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Is stress keeping you up at

night, affecting your work


performance, your relationships,
your waistline?

To Take The Quiz & Get The Free


Guide:
I know you are eager to get take the quiz and assess your stress
and you will get to do that soon...all you have to do is dash over to
your emails, find ours and hit the confirm link.
We really want to make sure that this is actually you. (And not
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Then you'll get the quiz and your free guide with easy techniques
to relieve stress fast. So check your email, click on the link in that
email, or copy the link and paste it into your browser.
If you don't see that email in your inbox shortly, look in the junk,
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Bettelou

1/20. What is happening today is more important than the past or the future.
-absolutely
Nu ma pot decide unde sa ma focusez catre viitor sau catre trecut
Sunt cateva lucruri pe care le regret pt trecut si am frica de viitor

2/20. I breath normally when I feel stressed.


Cateodata imi tin respiratia si cateodata respir repede cand sunt stresat
Rapid
Respiratie normala
3/20. I have the authority and means to accomplish what I want.
4/20. My work is a great source of satisfaction.
Nu chiar /absolut/ pot fi ambele
5/20. I am a perfectionist, everything has to be done just so.
Adevarat/, nu-i adevarat/cateodata
6/20. My work is very stressful.
Slujba este dificila si f stresanta/cateodata slujba este s/imi iubesc munca
si seful
7/20. I worry about how things will turn out.
Cateodata cand trebuie-baza,/ cateodata

/cateodata dar nu des

8/20. I like my appearance.


As schimba multe/ cu adevarat nu-mi place/imi place cum arat
9/20. I wish I was younger than I am now.
Mie dor de zilele gloriioase/imi place acum/cine nu si-ar dori sa mai fie
tanar
10/20. I have trustworthy and caring friends. I can confide to them when I have a
problem or concern.
Adevarat/nu am pe nimeni in care sa am incredere sa-i spun
adevarul/cateodata
11/20. My life is rewarding.
Nu de data asta/cateodata/in cea mai mare parte a timpulu8
2/20. Waiting annoys me.
Aproape niciodata/cateodata/majoritatea timpului
13/20. When something is wrong, I try to deal with it right away.
I cant decide or wait for things to be exactly right before I act/mostly
true/sometimes

14/20. I get moderate exercise 3-5 times a week.


Da fac regulat ex/da fac der de multe ori uit/imi este greu sa ma gandesc
la exercitii
15/20. Over the past year I have had a lot of problems, disappointments and/or
tragedies.
Absolutely/some/not realy
16/20. I fit in well with the people around me.
Absolutely/sometimes/not realy I feel like a square peg in a round hole
17/20. My job is full of tension and conflict.
Slujba poate fi comparata cu o zona de conflict/intro oarecare masuta dasr
nu i o regula/ cateodata dar nu zilnic
18/20. I will do almost anything to be the best. I think it is worth everything to be
on top.
Nu pot decide ce este important dar miar place sa fac totul fb sa fiu cel mai
bun/imi place sa fac bine dar alte lucrurisunt mai importante de a fi in frunte
sus/da absolut acesta sunt eu intotdeauna imi place sa fiu cel mai bun
19/20. When I am doing something, it always gets delayed or sidetracked.
Cateodata/ da acesta este uzual sa mi se intample mie/once in a while
20/20. I drink more than 2 glasses of alcoholic drinks a day.
Aproape niciodata/da/cateodata

10 Kick-it Tips To Relieve Stress


Fast!
Pick the 5 you like best and incorporate them into your life.
1. Body Scan: Start by taking a few slow, deep relaxing breaths. Then bring all your
awareness to your feet, notice the sensations in every part of your feet from the big
toe, to the little toe, to the heel, to the arch. If you notice any tension, pain, or stress,
imagine that each breath is going to that exact spot, bringing relaxation and comfort.
Then move your awareness to your ankles, then calfs, knees, thighs, etc.; moving
your awareness from the tips of your toes to the top of your head. Do this till you
have scanned and brought your attention and breath to each part. Keep
remembering that each breath is bringing nourishing oxygen to every cell of your
body, relaxing and renewing.
2. Ask For Help! One of the biggest causes of stress is being overwhelmed and

