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INVESTIGATION ON STATOR AND ROTOR VIBRATION CHARACTERISTICS OF

TURBO-GENERATOR UNDER AIR GAP ECCENTRICITY FAULT


Shuting Wan, Yuling He
Department of Mechanical Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Baoding 071003, China
E-mail: wanshuting1@sohu.com

Received July 2010, Accepted March 2011


No. 10-CSME-48, E.I.C. Accession 3211

ABSTRACT
This paper investigates the stator and the rotor vibration characteristics of turbo-generator
under the air gap eccentricity fault. Firstly the air gap magnetic flux density of the fault is
deduced, and the formula of the magnetic pull per unit area acting on the stator and the
unbalanced magnetic pulls of x-axis and y-axis acting on the rotor are respectively gotten. Then
the static eccentricity, the dynamic eccentricity and the mixed eccentricity are respectively
studied to analyze the stator and the rotor vibration characteristics. Finally experiments are
done on a SDF-9 non-salient fault simulating generator to verify the theoretical results. The
investigation results of this paper will be beneficial to the air gap eccentricity fault diagnosis of
turbo-generator.
Keywords: turbo-generator; air-gap eccentricity; vibration characteristics; stator; rotor.

ETUDE SUR LES CARACTERISTIQUES DES VIBRATIONS DU STATOR ET DU


ROTOR DUN TURBOGENERATEUR COMPORTANT UN DEFAUT
DE LENTREFER
DEXCENTRICITE
Cette etude porte sur les caracteristiques des vibrations du stator et du rotor dun
turbogenerateur comportant un defaut dexcentricite de lentrefer. En premier lieu, la
determination de la densite du flux magnetique de lentrefer, et la formule dattraction
magnetique par unite de surface agissant sur le stator et sur le desequilibre de lattraction
magnetique de laxe x et laxe y agissant sur le rotor, sont respectivement obtenues. Ensuite, les
excentricites statiques, dynamiques et mixtes sont etudiees pour analyser les caracteristiques des
vibrations du stator et du rotor. Finalement, des experiences sont menees sur un SDF-9, une
simulation de generateur a` defaut non-saillant pour verifier les resultats theoriques. Ces
resultats seront benefiques pour le diagnostic du defaut dexcentricite de lentrefer du
turbogenerateur.
Mots-cles : turbogenerateur; excentricite de lentrefer; caracteristiques des vibrations; stator;
rotor.

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161

NOMENCLATURE
f

magnetomotive force (A), and


frequency (Hz)
t
time(s)
F
value of magnetomotive forces
(A), and unbalanced magnetic
pull (N)
I
vector of stator current
E0
vector of stator electromotive
force
F
vector of magnetomotive forces
g
radial length of the air
gap (mm)
q
magnetic pull per unit area
(N/m2)
B
magnetic flux density (Wb/m2)
L
axial length of the air gap (m)
R
radius of the rotor (m)
Greek symbols
a
v

circumferential angle (rad)


angular frequency (rad/s)

y
b
d
L
m0

internal power-angle of generator (rad)


angle between magnetomotive
forces (rad)
relative air gap eccentricity
magnetic permeance (H)
magnetic permeability of the
air (H/m)

Subscripts
s
denotes static eccentricity or
stator
d
denotes dynamic eccentricity
r
denotes mechanical rotation or
rotor
m
denotes mechanical parameter
a
denotes average parameter
c
denotes composite parameter
0
denotes constant parameter
X
denotes components in X
direction
Y
denotes components in Y
direction

