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Physics I

Class 04

Two-Dimensional Motion

02-1

Vector Notation
Last time we deduced that we should use vectors to describe motion in two and three
dimensions:

r xi yj zk

dr
v
v xi v y j vz k
dt

dv
a xi a y j a z k
a
dt

Given enough information, we can use these definitions and Newton's Laws (next time) to
solve for the unknown components above.
Note: Since t is the same for each component of motion, it links the components.

02-2

Simple Example

Throw a ball straight up (1D).

Throw a ball across the room (2D).

02-3

Problem Solving
Motion in the X direction is independent of motion in the Y
direction.
Strategy: Break the problem into two parts, one for the X
motion and one for the Y motion.
Handle each part like one-dimensional motion.

02-4

Equations for Constant


acceleration
Basic X Equations
1. vx v0, x ax t t0
2. x x0 v0, x (t t0 ) 12 ax (t t0 ) 2
Basic Y Equations
1. v y v0, y a y t t0
2. y y0 v0, y (t t0 ) 12 a y (t t0 ) 2

02-5

Ex) Projectile Motion


Y
X

By convention, we choose increasing X to the right,


and increasing Y up.

Throwing a ball and shooting a cannon are examples of projectile motion.


Neglecting air resistance, the acceleration is approximately constant:

ax 0
a y 9.8 m / s 2
Later we will see why gravity works this way.

02-6

Projectile Motion Vx and Vy

v0 x vx constant

02-7

Strategy for
Projectile Motion
Make a list of what you know, and what you need to find.
a
v0
x0 or y0
vf
xf or yf
t-t0

solve

SAME

SAME

You have four eqs. to work with.

02-8

Ex) Hit the Falling Target

02-9

Falling Target
The target will drop at the instant
the ball leaves the launcher.
h

The objective is to adjust the angle so that the ball hits the falling
target.
Let's set t=0 at the instant the target drops, and attach a coordinate system
at x0 ball y0 ball 0 .
02-10

Falling Target
a
v0
x0 or y0
vf
xf or yf
t

X ball

ax 0

Y ball
-g

v0 cos()
0
v0 cos()
d
?

v0 sin()
0
(dont care)
?
SAME

Y target
-g
0
h
(dont care)
Same as ball.
SAME

Condition: when they hit after time interval t,


both objects are at the same position.
Solve for .
First, since we don't need to know the value of t when they hit, we get rid of t by
substitution. Use the x-motion equation to solve for t as a function of 02-11

Solving for Time


x f x0 v0 cos( ) t t

a
v0
x0 or y0
vf
xf or yf
t

d
v0 cos( )

X ball
0
v0 cos()
0
v0 cos()
d
d/[v0 cos()]

Y ball
-g
v0 sin()
0
(dont care)
?
SAME

Y target
-g
0
h
(dont care)
Same as ball.
SAME

Now apply the condition:


yball = ytarget at time t.
02-12

Solving for Yfinal

1 2
d
d
Yball: y f y0 v0t at 0 v0 sin( )
g

2
v
cos(
)
2
v
cos(
)
0

1
d
Ytarget: y f h 0 g

2 v0 cos( )

Equating these two expressions, the terms proportional to g cancel, giving,


sin( )

d
h
cos( )

OR tan( )

h
d

02-13

Launch Angle

tan( )

h
d

So, we must aim directly at the target.


What happens if I decrease v0 ?

02-14

Take-Away Concepts
1.

X and Y motions are independent.

2.

In projectile motion problems, the acceleration is constant (9.8 m/s2


directed downward toward the center of the earth.

3.

Usually upward is assigned to be the +Y direction.

4.

Strategy:
* List known quantities.
* Use motion eqs. and constraints to solve for the desired quantities.
* Time provides the connection between X and Y equations.

02-15

Uniform Circular Motion

02-16

Centripetal Acceleration

02-17

Problem of the Day


A ship at sea level fires its cannon and hits the top of a hill 310 meters above sea level. The
cannon ball was in the air for 10 seconds. The elevation angle of the cannon was 30 above
horizontal. What was the horizontal distance d? Think it through before you write.

h = 310 m
= 30

d=?
02-18

Optional Material
Galileo
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)

Galileo studied the motion of freefalling bodies and bodies falling along
inclined planes. He was the first to
determine that the distance traversed by
a falling body in equal time intervals
follows the series 1, 3, 5, 7, 9,
(This is equivalent to saying that the
total displacement is proportional to the
total time squared.)
02-19

Aristotles Error

Aristotle
384-322 B.C.E.

Aristotle was unquestionably a genius, but he missed the connection


between theory and observation. He taught that a projectile travels in
a straight line until it loses the motion imparted to it, then drops
straight down. Medieval scholars invented the term impetus for the
imparted motion. A simple observation of a person throwing a rock
disproves this theory, but Aristotle did not think to do that.
02-20

Parabolic Trajectory

Galileo deduced from his observations that horizontal and vertical motions
are independent. From that he deduced that projectiles travel in curved
paths and that these curves must be parabolas. He published his results in
Discourses on Two New Sciences, 1638.
Galileo is also responsible for an early form of the Principle of Relativity,
which was not revised until Einstein.
02-21