The urgency
to deploy solutions to climate change is compounded by parallel and equally daunting issues with
the depletion of our conventional energy supplies and the accompanying national security issues.
New energy sources must be identified and developed as a top priority.
Harvesting energy from the tides is a surprisingly old method; the technology has improved and
changed through time but the general concept of using the waxing and waning of the moon and the
correlating tides has remained constant. Europe during the early Middle Ages is the one of the first
recorded use of tide mills but recent archaeological information has also indicated that the Roman
Era many have also used tide mills,
Modern tidal energy dates to the 1920s in France but the first attempt was ultimately abandoned
due to insufficient funds. Later, in 1966, the Rance Tidal Power Station on the Rance River in France
became the worlds first tidal power station. The first (and only) tidal generating station in North
America was built in 1984 and is the Annapolis Royal Generating Station in Nova Scotia, Canada.

Why We Use Tidal Energy


Tidal power is the only technology that draws on energy inherent in the orbital characteristics of
the EarthMoon system, and to a lesser extent in the EarthSun system. Other natural energies
exploited by human technology originate directly or indirectly with the Sun, including fossil
fuel, conventional hydroelectric, wind, biofuel, wave and solar energy. Nuclear energy makes use of
Earth's mineral deposits of fissionable elements, while geothermal power taps the Earth's internal
heat, which comes from a combination of residual heat from planetary accretion (about 20%) and
heat produced through radioactive decay (80%).

Tidal Energy is completely renewable, does not lead to any pollution of the air and does not lead
to any carbon emissions like Fossil Fuels.
Predictable - Tidal Wave Energy is very predictable as the Tides rise with great uniformity. Other
forms of Renewable Energy like Solar and Wind Energy are intermittent in nature. The electricity
supply is much more uniform and reliable in case of Tidal Power.
No Fuel - Tidal Power needs Water for Generation of Electricity in its catchment area. It does not
need fuel like Thermal, Gas or Oil Powered Power Stations.
Low Costs Once a Tidal Energy Power Plant starts running, its costs are extremely low. The
biggest Power Plant in France run by EDF works at 1.5c/Kwh which is lower than either nuclear
or coal energy which are the cheapest forms of power.
Long Life - A Tidal Barrage has a very long life of around 100 years which is much longer than
that of even Nuclear Power Plants. The long life implies that the life cycle cost of a Tidal Energy
Power Plant becomes very low in the long term.
High Energy Density - The Energy Density of Tidal Energy is much higher than that of other forms
of Renewable Energy like Wind Power.

NED University of Engineering & Technology


Department of Electrical Engineering
Batch: 2011-12

Electric Power Generation through Tidal Energy


Energy Conversion (EE-454) Presentation Assignment

Authors: EE -072,097,110
Instructor : Ms. Arjumand Samad
High Load Factor - The Load Factor for Solar and Wind Energy ranges from 15-40% which is quite
low compared to Fossil Fuel Energy. Tidal Energy has a load factor of almost 80% which is equal
to that of Thermal Power.

Reasons for Tides


Gravity is one major force that creates tides. In 1687, Sir Isaac Newton explained that ocean tides
result from the gravitational attraction of the sun and moon on the oceans of the earth. Newtons
law of universal gravitation states that the gravitational attraction between two bodies is directly
proportional to their masses, and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the
bodies. Our sun is 27 million times larger than our moon.
Based on its mass, the sun's gravitational attraction to the Earth is more than 177 times greater
than that of the moon to the Earth. If tidal forces were based solely on comparative masses, the sun
should have a tide-generating force that is 27 million times greater than that of the moon. However,
the sun is 390 times further from the Earth than is the moon. Thus, its tide-generating force is
reduced by 3903, or about 59 million times less than the moon. Because of these conditions, the
suns tide-generating force is about half that of the moon. The key to understanding how the tides
work is, understanding the relationship between the motion of our planet and the Moon and Sun. As
the Earth spins on its own axis, ocean water is kept at equal levels around the planet by the Earth's
gravity pulling inward and centrifugal force pushing outward.
However, the Moon's gravitational forces are strong enough to disrupt this balance by accelerating
the water towards the Moon. This causes the water to 'bulge.' As the Moon orbits our planet and as
the Earth rotates, the bulge also moves. The areas of the Earth where the bulging occurs
experience high tide and the other areas are subject to a low tide.

