Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 14

Abstract

The purpose for this project is to design a portable product, which can
produce an impactful, and revolutionary that could help more Malaysians in
facing the major disasters and accidents. The design consists of a quad
copter with a camera and a clamp, which carry lifebuoys to save the victims
that trap in flood or sea accidents. During the flood or sea accidents occurred,
the quad copter will release the lifebuoy to the victim. During the design
process, many consideration should be taken. For instances, materials of
quad

copter,

cost,

weight,

corrosion

and

others

has

been

take

in

consideration in order to produce an optimum quad copter which can ease


the life of Malaysians who faced the major disasters and accidents.
Keyword: Design, portable, disaster and accidents, quad copter.

1.0

INTRODUCTION

Start from 14 December 2014 to 3 January 2015, more than 200, 000 people
affected and 21 of them killed on floods in Malaysia (Source). During the
floods in northeastern Malaysia on 20 December 2014, 25000 people have
affected, 4 persons drown and died, and the saddest accident was a 20month-old baby girl fell into the floodwaters after she slipped from her
mothers arm (Ng, 2014). In 2000, floods killed 15 people in Kelantan and
Terengganu during year 2000 and 28 people in Johor during year 2008
(source). Another statistic estimates 700 people drown every year caused by
flood in Malaysia, which has an average of 2 people die from drowning every
day (Ooi, 2014).
The above statistics showed that the flood brought the impact on human
population in terms of mortality and injury. Most of them drowned and died
without any immediate rescue action conducted. There are many limitations
for the rescue teams to reach the destination of the flood immediately to
rescue the victims. Since flooding always involved larger areas, it also
increased the difficulties for the rescue teams to conduct the rescue action.
Hence, it takes the rescue teams a lot of time to search and rescue the
victims.
The purpose for this project is to design a portable product, which can
produce an impactful, and revolutionary that could help more Malaysians in
facing the major disasters and accidents. There were a few highlighted major
tragedies happen in 2014 in Malaysia. On 8 March 2014, the Malaysia Airlines
Flight MH370 was missing and 239 people killed in this accident. In the same
year 2014, another flight accident happened, Malaysia Airlines Flight 17
carried 295 people was shot down and crashed with no survivors. In addition,
several parts of Kelantan, Terengganu, Pahang, Perak, Perlis, Sabah, Johor and
Selangor were hit by flash floods on 4 December 2014.That had classified as
the worst flood disaster in the Malaysian history.

2.0

OBJECTIVE

The objective for this project is to design a portable product, which can
produce an impactful and revolutionary that could aid more Malaysians
during facing the major disasters and accidents.
3.0

DESIGN BACKGROUND

Every year, there are many people die when flood because of lack of an
efficient and fast way to give them a hand while they are drowning. One of
the traditional way to rescue drowning victim is always by throwing the
lifebuoy to him/her from the rescue boat or swimming toward the victim. This
method is lack of speed and accuracy when the rescue is carried out. It is
necessary for inventing a vehicle or robot to replace humans speed and
accuracy for performing the rescue action.
A quad copter is a multirotor helicopter that is lifted and propelled by
four propellers. Normally quad copters are classified as rotorcraft as their life
is generated by a set of rotor which are opposed to fixed-wing aircraft. There
are few advantages of quad copter that had brought to this design. One of
the advantages is small-scale quad copters have frames that encloses the
rotors, allowing flights through more challenging environments and with
lower risk of damaging the vehicle or its surroundings. Besides, quad copters
do not require any mechanical linkages to vary the rotor blade pitch angle for
spinning. Hence it simplifies the design and maintenance of quad copter. The
use of four rotors allows each individual rotor to have a smaller diameter than
the equivalent helicopter rotor, which allow them to possess less kinetic
energy during flight.
Therefore, based on the advantages of the quad copter had brought the
idea by combining with a clamp to hold lifebuoys and rescue victims during
flood happening.

3.1

Design Concept

The design consists of a quad copter with a camera and a clamp, which carry
lifebuoys to save the victims that trap in flood or sea accidents. For the clamp
part design, the arms of the clamp are designed in a cross shape as the
3

clamp can support two lifebuoy once in the flight time. Furthermore, the
design of the clamp part also allows the quad copter used to collect back the
life buoy after the rescue operation. The arms of the clamp will extend to
carry and hold the lifebuoy along the way searching for the victims. The arms
of the clamp will move inward in order to release the life buoy to the victims
from a specific height. Hence, the lifebuoy will drop to the side of the victim
in spite to rescue the victims.
During the flood or sea accidents occurred, the quad copter will release
the lifebuoy to the victim when the rescue team worker receives the images
from camera, which install at the quad copter. Then, the operator will
remotely control the clamps manually which allow the quad copter carry and
hold the lifebuoy travel along the way finding the victims (Diagram 1
attached in Appendix). The lifebuoy will release automatically by move the
arms of the clamp inward to rescue the victim who are found in the sea and
nearly drown (Diagram 2 attached in Appendix).

