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Exercise 1-1

Ex: 1.1 when output terminals

:
b. uoc :

ae open

For circuit a. oc

,()

Foi circuit

i,(r) X R,

circuited

100

.,)

,,.

For circui b.

i,. :

fR, =

is(/)

.,-:
" lomx--!--:5.
l+l

-rfl

vs(r)

f&

Figure 1.1a

I"

x| 1.2

i56

n:

mV

n.:

RL

R.

is

Gien

Rs + Rr10

A,

R5

: l

:9.9
Rr- lk.i- lOA
' X _-]
l(n+l
l00
For R, _ o k. i- : 10 uA x
'
l+]0

a 9.l A

t k

For

R,

l,,:5A
_ tk.r- - x
'
l(n I lo

Fo
+

lK
R,: lM.i-_ l0uAX
'
l+M

3 0.9

R'

0 mv and Rs

1 un

g :

R,

"

kf)

For

s()

Gien ,s(r)

l0

{"

1.1b

Rs

1'.('

Rs = l k,then

: a
10X_jr_=,
+i,

is

c)

_ mv

Ex: 1.4 Using current divider

-l),
l"

= 10
V :10mv
l l0

gives 8 mv when

8=

Fire

10

R. = 1

l)

,: G)

1L11

|
^:lomVx
"
!)+1K--qt
8o9o ofsource oltae = lo mv x !Q
'

Rs

Vr. :

R.: 19 1
l0
,^:
" lomx 1+l _-9l.v

For ialency

Rsis(r)

ror crcut a.

+

8 r.

= 1 k

:+R.

l0,',

25

l
l+R,

Xercise |_2

Ex:1.5

l :

2zf :

Ex: 1.6 (a)

(b):l=
t

7=1

161

+:

#:

101

:1

: 1* :

16.7

60

----:;

l '

: 1v}D = 001
U^:2v, = 0
, : 15 vD : 1ll1
/

10Hz

(b) (i) +

.,.

470

l00O s

56 channels

t v2. ^ : v2
=-x-x,
TRR
P = Pt+ Pr + Pr +...
4v
r 4v ),1*
-/ 4v\,1,(
\il R - ]J2"JL,
R' 52".,

y(*!- l
{ra
R?r\92549t

-! r

..)

innnie series in the parenheses has a sum tha

approaches 2 / 8; ths P becomes y2 / R as
found from direct caclation.
F.action of energy in fundamental
0.81

:!(r*]+1)=.sr

,rr\

o.ss

",r\

+ .l

*a*1*1):
8 /

9 25 49

.s

Noe ha g07 of he energy of he square ae is

in the first three harmonics: ha is' in he fundamental and the third harmonic.

Er: 1.9

(a) D can represent I5 distinct alues

between

and +15

: ovD:

V Thus.
o0

1og 05 = 50

: 15x8:

dB

l20m

PL:6/J' = 18mw
Pl"*ipun",l : l20- l8 : l02mW

,,, =

l' _-l0

_!g

l20

P, :

,?o /

I0" + 0

'

lla

- tov

l'v

R, - (lo x-10

6)'?

: to Ir w

with he buffer ampifier:

R,
RL
" x R,+RlxA ',''x R+R"
:lx l xtx l0 = o.25
l+l
l0+1
n^=

p' :

2r

'R.t0

:9J

volae ain

ls-w

_ b _ 0'25v -

lv

,r

o.25

= -12d8
Power gain (r) =

25t

:8(r*l+.1
g 25+1):
49)

Ex:1.11 Pr.

l0

Ex:1.12

lteraively,

s-8ll

,' = ar
lrn P,'

E:l.E P : 1[t'.,
TJ R

ort 9

20log 1 : 40 dB
20 log l0oo : 60 dB
ower gain = 1log,: l0log(,,)

ol1. The eor is -0.2 v or

cuent gain

channel 14 to channel 69

= 8/'z

5'2 1o0 : _4L

106

t can be shown by

is 5 v: hus D

_0.a

Ex: 1.7 f 6 Mz is allocated for each channel'

then 470 MHz to 806 Mz will accomodate

806

(c) The closest discrete value represented by

P,

7i

P:
v,:0.5Vand
:
r. : -----l-v
' iM+ lM

6.25 mw and P,

where

Thus.

Pi =

.5

x 0.5

= 'i'

0.5

uA

0.25 W

and.

1:6.25x10'=25xto1
u 25xroo
l0 log ,',

44 dB

'

Exercise I -3

This

Ei:

fie

1.13 opn_circuit

!!x!!
-
-x
o,
oi, i' s

R.