overworked. Dont be a Lone Ranger and take on everything yourself. Delegate


tasks at work, ask your friends and family for help. It can be one of the best things
you can do for yourself that will reduce stress.
3. Say No! The first thing you should say to any demand on your time should be no.
That should be your default setting. That includes demands you put on yourself.
4. Exercise Break: Stand up and do some old fashioned calisthenics. A few
minutes of toe touches, squats, side bends, or burpees can relieve tension in a
matter of seconds. An as an added benefit, even a few minutes of exercise can
contribute to your overall fitness plan, build confidence, and help you get into shape.
5. Listen: Bring all your focus to the sounds that surround you. Listen for birds, wind,
traffic, the sound of voices. Listen for sounds in the distance. If your environment is
too chaotic, listen to white noise like a fan or a fountain. Also listening to a recording
of nature sounds like thunder, rain, the ocean, can be very relaxing.
6. Sun Salutation: If you are a yoga practitioner do a few rounds of the sun
salutation or some of your favorite yoga poses. Yoga has been proven to be one of
the best methods to induce the relaxation response. Not dressed for it, try some chair
yoga. For a forward bend, just sit and bend your body over your legs. For twists, just
cross your legs and twist to one side of the chair and then to the other. And an easy
cat cow stretch can be achieved by standing facing the chair, putting the palms on
the seat and arching up like a cat, and swaying the back like a cow.
7. Laugh: Laughter really is the best medicine when it comes to stress! So laugh,
pretend to laugh, smile at yourself in the mirror, smile at others. Listen to a joke or
tell a joke. You will be happy you did.
8. Mantra: Repeating or thinking about positive, uplifting words or phrases is a
fantastic way to relax. My favorite way to do this is to to synchronize the mantra with
the breath. During each inhalation think 'Calming' and with each exhalation think
'Smiling'. Next alternate with the thoughts 'Present Moment', 'Happy Moment' like
this: Inhale 'Calming', Exhale Smiling', Inhale 'Present Moment', Exhale 'Happy
Moment'. Continue thinking these words as you practice deep relaxing breaths and
enjoy the sense of calm, peace, and joy that follows. If you are alone or in a space
where it doesnt matter, chanting or speaking the mantra out loud is especially
powerful because you also hear the positive words as well.
9. Beauty: Look at beautiful things, like artwork, jewelry, fashions, flowers, or your
favorite photos or mementoes. (My husband would amend this list of beautiful things
to: trucks, tools, power equipment, construction vehicles, and kitties. He especially
likes flashlights?!?) Even thinking of things you find beautiful or people you find
attractive can lighten your mood and reduce stress.
10. Imagination: Imagine youre doing something fun, your favorite activity, or
pretend you are doing something you always wanted to do. I love to tango, so of
course I go over Argentine Tango steps in my mind, or envision myself dancing with
my favorite partners at a Milonga (A Dance). But it can be anything. You can pretend
anything from riding a roller coaster to winning an Oscar, there are no limitations. Let
your imagination run wild!

Perceived Stress Scale- 10 Item


The questions in this scale ask you about your feelings and thoughts during the last
month. In each case, please indicate with a check how often you felt or thought a
certain way.
1. In the last month, how often have you been upset because of something that
happened unexpectedly?
___1=almost
___3=fairly
___4=very
___0=never
___2=sometimes
never
often
often
2. In the last month, how often have you felt that you were unable to control the
important things in your life?
___1=almost
___3=fairly
___4=very
___0=never
___2=sometimes
never
often
often
3. In the last month, how often have you felt nervous and "stressed"?
___1=almost
___3=fairly
___4=very
___0=never
___2=sometimes
never
often
often
4. In the last month, how often have you felt confident about your ability to handle
your personal problems?
___1=almost
___3=fairly
___4=very
___0=never
___2=sometimes
never
often
often
5. In the last month, how often have you felt that things were going your way?
___1=almost
___3=fairly
___4=very
___0=never
___2=sometimes
never
often
often
6. In the last month, how often have you found that you could not cope with all the
things that you had to do?
___1=almost
___3=fairly
___4=very
___0=never
___2=sometimes
never
often
often
7. In the last month, how often have you been able to control irritations in your life?
___1=almost
___3=fairly
___4=very
___0=never
___2=sometimes
never
often
often
8. In the last month, how often have you felt that you were on top of things?
___1=almost
___3=fairly
___4=very
___0=never
___2=sometimes
never
often
often
9. In the last month, how often have you been angered because of things that were
outside of your control?
___1=almost
___3=fairly
___4=very
___0=never
___2=sometimes
never
often
often
10. In the last month, how often have you felt difficulties were piling up so high that
you could not overcome them?

