Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 53

Greater insight. Greater confidence. Accelerate next-generation wireless.

Further Along the Road to 4G:


An update on LTE and LTE-Advanced
Presented by: Moray Rumney, Agilent Technologies

Wireless Communications
2012 Agilent Technologies

Agenda
Greater insight. Greater confidence.
Accelerate next-generation wireless.

Wireless evolution 1990 2012

Confused by the term 4G?


Understanding 3GPPs release structure
UMTS Long Term Evolution
LTE Frequency bands
Release 9 summary

Rel-10 LTE-Advanced radio features


Other key radio features in Rel-10 and beyond
Summary of Release 11
Summary of Release 12
Wireless Communications
2012 Agilent Technologies
2

Wireless Evolution 1990 - 2012

Technology evolution

W-LAN

Market evolution

Increasing efficiency, bandwidth and data rates

2G

2.5G

PDC

GSM

IS-136

IS-95A

(Japan)

(Europe)

(US TDMA)

(US CDMA)

iMODE

HSCSD

802.11b
802.11a/g

IS-95B

GPRS

(US CDMA)

802.11h
3G

3.5G

W-CDMA

TD-SCDMA

E-GPRS

cdma2000

(FDD & TDD)

(China)

(EDGE)

(1x RTT)

HSDPA
HSUPA

EDGE
Evolution

1x EV-DO
0AB

802.11n

802.16d
(Fixed WiMAX)

WiBRO
3.9G/
4G

4G / IMTAdvanced

HSPA+ /
E-HSPA

LTE

802.16e

(R8/9 FDD & TDD)

(Mobile WiMAX)

(Korea)

LTE-Advanced

802.16m / WiMAX2

(R10 & beyond)

WirelessMAN-Advanced

802.11ac
802.11ad

Wireless Communications
2012 Agilent Technologies

ITU The Source of the G in Wireless?


International Telecommunications Union
ITU-Radio Working Party 8F (now WP 5D)
International Mobile Telephony

IMT-2000 aka 3G

IMT-Advanced aka 4G

All IMT technologies have access to designated IMT spectrum


Wireless Communications
2012 Agilent Technologies
4

Confused by the Term 4G?


So You Should Be!

Greater insight. Greater confidence.


Accelerate next-generation wireless.

The ITUs 3G program was officially called IMT-2000


The ITUs 4G program is officially called IMT-Advanced
The term 3.9G was widely used to describe LTE since it was developed prior to the
ITU defining IMT-Advanced (aka 4G)
LTE-A was intended to be 3GPPs official 4G technology
The term 4G was informally used to describe WiMAXTM (802.16e)
More recently, some operators describe the evolution of HSPA as 4G
The ITU initially stuck to an interpretation of 4G as being just for IMT-Advanced but
have recently stepped back from this and recently stated
-IMT-Advanced is considered as 4G, although it is recognized that this term, while
undefined, may also be applied to the forerunners of these technologies, LTE and WiMAX
and other evolved 3G technologies providing a substantial level of improvement in
performance.

In summary 4G has lost any useful meaning so beware when using it!
Wireless Communications
2012 Agilent Technologies
5

Understanding 3GPP Release Structure


Greater insight. Greater confidence.
Accelerate next-generation wireless.

The official scope of each 3GPP release is documented at:


www.3gpp.org/releases
Each release has dates for the three main development stages
Stage 1: Service description from a service-users point of view.
Stage 2: Logical analysis, breaking the problem down into functional elements
and the information flows amongst them across reference points between
functional entities.
Stage 3: is the concrete implementation of the protocols appearing at physical
interfaces between physical elements onto which the functional elements have
been mapped.

And some less formal stages


Stage 0: Used to describe 3GPP feasibility studies (study items)
Stage 4: Used to describe the development of test specifications

Wireless Communications
2012 Agilent Technologies
6

UMTS Long-Term Evolution

1999

2013

Release

Stage 3: Core
specs complete

Main feature of Release

Rel-99

March 2000

UMTS 3.84 Mcps (W-CDMA FDD & TDD)

Rel-4

March 2001

1.28 Mcps TDD (aka TD-SCDMA)

Rel-5

June 2002

HSDPA

Rel-6

March 2005

HSUPA (E-DCH)

Rel-7

Dec 2007

HSPA+ (64QAM DL, MIMO, 16QAM UL). LTE & SAE


Feasibility Study, Edge Evolution

Rel-8

Dec 2008

LTE Work item OFDMA air interface


SAE Work item New IP core network
UMTS Femtocells, Dual Carrier HSDPA

Rel-9

Dec 2009

Multi-standard Radio (MSR), Dual Carrier HSUPA,


Dual Band HSDPA, SON, LTE Femtocells (HeNB)
LTE-Advanced feasibility study

Rel-10

March 2011

LTE-Advanced (4G) work item, CoMP Study


Four carrier HSDPA

Rel-11

Sept 2012

CoMP, eDL MIMO, eCA, MIMO OTA, HSUPA TxD &


64QAM MIMO, HSDPA 8C & 4x4 MIMO, MB MSR

Rel-12

March 2013 stage 1

RAN features being decided Jun 2012

Wireless Communications
2012 Agilent Technologies
7

LTE Timeline
2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

Rel-7 Feasibility study


Rel-8 Specification development
Rel-8 Test development
GCF Test validation
LSTI Proof of Concept