Ways to Produce Tidal Energy


Tidal Stream Generator
A tidal stream generator is a machine that extracts energy from moving masses of water, or tides.
These machines function very much like underwater wind turbines, and are sometimes referred to
as tidal turbines. Tidal stream generators are the cheapest and the least ecologically damaging
among the three main forms of tidal power generation.
Tidal Barrage
A Tidal barrage is a dam-like structure used to capture the energy from masses of water moving in
and out of a bay or river due to tidal forces. Instead of damming water on one side like a
conventional dam, a tidal barrage first allows water to flow into the bay or river during high tide, and
releasing the water back during low tide. This is done by measuring the tidal flow and controlling the
sluice gates at key times of the tidal cycle. Turbines are then placed at these sluices to capture the
energy as the water flows in and out.

NED University of Engineering & Technology


Department of Electrical Engineering
Batch: 2011-12

Electric Power Generation through Tidal Energy


Energy Conversion (EE-454) Presentation Assignment

Authors: EE -072,097,110
Tidal Lagoons

Instructor : Ms. Arjumand Samad

Tidal Lagoons are similar to barrages but have a much lower cost and impact on the environment.
They are self-contained structures cut off from the rest of the sea. It works in pretty much the same
way as a tidal barrage as when the tide rises the lagoon fills and when it falls the water is then
released through the turbine

Major Components of Tidal Power Plant


A barrage:
a barrage is a small wall built at the entrance of a gulf in order to trap water behind it. It will either
trap it by keeping it from going into the gulf when water levels at the sea are high or it will keep
water from going into the sea when water level at the sea is low.
Turbines:
They are the components responsible for converting potential energy into kinetic energy. They are
located in the passageways that the water flows through when gates of barrage are opened. There
are many types of turbines used in tidal power stations:
Sluices:
Sluice gates are the ones responsible for the flow of water through the barrage.
Embankments:
They are caissons made out of concrete to prevent water from flowing at certain parts of the dam
and to help maintenance work and electrical wiring to be connected or used to move equipment or
cars over it.

Working Of Basic Tidal Power Plant


"The technology required to convert tidal energy
into electricity is very similar to the technology
used in traditional hydroelectric power plants. The
first requirement is a dam or barrage across a
tidal bay or estuary. Building dams is an expensive
process. Therefore, the best tidal sites are those
where a bay has a narrow opening, thus reducing
the length of dam which is required. At certain
points along the dam, gates and turbines are
installed. When there is an adequate difference in
the elevation of the water on the different sides of
the barrage, the gates are opened. This hydrostatic head that is created, causes water to flow
through the turbines, turning an electric generator to produce electricity".

NED University of Engineering & Technology


Department of Electrical Engineering
Batch: 2011-12

Electric Power Generation through Tidal Energy


Energy Conversion (EE-454) Presentation Assignment

Authors: EE -072,097,110

Instructor : Ms. Arjumand Samad

Generation Method:
There are four basic method for the generation of electricity through tidal power plant,these are

Tidal steam generator


Tidal barrage energy
Dynamic tidal power plant
Tidal lagoon

Tidal stream generator:


A tidal stream generator often referred to as a tidal energy converter
(TEC) look and work like underwater wind turbines. As opposed to
using the rising and falling movement of the tides, tidal stream
generators take advantage of the fast moving sea currents (tidal
streams), which flow when tides are moving in and out. These tidal
streams cause the turbines to rotate, turning the generators which
generate electricity.
Tidal Barrage Energy:
A tidal barrage power plant consists of three main parts: The first being
the barrage itself, holding the water back during high tide. The second
part is the sluice gate that let water through the third part, the turbine
and generator, resulting in electricity generation.
The sluice gates are left open during high tide and closed during low
tide to create a water level differential, creating a potential difference
that powers the turbine when the water is released.
Dynamic Tidal Power Plant:
Dynamic tidal power (or DTP) is an untried but promising technology
that would exploit an interaction between potential and kinetic
energies in tidal flows. It proposes that very long dams (for example:
3050 km length) be built from coasts straight out into the sea or
ocean, without enclosing an area. Tidal phase differences are
introduced across the dam, leading to a significant water-level
differential (head) over both sides of the dam. The head can be
converted into power, using a long series of conventional low-head turbines installed in the dam
Tidal Lagoon:
A newer tidal energy design option is to construct circular retaining walls
embedded with turbines that can capture the potential energy of tides.
The created reservoirs are similar to those of tidal barrages, except that
the location is artificial .The lagoons can also be in double (or triple...)

NED University of Engineering & Technology


Department of Electrical Engineering
Batch: 2011-12

Electric Power Generation through Tidal Energy


Energy Conversion (EE-454) Presentation Assignment

Authors: EE -072,097,110
Instructor : Ms. Arjumand Samad
format without pumping or with pumping that will flatten out the power output. The pumping
power could be provided by excess to grid demand renewable energy from for example wind
turbines or solar photovoltaic arrays

Effect on environment:
Tidal energy is a renewable source of electricity which does not result in the emission of gases
responsible for global warming or acid rain associated with fossil fuel generated electricity. Use of
tidal energy could also decrease the need for nuclear power, with its associated radiation risks but
the possible negative environmental effects of tidal and wave power include:

the frames of the turbines could lead to disruption in movement of large marine animals and
ships through the channels on which the barrage is built
construction of tidal power plant can also disrupt fish migration in the oceans, and even kill fish
population when passing through the turbines.
the possibility of noise pollution

Cost-estimation of Tidal Power Plant:


Tidal power is a form of low-head hydroelectricity and uses familiar low-head hydroelectric
generating equipment, such as has been in use for more than 120 years. The technology required for
tidal power is well developed, and the main barrier to increased use of the tides is that of
construction costs. There is a high capital cost for a tidal energy project, with possibly a 10-year
construction period. Therefore, the electricity cost is very sensitive to the discount rate.
The major factors in determining the cost effectiveness of a tidal power site are the size (length and
height) of the barrage required, and the difference in height between high and low tide. These
factors can be expressed in what is called a sites Gibrat ratio. The Gibrat ratio is the ratio of the
length of the barrage in metres to the annual energy production in kilowatt hours (1 kilowatt hour =
1 KWH = 1000 watts used for 1 hour). The smaller the Gibrat site ratio, the more desireable the site.
Examples of Gibrat ratios are La Rance at 0.36, Severn at 0.87 and Passamaquoddy in the Bay of
Fundy at 0.92.

Advantages of Tidal Power Generation


There are many advantages of generating power from the tide; some of them are listed below:

Tidal power is a renewable and sustainable energy resource.


It reduces dependence upon fossil fuels.
It produces no liquid or solid pollution.
It has little visual impact.
Construction of large-scale offshore devices results in new areas of sheltered water, attractive
for fish, sea birds, seals and seaweed.
Tidal power exists on a worldwide scale from deep ocean waters.

NED University of Engineering & Technology


Department of Electrical Engineering
Batch: 2011-12

Electric Power Generation through Tidal Energy


Energy Conversion (EE-454) Presentation Assignment

Authors: EE -072,097,110
Instructor : Ms. Arjumand Samad
It offers short time scale between investing in the modular construction and benefiting from the
revenue
Tidally driven coastal currents provide an energy density four times greater than air, meaning
that a 15-m diameter turbine will generate as much energy as a 60mdiameter windmill.
Tidal currents are both predictable and reliable, a feature which gives them an advantage over
both wind and solar systems. Power outputs can be accurately calculated far in advance,
allowing for easy integration with existing electricity grids.
The tidal turbine offers significant environmental advantages over wind and solar systems; the
majority of the assembly is hidden below the waterline, and all cabling is along the seabed.
Seawater is 832 times as dense as air; therefore the kinetic energy available froma 5-knot ocean
current is equivalent to a wind velocity of 270 km/h.