___0=never

___1=almost
never

___2=sometimes

___3=fairly
often

___4=very
often

This scale can be found in:


Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., Mermelstein, R. (1983). A global measure of perceived
stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24, 385-396. Link to full-text (pdf)
Cohen, S., & Williamson, G. (1988). Perceived stress in a probability sample of the
United States. In S. Spacapam & S. Oskamp (Eds.), The social psychology of
health: Claremont Symposium on applied social psychology. Newbury Park, CA:
Sage. Link to full-text (pdf)
updated July 8, 2008

PAPERS ON PSS
(1.) Cohen, S., & Janicki-Deverts, D. (2012). Who's stressed? Distributions of
psychological stress in the United States in probability samples from 1983, 2006
and 2009. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 42, 1320-1334. This article
providesNORMATIVE DATA for the PSS-10 from large 2006 and 2009
probability samples of the U.S.
(2.) Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1983). A global measure of
perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24, 385-396.
(provides RELIABILITY and VALIDITY)
(3.) Cohen, S., & Williamson, G. (1988). Perceived stress in a probability sample of
the U.S. In S. Spacapam & S. Oskamp (Eds.), The social psychology of health:
Claremont Symposium on Applied Social Psychology. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
(provides NORMATIVE DATA for the PSS-4, PSS-10, and PSS-14 from a large
U.S. sample polled in 1983)
(4.) Warttig, S. L., Forshaw, M. J., South, J., & White, A. K. (2013). New,
normative, English-sample data for the Short Form Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-

4). Journal of Health Psychology, 18, 1617-1628. (provides NORMATIVE


DATA for the PSS-4 (short form PSS) from a large British sample polled in 2009)
(5.) Hewitt, P. L., Flett, G. L., & Mosher, S. W. (1992). The perceived stress scale:
Factor structure and relation to depression symptoms in a psychiatric
sample. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 14(3), 247-257.
(6.) Remor, E. (2006). Psychometric properties of a European Spanish version of
the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). The Spanish journal of psychology, 9(01), 86-93.
(7.) Cole, S. R. (1999). Assessment of differential item functioning in the Perceived
Stress Scale-10. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 53(5), 319.
(8.) Ramrez, M. T. G., & Hernndez, R. L. (2007). Factor structure of the
Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) in a sample from Mexico. The Spanish journal of
psychology, 10(01), 199-206.
(9.) Roberti, J. W., Harrington, L. N., & Storch, E. A. (2006). Further psychometric
support for the 10item version of the perceived stress scale. Journal of College
Counseling, 9(2), 135-147.
(10.) Mimura, C., & Griffiths, P. (2004). A Japanese version of the perceived stress
scale: translation and preliminary test. International Journal of Nursing Studies,
41(4), 379-385.
(11.) Reis, R. S., Hino, A. A. F., & Aez, C. R. R. (2010). Perceived Stress Scale
reliability and validity study in Brazil. Journal of health psychology, 15(1), 107114.
(12.) Andreou, E., Alexopoulos, E. C., Lionis, C., Varvogli, L., Gnardellis, C.,
Chrousos, G. P., & Darviri, C. (2011). Perceived stress scale: reliability and validity
study in Greece. International journal of environmental research and public health,
8(8), 3287-3298. PMCID: PMC3166743
(13.) Leung, D. Y., Lam, T. H., & Chan, S. S. (2010). Three versions of Perceived
Stress Scale: validation in a sample of Chinese cardiac patients who smoke. BMC
public health, 10(1), 513. PMCID: PMC2939644
(14.) Golden-Kreutz, D. M., Browne, M. W., Frierson, G. M., & Andersen, B. L.
(2004). Assessing Stress in Cancer Patients A Second-Order Factor Analysis Model
for the Perceived Stress Scale. Assessment, 11(3), 216-223.

