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SWITCHBOARDS, DISTRIBUTION BOARDS AND CONTROL PANELS

1.

GENERAL
The switchboards, distribution boards and control panels shall be of modular design and
as specified in the drawings.

2.

LOW VOLTAGE SWITCHBOARD


Cubicle switchboards shall be heavy duty totally enclosed metal clad and compartmented
comprising the various switchgears and necessary components as indicated in the
drawings. All components of the switchboard shall be tropicalized and rated at an
operating voltage of 415/240 volts, three or single phase, 50 Hertz.
The cubicle framework shall be fabricated from rolled steel angle sections and selfsupporting when assembled. The roof and sides shall be of sheet steel of minimum 14
SWG. Full access shall be provided to all switchgears and components by means of
access panels and suitable doors. Ventilation slots with anti-vermin mesh shall be
provided.
For industrial switchboards, busbar chambers shall be constructed of mild steel angle and
sheet with detachable screw-on covers at front and rear and detachable end covers.
Busbar chambers shall be extensible. A sheet steel screen shall be provided at the front
to protect the incoming and outgoing cables when they rise from the trench.
All metalwork shall be thoroughly cleaned and degreased, thereafter treated with a rust
inhibiting primer, followed by two coats of good quality weather resistant paint finished
to a color to be selected by the Consulting Engineer. All damaged paintwork shall be
made good at site prior to commissioning.
Busbars shall extend the full length of the busbar chamber and shall comprise of uniform
cross-sectional area, high conductivity, hard drawn copper bar. The busbar shall be air
insulated and supported rigidly in each unit with anti-tracking synthetic resin bonded
laminated sheet or other approved insulators. Interconnection between busbar and
switchgears shall be of air insulated hard drawn high conductivity copper rod, strip or
cables. Busbar markings and arrangements, connections and grade of copper shall
comply with BS158, BS159, BS1433 and BS1977.
The switchboard shall be provided with copper earthing terminal bar throughout its entire
length of minimum thickness 2.5mm x 25mm (1/8 x 1).
Small wiring for metering, protection, indicating, interlocking and control circuits etc.
shall be carried out with minimum 1.5mm PVC insulated cable of appropriate colour to
match with phases and PVC ferrules.

SD-1

The interior of each equipment shall be clearly marked to show the phases and for this
purpose either colored plastic disc screwed to fixed components or colors PVC sleeve
shall be utilized.
Each service shall be labelled as detailed on the drawings. Labels shall be of clear
Perspex, reverse engraved and flush filled with red filling. Labels shall be attached by
means of machine screws and nuts or machine screws driven into drilled tapped holes.
All L.V. switchboards and equipment shall be suitable for a symmetrical fault rating of
31 MVA or 43kA at 415V, 3 phase, 50Hz for one second. All equipment shall be type
tested by an approved short circuit testing authority. Type test certificates for the
equipment shall be forwarded to the Consulting Engineers.
3.

AIR CIRCUIT BREAKER


Air Circuit Breakers shall be of metal cladded, flush mounted, horizontal draw out
isolation. They shall fully comply with BS4752 and certified accordingly by ASTA or
other recognized short circuit testing authority.
Air Circuit Breakers shall be equipped with independent manual closing devices. Manual
charging of the ratchet spring mechanism shall be accomplished by a handle and an
interlock shall be incorporated such that closing of the breaker shall only be possible
when the spring is fully charged. The status of the spring mechanism shall also be
indicated. Normal opening of the breaker shall be accomplished by tripping coils, but
normal opening shall also be possible by insertion of the removal draw out handle into
position. The tripping mechanism must be stable and will not be activated by shocks or
vibration. The trip coil shall be designed such that the trip plunger be operated
instantaneously without delay due to gradual building up of coil flux to maximum value.
The contacts shall be designed to operate efficiently under all conditions of service with
minimum deterioration under fault interruption. Devices should also be incorporated to
control the arc during opening and the contacts and shall be arranged to give a double
break in each pole. All contacts shall be replaceable.
Individual arc chutes shall be provided on each pole of the breaker. They shall be so
designed that any arcing due to opening of the breaker during a maximum fault condition
shall be completely contained with no possibility of a flashover between phases, any
phase to neutral or to earthed metal.
The breakers operating mechanism and the carriage on hinged panel shall be interlocked
so that it is not possible to withdraw the circuit breaker while it is in the closed while it is
at any position between the service and isolated position. Provisions shall be made so
that it is possible to operate the breakers mechanism if required for inspection and
testing purposed when the breaker is in the isolated position.

SD-2

Auxiliary switches, relays, contactors, trip coils, electrical and mechanical interlocks,
alarm indication and operation status indication shall be provided to ensure the proper
operation of the circuit breaker. In addition to those required for the functions covered in
this specification, a reasonable number of auxiliary switches shall be provided to cover
possibility of future alarm or signaling circuit requirements. All auxiliary switches shall
be robust, double break design, easily accessible for maintenance and replaceable.
4.

SWITCHGEAR
All switchgear shall be of the approved type and comply with BS 5419. Where items of
switchgear are to be mounted near to one another, they are to be selected from a
manufacturers standard range. All TPN fuse switches and switch fuses shall have a
parallel motion quick make and slow break spring loaded operating mechanism. Positive
interlock shall be incorporated to ensure that the cover can only be opened when the
switch is in the OFF position and fuse links isolated. Flag ON-OFF indication shall be
provided to indicate the status of operation. All switchgear shall be complete with HRC
cartridge fuse link to BS 88 and bolted type neutral links. For all motor circuits, motor
rated HRC fuse links shall be provided with ratings as specified.

5.

INSTALLATION OF WALL MOUNTED PANELS


Panels shall be installed on walls at the locations indicated on the layout drawings. The
locations shown thereon are approximate only; therefore the Contractor shall liase with
the Supervising Engineer with respect to the exact positions and heights of the panels,
prior to commencing wiring installation works.
The panels shall be held in position on walls by means of expansion bolts of sufficient
length and gauge to withstand the weights of the boards and cables connected to the
boards. The fixing holes for the panels shall be internal of the board.
Where the panels are to be installed on steel columns or framework, purpose made m.s.
clamps of robust construction shall be used for holding the boards in positions. Drilling
of holes in steel the columns or steel structured work for the installation of boards shall
not be permitted, except with the prior approval of the Architect.
If it is not possible for a panel to be installed in either manner stipulated above, then such
panels shall be installed on a floor mounted m.s. pedestal and placed against the wall or
column as the case may be.

6.

BUSBARS
Busbars shall be of hard drawn high conductivity copper to B.S. 159. All joints in
busbars shall be bolted or clamped, with contact surfaces suitably prepared.
Busbars shall be painted with colors red, yellow, blue and black at appropriate points to
distinguish the phases and neutral.

SD-3

The design should preferably be such that the main busbars are arranged in a horizontal
plane, and in the order red, yellow, blue and neutral from back to front. On each panel
connections should be red, yellow, blue and neutral from left to right, viewed from the
front of the panel.
An earthing busbar, of appropriate cross section, shall run the full length of main
switchboards preferably at the base of the switchboards.
The busbars shall be air insulated and rigidly supported so as to withstand any
mechanical force to which they may be subjected under the maximum fault conditions.
Adequate connectors, droppers and links shall be fitted to serve circuit breaker panels.
Non hydroscopic non tracking supporting insulators shall be used and spaced to
withstand the stresses due to the maximum fault current.
Full-neutral and earth busbars shall be provided with terminals, lugs and bolts with nuts
and washers to suit requirements. Each outgoing shall be provided with separate
terminals.
The SESCO metering CT's and sealing chambers shall be mounted in the rear section of
the switchboard and shall be segregated from the busbar etc by insulating panels.
Connections from busbars to circuit breakers, fuse switches shall be by means of copper
bars securely clamped to the busbars and identified by means of colored plastic sleeve to
indicate the phase color. Drilling of busbars shall not be permitted without written
consent of the Engineer.
7.

INTERNAL WIRING
The internal wiring for various instruments etc. shall be of minimum size 1.5mm 2. But
for current transformer circuits, a minimum size of 2.5mm2 conductor shall be used.
These cables shall be laid inside G.I. conduits which shall be neatly arranged with bends
set at 90o and securely held in position with suitable cleats.
External wiring shall be terminated on din rail mounted polyamide tunnel type terminal
blocks within the switchboard before any internal wiring is carried out. Insulating bushes
of PVC or other approved materials shall be used where necessary. Power carrying
circuits shall be segregated from control wiring.
Identification ferrules of white insulating material with permanently marked black
characters and numerals having a glossy surface shall be fitted to each end of all internal
wiring.

SD-4

8.

FUSES AND LINKS


Fuses shall be of the interchangeable cartridge type having a rupturing capacity of not
less than 31 MVA at 380 volts to B.S. 88 for AC 46 Category of duty and Class 1 fusing
factor.
Ratings shall be as indicated with 2A units being used for the protection of instrument
and control circuits.
Fuse carriers, links, link carriers and bases shall also comply with the requirements of
B.S. 88.

9.