1. INTRODUCTION
Air gap eccentricity is one of the main mechanical faults, which could exist in almost every
generator. This fault can cause the magnetic pull per unit area acting on the stator and the
unbalanced magnetic pull (UMP) acting on the rotor, which can deteriorate the bearing
working condition, increase the stator and rotor vibration, and deform the stator core and
damage the winding insulation. Thus, investigation of the UMP characteristics and the
vibration characteristics of the stator and the rotor will be beneficial to the air gap eccentricity
fault diagnosis of turbo-generator.
The UMP on the rotor caused by the air gap eccentricity was studied by many authors [115],
among these papers, most of them are about motors [14]. For turbo-generator, the diagnosis,
causes, and preventive maintenance for the air gap eccentricity fault were investigated firstly by
L. T. Rosenberg [5]. Then the simulation and modeling of this fault were presented [6,7]. The
finite element method and the modified winding function method have been used as powerful
tools to calculate the electrical parameters and the magnetic fields [8]. Meanwhile, the UMP on
the rotor caused by the air gap eccentricity fault and the radial vibration characteristics were
studied [914]. Besides the radial vibration, the axial vibration also exists [15].
The current researches have presented important findings and they are the basis of the on-line
and the off-line detecting the air gap eccentricity fault. However, these researchers have paid
attention to the rotor vibration characteristics caused by the UMP, and the stator vibration
characteristics are rarely studied. Actually, the stator vibration characteristics have large
quantity of fault information, and they can also be used to diagnose generator faults and
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162

sometimes may even be more effective. Based on these researches, this paper intends to study
the magnetic pull per unit area acting on the stator and the UMP acting on the rotor, and then
investigate the vibration characteristics of the stator and the rotor caused by the air gap
eccentricity fault.

2. AIR GAP MAGNETIC FLUX DENSITY UNDER NORMAL CONDITION AND AIR
GAP ECCENTRICITY FAULT
Under normal condition without air gap eccentricity, and assuming that the air gap magnetic
flux distribution is symmetrical, the air gap magnetic permeance per unit area can be expressed
as
L~

m0
g

The air gap magnetomotive forces under normal condition are shown in Fig. 1, where Fr is
the main magnetomotive force, Fs is the magnetomotive force produced by the armature
reaction, and Fc is the composite magnetomotive force. The phasors indicated by a dot in Fig. 1
are time vectors, while the phasors indicated by a bar are space vectors. Considering the effect
of the air gap location on the magnetomotive force, a mechanical angle written as am is used,
and the air gap magnetomotive forces can be expressed as

p
f am ,t~Fs cos vt{am {y{ zFr cosvt{am ~Fc cosvt{am {b
2

where: v52pf, v is the electrical angular frequency, f is the electrical frequency, and am is an
angle used to indicate the circumferential location of the air gap. Then Fc and b can be
calculated as
q
8
2
>
< Fc ~ Fs2 cos2 yzFr {Fs siny
>
: b~arctg

Fs cosy
Fr {Fs siny

According to Eqs. (1) and (2), the magnetic flux density under normal condition can be
expressed as

Fig. 1. Air gap magnetomotive forces under normal condition.


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163

Bam ,t~f am ,tL~Fc cosvt{am {b

m0
g

When the air gap eccentricity fault happens, the air gap length g is not constant because of
the air gap eccentricity, and the magnetic permeance will be changed while the magnetomotive
forces will keep stable. For convenience, the coordinate system shown in Fig. 2 is adopted. The
line through the minimum air gap of the static eccentricity is defined as the x-axis. Meanwhile, it
is also defined as the original point of the angle am. The air gap length can be expressed as
gam ,t~ga {ds cosam {dd cosvr t{am ~ga 1{drs cosam {drd cosvr t{am 

where ga is the average air gap length which generally equals to g, ds is the static eccentricity
length, dd is the dynamic eccentricity length, drs5ds/ga is the value of the relatively static
eccentricity, drd5dd/ga is the value of the relatively dynamic eccentricity, and vr52pfr, vr is the
mechanical angular frequency, fr is the mechanical frequency. For turbo-generator, vr equals to
the electrical angular frequency v. In the following text, all angular frequency is written as v,
and fr is written as f.
The magnetic permeance per unit area can be expanded by power series, and the higher
harmonic components can be ignored because of their tiny values. Then the magnetic
permeance per unit area is
m0
m0
~
gam ,t ga 1{drs cosam zdrd cosvr t{am 
"
#
drs cosam zdrd cosvr t{am 2
z
~L0 1zdrs cosam zdrd cosvt{am z
2!

Lam ,t~

&L0 1zdrs cosam zdrd cosvt{am 


~L0 zLs cosam zLd cosvt{am

where L0 is the constant component of the air gap magnetic permeance, Ls5L0drs is the
component caused by the static eccentricity, and Ld5L0drd is the component caused by the
dynamic eccentricity.
According to Eqs. (2) and (6), the magnetic flux density under the air gap eccentricity fault
can be expressed as

Fig. 2. Coordinate system set for air gap eccentricity.