(15.) rc, M. ., & Demir, A. (2009). Psychometric evaluation of perceived


stress scale for Turkish university students. Stress and Health, 25(1), 103-109.
(16.) Mimura, C., & Griffiths, P. (2008). A Japanese version of the perceived stress
scale: Cross-cultural translation and equivalence assessment. BMC Psychiatry,
8(1), 85-85. PMCID: PMC2569029
(17.) Chaaya, M., Osman, H., Naassan, G., & Mahfoud, Z. (2010). Validation of the
Arabic version of the Cohen perceived stress scale (PSS-10) among pregnant and
postpartum women. BMC Psychiatry, 10(1), 111-111. PMCID: PMC3016315
(18.) Lee, E. (2012). Review of the psychometric evidence of the perceived stress
scale.Asian Nursing Research, 6(4), 121-127.
(19.) Lesage, F., Berjot, S., & Deschamps, F. (2012). Psychometric properties of the
French versions of the perceived stress scale. International Journal of Occupational
Medicine and Environmental Health, 25(2), 178-184.
(20.) Wang, Z., Chen, J., Boyd, J. E., Zhang, H., Jia, X., Qiu, J., & Xiao, Z.
(2011).Psychometric properties of the chinese version of the perceived stress scale
in policewomen. PloS One, 6(12), e28610. PMCID: PMC3229602
(21.) Jovanovic, V., & Gavrilov-Jerkovic, V. (2015). More than a (negative) feeling:
Validity of the perceived stress scale in serbian clinical and non-clinical
samples.Psihologija, 48(1), 5-18. doi:10.2298/PSI1501005J
(22.) Lee, E., Chung, B. Y., Suh, C., & Jung, J. (2015). Korean versions of the
perceived stress scale (PSS14, 10 and 4): Psychometric evaluation in patients with
chronic disease. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 29(1), 183-192.
doi:10.1111/scs.12131
(23.) Smith, K. J., Rosenberg, D. L., & Timothy Haight, G. (2014). An assessment
of the psychometric properties of the perceived stress Scale 10 (PSS10) with
business and accounting students. Accounting Perspectives, 13(1), 29-59.
doi:10.1111/1911-3838.12023

PSS Scoring
PSS-10 scores are obtained by reversing the scores on the four positive items, e.g.,
0=4, 1=3, 2=2, etc. and then summing across all 10 items. Items 4,5, 7, and 8 are
the positively stated items.
PSS-4 scores are obtained by reverse coding items # 2 and 3.
PSS-14 scores are obtained by reversing the scores on the seven positive items,
e.g., 0=4, 1=3, 2=2, etc., and then summing across all 14 items. Items 4, 5, 6, 7, 9,
10, and 13 are the positively stated items.
The PSS was designed for use with community samples with at least a junior high
school education, The items are easy to understand and the response alternatives
are simple to grasp. Moreover, as noted above, the questions are quite general in
nature and hence relatively free of content specific to any sub population group.
The data reported in the article are from somewhat restricted samples, in that they
are younger, more educated and contain fewer minority members than the general
population. In light of the generality of scale content and simplicity of language
and response alternatives, we feel that data from representative samples of the
general population would not differ significantly from those reported in the article.

More information about obtaining scores for the 4, 10, and 14-item versions of the
scale is linked here

Page updated Feb. 23, 2010

Perceived Stress Scale


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A major contributor to this article appears to have a close


connection with its subject. It may require cleanupto comply with
Wikipedia's content policies, particularly neutral point of view. Please
discuss further on the talk page.(March 2011)