MINIATURE AND MOULDED CASE CIRCUIT BREAKERS


The breakers shall be suitable for use on a system voltage of 415/240 volts, three or
single phase, 50Hz and shall comply with BS 3871 and BS 4752. The breakers shall be
of quick make and slow break type with toggle operating mechanism. The breakers shall
be provided with overload and overcurrent protection by means of thermal magnetic
tripping element and arc extinguishing devices. The tripping mechanism shall be trip
free from the handle so that it cannot be closed onto a fault. Multi-pole breakers shall
have a common trip mechanism so that in the event of a fault on any one pole of the
breaker, all poles will trip simultaneously. All breakers shall be to the appropriate ratings
as indicated in the drawings. Breakers located at the main switchboard shall be fitted
with external interlocking handles. Positive interlock shall be incorporated to ensure that
the cover can only be opened when the switch is in the OFF position.

10.

MINIATURE CIRCUIT BREAKERS (MCB)


Miniature over current circuit breakers shall comply with the requirements of B.S. 3871
and be of the hermetically hydraulic type with ratings M6 at 380 volts A.C.
Discrimination shall be inherently provided with HRC fuses to B.S. 88 (e.g. Class Q1
type as manufactured by M/s GEC - English Electric) protecting the distribution board
such that except under extreme overloads, the miniature circuit breakers will discriminate
with the fuses. The required measure of discrimination is that the fuse curve crosses the
miniature circuit breaker curves only once and at a time not exceeding 20ms.

11.

DISTRIBUTION BOARDS
Distribution boards shall be fabricated from sheet steel, rustproofed and finished stove
enamel inside and outside. Doors shall be fitted with gaskets and circuit schedule and be
made removable to facilitate wiring. The free end of the door shall be secured by captive
knurled thumb screws. All distribution boards shall comply with BS 214.

SD-5

Each distribution board shall be complete with neutral bar for each single phase way on
the board. For conductors larger than 10mm cross sectional area, cable sockets shall be
provided. An earthing bar for protective (earth) conductor shall be provided and must be
adequate to meet the number of circuits of the distribution board.
Fuse carriers and bases called for in the drawing shall be of the molded or porcelain type
and comply with B.S. 88. The current rating should be higher than or equivalent to the
rating of the fuse link it intends to carry. The terminations shall be suitable to accept the
size of cable it is intended to connect and reduction of cable strands is prohibited. The
molding material used shall be non-tracking and has good insulating properties. The base
and carrier contacts shall be non-slip during insertion or withdrawal to ensure proper
alignment and self-cleaning. It should not deform after repeated withdrawal and
continuous use.
The live busbars shall be shielded once wiring is completed by means of a fiber board.
Where indicated, an on-load isolator with quick make and slow break positive acting
mechanism shall be incorporated with the distribution board. All the contacts shall be
shrouded.
Miniature and molded case circuit breakers called for in the drawing shall be of SP or TP
with breaking capacity of not less than 5 kA or as indicated in the circuit diagrams.
Distribution boards shall be wall mounted wherever practicable otherwise it shall be
designed for floor mounting with the permission of the Consulting Engineer. A label of
engraved Perspex shall be located in front of the panel to designate each distribution
board in accordance to the drawings.
12.

METERS AND RELAYS


Meters and relays for external panel mounting shall be of the flush pattern, with square
escutcheon plates finished mat black and pressed steel cases. Indicating instruments shall
be to B.S. 89 1st grade. Moving iron spring controlled with 4 diameter dials (240
scale) with external zero adjustment and integrating meters shall be to B.S. 37 Part 1 and
2 and Part 4. Cyclo-meter registers and protective relays shall be to B.S. 142.
Unless specified otherwise in the drawing or specification, all earth fault relays called for
shall be of the instantaneous operation type. The relay shall be provided with adjustable
plug settings in seven equal steps ranging from 10% to 40%. A flag indicator with
external reset lever shall be provided with each relay.
In the event IDMT (Standard Inverse Definite Minimum Time) earth fault relays are
called for, they shall have a definite minimum time variable from 0 to 2.2 seconds on a
time multiplier of 1.0. They shall have nominal current plug settings variable from 10%
to 40% in steps of 5%. Withdraw able type relays shall be provided with automatic
means of short-circuiting the current transformer secondary circuits and capable of

SD-6

breaking tripping circuits when the relay element is removed. Relays shall have a rated
current equal to secondary current of the current transformer. The relay shall be
complete with flag indicator and external reset lever.
Instruments, meters and relays located on the front of the switchboard shall be so
positioned that as far as possible, each instrument, meter and relay is adjacent to the unit
with which it is associated. Other relays more suitable for mounting inside the cubicle
such as those required for back indication and tripping etc. Shall be grouped conveniently
in dust-proof cases with removable covers to provide easy access for cleaning and
adjustment without dismantling. All relays shall be heavy duty pattern, unaffected by
external vibration and capable of operation in any position. Meter panels shall be hinged
to provide ready access to all connections and all small wirings shall be enclosed in
flexible plastic conduit. All terminals shall be completely insulated and potential circuits
shall be suitably fused.
13.

INDICATOR LAMPS
Indicating lamps shall be adequately ventilated and easily removed or replaced from the
front of the panel without the use of extractors. Lamps shall be clear holders.
The color in colored lamp glasses shall be in the glass and not an applied coating.
Transparent synthetic materials may, however be used instead of glass, provided no
discoloration or deformation takes place due to heat from the lamps.

14.

RESIDUAL CURRENT BREAKERS


Residual current breakers shall be fitted to the switchboards as indicated to detect earth
leakage currents of 300mA +10mA for 3 phase and 100mA +5mA for single phase
circuits except where indicated otherwise, residual current breakers shall trip within 20m
sec. A test button shall be provided for testing of operation.
Residual current units shall be of the core balance type complying with B.S. 4203 and
may be separate from or incorporated within a circuit breaker.

15.

CONTACTORS
Contactors shall comply with the requirements of B.S. 5424 and 764 except where varied
in this document and supplied for the required applications which are: -

disconnecting;
bulk switching;

Of which are evident from the drawings.

SD-7

Each unit shall be suitable for AC3 utilization category with contacts suitable for the
required currents. (It shall be noted that the rating of the contacts for disconnection
duties shall be such as to avoid welding under fault conditions).
All units shall be suitable for uninterrupted duty, block type with contacts which may be
readily replaced and accommodated within the switchboard enclosure.
Auxiliary contacts of minimum 10A rating, of the quantity as indicated, together with at
least one set of normally open and one set of normally closed contacts shall be provided
which shall be wired to the terminal board. If it is impracticable to equip the contactor
with sufficient auxiliary contacts, auxiliary relays shall be installed. Contactors shall
have a making capacity of 10 times the rating and have at least 1 million operations life
span.
16.

ISOLATORS
Isolators shall be provided at the incoming of all control panels. Isolators shall be of the
door interlocked type to prevent opening the panel while the isolator is closed.

17.

TERMINALS
Terminals shall have not more than two wires connected to one terminal, and shall be
mounted to allow ferrule numbers on the connecting wires to be readily discerned.
Terminals shall be fitted to accommodate cables as follows: (a)

up to and including 6mm2


Tunnel type with brass screws, or clamp type

(b)

Above 6mm2
stud type to accept cable lugs.

Terminals for all auxiliary contacts being provided, including those designated as spares,
shall be fitted, wired and clearly marked as such.

Cable Sockets
Cable lug sockets shall be of approved type with lug faces machined parallel and flat and
the sockets being drilled to suit the cable and tinned. Cable ends and sockets shall be
cleaned and soldered, using non-corrosive flux.
18.

INSTRUMENTS
Instruments and like apparatus shall be provided where indicated, and shall comply with
B.S. 89 and be capable of carrying continuously their full load current without undue

SD-8

heating and be of the flush mounted back connected type; square fronted meters 96 x
96mm with quadrant scale and means of adjusting zero without the need for dismantling.
Scales and figures shall be BLACK on a WHITE background.
Ammeters shall be dual movement type incorporating an instantaneous current value
indicator and a demand indicator with a 15 minute time constant period complete with a
red maximum demand pointer having external reset.
Voltmeters shall be scaled 0/500 volts with a selection switch to provide phase to phase
indication and an OFF position.
KWH meters shall be suitable for measuring 3 phase unbalanced loads.
KWH and volt-meters shall be provided with 2A HRC potential fuses.
Power factor meters shall have a measuring range between 0.5 lead to 0.5 lag and be
suitable for 3 phase 4 wire balanced load measurements.
19.

CURRENT TRANSFORMERS
Current transformers necessary for protection, measuring and metering shall comply with
B.S. 3938, 1973 and shall have accuracies of Class `1.0' for measuring, Authority
requirement for metering, and Class 5P10 for protection.
All units shall be resin encapsulated type with 5A secondary winding and separate units
shall be provided for metering and protection functions (combined usage is not
acceptable).
The output of each unit shall be capable of operating the related protective equipment
connected with an additional allowance of 25%. However, all transformers forming a
three phase group shall be identical.

20.

SURGE SUPPRESSION
All equipment shall be capable of withstanding transient over voltages which may
develop.
M.I.C.C. cables, contactor coil circuits and all major runs of cables shall be equipped as
necessary with suitable non-linear resistors (surge diverters) to attenuate the effects of
over voltages caused by the equipment used or by lightning.