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164

Bam ,t~f am ,tLam ,t~Fc cosvt{am {bL0 zLs cosam zLd cosvt{am 

3. MAGNETIC PULL OF PER UNIT AREA


According to Eq. (4), the magnetic pull per unit area under normal condition can be
expressed as
Bam ,t2 Fc cosvt{am {bm0 =g2 m0 Fc 2
qam ,t~
~
~
1zcos2vt{2am {2b
2m0
2m0
4g2

Fc 2 L0 2
1zcos2vt{2am {2b
~
4m0

detailed information about the amplitudes is shown in Table 1.


According to Eqs. (3) and (7), the magnetic pull per unit area under the air gap eccentricity
fault can be derived as



Bam ,t2
F 2 
qam ,t~
~ C 2L20 zL2s zL2d z4L0 Ls cosam z L2s cos2am
2m0
8m0
!
L2d
cos 2b z2Ls Ld cosvtz4L0 Ld cosvt{am z2Ls Ld cosvt{2am 
z
2
zLs Ld cosvt{2bz2L0 Ld vt{am {2bzLs Ld cosvt{2am {2b
"
#
2
L
z L2d cos2vt{2am z s cos2vt{2b z2L0 Ls cos2vt{am {2b
2



z 2L20 zL2s zL2d cos2vt{2am {2b z2L0 Ls cos2vt{3am {2b
"
#
L2s
z
cos2vt{4am {2b zLs Ld cos3vt{2am {2b
2

z2L0 Ld cos3vt{3am {2bzLs Ld cos3vt{4am {2b


"
#
L2d
cos4vt{4am {2b g
z
2

Table 1. Amplitude of the magnetic pull per unit area on stator under normal condition.
Components

Amplitude formula

Essentially influential factors

Constant
Pulsating (2f)

Fc2L02/4m0
Fc2L02/4m0

y, If , and g
y, If , and g

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165

4. STATOR VIBRATION CHARACTERISTICS UNDER NORMAL CONDITION


AND AIR GAP ECCENTRICITY FAULT
The stator core is made up of lots of overlapped silicon sheets, and its mechanical model
is a hollow elastic shell cylinder. The essentially influential factor for the stator vibration
characteristics is the pulsating peculiarity of the magnetic pull acting on the stator. Therefore,
the stator vibration characteristics can be studied via the magnetic pull per unit area.
According to Eq. (8), the pulsating peculiarity of the magnetic pull acting on the stator under
normal condition can be gained. The amplitude of the magnetic pull of 2f is
m0 Fc2 Fc2 L20
q2f ~
~
4g2
4m0

10

which will cause the stator vibration at 2f.


When the air gap eccentricity fault happens, the magnetic pull acting on the stator will have
different formulas due to different eccentricity types. There are three types of eccentricities, i.e.
static eccentricity, dynamic eccentricity, and mixed eccentricity composed by the previous two.
Based on Eq. (9), the further analysis of the stator vibration characteristics under the faults is
given as follows.

4.1 Static Eccentricity Fault


In this case, Ld50, Ls?0, then Eq. (9) can be simplified as
"
FC2
L2s
2
2
2
qam ,t~
2L0 zLs z4L0 Ls cosam zLs cos2am z cos2vt{2b
8m0
2


z2L0 Ls cos2vt{am {2bz 2L20 zL2s cos2vt{2am {2b
#
L2s
z2L0 Ls cos2vt{3am {2bz cos2vt{4am {2b
2

11

As seen in Eq. (11), there are constant components and pulsating components of 2f, and the
amplitudes of the magnetic pull per unit area on stator and the essentially influential factors are
shown in Table 2. The constant components do not cause the stator vibration, while the
pulsating components cause the stator vibration at 2f.