Disadvantages and Constraints to Tidal Power


Generation
Unfortunately, there are also disadvantages and limitations to generating tidal power. Some of these
are:

At the present time both tide and wave energy are suffering from orientation problems, in the
sense that neither method is strictly economical (except in few locations throughout the world)
on a large scale in comparison with conventional power sources.
Tidal power systems do not generate electricity at a steady rate and thus not necessarily at times
of peak demand, so unless a way can be found of storing energy efficiently - and any storage
devices currently available incur a considerable loss - they would not help in reducing the overall
need for fossil power stations, but only allow them to run at a lower rating for a certain amount
of the time.
Tidal fences could present some difficulty to migrating fish.

Comparison with wind and solar energy

This renewable energy source has great potential as tides are much more predictable and
reliable than wind power and solar energy which are not at all consistent (seasons, bad weather,
etc.)
Since water is 832 times denser than air, tidal energy is more powerful than wind energy.
Designing, installation and maintenance of water turbine is a big challenge.
Construction of tidal turbine is more costly.
There is limited availability of suitable sites.

Current situation
Currently, there are only two commercial-sized tidal power plants operating in the world. Therefore
limited amount of electricity is being generated with the help of tidal energy. Researchers are still

NED University of Engineering & Technology


Department of Electrical Engineering
Batch: 2011-12

Electric Power Generation through Tidal Energy


Energy Conversion (EE-454) Presentation Assignment

Authors: EE -072,097,110
Instructor : Ms. Arjumand Samad
exploring about this form of energy. The process of research is slow because this area needs high
investment and there are limited sites to work on this area.
The largest facility is the Sihwa Lake Tidal Power Station in South Korea, while The United States has
no tidal plants and only a few sites where tidal energy could be produced at a reasonable price.
China, France, England, Canada, and Russia have much more potential to use this type of energy.

Statistics

A 240 MW facility has operated in France since 1966 and has been a very reliable source of
electricity for France.
20 MW in Canada since 1984
A number of stations in China since 1977, totaling 5 MW.

Proposed tidal energy projects worldwide


A list of some of the proposed tidal energy projects, most of which are yet to be completed, is as
follows:

Seven Barrage Project (Wales): Capacity: 8000 MW


CORE Project (Canada): Capacity: 15MW
Wando Hoenggan Waterway (South Korea): Capacity: 300MW
Kaipara Harbour (New Zealand): Capacity: 200MW
Pentland Firth Tidal Energy Project (Scotland): Capacity: 10MW
Islay Project (Scotland): Capacity: 2MW

Exploiting Tidal Energy in Pakistan


The National Power Policy 2013-18 lacks vision and a plan for the development of non-conventional,
alternative and renewable energy, excluding hydropower.
Power generation based on solar, biomass, wind and tidal is an important area. These resources are
capable of producing clean, environmentally friendly, and most importantly, affordable electricity on
a large scale. Optimal exploitation of renewable energy resources has the potential to provide a
solution to the prevalent power crisis.
Energy generation based on renewable resources already accounts for about one-fifth of the global
power generation capacity. There is, therefore, a need to give policy directive to encourage these
indigenous resources too, in line with neighbouring countries like India and China, where such
resources are being rapidly harnessed economically.
India has a full-fledged Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, and the country has made
tremendous progress in the field in the last few years. As of June 2013, Indias energy from new and
renewable resources increased to 27,542MW; an over 12 per cent share in its total energy mix of