21.

INDICATING LIGHTS
Indicating lights shall be of the encapsulated transformer type with 12 volts secondary in
compliance with B.S. 1050 and be guaranteed for a burning life of 20,000 hours at

SD-9

operating voltage. The color of the lights shall be to B.S. 4099. Lenses shall be of the
25mm diameter type with 2 watts minimum lamps.
22.

CONTROL RELAYS
Control relays shall be of the silver contacts type with minimum 5A, 220 volts 50Hz
contact rating. Time delay relays shall be of the electronic type. All relays shall be of the
plug in type.
The base holder for the plug-in relays shall be 11 pin type and the connectors for
terminating incoming cables to the base holders shall be of the screw type, accessible
from the front.
The plug-in type units shall be fully enclosed to prevent the ingress of dust or moisture.
The enclosures shall be made from clear polyurethane or acrylic material and shall have
the connection diagram of the relay unit imprinted on the top.

23.

CONTROL SWITCHES
All control switches shall be of the quick make and quick break type using double break
contacts operated by a common spindle.
The control switches shall be suitable for panel mounting and suitable for the load
carrying current of the circuit which the switch is controlling. Generally switches are to
be used for controlling coils of starters and relays, etc., and the minimum rating of the
control switch shall be 16 amp, 220 volts, 50Hz.

24.

POWER CAPACITORS
The power capacitors shall conform to B.S. 1650. The impregnate and filling used in the
capacitors shall be non-flammable, non-explosive liquid, possessing excellent insulation
and dielectric properties including high insulation resistance and high dielectric constant.
The material shall be chemically stable (i.e. it shall not oxidize or sludge under the most
severe conditions of operating temperature), and shall not be P.C.B. The electrodes shall
be made of commercially pure aluminum foils free from all rolling lubricants.
A continuously rated, low loss discharge device shall be incorporated in all capacitors.
This shall ensure that the capacitor is discharged from peak alternating voltage to a
voltage not exceeding 50 volts, measured at the capacitor terminals, one minute after
disconnection from the supply. Capacitors losses shall not exceed 3 watts per KVAR of
capacitor rating.
The containers of power capacitors shall be fabricated from heavy tinplate or stainless
steel and shall be hermetically sealed to prevent leakage of filling or ingress of moisture.
The containers shall be coated with a zinc chromate primer and a heavy coat of enamel

SD-10

paint. The case temperature shall not rise more than 15 deg C when operated under rated
conditions.

25.

RATING PLATES
Small rating plates giving serial numbers and data in accordance with the relevant British
Standards are required on equipment supplied, namely:- Circuit Breakers, Fuse Switches,
Isolators, Current Transformers, etc.

26.

PANEL IDENTIFICATION
Each switchgear panel shall be clearly identified and designated according to its function.
The labels shall be engraved and arranged as shown in the drawings submitted by the
Electrical Contractor and approved by the Consulting Engineers.

27.

TESTS
Type tests certificates issued by recognized testing authorities shall be submitted for all
switchgear to the Consulting Engineers.
Routine & Factory Tests
The Electrical Contractor shall submit certified test sheets showing details of all routine
tests conducted during manufacture of switchboards and individual components thereof.
Delivery Test
After the equipment has been erected on site and before final connection to the supply,
the Electrical Contractor shall with his own instruments and expense carry out all tests
necessary to demonstrate that the equipment complies with the requirements of this
specification and to the satisfaction of the Consulting Engineers.
The tests to be conducted shall be as follows: i)

Demonstration that all equipment are installed and all wiring connected, so that
the switchboard functions as required.

ii)

Insulation resistance between phases, between each phase and neutral, and
between each phase, neutral and earth with the breaker open and all equipment
installed.

iii)

Insulation resistance across breaks in all circuit breakers, with the breaker open
and all equipment installed.

SD-11

iv)

Setting of overcurrent and earth fault protection relays on circuit breaker in


accordance with the requirements of the Electricity Supply Authority.

Copies of test sheets, showing the results of all tests carried out in accordance with this
section of the specification shall be submitted to the Consulting Engineers.
28.

FLOOR MATS
The Electrical Contractor shall supply floor-mats of rubber material without perforation
of minimum 12mm thickness for each switchboard. These shall extend to the full length
of the switchboard and shall be minimum 1.2m wide at the front and sides and 0.9m wide
at the rear of the switchboard.

29.

METERING PANEL
The metering compartment shall be constructed with a removable hinged transparent
front cover to Authority's requirements. Facilities shall be provided on the panel for
mounting of Authority's meters and for wiring connections. Should multiple tenant
meters be provided, the electrical contractor should label the individual meters. This
meter panel shall be located as close as possible to the metering CT's, and must be
sealable.
A totally sealable C.T. chamber shall be provided at the incoming before the switchgear.
The protection voltage fuses for the kWh meter shall be located within the meter
compartment itself.

30.

SIGNS, CHARTS AND DIAGRAMS TO BE HUNG


Detailed single line and control wiring drawings mounted on a wooden frame with a
transparent polyethylene cover shall be hung in a conspicuous location and within the
cubicle covers for control panels and distribution boards.
A first aid chart shall be provided for electrical shock within all switchboard rooms. A
danger signs shall also be provided on entry doors to Switch rooms.

31.

INTERLOCKS
The breakers operating mechanism and the carriage on hinged panel shall be interlocked
so that it is not possible to withdraw the circuit breaker while it is in the closed position.
It is also not possible for the breaker to be closed while it is at any position between the
service and isolated position. Provisions shall be made so that it is possible to operate the
breakers mechanism if required for inspection and testing purposes when the breaker is
in the isolated position.

SD-12

LIGHTING FITTINGS

1.

GENERAL
The Electrical Contractor shall supply, deliver, install and connect the light fittings in the
location shown on the drawings. All trimming supports, etc. necessary for recessed,
surface and suspended mounting of the light fittings shall be supplied by the Electrical
Contractor. The types of light fittings are as shown and specified in the drawings.

2.

STANDARDS
The light fittings, together with lamps, lamp holders, auxiliary and other necessary
equipment shall conform to the latest British Standard Specifications in all respect with
regard to design, construction, performance and test as a minimum requirement.

3.

LUMINARIES
Luminaries shall
-

comply with B.S. 4533 unless otherwise specified or scheduled;

luminaries shall be arranged such that control gear and auxiliary wiring is
separated from the lamp compartment by means of removable covers which
prevent inadvertent contact during re-lamping operations; access between
compartments for wiring shall be through holes fitted with grommets. Each
luminaries shall be fitted with a fused terminal block and be suitable for 20mm
conduit entry.
4.

FINISHES
All equipment shall be protected to minimize the effects of corrosion and galvanic action.
All fixing onto painted surfaces shall have washers, felt or nylon washers and be of the
captive type.
For proprietary equipment, the manufacturer's standard finishes may be accepted
provided they are, in the opinion of the Engineer, equal or superior to the standards of
finishes described.
All internal light reflecting surfaces shall be gloss white unless denoted otherwise by the
Catalogue No. or description (i.e., silver reflector down light).
All external surfaces shall be finished anodized, plated or enamel to color selected by the
Consulting Engineers or as denoted by Catalogue No. or description.

LF-1

Non-Ferrous Metal
Aluminium surfaces shall be etched primed prior to the application of
anodized finishing coats.
Non-ferrous parts shall be chromium plated or tinned. Nuts, bolts and
threads shall be chromium plated where mounted internally.
External bolt heads, nuts and screws should be positioned to be outside
normal view but where this is impracticable, they shall be chromium
plated.
Ferrous Metal
After fabrication all surfaces shall be thoroughly cleaned to remove
rust, and then using a suitable solvent, shall be degreased followed by
the removal of residual foreign materials.
Immediately prior to painting all dirt shall be removed from surfaces by
wiping. At no stage shall coatings be applied over rust, dirt, dust,
moisture or any other foreign matter.
Ferrous metal shall be finished using one of the following approved systems:
-

Phosphated Zinc Seal


Apply 2 coats of blue tone white baking enamel in accordance with
the paint manufacturer's recommended practice. After baking the
finished coating shall be 30 microns minimum dry film thickness.

Zinc Anneal
Apply one coat of two pack vinyl butyl etch primer to produce 15
microns maximum dry film thickness. Lightly scuff the surface with
400 grit emery paper to remove any nibs. Then continue as for
Phosphated Zinc above.

Thermosetting Epoxy Powder


Apply one coat of white epoxy powder and cure in accordance
with manufacturer's recommended practice. After curing finished
coating shall be 50 microns minimum film thickness.

LF-2

Irrespective of the coating medium, the finished coating shall be fully cured, hard,
coherent and free from sags, blistering, cracking, wrinkling, lack of bond or other defects
that may impair the appearance and/or performance of the coating.
5.