Table 2. Amplitude of the magnetic pull per unit area on stator under static eccentricity fault.
Components

Amplitude formula

Essentially influential factors

Constant
pulsating (2f)

Fc2(2L02+Ls2+4L0Lscosam+Ls2cos2am)/8m0
Fc2 (2Ls2+2L02+4L0Ls)/8m0

y, If, ga, ds and am


y, If, ga and ds

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166

The amplitude of the magnetic pull of 2f is




Fc2 2L2s z2L20 z4L0 Ls
q2f ~
8m0
0

12

Comparing Eq. (10) with Eq. (12), it is obvious that the amplitude of the magnetic pull of 2f
under the static eccentricity fault is larger than that under normal condition, and the stator
vibration at 2f under the static eccentricity fault will be obviously larger than that under normal
condition. As indicated in Eq. (3), the internal power-angle y affects FC and b. FC determines
the amplitude of the stator vibration while b and am only affect the vibration amplitude when
the excitation begins, more details are shown in Table 2, where the exciting current If affects FC,
ga determines L0, and ds determines Ls.

4.2 Dynamic Eccentricity Fault


In this case, Ld?0, Ls50, then Eq. (9) can be simplified as
"
FC 2
Ld 2
cos 2bz4L0 Ld cosvt{am z2L0 Ld vt{am {2b
2L0 2 zLd 2 z
qam ,t~
8m0
2


zLd 2 cos2vt{2am z 2L0 2 zLd 2 cos2vt{2am {2b
13
#
Ld 2
cos4vt{4am {2b
z2L0 Ld cos3vt{3am {2bz
2

As seen in Eq. (13), there are constant components and pulsating components of f, 2f, 3f and
4f, and the amplitudes of the magnetic pull per unit area on stator and the essentially influential
factors are shown in Table 3. The constant components do not cause the stator vibration, while
the pulsating components cause the stator vibration at f, 2f, 3f and 4f. Moreover, comparing the
magnetic pull amplitudes in Table 3 with those in Table 1, it is obvious that the amplitude of
each frequency under the dynamic eccentricity fault is larger than that under normal condition,
and the vibration amplitude of the stator will increase as the dynamic eccentricity increases. The
angle b influenced by y affects the amplitude of the constant components. Besides, b and am
determines the initial vibration amplitude when the excitation begins.

Table 3. Amplitude of the magnetic pull per unit area on stator under dynamic eccentricity fault.
Amplitude formula

Components
Constant
pulsating

f
2f
3f
4f,

Fc2(2L02+Ld2+0.5Ld2cosb)/8m0
Fc2(6L0Ld)/8m0
Fc2(2L02+2Ld2)/8m0
Fc2(2L0Ld)/8m0
Fc2(0.5Ld2)/8m0

Essentially influential factors


y,
y,
y,
y,
y,

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If,
If,
If,
If,
If,

ga
ga
ga
ga
ga

and
and
and
and
and

dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
167

4.3 Mixed Eccentricity Fault


In this case, Ls?0, Ld?0. then Eq. (9) is the magnetic pull per unit area acting on the stator.
As seen in Eq. (9), the magnetic pull per unit area has constant components and pulsating
components of f, 2f, 3f and 4f , and the amplitudes of the magnetic pull per unit area on stator
and the essentially influential factors are shown in Table 4. The constant components do not
cause the stator vibration, while the pulsating components cause the stator vibration at f, 2f, 3f
and 4f. Moreover, comparing the magnetic pull amplitudes in Table 4 with those in Table 1, it is
obvious that the amplitude of each frequency under the mixed eccentricity fault is larger than
that under normal condition, and the vibration amplitude of the stator will increase as the
eccentricity no matter static or dynamic increases. b and am affect the vibration amplitude when
the excitation begins, while y, If, ds and dd determine the vibration amplitude on the whole
operating process.
Based on the previous analysis, a general conclusion can be gained: the static eccentricity
fault can cause the stator vibration at 2f, and the dynamic eccentricity and the mixed
eccentricity can cause the stator vibrations at f, 2f, 3f and 4f. The exciting current and the
internal power-angle which depends on the load nature of the generator directly determine the
vibration amplitude. Besides, the vibration amplitude will also increase as the eccentricity
increases.
These forced vibrations may deform the stator core and damage the windings insulation.
Moreover, the bars of the stator end winding may even have abruptions if the vibration
frequency is similar to the bars natural frequency.
5. ROTOR VIBRATION CHARACTERISTICS UNDER NORMAL CONDITION AND
AIR GAP ECCENTRICITY FAULT
The mechanical model of the rotor is a stuffed cylinder. The unit magnetic pull is not enough
to cause rotor vibrate because of its large rigidity. The essentially influential factor for the rotor
vibration characteristics is the unbalanced magnetic pull (UMP). And the UMP of x-axis and yaxis can be calculated as follows
8
2p
>
>
< FX ~LR 0 qam ,tcos am dam
2p
FY ~LR 0 qam ,tsin am dam
>
>
p
:
F ~ FX 2 zFY 2