The Perceived Stress Scale was developed to measure the degree to which situations in ones
life are appraised as stressful. Psychological stress has been defined as the extent to which
persons perceive (appraise) that their demands exceed their ability to cope.
The PSS was published in 1983,[1] and has become one of the most widely used[2] psychological
instruments for measuring nonspecific perceived stress. It has been used in studies assessing
the stressfulness of situations,[3][4] the effectiveness of stress-reducing interventions,[5][6][7][8] and the
extent to which there are associations between psychological stress and psychiatric and
physical[9][10][11] disorders.
The PSS predicts both objective biological markers of stress and increased risk
for disease among persons with higher perceived stress levels. For example, those with higher
scores (suggestive of chronic stress) on the PSS fend worse on biological markers of aging,
[12]
cortisol levels,[13][14][15] immune markers,[16][17][18][19]depression,[20] infectious disease,[21][22] wound
healing,[23] and prostate-specific antigen levels in men.[24]
The Perceived Stress scale was developed by Sheldon Cohen and his colleagues.[1]

See also[edit]

Psychological testing

References[edit]
1.

^ Jump up to:a b Cohen, S; Kamarck T; Mermelstein R (December 1983). "A global


measure of perceived stress". Journal of Health and Social Behavior 24 (4): 385
396.doi:10.2307/2136404. PMID 6668417.

2.

Jump up^ "Perceived Stress Scale: Measuring the self-perception of stress". 2005.
Retrieved 29 March 2011.

3.

Jump up^ Leon, KA; Hyre AD; Ompad D; DeSalvo KB; Muntner P (December 2007).
"Perceived stress among a workforce 6 months following hurricane Katrina". Social Psychiatry and
Psychiatric Epidemiology 42 (12): 10051011. doi:10.1007/s00127-007-0260-6. PMID 17932611.

4.

Jump up^ McAlonan, GM; Lee AM; Cheung V; Cheung C; Tsang KWT; Sham PC; Chua
SE; Josephine GWS (April 2007). "Immediate and sustained psychological impact of an emerging
infectious disease outbreak on health care workers". The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 52 (4):
241247. PMID 17500305.

5.

Jump up^ Cruess, DG; Antoni MH; Kumar M; Ironson G; McCabe P; Fernandez JB;
Fletcher M; Schneiderman N (July 1999). "Cognitive-behavioral stress management buffers
decreases in dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) and increases in the cortisol/DHEA-S ratio
and reduces mood disturbance and perceived stress among HIV-seropositive
men". Psychoneuroendocrinology 24 (5): 537549. doi:10.1016/S0306-4530(99)000104. PMID 10378240.

6.

Jump up^ Holzel, BK; Carmody J; Evans KC; Hoge EA; Dusek JA; Morgan L; Pitman RK;
Lazar SW (March 2010). "Stress reduction correlates with structural changes in the
amygdala". Social Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience 5 (1): 11
17. doi:10.1093/scan/nsp034. PMC 2840837. PMID 19776221.

7.

Jump up^ Lane, JD; Seskevich JE; Pieper CF (JanFeb 2007). "Brief meditation training
can improve perceived stress and negative mood". Alternative Therapies in Health &
Medicine13 (1): 3844. PMID 17283740.

8.

Jump up^ Marcus, MT; Fine PM; Moeller FG; Khan MM; Pitts K; Swank PR; Liehr P
(September 2003). "Change in Stress Levels Following Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction in a
Therapeutic Community". Addictive Disorders & Their Treatment 2 (3): 63
68. doi:10.1097/00132576-200302030-00001.

9.

Jump up^ Culhane, JF; Rauh V; McCollum KF; Hogan VK; Agnew K; Wadhwa PD (June
2001). "Maternal stress is associated with bacterial vaginosis in human pregnancy". Maternal and
Child Health Journal 5 (2): 127134. doi:10.1023/A:1011305300690. PMID 11573838.

10.

Jump up^ Garg, A; Chren MM; Sands LP; Matsui MS; Marenus KD; Feingold KR; Elias
PM (January 2001). "Psychological stress perturbs epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis:
implications for the pathogenesis of stress-associated skin disorders". Archives of
Dermatology 137 (1): 5359. doi:10.1001/archderm.137.1.53. PMID 11176661.

11.

Jump up^ Kramer, JR; Ledolter J; Manos GN; Bayless ML (Winter 2000). "Stress and
metabolic control in diabetes mellitus: methodological issues and an illustrative analysis". Annals
of Behavioral Medicine 22 (1): 1728. doi:10.1007/BF02895164. PMID 10892525.