4.0

DETAILS DESIGN OF CONCEPT

The following design details consists of the lifebuoy, quadcopter, propeller,


electrical components, motor, and clamp.
4.1

Lifebuoy
Lifebuoy is a circular ring to increase peoples buoyancy to prevent

drowning. There are three standard sizes of lifebuoy that are listed in
International Convention for the Safety of Line at Sea (SOLAS) 1974, and
amended in 1983 (Marine, 1992). Table 1 shows the different types of
standard rescue life buoys.
Table 1: The types of lifebuoys
No
.

Code

Outer

Inner

Major axis

Minor

diameter

diamete

(mm)

(mm)

(mm)

r
(mm)
4

axis

Mass,
(kg)

1
2
3

762
610
508

<800
>400
150
100
<610
>356
127
95
<508
>280
114
89
The most usual lifebuoy that used to rescue people is

2.5<m<6
1.1<m<6
1.1<m<6
the one with

code 762 (Marine, 1992; Brakocevic, 2008). Therefore, the design of the quad
copter in this project is counted in the dimension and weight of lifebuoy code
762.

The material of the life buoy is HDPE (High Density Polythylene).

Advantages by using this material is lightweight, low cost, moisture


resistance and good chemical resistance.

Diagram 1: Illustration of Lifebuoy

4.2

Materials of Quad copter

Carbon fiber, Aluminum and Fiberglass are three popular materials in making
parts for RC planes and multi copters including quad copters. Table 2 shows
the comparison between the selections of material for construction of the
Quad copter.
MATERIAL
S
Aluminum

COST

WEIGHT

CORROSION

Cheap

Heavy

Easier
corrosion
compare to fiberglass
and carbon fiber

Fiberglass

Cost
Effective

Moderate

Corrosion Resistant

Carbon
Fiber

Expensive

40%
lighter
than Corrosion Resistant
Aluminum
and
also
lighter than fiber glass

Table 2: Comparison between the selections of material for


construction of the Quad copter
There are few important factors need to be consider when select the material
for the Quad copter.
4.2.1 Cost
Aluminum is the cheapest materials among the carbon fiber and fiberglass
but the weight. Fiberglass is much cost effective and easier to processes.
Carbon fibers gives a very good strength but expensive to manufacture.
4.2.2 Weight
Carbon fiber is the lightest material in the three common materials. It is
lighter than fiberglass, 70% lighter than steel and 40% lighter than
Aluminum. Then, fiberglass has the moderate weight and aluminum has the
heavy weight. The nature of carbon fiber is very light, rigid and strong. This is
the reason most weight-critical performance products use carbon fiber.
4.2.3 Corrosion
Carbon fiber and fiberglass perform well in an acidic or chemically
challenging environment. Hence, carbon fiber and fiberglass are one of the
materials, which have the characteristic of corrosion resistant. Aluminum is a
metal and alloys are made in conjunction with other metals. So, aluminum
may corrode compare to carbon fiber and fiberglass.
In the conclusion, S-class fiberglass are chosen to be materials for the
clamp of quad copter because it is much cost effective compare to carbon
fiber. Although it is expensive than aluminum, the reason fiberglass chosen is
fiberglass is much lighter than Aluminum. Furthermore, fiberglass composites
are very radiolucent, which allow radiation to pass through it freely. This
makes fiberglass, which not interrupt the transmission of signal of camera.
Fiberglass composites are insulators, which means do not respond to an
electric field and resist the flow of electric charge. Besides, fiberglass is
6

corrosion resistant which may not corrode easily when meet the bad weather
to rescue people.
According to Montgomery 2014, the first part to give when a crash
happen should be the arms of the quad copter compare to others. Hence,
carbon fiber is chosen as the material of the arm for the quad copter as it is a
high tensile fiber. It also lighter than fiberglass and corrosion resistant.
4.3

Propeller

The propeller rotates to create lift and drag forces for the quad copter. The
small size of propeller can be easily stop, speed up and consume less
electricity when compare with the large size propeller. The size of propeller
also depends on its length and the pitch. The low pitch propeller is able to
generate more torque, which improved the stability. On other hand, the
higher pitch propeller moves more air to create turbulent, which cause the
quad copter to wobble. For this project, larger propellers are designed
because the load carried by the quad copter is heavy and need more
rotational momentum.
4.3.1 Direction to rotate
Four propellers are used by the quad copter, while each propeller is
independent in speed. By setting the different speeds, the quad copter can
be controlled easily in the terms of pitch, roll and yaw attitude (Vechian,
2012). This is based on the gyroscope unit; after the gyroscope unit modifies
the signal by alter the attitude only pass the signal to the Electronic speed
controller (ESC) circuit (Bernard, Low, & Ooi, 2012). The function of Electronic
speed controller (ESC) modules is to smooth the speed variation of the
propeller DC motors. The directions of the propellers, which connected to
rotors, always rotate two clockwise and two anticlockwise to establish a
balance system.

