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Md. Lutfor Rahman1, Dr. B.C.Basak2, Dr. Md.Showkat Osman3 and Md. Altaf Hossain4
1Ph.D.Student, Department of Civil Engineering, DUET, Gazipur, Bangladesh
2,3 Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, DUET, Gazipur, Bangladesh.
4 Md.Altaf Hossain, Director General, River Research Institute, Faridpur, Bangladesh
Bandalling is a locally bamboo made structure used for the river bank erosion protection. Due to locally
available low cost materials, the construction cost of the Bandalling is also low. These structures are placed at the
erosion prone bank of the river Jamuna near the Bangabandhu Bridge East Guide Bund, Bhuapur, Tangail, Bangladesh.
The bandalling structures are placed with an angle of the 45 degrees in the direction of water flow with the spacing at
two times of the Bandalling length. It was observed that water flow is diverted towards the main channel and low flow
velocity near the bank. Due to low flow velocity, sedimentation occurred near the river bank between the bandals
indicates that bandalling can be used successfully as river bank erosion protection structures as like the convention
groin/spur like structures.
River bank erosion is one of the disaster in Bangladesh. The global climate is changing which has an effect in
Bangladesh for the river bank erosion. So it is needed to protect river bank erosion. It is mention here that every year
the river bank is being eroded & the intensity of erosion is increasing day by day. A pilot test basis project was taken
with the application of the low cost bandalling structures in the Jamuna river at the upstream East Guide Bund of the
Banghabandhu Bridge near the Shaheed Salahuddin Cantonment area to protect the river bank erosion protection. The
low cost Bandalling structures are placed at the river bank at an angles with water flow direction for the spacing 2
times the Bandals length. It was observed that water flow diverted towards the main river due to Bandals resulting
maximum velocity accumulated towards the main river whereas comparatively less velocity appeared near then river
bank where Bandals were placed resulting sediment deposition. The sedimentation was resulted near the river bank that
gave an indication for the river bank erosion protection.
Bank erosion and channel shifting of the untrained alluvial rivers of Bangladesh are big problems to the socioeconomic and environmental sector of the country. During 1960s, a number of earthen embankments were constructed
along the major rivers for the protection of rural people and agricultural lands from flooding. Since then the
embankments were retired several times due to river bank erosion and bank protection are often required during the
monsoon and post-monsoon season. Conventionally, groynes and revetments are applied as a method of bank
protection. Very recently the concept of hard points (strong revetment type structure) at the most vulnerable locations
along the Jamuna river are considered, while in between hard points spurs or permeable groynes are recommended
(Klaassen, 2002). In some reaches, channel widths along the major rivers are 2-3 times wider than the so called regime
width while the water depth is around 1/3rd of the regime depth which indicating the degree of instability of rivers in
Bangladesh. If the bank protection structures such as groynes, revetments or spurs are applied in such rivers the utmost
success may be achieved protecting river bank locally. But these structures will create problem somewhere else
resulting far away bank erosion and additional instability to the sand bars (CHARS in local name) where a number of
rural people used to live in. Therefore, applying these conventional methods of countermeasure, the river bank erosion
at the short term basis can be obtained, whereas, the long term stable channel or regime channel can never be
developed. Alternative solutions that can be locally adaptive and friendly to environment need to be developed for the
long-term stabilization of river channels. The possibility of using bandals for long-term channel stabilization is
examined using field data and laboratory investigation (Rahman et al., 2003).The responses of large scale alluvial rivers
against sudden changes created by conventional structures are not suitable for the overall stabilization of river courses.
Therefore, it is important to have alternative long-term solution for river stabilization that will create minimum
disturbance to river courses.
The working principles of bandals for the control of water and sediment flow are shown schematically in
Figure-1, where sediments are transported as bed load and suspended load. Within the lower half of the flow depth,
major portion of the sediment flow is concentrated, whereas, within the upper half water discharges are more. Bandals
are commonly applied to improve or maintain the flow depths for navigation during low water periods in alluvial rivers
of Indian sub-continent. The essential characteristics of bandals are that they are positioned at an angle with main
current and there is an opening below it while the upper portion is blocked. As an empirical rule the blockage of the
flow section should be about 50% in order to maintain the flow acceleration. The surface current is being forced to the
upstream face creating significant pressure difference between the upstream and downstream side of bandal. The flow
near the bed is directed perpendicular to the bandal resulting near bed sediment transport along the same direction.