12.

Jump up^ Epel, ES; Blackburn EH, Lin J, Dhabhar FS, Cawthon RMMorrow JD, Adler NE,
(December 2004). "Accelerated telomere shortening in response to life stress". Proceedings of the
National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101 (49): 17312
17315. doi:10.1073/pnas.0407162101. PMC 534658. PMID 15574496.

13.

Jump up^ Malarkey, WB; Pearl DK; Demers LM; Kiecolt-Glaser JK; Glaser R (1995).
"Influence of academic stress and season on 24-hour mean concentrations of ACTH, cortisol, and
beta-endorphin". Psychoneuroendocrinology 20 (5): 499508. doi:10.1016/0306-4530(94)00077N. PMID 7675934.

14.

Jump up^ Pruessner, JC; Hellhammer DH; Kirschbaum C (MarApr 1999). "Burnout,
perceived stress, and cortisol responses to awakening". Psychosomatic Medicine 61 (2): 197
204.doi:10.1097/00006842-199903000-00012. PMID 10204973.

15.

Jump up^ van Eck, MM; Nicolson NA (1994). "Perceived stress and salivary cortisol in
daily life". Annals of Behavioral Medicine 16 (3): 221227.

16.

Jump up^ Maes, M; Van Bockstaele DR (1999). "The effects of psychological stress on
leukocyte subset distribution in humans: evidence of immune
activation". Neuropsychobiology 39(1): 19. doi:10.1159/000026552. PMID 9892853.

17.

Jump up^ Burns, VE; Drayson M; Ring C; Carroll D (NovDec 2002). "Perceived stress
and psychological well-being are associated with antibody status after meningitis C conjugate
vaccination". Psychosomatic Medicine 64 (6): 963
970. doi:10.1097/01.PSY.0000038936.67401.28. PMID 12461201.

18.

Jump up^ Cohen, S; Doyle WJ; Skoner DP (MarApr 1999). "Psychological stress,
cytokine production, and severity of upper respiratory illness". Psychosomatic Medicine 61 (2):
175180. PMID 10204970.

19.

Jump up^ Glaser, R; Kiecolt-Glaser JK; Marucha PT; MacCullum RC; Laskowski BF;
Malarkey WB (May 1999). "Stress-related changes in proinflammatory cytokine production in
wounds". Archives of General Psychiatry 56 (5): 450
456. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.56.5.450. PMID 10232300.

20.

Jump up^ Carpenter, LL; Tyrka AR; McDougle CJ; Malison RT; Owens MJ; Nemeroff CB;
Price LH (April 2004). "Cerebrospinal fluid corticotropin-releasing factor and perceived early-life

stress in depressed patients and healthy control subjects". Neuropsychopharmacology 29 (4):


777784. doi:10.1038/sj.npp.1300375. PMID 14702025.
21.

Jump up^ Cohen, S; Tyrrell DA; Smith AP (January 1993). "Negative life events,
perceived stress, negative affect, and susceptibility to the common cold". Journal of Personality
and Social Psychology 64 (1): 131140. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.64.1.131. PMID 8421249.

22.

Jump up^ Dyck, DG; Short R; Vitaliano PP (JulAug 1999). "Predictors of burden and
infectious illness in schizophrenia caregivers". Psychosomatic Medicine 61 (4): 411
419.PMID 10443748.

23.

Jump up^ Ebrecht, M; Hextall J; Kirtley LG; Taylor A; Dyson M; Weinman J (July 2004).
"Perceived stress and cortisol levels predict speed of wound healing in healthy male
adults".Psychoneuroendocrinology 29 (6): 798809. doi:10.1016/S0306-4530(03)001446. PMID 15110929.

24.

Jump up^ Stone, AA; Mezzacappa ES; Donatone BA; Gonder M (September 1999).
"Psychosocial stress and social support are associated with prostate-specific antigen levels in
men: results from a community screening program". Health Psychology 18 (5): 482
486. doi:10.1037/0278-6133.18.5.482. PMID 10519464.