LSTI IODT

First GCF UE
certification

LSTI IOT

LSTI Friendly
Customer Trials

First Trial
Networks

First
Commercial
Networks

Further
Commercial
Networks

LSTI = LTE/SAE Trial Initiative GCF = Global Certification Forum


Wireless Communications
2012 Agilent Technologies
8

Status of LTE network launches March 2012


Source: Global Suppliers Association report www.gsacom.com
Greater insight. Greater confidence.

Accelerate next-generation wireless.

301operators in 95
countries investing in
deployment / trials
242 Network planned
in 81countries
57commercial FDD
networks already
launched
59 pre-commercial
trials

Wireless Communications
2012 Agilent Technologies
9

LTE1800 Initiative: Refarming Under-Used


GSM Spectrum

Greater insight. Greater confidence.


Accelerate next-generation wireless.

14 Networks Launched and 36 in Deployment/Trials

Source: Global Suppliers Association


Wireless Communications
2012 Agilent Technologies
10

TD-LTE status
Greater insight. Greater confidence.
Accelerate next-generation wireless.

5 network launches 20 other major plans

Source: Global Suppliers Association


Wireless Communications
2012 Agilent Technologies
11

Frequency Bands
Greater insight. Greater confidence.
Accelerate next-generation wireless.

An important aspect of frequency bands when it comes to the 3GPP


releases is that they are release independent
This means that a band defined in a later release can be applied to
an earlier release.
This significantly simplifies the specifications

Wireless Communications
2012 Agilent Technologies
12

Duplex spacing

LTE FDD Frequency Bands

Width

Based on 36.101 Table 5.5-1 (March 2012)


Band
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15*
16*
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

Uplink MHz
1920
1850
1710
1710
824
830
2500
880
1749.9
1710
1427.9
698
777
788
1900
2010
704
815
830
832
1447.9
3410
2000
1626.5
1850
814

1980
1910
1785
1755
849
840
2570
915
1784.9
1770
1447.9
716
787
798
1920
2025
716
830
845
862
1462.9
3490
2020
1660.5
1915
849

Downlink MHz
2110
1930
1805
2110
869
865
2620
925
1844.9
2110
1475.9
728
746
758
2600
2585
734
860
875
791
1495.9
3510
2180
1525
1930
859

2170
1990
1880
2155
894
8752690
960
1879.9
2170
1495.9
746
756
768
2620
2600
746
875
890
821
1510.9
3590
2200
1559
1995
894

Width

Duplex

Gap

60
60
75
45
25
10
70
35
35
60
20
18
10
10
20
15
12
15
15
30
15
80
20
34
65
35

190
80
95
400
45
35
120
45
95
400
48
30
-31
-30
700
575
30
45
45
-41
48
100
180
-101.5
80
45

130
20
20
355
20
25
50
10
60
340
28
12
41
40
680
560
18
30
30
71
33
20
160
135.5
15
10

Uplink

Width

Gap

Downlink

Greater
insight. Greater confidence.
Band
Band
Accelerate next-generation wireless.

Frequency

Points of note
There is a lot of overlap between
band definitions for regional reasons
The Duplex spacing varies from 30
MHz to 799 MHz
The gap between downlink and uplink
varies from 10 MHz to 680 MHz
Narrow duplex spacing and gaps
make it hard to design filters to
prevent the transmitter spectral
regrowth leaking into the receiver
(self-blocking)
Bands 13, 14, 20 and 24 are reversed
from normal by having the uplink
higher in frequency than the downlink
Bands 15 and 16 are defined by ETSI
(not 3GPP) for Europe only these
bands combine two nominally TDD
bands to create one FDD band
Wireless Communications
2012 Agilent Technologies

13

LTE TDD Frequency Bands


Based on 36.101 Table 5.5-1 (March 2012)

Greater insight. Greater confidence.


Accelerate next-generation wireless.

Width
Transceive
Band

Band
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43

Uplink MHz
1900
2010
1850
1930
1910
2570
1880
2300
2496
3400
3600

1920
2025
1910
1990
1930
2620
1920
2400
2690
3600
3800

Downlink MHz
1900
2010
1850
1930
1910
2570
1880
2300
2496
3400
3600

1920
2025
1910
1990
1930
2620
1920
2400
2690
3600
3800

Width
20
15
60
60
20
50
40
100
194
200
200

Frequency
Points of note
For TDD there is no concept of duplex
spacing or gap since the downlink and uplink
frequencies are the same
As such, the challenge of separating transmit
from receive does not require a duplex filter
for the frequency domain but a switch for the
time domain

Wireless Communications
2012 Agilent Technologies
14

Future LTE/UTRA Frequency Bands


Greater insight. Greater confidence.
Accelerate next-generation wireless.