WIRING WITHIN FITTINGS


Luminaries shall be supplied with all internal wiring colour coded and completed.
Wiring shall have Class 105oC PVC insulation except where internal temperatures are
likely to exceed the safe limits of such insulation, in which case roved (Class C)
insulation shall be used. Conductors shall be of adequate size and rating for the
particular duties and terminations.
Single strand conductors shall be used for clip connections and multi-stranded
conductors for screw connections. Wiring shall be neatly arranged within the fittings and
clipped to the metal ware at intervals not exceeding 200mm.
Wires shall be kept clear of auxiliary components. The method of clipping shall be such
as to prevent damaged to the insulation. Adhesive tape shall not be used for clipping or
looming of wires.
A fixed two terminal fused connector block with an earth terminal adjacent or integral
shall be provided near the incoming cable entry of each fluorescent and discharge fitting.
The fuse shall comply with requirements of B.S. 88 and generally be of 2A rating.

6.

VENTILATION
Luminaries shall be designed to promote cooling, ensuring that in service, temperatures
in excess of the thermal ratings of any of the components are not exceeded.

7.

AUXILLIARIES AND CONTROL GEAR


7.1

BALLASTS
All ballasts shall be Electronic Ballasts.

7.2

POWER FACTOR CORRECTION


Discharge and fluorescent fittings shall be fitted with metalised
polypropylene capacitors to correct power factor to 0.85 lagging. Capacitors shall
comply with B.S. 2135. Discharge resistors shall be provided on all capacitors.

7.3

STARTER

LF-3

Where installed, starters must be compatible with, and in accordance with,


the ballast and lamp or tube manufacturer's recommendations.
Starter sockets shall have metal strip spring type contacts for connection
by twist action. Housings shall be moulded plastic.
Thermoplastic materials used in the construction of starter switches and
holders shall comply with B.S. 3772.
7.4

LAMP AND TUBES


Fluorescent tubes shall comply with B.S. 1853 and generally be of the
switch start type, similar to Philips T5 W, cool white type, 26mm diameter 86
lumen/w, colour rendering index 66, colour temperature (approx.) 4100K or other
equal manufacture. Lamps shall have a guaranteed life of 7500 hrs.
Rapid start tubes aged for 100 hours shall be used where fitted to circuits
which are dimmed.
Discharge lamps shall be of the colour corrected type in compliance with
B.S. 3677 and 3767.
Incandescent lamps shall be in compliance with B.S. 161 and 555 and be
of the type and ratings indicated. Lamps shall be of the bayonet cap, frosted
glass, coiled coil filament type with a nominal life of 1000 burning hours.

7.5

LAMP HOLDER
Lamp holders shall be constructed of nonflammable high impact resistant
materials which do not deteriorate under the temperatures encountered during
service (porcelain or brass type). Lamp holders shall be secured to the body of
the luminaries such that they maintain their position and plane during lamp
replacement.
Lamp holders for fluorescent tubes shall comply with the requirements of
B.S. 1875 & B.S. 5042 Part 4 and be of the two pin retractable or counter twist
type with metal strip spring type contacts, designed to positively retain the lamps.
Lamp holders for incandescent lamps shall comply with the requirements
of B.S. 52 and B.S. 5042 for B22 bayonet cap for lamps up to 100 watts and
Edison screw types for lamping up to 300 watts.
Discharge lamps shall be of the Edison screw type up to 300 watts and of
the G.E.S. type above 300 watts in compliance with the requirements of B.S. 5042
Pt. 2.

LF-4

8.

FIXINGS
Luminaries shall:
-

be provided with standard means of achieving satisfactory fixings;


in the case of pendant types, have 85oC suspension cords, and where the
suspension is metal or other arrangement with the cable inside, the cable shall be
glass or PTFE insulation;
in the case of recessed or semi-recessed type, in addition, be provided with
concealed holes for side screw fixings into the ceiling aperture trimming;
in the case of surface mounted type, be furnished with minimum of two
fixing holes at the ends of the fitting. Fittings wider than 150mm shall be
provided with 4 fixing holes.

All ceiling recessed fluorescent fittings wider than 150mm shall be individually secured
with 2mm dia. galvanised steel wire to the building structure.
Where chain suspensions are required they shall be of welded, twisted link pattern,
minimum 18 gauge (1.20mm) diameter.
9.

FINAL CONNECTIONS
All recessed luminaries shall be connected to the fixed wiring system by a length of
flexible steel conduit. The cables within the conduit shall be looped into and terminate
only in the luminaries. All fixed wiring within the luminaries shall be sleeved with glass
roved high temperature insulation.

LF-5

CABLING AND WIRING

1.

GENERAL
The type of cables used and the method of wiring shall be as described in the `scope of
works' and as detailed below.
All cables shall be installed in one continuous length between the points of connection
and no straight through joints of any description, other than those required for terminating
the cables, will be allowed.
Cables shall be delivered to the site in unbroken coils with the original wrapping intact.
Cables shall be of distinct colours: - Red, yellow, blue as applicable for phase conductors,
black for neutral and green for insulated earth conductor.
All joint boxes and termination accessories shall comply with the cable manufacturers
standard design.
Where single core cables are used, they shall be installed in a flat formation for sizes up
to and including 120mm2 and in a trefoil configuration for larger sizes: conductor shall be
installed such that proximity effect in adjacent ferrous metals are minimized.
Where conduits, trunking, or ducting cross expansion and settlement joints in the building
structure, purpose made expansion coupling shall be used to allow for movement of the
structure. Adequate slack shall be allowed in the cables to take up the movement.
The Electrical Contractor shall provide all compound and other jointing materials to
complete the cable terminations to switchgears to which the cables are run. Cutting of
apertures for cable entry shall be done by the supplier of the control panel/switchboards.
Hydraulic compressible crimped (i.e. non compound-filled) type of cable lugs shall be
used at all times.
Wiring throughout shall be on the `looping-in' method and no `tee' or other joints will be
used. Wiring shall not be looped through the bodies of luminaries unless specified
otherwise.
Bending radius of cables shall be in accordance to the cable manufacturers
recommendations and in any case not less than 6 times the cable diameter. Cable shall be
run in a straight line vertically and perpendicularly to building lines wherever possible.
All cables, busbars shall be marked with permanent identification tags bearing the
appropriate cable number as indicated on drawings. Tags shall be located at intervals not
exceeding 20 meters, at all points where cables leave a group and in all the risers. Cable
markers marked `L.T. cable' shall be installed at every 150' along the underground cable
route, draw pits, and at any change in direction whichever is applicable.
CW-1

2.

PVC CABLES
PVC cables shall be manufactured in accordance with the requirements of B.S. 6004 and
be rated at 600/1000 volts conductor shall be of stranded copper.

3.

PVC/SWA/PVC CABLES
PVC armored cables (600/1000 volts) shall comprise of equal section of stranded
annealed copper lay up in sector shape, the cores being PVC insulated twisted, wormed
circular and further insulated with an overall PVC sheath, single wire armored and PVC
sheathed overall.
The cables shall be rated at 600/1000 volts in accordance with B.S. 6346. Termination of
cables to panels shall be by means of compression glands, which enable effective
bonding and termination of armor wires to the earth terminal.

4.

M.I.C.C. CABLES
Mineral insulated copper conductors, copper sheathed cables shall be of 1000V grade and
manufactured in accordance with B.S. 6207 with terminations and glands manufactured
to B.S. 6081.
The cables shall be installed on cable trays without through-joints except where the
particular route exceeds the maximum length of cable manufactured. In these
circumstances joints shall be made by the cable manufacturer.
Bends shall be formed by tools designed by the cable manufacturer. Saddle spacing shall
be not less than 60 times of the cable diameter and not greater than 750mm whichever is
the lesser.
Insulation tests shall be carried out before the cables are installed. Readings shall be
taken with a 1000V bridge megger. Readings less than 100 Mega-ohms will not
acceptable.
Blow lamps may be used for drying out cut cable ends if it is impracticable to cut to
waste.
M.I.C.C. cables shall be equipped with terminations suitable for the intended duties and
prevailing conditions in which they will be installed by using pot seals filled with cold
setting for multi-core cables and the heat shrink technique for single core cables, with the
tails enclosed within color coded poly-chloroprene. Seals shall have a temperature rating
of 185C.
M.I.C.C. cables shall have tails entering equipment not exceeding 450mm in length. In
switchboards and like enclosures, where the distance between the point of entry to the
equipment and to the terminals to which it is to be connected may otherwise exceed

CW-2

450mm, the cable shall enter the enclosure through a hole equipped with a gland to
maintain the security of the circuit and be terminated in pot seal at the termination
position.
The cables shall be looped twice through 360 to form helices at positions where they
terminate at equipment which may be periodically moved and for vibrating machinery.
5.

PAPER INSULATED CABLES


Paper insulated cables shall be copper conductor mas impregnated non-draining (MIND)
type, lead sheathed and armored double steel tape or armored steel wire complete with
serving inhibited with anti-termite treatment and manufactured to B.S. 6480. All cores
shall be marked numerically to identification i.e., 1, 2 and 3 for phases and 0 for neutral
conductors.
Cable jointing shall be started and finished on the same day and wherever cables are to be
jointed in the open during wet weather, suitable precautions shall be taken to prevent
ingress of moisture into the dielectric.
Wherever a cable is cut, the open ends shall be sealed immediately, unless jointing is to
follow. A lead cap shall be wiped to the sheath forming an air tight seal.
Sealing end boxes shall be of the split type with effective sealed joint surfaces and
manufactured from high quality cast iron and of such design as to permit continuous
filling of compound in one operation. Boxes shall be completed with brass cone shaped
cable gland and protective earth conductor bond across the box from armor clamp to
switchboard or equipment frame. Joint and sealing boxes shall be thoroughly flame
warmed before pouring of compound. Checks shall be made periodically to ensure that
the filling compound is not overheated.
Paper insulated cables should be tested for moisture before commencement of jointing.
Samples of paper both from the layer nearest to and farthest from the conductor shall be
obtained.
The lead sheath shall be securely bonded to the armor at all joints and terminations.
Where straight through joints occur, efficient bonding of the armor across the joint shall
be provided.