] -------L

I aR-:
Ro+

For

P, :

!eR,

40

dB = 1

' "[l'-!-|'/
\
l+ll

22
nUi-|
t-

l'o

n.7

0 log ,4"

- 10'''l',
'i

2.5vj

= 2.s x

to4

w\ry

(see figure aboe)

|K
lo,/
'\lK,lK/

1.o11lo11o.99ol )(1)(.o9)

1:

o.r,

zr, =

0.909 vs

oiz

iz

R;:lM

R" = l0

- :

'('*(-t)

R"

mV

,4 dB

r
b_(\lK.lM/

7,t4

7M

Ex: 1.15 without stage 3

=
'o
,J

ForY":lmV
v.L :744 x l mV:

represent aE

A,=+

Vr'

lo =

1mV

'1.
.
'-- lt_' 12_- 1).ll
7].
'
'
''1l
.
"l]7
:.909 X 90.9 9.9 x o.9

: (o,,"",ffi)", r,

-,|

,, :

.:8l8":8l8X1=818mV

o.25k = 25ol

Ex:1.14 ,o

:818 V/V

"o'R+Ro

0.8:

go.g9.gyo'9

= 0.909X1 =

For,:1mV

s.s X o.9o9

b:9xr:9x1:9mV

Ai :

v/v

V^:
v

--

R, A l
R{ '"'

-------Lx

R, +

R : 0

R,

-------_
RL+ R"

lM
X 9(nX 10 :4N
1M+lK
0+10
For:16
:

ro

V' ""-jl:
v"

8l.s

For

l mv

A^ x

0.909 mV

9v/v

M
XgX l0 :
=1M+1K
1000+l0

8l0V/V

.'. Range of olage gain iS from 409 to

v/v

81 0

Exercise

Ex:

l.l8

l-4
Ex: l-21

( +l) ib
R"
,.:
' i.----:"R+ R,
Ro
i^= A i,
"
'"Ro_R'

Rt R'
tr.;"
""Rs+R,Rol R

Ths.

io,R"Ro
'"-Rr+R,Rr+R.

But

&
+

l'

r, = ,.

and

i, :

i.,thus

fl"=--=?=,-+(+)R"

Er:1.19

i6ro* ( + l)'rR"

:r[r"+(+)ft"]

1.22

z
10 kz
lkHz
l MHz

Gain

10

60

dB

20

dB

d
dB

"R,+R,
G^'(Ro || Rr)

R,

,.

=c.UsR(Ro|| R)
Thus.

,k

c.ufu'o11 r.l

3dB
freqency

Ex: l.20 Using transresistance cicuit model he

circi will be

Ex:1.23

!:

i5

R,

Ri+RJ

ro.,9:
,s "!
i
R"
:R -----i"'R( + R,

.ls

R.

R, + Ra

G.v

R,
R"X"
-R, +Rn

iiRo ll R.

G.V,

ll c.l

a+a+,c,

RoR''
:
'rr. 9
y,

V: R.i1"#*
vo _ ^ R
"'R,rR,

G'

lLll'

JC

Ro R.' '_LJ

Ro R

R"

R,+Rs

Dc -ain

Gl*l Ro R,

l)