The work on defining new frequency bands continues. Currently being


considered by 3GPP:

Band 27

806/824 + 851/869 Extended 850 lower band

Other possibilities identified by the ITU:


3.6-4.2 GHz
450470 MHz
698862 MHz

790862 MHz band (European digital dividend)


4.4-4.99 GHz band
Wireless Communications
2012 Agilent Technologies
15

Release 9 Summary
Greater insight. Greater confidence.
Accelerate next-generation wireless.

Release 9 adds many small features to UMTS and LTE e.g.:


Completion of MBSFN
New frequency bands
Transmission mode 8 (dual stream beamforming)
Positioning Reference Signal (PRS) for Observed Time Difference Of Arrival
(OTDOA) positioning

The most significant radio feature is Multi-Standard Radio (MSR) for BS that
support more than one radio format
MSR is a dont care for the UE but is a big deal for the BS
The work involved harmonizing the GERAN and 3GPP specifications then
specifying common requirements and conformance tests
Multi-band MSR is being added in Release 11
Wireless Communications
2012 Agilent Technologies
16

Update on LTE-Advanced
Overall Aspects

Greater insight. Greater confidence.


Accelerate next-generation wireless.

LTE-Advanced is a subset of Release 10


A comprehensive summary of the entire LTE-Advanced proposals
including radio, network and system can be found in the 3GPP
submissions to the first IMT-Advanced evaluation workshop.
http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/workshop/2009-12-17_ITU-R_IMT-Adv_eval/docs/

The remainder of this presentation will focus on the key radio aspects

Wireless Communications
2012 Agilent Technologies
17

LTE-Advanced Timeline

ITU-R Submission Sept 2009

TR36.912 v 2.2.0
R1-093731, Characteristic template
R1-093682, Compliance template
R1-093741, Link Budget template

ITU-R Approval Jan 2012

Wireless Communications
2012 Agilent Technologies
18

Release 10 LTE-Advanced Documents


- And Where to Find Them

Greater insight. Greater confidence.


Accelerate next-generation wireless.

Historical documents:

Study Item RP-080599


ftp://ftp.3gpp.org/tsg_ran/TSG_RAN/TSGR_41/Docs/RP-080599.zip
Requirements TR 36.913 v9.0.0 (2009-12)
ftp://ftp.3gpp.org/Specs/html-info/36913.htm
Study Phase Technical Report TR 36.912 v9.3.0 (2010-06)
ftp://ftp.3gpp.org/Specs/html-info/36912.htm

The LTE-A specifications are now drafted in the


Release 10 specifications
ftp.3gpp.org/specs/latest/Rel-10/

Wireless Communications
2012 Agilent Technologies
19

LTE-Advanced Requirements & Proposals


Greater insight. Greater confidence.
Accelerate next-generation wireless.

LTE-A requirements are documented in TR 36.913, V9.0.0 (2009-03)


(Requirements for Further Advancements of E-UTRA (LTE-Advanced)

3GPP stated intention is to meet or exceed IMT-Advanced requirements


LTE-A must support IMT-A requirements with same or better performance
than LTE

LTE-A solution proposals can be found in TR 36.814 Further


Advancements for E-UTRA Physical Layer Aspects
Specific targets exist for average and cell-edge spectral efficiency (see next
slide)
Similar requirements as LTE for synchronization, latency, coverage,
mobility

LTE-A candidate was submitted to ITU September 2009 and formally


approved in Jan 2012
Wireless Communications
2012 Agilent Technologies
20

LTE-Advanced Spectral Efficiency Requirements


Item

Subcategory

LTE (3.9G)
target

LTE-Advanced
(4G) target

IMT-Advanced
(4G) target

Peak Spectral
Efficiency
(b/s/Hz)

Downlink

16.3 (4x4 MIMO)

30
(up to 8x8 MIMO)

15 (4x4 MIMO)

Uplink

4.32
(64QAM SISO)

15
(up to 4x4 MIMO)

6.75
(2x4 MIMO)

Downlink cell
spectral efficiency
b/s/Hz 3km/h
500m ISD

2x2 MIMO

1.69

2.4

4x2 MIMO

1.87

2.6

4x4 MIMO

2.67

3.7

Downlink cell-edge
user spectral
efficiency b/s/Hz 5
percentile 10 users
500M ISD

2x2 MIMO

0.05

0.07

4x2 MIMO

0.06

0.09

4x4 MIMO

0.08

0.12

ISD is Inter Site Distance

2.6

0.075

2x to 4x efficiency of Rel-6 HSPA


Wireless Communications
2012 Agilent Technologies

21

New LTE-A UE Categories


Greater insight. Greater confidence.
Accelerate next-generation wireless.