6.

DUCTS
Ducts shall be installed in places where indicated and also in all situations (including
future areas) where cables pass under roads, pathways and other hard standings, together
with all places where cables enter or leave buildings. Ducts shall be extended a minimum
of 900mm on either side of such hard standing and 2m from any building. Ducts shall be
encased in concrete where indicated on the drawings.

CW-3

Where cables leave trenches or ducts to rise up the walls and where they are not
otherwise encased, they shall be protected by a suitable length of galvanized steel pipe
solidly fixed or concealed in the walls. In the event of several cables following the same
route, a galvanized metal trunking can be used to accommodate all cables in place of
individual pipe for each cable. The piping or trunking shall be securely fixed and where
necessary be made watertight by cementing into position.
7.

UNDERGROUND CABLES
General
The Electrical Contractor shall before the commencement of excavation, prepare and
agree with the Supervising Officer a record of the state of the surface with particular
reference to any features that may require special care and reinstatement.
A sufficient number of pumps in good working order shall be kept on site to ensure that
any water entering an excavation can immediately be removed.
Underground cables shall be installed at a minimum depth of 750mm.
Cable stockings/pulling eyes shall be used to draw cables with due care taken to avoid
damage from applying too much stress, abrasion and bending too tightly.
Trenching
Trenching shall be excavated in the areas where defined on the drawings using approved
machinery and methods. It shall be done such that disruption to the normal operation of
the site is minimal.
The excavation so formed shall be reasonably level from side to side. The trench bottom
shall be cleared of projections such as rock, stones, trees, etc. Any holes so formed shall
be filled and consolidated with selected material.
No length of trench excavation shall be started until the cables/pipes to be laid in that
length are available.
Laying/Protection
The method of laying and protecting the cables/pipes shall be as follows: -

Supply, lay and compact a bed of 75mm deep sandy


the trench

material at the bottom of

Lay the cable/pipe on the bed. Care shall be taken such that the cable/pipe is
supported evenly along its whole length. If there is more than one cable in the
trench, the necessary separation between cables shall be maintained. Sufficient
slack shall be allowed in cables to take up settling of the ground

CW-4

In the case of pipes: -

Side support material shall be placed and compacted in 150mm thick layers on both sides
of the pipe. Care shall be taken to preserve its alignment and grade while carying out the
compaction. With full support all round the pipe or fitting, the overlay material shall be
placed and compacted in two 150mm thick layers over the pipe and across the full width
of the trench.
-

In the case of cables: -

Further sandy material shall be placed and compacted to provide a total layer of sand
75mm deep over the top surface of the cable. The cables shall then be protected
throughout their length with bricks or concrete slabs butted end to end with a minimum
side overhang of 150mm each side measured from the centre line of the cable (or the
centre line of the outer cables in the case of multiple cable installation).
Backfill
Trenches shall be backfilled with soil and shall be consolidated after every 150mm of
backfill using hand held compaction equipment. Hand held compaction equipment shall
be used for compaction up to 450mm above the tops of pipes/cables.
Wet clay and wet sand should not be returned to the trench but otherwise the material
should be returned in the reverse order from excavation.
Reinstatement and Surfacing
In general, backfill and surfacing of excavated and other areas shall restore the ground
and the surface to a condition not inferior to that which existed before excavation.
8.

UNDERGROUND CABLE ENTRY INTO BUILDING


Where cables enter buildings below ground level they shall pass through cast iron or
equal and approved conduits that shall form runs laid to fall under the surrounding paths,
etc. The cast iron pipes shall be complete with suitable puddle flanges and after the
installation of the cables the conduits shall be plugged to ensure that a complete
watertight seal is provided around and within the conduit. This contract shall include for
the provision of the necessary detail and liaison attendance.

9.

SURFACE-RUN CONDUIT WIRING


Surface-run conduit wiring with PVC cables, wherever indicated on the Drawings, shall
be run on walls, steel structural work as the case may be.
Other details of conduits shall be as in the section titled "Conduits and Fittings".

CW-5

Where conduits are installed directly on walls and concrete works, they shall be fastened
by means of galvanized, heavy gauge spacer-bar saddles and Rawl plugs at maximum
intervals of 1.2 meters for straight runs and at all bends. Rawl plugs shall be drilled into
walls and concrete work. Spacer-bar saddles shall be fastened by means of round head,
brass screws and washers. All conduits shall be painted orange in color, unless otherwise
specified.
10.

CONCEALED CONDUIT INSTALLATION


Where conduits are to be concealed in the plasterwork of walls, the Electrical contractor
is required to cut the necessary chases in the walls for the installation of the conduits.
Initial plastering of chases shall be undertaken by the Electrical Contractor after conduits
have been erected in position, but the final plastering of chases shall be undertaken by the
Building Contractor. Conduits buried in the slab shall have a minimum cover of 15mm
while those in the wall shall have a minimum cover of 5mm.
Conduit buried in concrete shall have the threads coated with an approved jointing
compound during assembly. Wherever the exposed galvanized surface has been cut or
otherwise damaged, a layer of rust inhibiting paint shall be painted over. Conduits shall
be securely fixed to prevent movement and all joint boxes and ends to be effective
plugged to prevent the ingress of water and dirt during pouring of concrete.
Outlet boxes, switch boxes, etc shall be installed with the face of the box flush with the
finished surface. Where necessary extension boxes shall be provided.

11.

CONDUITS AND FITTINGS


Galvanized steel conduits and fittings shall be used. They shall be of Class B and
manufactured in accordance with B.S. 31.
The minimum diameter of conduits used shall be not less than 20mm. In no
circumstances, the number of cables drawn into one conduit shall not exceed the space
factors as stated in the latest Edition of the I.E.E. Regulations.
The ends of conduit shall be cut square, filed and reamed out after threading. Care
should be exercised to ensure removal of cutting oil and swarf. The finished end shall be
free from sharp corners which will damage the cable insulation when it is drawn in.
Conduit terminations at switchboards, distribution boards, trunking, switch and socket
outlet boxes are to be properly secured with an adaptor and brass bush. Conduit and
terminations to apparatus subject to vibration movement shall be in flexible metallic
conduit with adaptors for connection to the rigid conduit system at each end. The flexible
metallic conduit shall be to B.S. 731. For outdoor application, the flexible metallic
conduits provided shall be complete with extruded thermoplastic cover similar to
"Anaconda Metal Hose".

CW-6

Where long runs of conduits are unavoidable, junction boxes shall be provided at a
maximum interval of 10 meters on straight runs, and 300mm from bends for ease of
drawing in of cables. Draw wires shall be provided inside each spare conduit to facilitate
drawing in of cables. Where moisture is likely to collect, drainage outlets shall be
provided such that it is drained off without entry into the terminations.
Inspecting-type conduit fittings such as inspection boxes, draw boxes, bends, elbows and
tees shall be so installed that they can remain accessible for such purposes as the
withdrawal of existing cables or the installation of additional cables. All these
accessories shall be indecently fixed to the fabric of the building.
The inner radius for bending a conduit shall not be less than 2.5 times the outside
diameter of the conduit.
The use of the conduit system as a sole means of earthing is not permitted. A separate
protective conductor (earth conductor) for each circuit shall be used and run inside the
conduit. The entire conduit system shall be effectively earthed.
In areas where a ceiling is provided, spare conduits shall be provided for the distribution
box to the ceiling space. The number of conduits provided should be adequate to
accommodate the circuits which would be connected to the spare ways provided in the
distribution bends.
12.

CABLE-TRAYS
Cable trays shall be fabricated from perforated mild steel with 12mm return edges at each
side, and sized in accordance with the numbers of cables they are required to support. In
this regard, cables shall be installed in a single layer formation, with the exception of
single core cables required to be installed in a trefoil configuration, with adequate space
allowed for air circulation.
Cables laid horizontally in the tray shall be secured with cable ties spaced at a interval of
600mm and at all bends. Cables installed in the vertical plane shall be supported by at 1
meter interval by cable cleats or cable saddles and clips for MICC cables.
Cable trays shall be manufactured from steel 1.6mm in thickness for those not exceeding
300mm in width, 2mm where wider sections up to 600mm are required, finished using a
hot dip galvanizing or approved equivalent process, and provided with factory made sets,
bend and intersection pieces as required, the finishes of any cut sections being made good
with the same type of paint. Where cable trays wider than 600mm are required multiple
cable trays of maximum 600mm dimension are to be used.
Cable trays shall be supported using purpose made brackets or proprietary accessories
fixed such that there is an air space of 75mm minimum to the structure to which they are
secured, and installed in straight runs, true, horizontal or perpendicular to building line in

CW-7

a manner such as to reduce the number of bends and sets to a minimum. The spacing
between jackets shall be 1 meter on straight runs and additional brackets at bends.
The contractor shall be responsible for checking the size and routes of all cable trays
where indicated on the drawings to determine that they are adequate for the cables to be
installed and that the routes are fully co-ordinated with all other trades. Should the size
of any cable tray require resizing, this shall be advised to the Consulting Engineers prior
to ordering and/or installation.
13.