14

where F is the composite UMP, FX and FY are respectively its components in x-axis and y-axis.
Table 4. Amplitude of the magnetic pull per unit area on stator under mixed eccentricity fault.
Components
Constant
pulsating

f
2f
3f
4f

Amplitude formula

Essentially influential factors

Fc2(2L02+Ls2+Ld2+4L0Lscosam
+Ls2cos2am +0.5Ld2cosb)/8m0
Fc2(6L0Ld +6LsLd)/8m0
2
Fc (2L02+2Ld2+2Ls2+4L0Ls)/8m0
Fc2(2L0Ld+2LsLd)/8m0
Fc2(0.5Ld2)/8m0

y, If, ga, am, ds and dd


y, If, ga, ds and dd
y, If, ga, ds and dd
y, If, ga, ds and dd
y, If, ga and dd

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168

According to Eqs. (8) and (14), the UMP under normal condition can be gained, which is
F5FX5FY50. Thus, the rotor does not vibrate in theory. However, the situation will be
different if the air gap eccentricity fault happens.
According to Eqs. (9) and (14), The UMP under the air gap eccentricity fault can be derived
as
8
LRFC2 p
>
>
>
F
~
2L0 Ls z2L0 Ld cosvtzL0 Ld cosvt{2bzL0 Ls cos2vt{2b
X
>
>
4m0
>
>
>
>
<
LRFC2 p
FY ~
2L0 Ld sinvtzL0 Ld sinvt{2bzL0 Ls sin2vt{2b
15
4m0
>
>
s
>
>
>
2
>
LRF
pL
5Ls 2 z5Ld 2 z4Ld 2 cos2bz10Ld Ls cosvt
>
C
0
>
F
~
>
:
4m0
z8Ld Ls cosvt{2bz4Ls 2 cos2vt{2b

Based on Eq. (15), the further analysis of the rotor vibration characteristics under the air gap
eccentricity fault is given as follows.

5.1 Static Eccentricity Fault


In this case, Ld50, Ls?0, then Eq. (15) can be simplified as

8
2
F
~LRF
p2L
L
zL
L
cos

2vt{2b

4m0
>
X
0
s
0
s
C
<

2
FY ~LRFC pL0 Ls sin2vt{2b 4m0
>
p

:
F ~ 5z4 cos2vt{2bLRFC 2 pL0 Ls 4m0

16

As seen in Eq. (16), the UMP consists of constant components and pulsating components of
2f, and the amplitudes of UMP and the essentially influential factors are shown in Table 5. The
constant components do not cause the rotor vibration, while the pulsating components cause
the rotor vibration at 2f. Obviously, the rotor vibration amplitude will also increase as the static
eccentricity increases. The internal power-angle y affects FC and b so that the UMP no matter
at the beginning of the excitation or on the running process will be influenced.
Since the air gap eccentricity direction under this fault is stationary, the UMP also keeps a
constant direction. Therefore, the eccentricity direction can be reflected by the UMP direction.
Moreover, the static eccentricity causes can be further deduced, as shown in Fig. 3. It is easy to find
that the UMP direction is along the line that through the minimum air gap of the static eccentricity.
Table 5. Amplitude of the UMP on rotor under static eccentricity fault.
Amplitude formula

Components
FX
FY
F

constant
pulsating (2f)
constant
pulsating (2f)
constant
pulsating (2f)

Essentially influential factors

LRFc2p(2L0Ls)/4m0
LRFc2pL0Ls/4m0
0
2
LRF pL L /4m
p c 2 0 s 0
5LRFc pL0Ls/4m0
2 LRFc2pL0Ls/4m0

Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 35, No. 2, 2011

y, If, ga,
y, If, ga,
y, If, ga,
y, If, ga,
y, If, ga,

and ds
and ds
and ds
and ds
and ds
169

Fig. 3. Static eccentricity causes reflected by the direction of the UMP, (a) Bearing offset, (b)
Deformation of stator core.