To accommodate the higher data rates of LTE-A, three new UE


categories have been defined
Downlink

Uplink

UE category

Max. Data
rate
(DL / UL)
(Mbps)

Max. # DLSCH TB bits /


TTI

Max. # DLSCH bits


/ TB / TTI

Total. soft
channel
bits

Max. #.
spatial
layers

Max.# ULSCH TB bits /


TTI

Max. # ULSCH bits


/ TB / TTI

Support
for
64QAM

Category 1

10 / 5

10296

10296

250368

5160

5160

No

Category 2

50 / 25

51024

51024

1237248

25456

25456

No

Category 3

100 / 50

102048

75376

1237248

51024

51024

No

Category 4

150 / 50

150752

75376

1827072

51024

51024

No

Category 5

300 / 75

299552

149776

3667200

75376

75376

Yes

Category 6

300 / 50

[299552]

[TBD]

[3667200]

[51024 ]

[TBD]

No

[TBD]

Yes/No
(Up-to
RAN4)

[TBD]

Yes

Category 7

300 / 150

[299552]

[TBD]

[TBD]

[150752/
102048 (Upto RAN4)]

Category 8

1200 / 600

[1200000]

[TBD]

[TBD]

[600000]

Wireless Communications
2012 Agilent Technologies
22

Release 10 and Beyond Proposals


Radio Aspects

Greater insight. Greater confidence.


Accelerate next-generation wireless.

1. Carrier aggregation
2. Enhanced uplink multiple access
a) Clustered SC-FDMA
b) Simultaneous Control and Data

Rel-10 LTE-A
proposed to ITU

3. Enhanced multiple antenna transmission


a) Downlink 8 antennas, 8 streams
b) Uplink 4 antennas, 4 streams

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Coordinated Multipoint (CoMP)


Relaying
Home eNB mobility enhancements
Customer Premises Equipment
Heterogeneous network support
Self Optimizing networks (SON)

Other Rel-10
and beyond

Wireless Communications
2012 Agilent Technologies
23

Release 10 LTE-Advanced Radio Features


2
1

Enhanced uplink

Carrier Aggregation

Enhanced multiple
antenna transmission
New for LTE-A

SC-FDMA with
clustering!

MHz
1.4MHz
3 1.4
MHz
5 3
1.4MHz
10 5
3 1.4
MHz
15 10
5 3
1.4
20 15
10 5
3
20 15
10 5
20 15
10
20 15

1, 2 or 4
transmitters
and 2, 4 or 8
receivers
UE

2, 4 or 8
transmitters
and 2, 4 or 8
receivers

Simultaneous
PUCCH/PUSCH

20

eNodeB
Support for up to 5 Aggregated Carriers
Wireless Communications
2012 Agilent Technologies
24

Other Radio Features Being Specified for


Release 10 and Beyond
5
4

Relaying

Coordinated
Multipoint

HeNB mobility
enhancements
7

Customer Premises
Equipment (CPE)
CPE
LTE

LTE

CPE

Outdoor CPE scenario

Indoor CPE scenario

Heterogeneous Networks

Self Optimizing Networks (SON)


Wireless Communications
2012 Agilent Technologies

25

1. Carrier Aggregation
Greater insight. Greater confidence.
Accelerate next-generation wireless.

Lack of sufficient contiguous spectrum up to 100 MHz forces use of


carrier aggregation to meet peak data rate targets
Able to be implemented with a mix of terminals
Backward compatibility with legacy system (LTE)
System scheduler operating across multiple bands
Component carriers (CC) - Max 110 RB (TBD)
May be able to mix different CC types
Contiguous and non-contiguous CC is allowed
PUCCH

PUSCH

PUSCH

Contiguous aggregation of
two uplink component
carriers

Frequency
Wireless Communications
2012 Agilent Technologies
26

1. Carrier Aggregation
Greater insight. Greater confidence.
Accelerate next-generation wireless.

One of RAN WG4s most intense activities is in the area of creating RF


requirements for specific band combinations.

In theory there could be as many as 5 carriers but so far all the activity is
around dual carrier combinations
The original CA work in Rel-10 was limited to three combinations
Uplink (UL) band
Band

CA_40
CA_1-5
CA_3-7

E-UTRA
operatin
g Band
40
1
5
3
7

UE transmit / BS receive
FUL_low (MHz) FUL_high
(MHz)
2300 2400

Downlink (DL) band


Duple
UE receive / BS
Channel
Channel
x
transmit
BW
BW
mode
FDL_low (MHz) FDL_high
MHz
MHz
(MHz)
[TBD]
2300 2400
[TBD]
TDD

1920 1980
824 849

[TBD]
[TBD]

2110
869

2170
894

[TBD]
[TBD]

FDD

1710 1788
2500 2570

20
20

1805
2620

1880
2690

20
20

FDD

In Rel-11 there are now up to 18 CA combinations being specified


Wireless Communications
2012 Agilent Technologies
27

1. Rel-11 Carrier Aggregation Combinations


Greater insight. Greater confidence.
Accelerate next-generation wireless.