CABLE TRUNKING
Cable trunking shall be manufactured from galvanized mild steel sheets of not less than
1.2mm for trunking up to 100mm and 1.6mm minimum for larger sizes. The trunking
shall be filled with cables to not more that 45% of it usable capacity. Trunking lids shall
be removable and secured at centers not exceeding 600mm by cadmium plated
mushroom head screws. The screws shall seat into bushes on the trunking return edges.
Cable trunking shall be employed to replace multiple runs of conduit in addition to the
instances where specifically indicated, and provided with removable cable retaining
straps installed at a maximum interval of 600mm along the length to permit covers being
removed and replaced without impedance from the cables enclosed.
Cables in steel trunking shall be supported by means of hardwood clamps spaced at
600mm centers. Fire barriers shall be provided where trunking pass through
compartment slabs. The rating of the fire barriers shall be the same as that of the
compartment.
Internal fish plate couplings of 2.5mm thickness c/w tinned copper bonding links shall be
installed between adjacent lengths to facilitate electrical conductivity and mechanical
union. Each side of the couplings shall be secured by means of 4 mushroom head screws
with the nuts installed external to the trunking. Integral partitions shall be provided
throughout the length of ducting where it is necessary to accommodate services of
different voltages and frequencies within a common trunking run. Each service shall be
mutually segregated and completely surrounded by earthed metal.
Cable trunking shall be installed complete with all requisite accessories in straight runs
true, horizontal or perpendicular to building lines to reduce the number of bends and sets
to a minimum, where necessary factory made bends, sets, end sections and intersection
pieces shall be used. The spacing between support brackets shall be 1 meter on straight
runs and additional brackets at bends.
Where multiple circuits are installed in the same trunking each circuit shall be grouped
together by cable tie at 2m intervals and distinguished by identification label at 20m
intervals.

CW-8

Cable trunkings shall be installed such that there is a minimum clearance of 10mm to the
structure to which they are secured. Trunking covers shall be installed either above or
sideways and not at the bottom.

CW-9

ACCESSORIES
1.

SWITCHES
Lighting switches shall be 5A for circuits rated up to and including 5A, and 15A
for circuits rated above 5A but not exceeding 15A ratings. All switches for
internal wiring of lighting points shall be rocker operated type, grid pattern, single
pole, one way or two ways or intermediate as required on the layout drawings.
The lighting switches shall also be of the quick make and slow break, silent
switch action type with solid silver alloy contacts. Switches shall be in accordance
to B.S. 3676.
All switches at switch centers indicated in the drawings shall be arranged in an
orderly sequence to the satisfaction of the Consulting Engineers. A grid switch
system of modular design shall be used.
Switches shall be suitable for flush or surface mounting, as required, and be
complete with pressed steel box, adjustable grid plate, switch interior and cover
plate. A minimum clearance of 9mm shall be provided between the back of the
switch and the back of the conduit box.
Pull cord operated switches shall be fixed to white moulded plastic mounting
blocks which in turn shall be fixed to a circular conduit box. Pull cords shall be
white or natural colour and the lower end shall terminate in a moulding of rubber
or plastic material.
The switches of each phase shall be grouped in row(s) and adequate insulation
shall be provided between the phases. A warning sign "DANGER 415 VOLTS"
shall be placed near switch centre where different phases are grouped together.

2.

SWITCH SOCKET OUTLETS


Switch socket outlets shall be of the three rectangular pins (i.e. 2 poles and earth),
shuttered type conforming to B.S. 1363.
The switch shall be of the quick make, slow break, type with silent, totally
enclosed, switch action.
In cases where the socket outlets cannot be flush mounted, switch socket outlets
of the metal clad type shall be used. Knock outs for conduits entry shall also be
provided on the steel boxes. The cover plate shall also be of steel.

CC-1

EMERGENCY SUPPLY SYSTEM

1.

GENERAL
A standby generator set complete with automatic mains failure control
panel shall be provided to supply power to the main switch board (existing)
as shown in the drawing.

2.

MODE OF OPERATION
a) Mains Failure
The operation of the Generator set Installation shall be such that under
normal condition, the essential loads shall be supplied via the mains
contractor/MCCB by the generator supply. Upon power supply failure
on any one phase or any phase voltage drops below 70% of its rated
voltage, the main contact/MCCB opens and an under voltage sensing
device operates to signal the standby generator to start.
The mains contractor/MCCB and emergency contractor/ACB shall be
mechanically and electrically interlocked to prevent parallel operation. It
shall be positively interlocked mechanically in either the normal or
emergency position. The contractors shall be provided with a short time
delay device to ensure a clean break between opening of one and closing
of the other.
b) Transient Disturbance
To guard against unnecessary operation on transient disturbances, an
adjustable time delay shall be provided after which the engine start/run
circuit shall be energized (0-60 seconds).
c) Run Up Period
Provided the mains supply is still unavailable when the correct voltage
and frequency is obtained, then the emergency load shall be transferred
to the other generator via the changeover contractor/MCCB. The time
lag between starting of emergency set and closing of emergency
contractor shall be adjustable between 3 to 60 seconds.

ES-1

Should the main supply be once again available during the engine Runup period, the automatic changeover switching shall abort. However,
the genset shall run up, ready to assume load for the present Run-on
Period and be available during this period for essential load supply. On
expiry of the Run-on period the shutdown sequence shall commence.
d) Mains Return
When the normal supply is restored i.e. all phase voltages return to 90%
of its rated value, the Genset shall continue to run on load for an
adjustable period (normally 0-60 sec) after which the load shall
automatically switch over to the mains supply. The Genset shall then
commence the shutdown sequence.
e) Shutdown Sequence (Run-On Period)
The shutdown sequence shall incorporate a time-delay to allow the
engine to run in loaded for a short period before stopping the engine (110 mins). All settings must then return to the normal position for
automatic operation.
If the main fails during the shutdown sequence when the genset is
running unloaded, then the genset shall (after a predetermined period
(0-60 sec) to guard against operation on transient disturbance of mains
supply) take on the load.
3.

DIESEL ENGINE
a) General
The engine shall be of multi-cylinder, naturally aspirated or pressure
charge, water cooled, direct injection, compression ignition type, capable
of cold starting and complying with B.S. 5514 Class A1 (as minimum) for
continuous running at a speed of 1500 RPM. The engine shall be suitable
for running on class A fuel oil comply with B.S 2869.
b) Safety Controls
Safety Circuits shall be arranged: -

For 24V dc operation;

ES-2

For fail safe operation such that a fault, high jacket water
temperature or low lubricating oil pressure, etc. results in energizing
of solenoid to prevent fuel entering the engine. The solenoid shall be
de-energized after the engine has stopped;

Such that following a failure, the system requires to be reset


manually at the control panel.

Control settings shall be those recommended by the engine


manufacturer.

c) Starting Controls
Each set shall be equipped with starting controls as follows;

4.

The engine shall start automatically on signal from the control panel;

An overriding manual start/stop control shall be provided and


mounted on the control panel;

The starter motor shall be isolated on engine firing and reengagement shall be prevented until the engine is at rest.

Manual cranking.

ALTERNATOR
The alternator shall be of the flange mounted, forced ventilated, drip proof
screen protected, two bearing type, revolving field, salient pole type with
damper windings, minimum Class E insulation, in accordance to B.S 500
Part 99, of the brushless self-regulating type, with inline exciter and control
system capable of maintaining voltage constant within +2% at all loads and
power factors between 0.8 lagging and unity.

5.

GENERATING SET
The diesel engine and alternator shall be mounted upon a fabricated steel
under-frame by means of steel spring isolators so that the entire unit can be
bolted to a solid concrete floor without transmitting vibrations to adjacent
apparatus or to any part of the building. All services shall be provided with
flexible connections as necessary.

ES-3

A complete set of all necessary hold down bolts, washers, nuts, shims, etc.,
shall be included.
A drip tray of 2mm galvanized sheet steel with minimum 12mm high sides
shall be provided where drips are likely to occur, as an integral part of the
set and shall be provided with a readily accessible drain cock.
Suitable guards shall be provided on all exposed moving parts.
A label Danger keep clean of this set. It is remotely controlled and may
start at any time shall be provided.

6.

PERFORMANCE
Each genset shall:-

have a continuous site rating of the sizes shown (KVA) at 0.8 lagging
power factor with capacity for operating at a 10% overload for any
one hour during a period of 12 hours continuous running at full load.

have a full load output voltage of 380/220 volts, 3 phase, 50hZ., 4


wire star connected system with neutral solidly earthed.

Be capable of assuming full load within not than 10 seconds of signal


to start.

Exhibit the following characteristics at load power factor of 0.8


lagging.
(a)

Steady state, load change


0 100% F.L.