NED University of Engineering & Technology


Department of Electrical Engineering
Batch: 2011-12

Electric Power Generation through Tidal Energy


Energy Conversion (EE-454) Presentation Assignment

Authors: EE -072,097,110
Instructor : Ms. Arjumand Samad
225,793MW. India now targets to have 55,000MW of cumulative installed capacity of power
generation through renewable energy resources by 2017.
There are many other new energy resources that could benefit Pakistan, such as ocean energy,
including marine current power, osmotic power (from salinity gradients), ocean thermal energy,
oceanogenic power (from surface waves), wave energy, and tidal power.
Theoretically, global ocean energy resources are estimated to be over 32,000GW. Interestingly, the
net potential of both wave and tidal power is greater than that of wind and solar, on a global
perspective. The worlds largest tidal power station, of installed capacity of 260MW, is currently
located at Sihwa Lake in South Korea. The power station was completed in 2011 at a cost of $250
million, and has the availability rate of 98 per cent.
The related technology, though emerging, is well-proven, as the first large-scale powerhouse, the
Rance Tidal Power Plant of 240MW, was established in France in 1966. Since then, a number of tidal
power stations have been constructed.
Tidal energy is another form of hydropower. The two above-mentioned power stations have
installed bulb type turbines along with generators, similar to those at a hydroelectric power station.
Alternately, tidal power stations are based on the concept of a windmill a tidal energy unit
functions like an underwater windmill. Electric power is transmitted through a sub-sea cable
connected to the grid. Research and development continues in its design, installation and
maintenance, with a view to mainstreaming these technologies to make them cost effective. A new
installation method developed recently will reduce installation time significantly.
South Korea is constructing a 1,320MW tidal power plant (to be commissioned by 2017), whereas
another plant of 520MW is being planned. Likewise, Russia, which currently operates a 1.7MW tidal
power station, plans to construct three mega tidal power stations of 3,640MW, 8,000MW and
8,710MW capacities. Canada operates a 20MW power station.
The UK currently operates a 1.2MW power station, and has constructed a 10.5MW plant. It now
plans to establish a 300MW power generation facility. Western Australia recently approved
construction of a 40MW tidal power plant. A Massachusetts (US) tidal power project of 20MW is
under construction.
Scotland is the world leader in the commercial development of wave and tidal energy, having
commenced power generation in November 2000. Meanwhile, a 2,200MW tidal power project is
being developed in the Philippines. China recently established a 3.2MW tidal power station, and has
signed an agreement with the Netherlands to develop the worlds largest tidal power project based
on a new tidal technology.
Construction of a 50MW power plant has been undertaken by India in the Gulf of Kutch. More plants
are planned in India, as there is a potential of generating 8,000MW by exploiting tidal and wave
energy.

NED University of Engineering & Technology


Department of Electrical Engineering
Batch: 2011-12

Electric Power Generation through Tidal Energy


Energy Conversion (EE-454) Presentation Assignment

Authors: EE -072,097,110
Instructor : Ms. Arjumand Samad
However, Pakistan has yet to move in this direction, despite having various strategic locations with
high tidal current velocities or strong ocean currents along its 990km coastline. According to a study
conducted by the National Institute of Oceanography, creek network in the Indus deltaic region,
extending over 70km along the Arabian Sea, can alone generate 900MW tidal power.
A detailed study testing and assessing tidal energy across the coastline could show a huge potential
for marine energy resources, which could be exploited for power generation on a commercial scale.
Grid-based or off-grid tidal power stations could be constructed, depending on site conditions. In our
case, off-grid power stations would be more advantageous for meeting rural needs of electricity.
A proper policy on tariff and commercial development of these resources, as well as providing an
enabling environment to investors, both domestic and foreign, will be helpful.

Conclusion
Although not yet widely used, tidal power has a huge potential for future electricity generation. It is
noteworthy that energy from the oceans tides can deliver more predictable power supply as
compared to wind energy or solar power.
However, many recent technological developments and improvements, both in design and turbine
technology, indicate that the total availability of tidal power may be much higher than previously
assumed, and that economic and environmental costs may be brought down to competitive levels.

NED University of Engineering & Technology


Department of Electrical Engineering
Batch: 2011-12