Band

Lead company

Uplink

Downlink

Uplink

Downlink

Mode

CA-B3_B7*

TeliaSonera

1710 - 1785

1805 - 1880

2500 - 2570

2620 - 2690

FDD

CA-B4_B17

AT&T

1710 1755

2110 - 2155

704 716

734 - 746

FDD

CA-B4_B13

Ericsson (Verizon)

1710 1755

2110 - 2155

777 - 787

746 - 756

FDD

CA-B4_B12

Cox Communications

1710 1755

2110 - 2155

698 716

728 - 746

FDD

CA-B20_B7

Huawei (Orange)

832 862

791 - 821

2500 - 2570

2620 - 2690

FDD

CA-B2_B17

AT&T

1850 1910

1930 - 1990

704 716

734 - 746

FDD

CA-B4_B5

AT&T

1710 1755

2110 - 2155

824 849

869 - 894

FDD

CA-B5_B12

US Cellular

824 849

869 - 894

698 716

728 - 746

FDD

CA-B5_B17

AT&T

824 849

869 - 894

704 716

734 - 746

FDD

CA-B20_B3

Vodafone

832 862

791 - 821

1710 - 1785

1805 - 1880

FDD

CA-B20_B8

Vodafone

832 862

791 - 821

880 915

925 - 960

FDD

CA-B3_B5

SK Telecom

1710 - 1785

1805 - 1880

824 849

869 - 894

FDD

CA-B7

China Unicom

2500 - 2570

2620 - 2690

2500 - 2570

2620 - 2690

FDD

CA-B1_B7

China Telecomm

1920 - 1980

2110 - 2170

2500 - 2570

2620 - 2690

FDD

CA-B4_B7

Rogers Wireless

1710 1755

2110 - 2155

2500 - 2570

2620 - 2690

FDD

CA-B25_25

Sprint

1850 - 1915

1930 - 1995

1850 - 1915

1930 - 1995

FDD

CA-B38

Huawei (CMCC)

2570 - 2620

2570 - 2620

2570 - 2620

2570 - 2620

TDD

CA-B41

Clearwire

3600 - 3800

3600 - 3800

3600 - 3800

3600 - 3800

TDD

* Carried forwards from Rel-10


Wireless Communications
2012 Agilent Technologies
28

1. Combinations of Carrier Aggregation


and Layers

Greater insight. Greater confidence.


Accelerate next-generation wireless.

There are multiple combinations of CA and layers that can meet the
data rates for the new and existing UE categories
The following tables define the most probable cases for which
performance requirements will be developed
Downlink
UE category

Category 6

capability
[#CCs/BW(MHz)]
1 / 20MHz
2 / 10+10MHz
2 / 20+20MHz
2 / 10+20MHz

Category 7

1 / 20MHz
2 / 10+10MHz
2 / 20+20MHz
2 / 10+20MHz

Category 8

[2 / 20+20MHz]

Uplink
DL layers
[max #layers]
4
4
2
4 (10MHz)
2(20MHz)
4
4
2
4 (10MHz)
2(20MHz)
[8]

UE category

Category 6

Category 7

Category 8

capability
[#CCs/BW(MHz)]

UL layers
[max #layers]

1 / 20MHz

2 / 10+10MHz

1 / 10MHz

2 / 20+20MHz

1 / 20MHz

2 / 10+20MHz

2 (10MHz)
1 ( 20MHz)

[2 / 20+20MHz]

[4]

Wireless Communications
2012 Agilent Technologies
29

1. Carrier Aggregation Design and Test


Challenges

Greater insight. Greater confidence.


Accelerate next-generation wireless.

Not such an issue for the eNB


Major challenge for the UE
Multiple simultaneous receive chains

Multiple simultaneous transmit chains

Simultaneous non-contiguous transmitters creates a very challenging


radio environment in terms of spur management and self-blocking
Simultaneous transmit or receive with mandatory MIMO support add
significantly to the challenge of antenna design

Wireless Communications
2012 Agilent Technologies
30

2. Enhanced Uplink Multiple Access


Clustered SC-FDMA and PUCCH with PUSCH
Release 8: SC-FDMA with
alternating PUSCH/PUCCH
(Inherently single carrier)

Frequency

Release 10: Clustered SC-FDMA with


simultaneous PUSCH/PUCCH
(Potentially in-channel multi-carrier)

Partially allocated
PUSCH

Partially allocated
PUSCH + PUCCH

Partially allocated
PUSCH

Partially allocated
PUSCH + PUCCH

Lower PUCCH

Partially allocated
PUSCH + 2 PUCCH

Upper PUCCH

Partially allocated
PUSCH only

Fully allocated
PUSCH

Fully allocated
PUSCH + PUCCH
Frequency

Wireless Communications
2012 Agilent Technologies
31

Agilent SystemVue LTE-Advanced Uplink TX

Cluster 1
PUSCH

PUCCH

Cluster 2
PUSCH

CCDF ~ 8dB
At 0.001%

The use of clustered SC-FDMA increases the PAPR above


non-clustered SC-FDMA, but not as much as full OFDM
which can exceed the PAPR of Gaussian noise

Wireless Communications
2012 Agilent Technologies
32

2. Enhanced Uplink Multiple Access


Design and Test Challenges

Greater insight. Greater confidence.