(b)

Voltage

- +2.5%

Frequency

- +0.8%

Transient load change of 60%

ES-4

7.

Voltage

the initial voltage transient shall be


limited to +20% of rated voltage,
recovering to at least 97% of rated
voltage in less than 0.5 sec.

Frequency

+6% to +8% returning to steady state


within 5 seconds.

generate a waveform with deviations from a sine wave not exceeding


5% as defined in B.S. 5000 Part 99.

STARTING SYSTEM
The engine electric starting system shall be provided complete with engine
mounted starter motor and contractor, 24 volts heavy duty nickel-cadmium
battery of ample rating to start up the engine after six consecutive cycles of
15 seconds cranking with 6 seconds rest. The control shall be such that the
fail to start alarm and indication shall be given after 3 attempts. Cranking
and rest period shall however carry on for the remaining 3 cycles.
Cranking and rest period shall be manually adjustable.
Each Set of batteries shall:

8.

Be mounted in a suitable wooden rack located adjacent to the Genset.

Comprise nickel-cadmium cells preferably in translucent containers


to facilitate determination of electrolyte level;

Have a nominal output voltage of 24V;

Include a cell nut spanner and a distilled water dispenser;

OPERATION CONTROL SYSTEM


A panel consisting of various control and protection features, including the
following shall be provided for each generator set:a)

Automatic shut down, audible alarm and indication lights for over
speed, low oil pressure and high jacket water temperature.

b)

Earth fault shut down alarm and indication light.

ES-5

c)

Fail to start alarm and indicating light after 3 attempts. However,


should the genset start in the subsequent 3 attempts, then the fail to
start alarm and indication light shall extinguish

d)

Audible alarm and indicating lights for;


i) Low fuel level the warning should be given in due time before
the tank becomes empty.
ii) Battery charge failure
iii) Low battery voltage
iv) High battery voltage
v) Low electrolyte level
vi) Overload.
Occurrence of one or more of the conditions mentioned above shall
result in a condition GENSET ABNORMAL. A pair of wires to
indicate this condition shall be provided from the AMF Board to the
Fire Alarm Panel.

e) Mains ON and generator ON indication lights shall be provided.


f) Auto/Manual/Test-duty selector switch.
g) Non-automatic indicator. This shall be lit when the duty selector switch
is any position except automatic. This shall be treated as a condition of
GENSET NON-AUTOMATIC.
h) Manual start push button.
i) Alarm cancel push button.
j) Reset push button
k) Emergency stop push button
l) Test Start/Load Transfer/Break Load-test selector switch
m) Remote indication of GENSET ON, GENSET FAIL TO START,
GENSET NON AUTOMATIC and GENSET ABNORMAL, shall be

ES-6

provided at the Fire Alarm Panel. This shall the wiring between the
A.M.F. Board and Fire Alarm Panel by the Electrical Contractor. The
Genset ON shall be indicative of the genset supply power to the
switchboard.
n) A pair of wires to indicate Mains Failures shall be provided from the
AMF Board to the Fire Alarm Panel and the Lift Control Panel in the lift
motor by the Electrical Contractor.
9.

GENERATOR SET TESTING FACILITIES


When the duty selector switch and the Test Start/Load Transfer/ Break
Load switch (test selector switch) are both in the test position the generator
set shall start irrespective of the mains supply.
The load Transfer switch shall enable the generator set to be loaded under
test conditions. When the test Selector switch is moved to the Load Transfer
position a time lag adjustable between 3 to 60 sec. shall be available before
the mains contractor opens and the generator contractor is closed. Transfer
of load back to the mains supply shall be achieved by the Break Load
switch, which shall open the generator contactor and close the mains
contactor.

10. BATTERY CHARGER UNIT


The Battery Charger Unit shall be of the solid state type capacle of
maintaining the batteries in a charged condition for optimum fully
automatic operation. The charge unit shall incorporate a 2-stage charge
selector switch. The charger stages being a) Automatic and B) High Boost
Rate.
For automatic charging the charge shall have constant voltage charging
characteristics with a stability of +2%. Under automatic operation the
charger shall provide automatic boost and float/trickle charging to
maintain the battery bank in a fully charge state. Under the automatic mode
of operation the charge shall be capable of charging the battery bank from a
fully discharge condition to a fully charged condition within a maximum
period of 24 hours.
The charger output voltage shall be adjustable between 1.35 and 1.7 volts
per cell. The charger shall maintain any set voltage between +2% with
charge input AC voltage fluctuation of +10%, AC supply frequency
fluctuation of +5%, and output load variations between 0 and 100%.

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For manual High Boost Rate charging the charge unit shall have constant
current characteristics and the minimum output current shall not be less
than C/20.
Under High Boost Rate the battery bank shall be charged at constant current
of C/10 amps.
The charger unit shall be provided with an output voltmeter, charging
ammeters, D.C. fuses, off/Auto/High Boost Rate charge selector switch,
switches and relays.
The voltmeter shall monitor continuously the charge voltage and shall have
a scale that reads within 0.5 volt. The charge voltage of the battery shall be
marked in red on the inside of the instrument faceplate.
The ammeter shall be connected in the battery supply circuit to measure the
charge and discharge of the battery. The ammeter shall be provided with a
range switch, which shall be non-locking in the low current range to
facilitate reading of the battery charging current within 20mA? If one
instrument is unable to provide the above facilities, the more instruments
shall be provided as required. The normal float charge and high boost rate
current for the battery shall be marked as specified for the voltmeter.
The charge unit shall be provided with overload and short-circuit
protection. Current limiting devices shall be provided to limit short-circuit
current to 120% of full load current.
11. COOLING SYSTEM
The radiator shall be cooled by a double belt driven fan. The discharge shall
be ducted away through a wall louver duct. The fan shall be capable of
developing the required static pressure to achieve the necessary airflow for
cooling. The generator room supply fans shall be interlocked to operate
with the generator.
12. EXHAUST SYSTEM
The exhaust piping and fittings shall be suitably sized with as short a length
and as few bends as possible to ensure that measured exhaust back pressure
does not exceed the maximum limitations specified by the generator set
manufacturer. The piping and fittings shall have a minimum thickness of
3.2mm and shall be suitably protected from corrosion.

ES-8

The exhaust system shall incorporate a residential type silencer of the heavy
duty baffle and absorption type which shall be installed inside the room
wherever possible. The whole system shall be properly supported to relieve
the engine of all weight.
The silencer and all exhaust piping within the building shall be properly
insulated with 50mm thick calcium silicate. The sheathing shall be of 24
gauge (0.6mm) thickness, aluminums sheet for interior sections and
stainless steel sheet for exterior sections. The insulation shall be installed so
that it does not interfere with the functioning of the flexible exhaust fitting.
The exhaust system shall comply with critical level sound attenuation as
specified by relevant authorities.
Suitable condensate removable plugs or cooks shall be provided at the
lowest point in the system.
13. EARTHING
The neutral point of the generator shall be earthed and the tank piping and
all other metalwork associated with the installation must be electrically
continuous with the metalwork of the engine. A suitable connection in the
form of a brass stud shall be provided in the control panel for connecting
the alternator star point to a local earth electrode network.
14. A.M.F./GENERATOR SET CUBICAL
The A.M.F./Generator Set cubical shall be of the floor standing type which
have a construction similar to that of the main switchboard. A lockable
compartment for Tools/Spares shall be provided in the cubical.
The A.M.F./Generator Set cubical shall incorporate the following:a)

Voltmeters and Ammeters c/w selector switches.

b)

Kilowatt hour meter

c)

Hour run meter

d)

Power factor meter

e)

Frequency meter ( Electromagnetic direct reading type)

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f)

Earth fault relay

g)

All indicator lights, alarms, control relays, selector switches, stop/start


pushbuttons etc. as specified.

15. FUEL SYSTEM


A services tank of sufficient capacity for at least 24 hours continuous
operation of the generator set(s) at rated conditions shall be installed at
close proximity to the set(s). The tank shall comply with B.S. 799 Part 5.
The tank shall be constructed from minimum 1.6mm thick mild steel. It
shall be fitted with a tight fitting bolted cover, which can be easily removed
for maintenance. The tank shall be painted inside and outside with oil
resistant primer and externally finished with an undercoat and topcoat of
good quality aluminium paint.
A float operated dial type fuel level indicator, associated level control and
alarm switches shall also be incorporated.
The tank shall be provided with filling, supply and return fuel lines to and
from the engine, drain and vent pipes, Isolating gate valves shall be
provided for the filling and supply pipes.
All fuel piping from fuel tank to engine shall be of copper tubing. The
connection to the engine shall be by means of flexible fuel lines.
A rotary hand pump of cast iron construction shall be provided and
mounted in the wall of the gen-set room by means of suitable bracketing.
Adequate length of oil resistant flexible hose for transfer of oil from the
drum to tank shall be provided. The hand pump shall be capable of
transferring oil at a rate of 20 times the maximum consumption of the
engine.
A full tank of fuel shall be left at the time of handing over of the installation
to the clients.
16. INDICATIONS
Indication lamps on each control panel shall comply with B.S. 1050, be
suitable for 24 dc operation and have a minimum guaranteed burning life of
20,000 hours at operating voltage. Lenses shall be of 25mm diameter type.