Therefore, much sediment is supplied to the one side of channel and relatively much water is transported to the other
side. The reduced flow passing through the opening of bandals is not sufficient to transport all the sediment coming
towards this direction, resulting sedimentation over there. On the other side, more water flows with little sediment,
resulting bed erosion of the channel on that side.

Suspended sediment

Velocity Profile

sediment flow away from bandal

sediment flow under bandal
water flow away from bandal
water flow under bandal
The quantity of water and sediment flow is expressed by arrow size.
Figure 1. Working principles of bandals.
The initial river bank conditions were seen as in figure 2 in below. The condition of the river bank before
taking the erosion protection was very steep slope. The channel near the river bank was very deep. In this situation
bamboo bandalling was constructed.

Figure-2: River bank without bamboo bandalling during the pre-monsoon condition
The bamboo bandals were constructed from the river bank of the Jamuna branch channel and protruded
towards the main river channel near the Shaheed Salahuddin Cantonment, Bhuapur, Tangail. The low cost Bandalling

structures were placed on the left side in the Jamuna river branch channel from up stream to downstream at 45 degree
angles with the water flow direction i.e. the bank line is shown in figure 3.

Figure-3: The bandalling placed at 45 degree angle with water flow in which bamboos are driving into the river bed

Figure-4: Director General of River Research Institute visited the construction site.

Figure-5: The constructed vertical bamboo are shown in the above

Figure 6: Officers visiting the functions of Bamboo bandallings during food in the Jamuna river
The officers of the Bangladesh Bridge Authority (BBA), River Research Institute, Faridpur as well as the Bangabandhu
Bridge Special Orginization (BBSO) were visiting the bandalling construction site as in figure-6 in above during the

Figure-7: River Bank Erosion Protection by sedimentation during flood

The erosion-siltation due to the effect of the bandals are also shown in the figure in below:

Comparison of Bed Level for Cross-Section78

Elevation in m PWD


Pre-monsoon 2007
Post-monsoon 2007
Post-monsoon 2008


100.00 125.00 150.00
Distance in meter along the River Cross-Section


Figure 8. shows the erosion & siltation after flood 2007

It is seen from the above figure-2 that there is non-cohesive soil with steep slope in the river bank. It is also
seen from the figure-3, 4 & 5 that the construction of bandalling is going on. It is seen in figure-6 &7 that the top of the
bamboo bandalling is blocked by the bamboo fencing for which the velocity near the river bank is low than that of less
velocity away from the river channel. It is concluded from the figure-7 & 8 that there is a siltation near the river bank
where as there is deep pool away from the river bank. So it can be concluded that the bandals are working as a river
bank erosion protection structures.
Bandals are capable for protecting river banks by flow diversion towards the main channel leading to deep
navigational channel formation in the main river. On the other hand, flow velocities are higher at the main channel

increased the depth of the navigational channel that ensure the navigational channel development. If the bandal
structure functions optimistically, the river can get sufficient time for its adjustment and new main channel and bank
line development.
The authors are grateful to the River Research Institute, Faridpur, and Government of Bangladesh for the
financial assistance to conduct study for such type of research.
Klaassen, G.J., Douben, K., van der Waal, M.: Novel approaches in river engineering, River Flow-2002, pp. 27-43,
Rahman, M.M., Nakagawa, H., Ishigaki, T. and Khaleduzzaman, ATM.: Channel stabilization using bandalling,
Annuals of Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University, No. 46 B, pp. 613-618, 2003.