Accelerate next-generation wireless.

Clustered SC-FDMA increases PAR by a few dB adding to


transmitter linearity challenges
Simultaneous PUCCH and PUSCH also increases PAR
Both feature create multi-carrier signals within the channel bandwidth
High power narrow PUCCH plus single or clustered SC-FDMA
creates large opportunity for in-channel and adjacent channel spur
generation
May require 3 to 4 dB power amp backoff for Rel-8 PA
Some scenarios may require 10 dB backoff

Due to the spur issues the status of the enhanced uplink is still to be
decided for Release 10
Wireless Communications
2012 Agilent Technologies
33

2. Enhanced Uplink Multiple Access


Design and Test Challenges

Wanted signal:
Two RB at
channel edge

+30
+20

Spectrum RBW = 100 kHz

+10

LO Feedthrough
Image

Mag (dBm)

0
-10
-20
-30
-40
-50

-60
-70
-80
-90
-3

Spurs
-2

Spurs
-1

This is a typical spectrum of a single carrier signal


Derived from R4-100427 ftp://ftp.3gpp.org/tsg_ran/WG4_Radio/TSGR4_54/Documents/R4-100427.zip
Wireless Communications
2012 Agilent Technologies
34

2. Enhanced Uplink Multiple Access


Design and Test Challenges

Wanted
signal: One
RB at each
channel edge

+30
+20

Spectrum RBW = 100 kHz

+10

Mag (dBm)

0
-10
-20
-30
-40
-50

-60
-70
-80
-90
-3

Spurs
-2

Spurs
-1

The presence of two in-channel carriers creates 25 to 50 dB worse spurs


Derived from R4-100427 ftp://ftp.3gpp.org/tsg_ran/WG4_Radio/TSGR4_54/Documents/R4-100427.zip
Wireless Communications
2012 Agilent Technologies
35

3. Enhanced Multiple Antenna Transmission


From 4 antennas/streams to 8 antennas/streams
Baseline being 4x4 with 4 UE Receive Antennas
Peak data rate reached with 8x8 SU-MIMO

Greater insight. Greater confidence.


Accelerate next-generation wireless.

New for LTE-A

From 1 antenna/stream to 4 antennas/streams

1, 2 or 4
transmitters
and 2, 4 or 8
receivers

Baseline being 2x2 with 2 UE Transmit Antennae


Peak data rate reached with 4x4 SU-MIMO

Focus is initially on downlink beamforming


up to 4x2 antennas SM is less attractive

UE

Challenges of higher order antenna transmission


Creates need for tower-mounted remote radio
heads
Increased power consumption
Increased product costs
Physical space for the antennae at both eNB and UE

2, 4 or 8
transmitters
and 2, 4 or 8
receivers
eNodeB

Wireless Communications
2012 Agilent Technologies
36

3. Enhanced Multiple Antenna Transmission


New CSI Reference Symbols (CSI-RS)

Greater insight. Greater confidence.


Accelerate next-generation wireless.

Rel-8/9 cell-specific RS (CRS) exist in every subframe and are used by the
UE for CSI feedback (CQI/PMI/RI) and demod for up to 4 layers
CSI-RS (ports 15 to 22) support CSI feedback for up to 8 layers but not
used for demod. They are scheduled as required (less often than CRS)
The mapping and RE per port depend on the number of ports

15 16

15 16

15 16

15 16

15 16

15 16

15 16

19 20

15 16

15 16

15 16

15 16

15 16

15 16

15 16

15 16

15 16

15 16

15 16

15 16

15 16

15 16

19 20

19 20

19 20

15 16

15 16

15 16

15 16

19 20

15 16

17 18

17 18

15 16
15 16

15 16

17 18

15 16

15 16

17 18

15 16

15 16

17 18

21 22

17 18

17 18

17 18

17 18

17 18

21 22

17 18

17 18

21 22

21 22

15 16

17 18

17 18

15 16

17 18

21 22

CSI-RS (Rel-10)
Wireless Communications
2012 Agilent Technologies
37

3. Enhanced Multiple Antenna Transmission


Design and Test Challenges

Greater insight. Greater confidence.


Accelerate next-generation wireless.

Higher order MIMO has a similar impact on the need for


simultaneous transceivers as does carrier aggregation
However, there is an additional challenge in that the antennas also
have to multiply in number

MIMO antennas also require to be de-correlated


It is very hard to design a multi-band, MIMO antenna in a small
space with good de-correlation

This makes conducted testing of higher order MIMO terminals largely


irrelevant in predicting the actual radiated performance in an
operational network
There is a work item in Rel-11 looking at MIMO Over the Air (OTA)
testing which will address antenna performance

Wireless Communications
2012 Agilent Technologies
38

4. Coordinated Multi-Point (CoMP)


Greater insight. Greater confidence.
Accelerate next-generation wireless.