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Indication lights with colors with B.S. 4099 shall be provided. A bulb test
switch shall be incorporated.
17. TOOLS
A complete set of maintenance tools shall be provided as standard. All tools
provided shall be listed in the Schedule of Tools. A toolbox shall also be
included.
18. SPARES
The following minimum amount of spares shall be supplied:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)

Two sets of fuel filters, air filters and seals.


Two sets of lubricating oil filter, elements and seals.
Two sets of injector nozzles and renewable parts.
Two sets of belts.
One no. oil pressure switch.
One no. water temperature thermostat.
One complete set of engine joints, gaskets and hoses
One unit automatic voltage regulator.

All spares provided shall be listed in the Schedule of Spares.


19. TESTING
a)

General
The Electrical Sub-Contractor shall provide test certificates for fuel
consumption, water temperature, exhaust temperature, lubricates oil
pressure and efficiency at various loads, speed variation on load throw
and any other test carried out by the manufacturer as a standard.
These certificates are to be related to the particular engine supplies or
their batch as conducted by the manufacturer.
Prior to the test, the Electrical Sub-Contractor shall submit a complete
and detailed schedule of the tests to be carried out to the Consulting
Engineers for approval and the Consulting Engineers shall make such
alterations and addition as deemed necessary.

b)

Tests At Suppliers Workshop

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The following tests shall be carried out at the generator set suppliers
workshop as a minimum requirement;
b.i

Load Test
The generator set shall be load tested as follows:i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)

25% Load for one hour


50% Load for one hour
75% Load for one hour
100% Load for one hour
110% Load for one hour

During the test period the following data shall be logged at 15


minutes intervals.
-

Alternator current in each phase


Alternator voltage in each phase
Frequency
Lubricating oil pressure
Jacket water temperature
Exhaust gas temperature

b.2 Fuel Consumption Test


The fuel consumption of the Generator Set at 50%, 75%, 100% and
110% full load shall be tested.
b.3 Frequency Variation Test
The frequency variation, response time of the Generator Set upon
Disconnection and Connection of 60% full load shall be tested.
b.4 Operation Of Engine Automatic Protection Devices
The operation of the engine overspeed trip, low oil pressure
shutdown and high jacket water temperature shut down devices
shall be tested.
b.5 Engine Settings
The following settings shall be carried out:-

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i)

The engine speed shall be set so that the alternator output


frequency is at 50Hz at full load.

ii)

The exciter voltage shall be set so that the alternator output


is 380 volts phase to phase at full load.

b.6 Noise levels shall be measured 15 meters from the exhaust and
cooling air discharges with plant idle and running. Levels shall be
neasured in eight octave bands from 63.5 to 8000Hz at a time
when the background sound level is at least 7 db below the level
when the plant is running.
c)

Tests At Site
Upon completion of the Generator Set Installation the following tests
shall be carried out.
c.1 Load Test
The Generator Set shall be run at various loads, up to the
maximum connected load available and be allowed to run for a
total period of 12 hours. The engine performance under these
conditions shall be measured.
c.2

Automatic Operation
A mains failure situation shall be simulated and the automatic
operation of the generator set shall be tested with all load on the
generator set switched ON. A minimum of three (3) automatic
startup and shutdown operations shall be carried out.

c.3

Starting Battery Test


The fuel valve of the engine shall be closed and the engine shall
then be subjected to six (6) consecutive cycles of 15 seconds
cranking and 6 seconds rest. At the end of the six (6) attempted
starting cycles, the engine fuel valve shall be opened and the
engine started.

c.4

Operation of Protective Devices and Indicators


The operation of all controls, alarms, warning signals etc. listed
under the heading Operation Control System shall be fully
tested.

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c.5

Temperature rise in accordance to B.S. 5000.

20. CONTROL SWITCHES


All control switches shall be of the quick make and quick break type using
double break contacts operated by a common spindle.
The control switches shall be suitable for panel mounting and suitable for
the load carrying current of the circuit which the switch is controlling.
Generally switches are to be used for controlling coils of starters and relays,
etc., and the minimum rating of the control switch shall be 16 amp, 220
volts, 50Hz.
21. RATING PLATES
Small rating plates giving serial numbers and data in accordance with the
relevant British Standards are required on equipment supplied, namely:Circuit Breakers, Fuse Switches, Isolators, Current Transformers, etc.

22. PANEL IDENTIFICATION


Each switchgear panel shall be clearly identified and designated according
to its function. The labels shall be engraved and arranged as shown in the
drawings submitted by the Electrical Contractor and approved by the
Consulting Engineers.
23. TESTS
Type tests certificates issued by recognized testing authorities shall be
submitted for all switchgear to the Consulting Engineers.
a)

Routine & Factory Tests


The Electrical Contractor shall submit certified test sheets showing
details of all routine tests conducted during manufacture of
switchboards and individual components thereof.

b)

Delivery Test

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After the equipment has been erected on site and before final
connection to the supply, the Electrical Contractor shall with his own
instruments and expense carry out all tests necessary to demonstrate
that the equipment complies with the requirements of this
specification and to the satisfaction of the Consulting Engineers.
The tests to be conducted shall be as follows:i)

Demonstration that all equipment are installed and all wiring


connected, so that the switchboard functions as required.

ii)

Insulation resistance between phases, between each phase and


neutral, and between each phase, neutral and earth with the
breaker open and all equipment installed.

iii)

Insulation resistance across breaks in all circuit breakers, with the


breaker open and all equipment installed.

iv)

Setting of over current and earth fault protection relays on circuit


breaker in accordance with the requirements of the Electricity
Supply Authority.

Copies of test sheets, showing the results of test carried out in


accordance with this section of the specification shall be submitted to
the Consulting Engineers.

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EARTHING

The complete installation shall be earthed and tested in accordance with the IEE Regulations.
The earth termination network shall comprise of a system of earth electrodes of 4.8m deep x 16m
diameter copper-weld rods of 1.2m sections driven into the ground. 25mm x 3mm copper tapes
buried at 1m below ground and protected by a layer of bricks shall be used for interconnection
between earth electrodes. The copper tapes shall be secured to the electrodes by means of bras
clamps.
The earth electrode lead shall be located not less than 500mm below the ground level and shall
be kept free of earth.
A precast concrete earth chamber complete with cover shall be used to protect each earth
electrode, and for future inspection and testing. The connection to the earth electrode must be
clearly and permanently labeled MAIN EARTH DO NOT DISCONNECT. Where earthing
inspection chambers are located on access roads a heavy duty cover shall be provided.
Sufficient earth electrodes shall be provided to meet the general earth resistance stipulated by the
local supply authorities. Claims for supplementary earthing will not be accepted.
All metals, sinks, tanks, exposed pipework etc., shall be supplementary bonded under this
contract to the earth terminal of socket outlets or power circuits using green PVC insulated
cables.

EA-1

INSPECTION, TESTING AND COMMISSIONING

1.

GENERAL
The Consulting Engineers shall be allowed to inspect the installation works at any
time and if required, the Electrical Contractor shall be present at such an
inspection.
The Consulting Engineers shall be given adequate notice of completion of works
to be covered. No work shall be covered without the prior approval of the
Consulting Engineers. The Consulting Engineers shall be given 7 days advanced
notice of works to be tested.
The Contractor shall supply all labor, materials, equipment, tools, and instruments
which shall be certified as to their accuracies, dates when calibrated, by whom
and of types approved by the Consulting Engineers. The Contractor shall be
responsible for all electrical tests at the site and shall be represented by a capable
Charge-man or Engineer during the whole of the period required for the tests.
The Contractor shall arrange for factory tests to be performed on all items of
equipment supplied under this contract and shall advise the Consulting Engineers,
the times at which the equipment will be available for testing in order that they
may witness any tests. The expenses involved by the Consulting Engineer and
client's representatives for the witness tests are to be included.
During testing and commissioning the Contractor shall record, in addition to the
test figures specified, all adjustments, settings and modifications made.
The materials and methods used for testing shall not adversely affect subsequent
performance of the components of or the system in which the components are
installed.
Defects revealed shall be made good by replacement of the defective part or parts.
Three copies of certified test results shall be forwarded to the Consulting
Engineers within seven days of the tests being performed.
On practical completion, the whole of the works will be subjected to acceptance
tests and inspections. The Consulting Engineers will then provide a list of defects
and these shall be rectified within 14 days unless otherwise agreed to in writing.
The installation shall then be re-tested and re-inspected to ensure that the listed
defects have been remedied.

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The standard of acceptance for electrical installation tests shall be as


recommended in the latest Edition of the I.E.E. Regulations for Electrical
Equipment of Building and to the approval of local supply authority (SESCO).
If any defect has not been satisfactorily rectified, the Consulting Engineers shall
reverse the right to totally reject that part of the installation and the Contractor
shall at his own cost, dismantle and remove the rejected works from site and at the
discretion of the Consulting Engineers shall replace it with an approved
alternative, or, to reimburse the Owner for the removal and for replacement of the
rejected installation by others appointed by the Consulting Engineers.
The Contractor shall price for all Inspections, Testing and Commissioning and
this shall include all fees required by authorities and utilities consumed during
testing.

PT-2