Both bearing offset and stator core deformation are probable to cause this appearance. The UMP
direction is the same as the bearing offset direction and the stator core deforming direction. Besides,
a composite force composed of the UMP and the rotors gravity is produced, which also pulls the
rotor from a constant direction and worsens the bearing load condition. As the rotor rotates, the
composite force will act on the rotors different circumferential positions.

5.2 Dynamic Eccentricity Fault


In this case, Ld?0,Ls50, then Eq. (15) can be simplified as

8
2
>
< FX ~LRFC p2L0 Ld cosvtzL0 Ld cosvt{2b
4m0
FY ~LRFC2 p2L0 Ld sin vtzL0 Ld sinvt{2b 4m0
>

p
:
F ~ 5z4 cos2bLRFC 2 L0 Ld 4m0

17

As seen in Eq. (17), the values of FX and FY will change as the rotor rotates while the value of
the composite UMP will keep the same. However, since it is dynamic eccentricity, the
eccentricity location of the air-gap and the composite UMPs direction will change as the rotor
rotates. Thus, the dynamic eccentricity will cause the rotor vibration at f. The internal powerangle y affects FC and b, so that the UMP no matter at the beginning of the excitation or on the

Table 6. Amplitude of the UMP on rotor under dynamic eccentricity fault.

Components
FX
FY
F

Amplitude formula
constant
pulsating (f)
constant
pulsating (f)
constant
pulsating (f)

Essentially influential
factors

p
5{4 cos2bLRFC 2 L0 Ld 4m0
0

p
5{4 cos2bLRFC 2 L0 Ld 4m0
0

p
5z4 cos2bLRFC 2 L0 Ld 4m0

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y, If, ga, and dd


y, If, ga, and dd
y, If, ga, and dd
170

Fig. 4. Dynamic eccentricity causes reflected by the direction of the UMP, (a) Deflection of rotor
roundness, (b) Flexure deformation of rotor.

whole running process will be influenced. More details are shown in Table 6, where the
amplitude formulas of FX and FY are gained through the vectorial resultant method.
Although the direction of the UMP changes as the rotor rotates, it acts on a certain
circumferential position of the rotor. The changing direction of the UMP reflects the dynamic
eccentricity direction, and the dynamic eccentricity causes can be further deduced, as shown in
Fig. 4. Since the UMP has the same direction as the dynamic eccentricity, rotor flexure
deformation will be caused or worsened due to the continuous pull action. Moreover, rubimpact accident may even be caused after a long period.

5.3 Mixed Eccentricity Fault


In this case, Ls?0, Ld?0, then Eq. (15) is the formula of the UMP. As shown in Eq. (15), the
UMP will cause the rotor vibration at f and 2f, and the vibration amplitudes of the rotor will
also increase as the static eccentricity or the dynamic eccentricity increases. The initial vibration
amplitude is affected by y when the excitation begins. Besides, y and If affect the vibration
amplitudes on the whole process via FC. More details can be found in Table 7, where the
amplitude formulas of FX, FY and F at f are deduced through the vectorial resultant method.

Table 7. Amplitude of the UMP on rotor under mixed eccentricity fault.

Components

Amplitude formula

FX constant
pulsating

LRFc2p(2L0Ls)/4m0

5{4 cos2b|LRFC 2 L0 Ld 4m0


LRFc2pL0Ls/4m0
0

p
5{4 cos2b|LRFC 2 L0 Ld 4m0
LRFc2pL0Ls/4m0

q
2
2
2
2
5Ls z5Ld z4Ld cos2b|LRFc pL0 4m0

p
3 2Ld Ls |LRFC 2 pL0 4m0
2 LRFc2pL0Ls/4m0

FY constant
pulsating
F

f
2f
f
2f

constant
pulsating

f
2f

Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 35, No. 2, 2011

Essentially influential factors


y, If, ga, and ds
y, If, ga, and dd
y, If, ga, and ds
y, If, ga, and dd
y, If, ga, and ds
y, If, ga, and dd
y, If, ga, ds, and dd
y, If, ga, and ds
171

Fig. 5. SDF-9 non-salient fault simulating generator, (a) General outlook, (b) Method to set static
eccentricity.