Traditional MIMO co-located transmission

Coordinated Multipoint

eNB 1

eNB

UE

eNB 2

UE

Downlink
Coordinated scheduling / beamforming
Payload Data is required only at the serving cell
Coherent combining (also known as cooperative MIMO) / fast switching
Payload data is required at all transmitting eNB
Requires high speed symbol-level backhaul between eNB
Uplink
Simultaneous reception requires coordinated scheduling
Wireless Communications
2012 Agilent Technologies
39

4. CoMP Status
Greater insight. Greater confidence.
Accelerate next-generation wireless.

Recent simulation by RAN WG1 has shown initial CoMP performance


improvement to be in the 5% to 15% range
This is not considered sufficient to progress this aspect of the proposals
within the Rel-10 timeframe

Recent results from the EASY-C testbed also show limited performance
gains in lightly loaded networks with minimal or no interference
CoMP is now being studied further for Release 11

It remains unclear what eNB testing of CoMP might entail since it is very
much a system level performance gain and very difficult to emulate

Wireless Communications
2012 Agilent Technologies
40

5. In-Channel Relay and Backhaul


Greater insight. Greater confidence.
Accelerate next-generation wireless.

Basic in-channel relaying uses a relay node (RN) that receives, amplifies
and then retransmits DL and UL signals to improve coverage
Advanced relaying performs L2 or L3 decoding of transmissions before
transmitting only what is required for the local UE
eNB

Over The Air


backhaul

eNB

RN
Cell Edge

RN

OFDMA makes it possible to


split a channel into UE and
backhaul traffic
The link budget between the
eNB and relay station can
be engineered to be good
enough to allow MBSFN
subframes to be used for
backhaul of the relay traffic
Main use cases:
Urban/indoor for throughput
or dead zone
Rural for coverage

RN
Multi-hop relaying
Area of poor coverage with
no cabled backhaul

Wireless Communications
2012 Agilent Technologies
41

5. In-Channel Relay and Backhaul


Design and Test Challenges

Greater insight. Greater confidence.


Accelerate next-generation wireless.

From the UE perspective, Relaying is completely transparent


The challenge is all on the network side
For the system to work, the link budget from the relay node to the macro
eNB must be good
This implies line of sight positioning

The main operational challenge with getting relaying to work will be in the
management of the UE
The UE has to hand over to the relay node when in range
It must release the relay node when out of range

If this process is not well-managed, the performance of the cell could go


down not up
Multi-hop relaying for coverage should be easier
e.g. a valley with no cabled backhaul
Wireless Communications
2012 Agilent Technologies
42

6. Home eNB Mobility Enhancements


Greater insight. Greater confidence.
Accelerate next-generation wireless.

The concept of Home eNB (femtocells) is not new to LTE-A


In Release 8 femtocells were
introduced for UMTS
In Release 9 they were
introduced for LTE (HeNB)
In Release 9 only inbound mobility
(macro to HeNB) was fully specified

In Release 10 there will be further


enhancements to enable
HeNB to HeNB mobility
This is very important for
enterprise deployments

Wireless Communications
2012 Agilent Technologies
43

7. Customer Premises Equipment (CPE)


Greater insight. Greater confidence.
Accelerate next-generation wireless.

The CPE is a mobile intended for fixed (indoor) operation


The antenna may be internal (omni) or external (directional)
The max output power is increased to 27 dBm

Lack of concern for power consumption and a better radio link


budget mean the CPE can deliver much higher performance e.g. For
rural broadband applications

LTE

CPE

Indoor CPE scenario

LTE

CPE

Outdoor CPE scenario


Wireless Communications
2012 Agilent Technologies

44

8. Heterogeneous Network Support


Greater insight. Greater confidence.
Accelerate next-generation wireless.

LTE-Advanced intends to address the support needs of


heterogeneous networks that combine low power nodes (such as
picocells, femtocells, repeaters, and relay nodes) within a macrocell.
Deployment scenarios under evaluation are detailed in TR 36.814
Annex A.

Wireless Communications
2012 Agilent Technologies
45

9. Self Optimizing Networks (SON)


Greater insight. Greater confidence.
Accelerate next-generation wireless.

Todays cellular systems are very much centrally planned, and the
addition of new nodes to the network involves expensive and timeconsuming work, site visits for optimization, and other deployment
challenges.

One of the enhancements being considered for LTE-Advanced is the


self-optimizing network (SON).
The intent is to substantially reduce the effort required to introduce
new nodes to the network. There are implications for radio planning
as well as for the operations and maintenance (O&M) interface to the
base station.

Some limited SON capability was introduced in Release 8 and is


being further elaborated in Release 9 and Release 10.
Wireless Communications
2012 Agilent Technologies
46

Looking at the Cost/Benefits of LTE-Advanced


Radio Aspects
Carrier
Aggregation

Enhanced Uplink

Higher order MIMO

CoMP
(Rel-11)

Relaying

Peak data
rates
Cell spectral
efficiency

(Downlink)
(Uplink)

Cell edge
performance
Coverage

UE cost

Network cost
UE Complexity
Network
Complexity

Wireless Communications
2012 Agilent Technologies
47

LTE-A Deployment
Greater insight. Greater confidence.
Accelerate next-generation wireless.