Diagram 2: The attitudes in quad copter (Hatfield, 2014)

Diagram 3: The quad copter subsystem


4.4

Electrical components

Electric Components
Transmitter/ Receiver

Electronic
(ESCs)

Speed

Controllers

Velcro Straps
Power Distribution Board

Descriptions
- This component acts as a remote
for easy to configure and control the
quad copter by reverse or forward
the channels.
- It transforms the signal to
electrical supply.
- Every motor will get its own ESC
and connect to the flight control.
- The controller directs each ESC to
adjust its speed and also control the
speed of the motor in order to not
go below the minimum value to
support the quad copter to operate.
- It is used to attach the battery on
the quad copter.
- It is used to reduce the mess of
wires that needed to dangle around
8

the quad copter by connecting the


Electronic Speed Controllers to the
battery in easier way.
- It provides the current to all the
electric components.
-The higher the C-rating will gives
out
higher
current
which
correspondingly
provide
more
power to the quad copter.
-LiPo battery is chosen in quad
copter.

Battery

4.5 Motor
While selecting the motor, the power generated and its efficiency are
important. Normally, for quad copter brushless motor is selected. Brushless
motor is very quiet, high horsepower, efficiency range of 65% to 80%,
excellent speed regulation and needs low maintenance (INC., 2015).
Efficiency of motor has to be high so that the heat produced during the
operate time will not be high.
To calculate the power of motor:
Weight of quadcopter = 49.17kg
=482.36N

Required Thrust per motor =

weight 2 482.36 2
=
=241.18 N
4
4

T = 0.3333

241.18= 0.3333
P=3684.2W
Where T =thrust (in Newtons)

eta

= prop hover efficiency =0.7-0.8 is typical for unstalled low-pitch

props
P=shaft power (in watt)
R= prop radius =0.525m

kg
= air density = 1.22
m3
Based on the power of the motor that calculated, the model of Scorpion HKIII5020-520 Brushless Outrunner Motor can be used. The maximum power that
generated is about 4000W and the weight of the motor is 498g.
Scorpion HK Series Brushless Motors are built from the best materials and are
designed to provide both quality and performance at an affordable price.
4.6 Clamp
Clamp plays an important role in this quad copter. The clamp carries and
holds the life buoy travel to the flooding area or disaster spot to conducting
its rescue operation. The mechanism of the arm of the clamp involved the
extension of the arm to release the life buoy and move inward the arm to
hold and carry the life buoy during the rescue operation.
To calculate the clamping force,
Given

yield =yield strength =31.7Mpa

Assume Factor of Safety = 2


Permissible Yield Strength yield=31.7 /2=15.85 MPa=15.85 N /mm

yield=

15.85 106=

F
0.96
10

F
A

F=15.216 MN
Assumptions: i) The force are equally disturb to the surface of the life buoy.
ii) The life buoy is rigid.

Diagram 4: Clamping Force Diagram


Let

P1=P2= Maximum Clamping force

F x =0,

F 15.216 106
P1P2= =
2
2
P1=P 2=7.608 MN

Thus, the maximum clamping force can be applied is 8.3MN. If the clamping
force exceed this value, the life buoy which carry by the quad copter will
burst.

5.0

CONCLUSION

In conclusion, a quad copter with a clamp which carry and hold the life buoy
is one of the vehicle which can replace humans speed and increase the
efficiency of the rescue team worker during the rescue operation. This
portable design product bring lots of advantages and can aid more Malaysian
during facing the major disaster and accidents. However, more researches
have to study in order to overcome some limitation that faced by the quad
copter.

11

6.0 References

Bernard, T. M., Low, S. M., & Ooi, M. P.-L. (2012). Low Cost Microcontroller
Based Hover Control Design of a Quadcopter. International Symposium
on Robotics and intelligent Sensors 2012, 458-464.
Brakocevic, C. (2008). LSA code basic. Montenegro .
Hatfield, S. (2014, April 29). The Physics of Quadcopter Flight. Retrieved from
Black Tie Aerial: http://blacktieaerial.com/2014/04/29/the-physics-ofquadcopter-flight/
INC., G. (2015). Selecting a Gearmotor in 4 Simple Steps. Retrieved from
Groschopp: http://www.groschopp.com/whitepaper/gearmotorselection/
Marine, T. C. (1992). Standards for Lifebuoys and Integral Equipment. Ottawa:
Transport Canadaa Marine.
Montgomery, C. (2014, June 3). Multi-rotor review. Retrieved from tom's
Hardware:

www.tomshardware.com/reviews/multi-rotor-quadcopter-

fqv,3828-4.html
Ng, F. (2014, December 20). Four People Drown in Floods in North-Eastern
Malaysia.

Retrieved

from

The

Sun

Daily:

http://www.thesundaily.my/news/1272333
Ooi, T. C. (2014, June 8). Drowning is 10 Times Deadlier than Fire. Retrieved
from

New

Straits

Times:

http://www2.nst.com.my/nation/general/drowning-is-10-times-deadlierthan-fire-1.613415
Vechian, M. (2012). Wireless Control Quadcopter with Stereo Camera and
Self-Balancing System. Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia.

12

7.0 Appendix

Diagram 1: A quad copter carry and hold a life buoy travel along the
way to
the destination

13

Diagram 2: The quad copter release the life buoy to the victim who
trap in the
flood or sea accidents.

14