Since the mixed eccentricity is composed of the static eccentricity and the dynamic
eccentricity, the UMP can be also treated as a composite force composed of two component
forces. One component force that has a constant direction is caused by the static eccentricity,
and the other one whose direction will change as the rotor rotates is caused by the dynamic
eccentricity. The directions of the two component forces can also reflect the static eccentricity
direction and the dynamic eccentricity direction. And the eccentricity causes shown in Fig. 3
and Fig. 4 can be also deduced. The effect of the UMP under mixed eccentricity fault equals to
the superposition of the static one and the dynamic one.

6. EXPERIMENT VERIFICATION
6.1 Experiment Equipment and Method
The experiment is based on a SDF-9 non-salient pole fault simulating generator, as shown in
Fig. 5(a). The stator winding is two-layer and pitch-shortening, and the corresponding
parameters are:

Fig. 6. Method to set speed sensors.


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172

Fig. 7. Stator vibration spectrum under normal condition and static eccentricity fault, (a) Normal
condition, (b) 25% static eccentricity, (c) 50% static eccentricity.
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Fig. 8. Rotor vibration spectrum under normal condition and static eccentricity fault. (a) Normal
condition, (b) 25% static eccentricity, (c) 50% static eccentricity.

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Rated capacity: 7.5kVA


Rated exciting current: 1.5A
Rated speed: nr53000 r/min
Number of pole-pairs: p51
Radial length of air gap: 0.8 mm
The generator stator can be moved along the horizontally radial direction while the rotor
keeps stable. The movement can be performed by two bolts and controlled by two dial
indicators so that the static eccentricity can be simulated, as shown in Fig. 5(b). A CD-21S
speed sensor and a CD-21C speed sensor (both made by Beijing vibration measurer factory, the
sensitivity is 30 mv/mm/s) are respectively set on the bearing block in the horizontal direction
and the stator core in vertical direction, as shown in Fig. 6. U60116C collector made by Beijing
Bopu Co.,Ltd is used. The sampling frequency is 10 kHz. During the experiment, the generator
is operated under the rated condition.

6.2 Experimental Results and Discussions


The exciting current If51.5A, and 25% and 50% static eccentricity are set respectively, the
experiment results are shown in Fig. 7 and Fig. 8.
Under normal condition, the stator should only vibrate at 2f and the rotor shouldnt vibrate
in theory. However, the stator and the rotor vibrations at f, 2f exist in the experiment system
due to the asymmetry inside the generator.
As shown in Fig. 7 and Fig. 8, the results show that the static air gap eccentricity fault
generally increases the stator and the rotor vibration at 2f, and the experiment results comply
with the theoretical analysis.
7. CONCLUSIONS
This paper investigates the stator and the rotor vibration characteristics under normal
condition and the air gap eccentricity fault, the experiment verifications are also provided. The
conclusions drawn from the theoretical and experimental investigation can be given as follows:
(1) The static eccentricity fault causes the stator and the rotor vibration at 2f, and the dynamic
eccentricity fault and the mixed eccentricity fault cause the stator vibration at f, 2f, 3f, 4f ,
and cause the rotor vibration at f and 2f.
(2) Under the air gap eccentricity fault, the vibration amplitude of the stator and the rotor will
increase as the eccentricity develops. And the eccentricity direction can be reflected by the
direction of the UMP.
(3) Under the air gap eccentricity fault, the stator and the rotor vibration amplitudes will be
affected by the value of the eccentricity, the internal power-angle of the generator and the
exciting current.
The proposed vibration characteristics have significant value for the air gap eccentricity fault
diagnosis. However, the experiments of dynamic air gap eccentricity fault and mixed air gap
eccentricity fault are still needed to be performed in future.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This work is supported by Natural Science Foundation of Hebei province(E2011502024) and
the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (09MG30).
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