The first question to ask when people are looking form information on
LTE-A timing is which feature
LTE-A, Release 10 etc. Is a large grouping of backwards-compatible
features, none of which are mandatory
The most likely contenders for early LTE-A deployment are:
Some limited form of carrier aggregation to increase instantaneous
bandwidth is particular local operator areas
E.g. US operator combining 10 MHz at 700 with 10 MHz at 1700
Expensive requires two transceivers unless adjacent

Uplink MIMO
Requires two UE transmitters expensive, battery issues

Enhanced downlink e.g. 8x2


Wireless Communications
2012 Agilent Technologies
48

LTE-Advanced Summary
Greater insight. Greater confidence.
Accelerate next-generation wireless.

LTE-A is 3GPPs submission to ITU-R IMT-Advanced 4G program


LTE-A is an evolution of LTE and is about two years behind LTE in
standards
Rel-8 LTE almost meets the IMT-Advanced requirements except for UL
spectral efficiency and peak rates requiring wider bandwidths.
Bandwidth up to 100MHz through aggregation of 20 MHz carriers
Up to 1 Gbps (low mobility) with 8x8 MIMO

Key new technologies include : carrier aggregation, enhanced uplink and


advanced MIMO
Spectral efficiency performance targets are a step up from the already very
challenging Rel-8 LTE targets
LTE-A Deployment timing is hard to predict and will depend heavily on the
rollout of LTE
Wireless Communications
2012 Agilent Technologies
49

Release 11 Radio Summary


Work Items (Excluding Carrier Aggregation)

50

Extending 850 MHz Upper Band (814 849 MHz)


E-UTRA medium range and MSR medium range/local area BS class requirements
New Band LTE Downlink FDD 716-728 MHz
LTE for 700 MHz Digital Dividend
Relays for LTE (part 2)
UE Over The Air (Antenna) conformance testing methodology - Laptop mounted equipment
Free Space test
UE demodulation performance requirements under multiple-cell scenario for 1.28Mcps TDD
Introduction of New Configuration for 4C-HSDPA
Non-contiguous 4C-HSDPA operation
HSDPA Dual-Band Multi-Carrier combinations
Public Safety Broadband High Power UE for Band 14 for Region 2
Improved Minimum Performance Requirements for E-UTRA: Interference Rejection
Additional special subframe configuration for LTE TDD
RF Requirements for Multi-Band and Multi-Standard Radio (MB-MSR) Base Station
Verification of radiated multi-antenna reception performance of UEs in LTE/UMTS
LTE in the 1670-1675 MHz Band for US

Wireless Communications
2012 Agilent Technologies

Release 11 Radio Summary


Study Items

Greater insight. Greater confidence.


Accelerate next-generation wireless.

Study on Inclusion of RF Pattern Matching Technologies as a positioning method in the EUTRAN


Study on Interference analysis between 800~900 MHz bands
Study on Enhanced performance requirement for LTE UE
Study on Measurement of Radiated Performance for MIMO and multi-antenna reception
for HSPA and LTE terminals
Study on Extending 850 MHz
Study on UMTS/LTE in 900 MHz band (Japan, Korea)
Study on RF and EMC requirements for active Antenna Array System (AAS) Base Station
Study on UE Over The Air (OTA) test method with Head and Hand Phantoms
Study on Passive InterModulation (PIM) handling for UTRA and LTE Base Stations
Study on Measurements of radio performances for LTE terminals - Total Radiated Power
(TRP) and Total Radiated Sensitivity (TRS) test methodology

Wireless Communications
2012 Agilent Technologies
51

Release 12 Summary System Level Features


Radio Features Not Yet Identified Workshop in June
2012
Greater insight. Greater confidence.

Accelerate next-generation wireless.

Interworking between Mobile Operators using the Evolved Packet System and
Data Application Providers (MOSAP) UID_500031 (Was Rel-11)
IMS-based Telepresence (IMS_TELEP)
Service and Media Reachability for Users over Restrictive Firewalls (SMURFs)
Advanced IP Interconnection of Services (IPXS) for national interconnect
(IPXSNAT)
Integration of Single Sign-On (SSO) frameworks with 3GPP networks (SSO_Int)
LIPA Mobility and SIPTO at the Local Network (LIMONET)
Operator Policies for IP Interface Selection (OPIIS) (Was Rel-11)
SMS submit and delivery without MSISDN in IMS (SMSMI) (Was Rel-11)
Security aspects of Public Warning System (PWS_Sec) (Was Rel-11)
Codec for Enhanced Voice Services (EVS_codec)

Wireless Communications
2012 Agilent Technologies
52

Greater insight. Greater confidence.


Accelerate next-generation wireless.

Questions?

Wireless Communications
2012 Agilent Technologies
53