Exercise 1-5

ui.ul=*: #:
1=o.t

-$: n.=uft * : + C' = (trt) \s , l' Ex: 1.24 Refer to Fig. 8i.23 o.rmA/v v.: R, : s n.+a1R " rC ' o.o.lv 12.5 {)= 2 x l2'5 |05 which is a z., y o3 ) /,o, , 159.2 C> pF sTc R, , R,*+ Rs+ fnction. ;;76|;1 C{Rs + R,) = t 2?r(l+9)1o]x1 l" 0.16 Execise 2_1 x 2'l Therefore: The miimum number of termia]s rcquired by a single op amp is fie: to int erminals' one output termina|, one terminal fc,r positive po\er spply and one terminal fo negatie power supply. The minimum number of terminas reqired by a quad op amp is 14: each op amp requies two inp terminals and one output terminal (account- V' : G.R(V''V1) That is the openloop gain ofthe op amp is Exz 2.4 x 2'2 U,,j = ?] U|. Uicm (r_ : l'); '(l, a) _0.02V -2m - ''!A _ o_}': Io' ' aia: t.- =0 ( 0.2): Ul + 0.02 = 2m ,n. = orequia- dB & .ndR, R, resecivel. Therefore. e hae: 1 k and _& = _1_4. = ' Rr 16, Thus: Rl:10x1k:1M Ei: 2.5 R= l0k lmV and The gain and input resistance ofthe inerting amplifier circuit shown in Figure 2.5 are R : + 2) l0 mr' A = l l0 I0 = l04/ lentty 80 ing for l2 terminals for he four op amps). n addiion. he four op amp can all share one terminal for positive power supply and one terminal for negative power supply. Equation are cR.Fr G. l) we bae: '(_2mv+): b) lo : or(5 - v|) 9 r : 5.01 v 7i11 : 7_ al:5_5.0l:0.0lV:lomV tt _ r 5) = 5.rn5 v vrl _ 4., _ 1, :5V ;(5.0l From Table c) vj: A(r-UI) = lor(o.998 _ 1.2) : 4v 7,i : 2 | : .998 _ 1.2 = _4 mV rl _0.q98) _ v + ?,r) = ',^ _ ;(|.2 )(1 d) _3.6: l03[ _ (_3.6)] o,"- 0.36 \{.o, v: "r) lor(v:+3.6) _3.6 mv Lt V,, 3.6 + (-3.6)l yl : y,l and = (G.V2 G.v'\R : G.R(V2- V1\ From Fire E2.3 we have: R" _ + . i.e.. oupu is open circuit The negaie inpu erminal of he op amp. i.e.. is a virtual gound, ths = 0 V6:V, Rii:0-Ri,: R1 ' |o-n Ri, - -R+R- - -R : _lok R, = # and is a vinual gond ( = 0). thusR,:!:oRi: -3.6 V Ex: 2.3 I we have: R.=bl i + ,f2 = _3'6036 id = 2_ vl = _ 3.636 (-3.6) 1. Since ve are assuming tha the op amp in his transresistance amplifier is ideal' the o amp has zero oupu resisance and therefoe the output resistance of his transresisance amplifier is also zero. That is Ro Exercise 2-2 xz 2.7 R=l0k vl v1 connecing the signal source shown in Figure E2.5 to he input ofthis amplifier \rye hae: is a irtual goud that is = 0, thus he crrent floing through he For the circuit shown aboe we have: v^=(E!v.+&v"'l " \R, ' R, 't 10kf,) resistor con_ nect between ad ground is zero. Therefore vo= vi- m:0_ i0K Ro.5 0.5 m since it is ruired that V6 -(V 5V). We want to have: &: Rr x 2'6 2 age of lo v the cuent in the fedback does not exceed I mA. Therefore Rr=lk JlJ . ' lv R| y' Rf Rr=lk is a virfual gound, thus yl = 0 "na&: R2 t is also desired that for a maximum output Ru=l0k v" R. / !9l --.2 lm us choose R' R, to volt- resistor ok be 10 k(! , then R, = 1ok andf''5= & = utl Ex: 2.8 lk il Assuming an ideal op amp, the current flov,/ing into the negatie inpu erminal of he op amp is : i' i2 = 1 m = Vo: V i2R2:o_ imX10k zero. Therefore, i2 ;'' =Vo: |OV - --l Rr 1k i6: ir_ir= lomA lm= llmA Vo _ _l0V vo|ase sain _ to/ lv | or 20 dB _ _ _lom _ _lo/ crrensain ' i' Im or 20 dB Poer sain ' _ Pl - - lo( lo mA) = l Pl llmA or 20 dB Noe hat ower gain in aa is lolog,n|!|. "'"lP,l " : (ftff),,-(tfl"_(ff)n \iy'e want o design the circuit such tha Vo:2V1+V2 4V3 Ths we need to hae (L,&) - 2. (&]r&) = l ana& \R|,/Rr,/ \R2,'\Rr/ fr w/v From the aboe thee equations, we have to Find six unknown resistors, herefore, we can a raily choose three of these resistors. choose: Then v,/e hae us Exercise 2-3 R.: T : !!: z.s 4 (ft)(ff) : ,,* (ftfr) : =f,x]{ x 1! e have (refer o the soluion ofexercise 2.9): : = , = l=r,: Io Ext 2,9 Using the super position principle' to find he conribution of to the outpu volage , we se y2= 0 To fid he contribuion of y2 to yo we set V : Vl : 0' then:. vo 4v2 To find he contribution of y] to yo e se = y, = , then ek9v,= v^: " I kl) ev, combining the conributios of yl,y2 and V6: Vs we have: 6V 1+ y.] to 4V2- 9V1 Ex: 2.11 The y* (the oltage at the positive input of he op amp is: V* Thus v,: (r ;-v l = o.6v +?tfi)r- = lox.ov, : = iv , v' 0.4 v, (l 9'}r.' _ lk/ then it is desired that Thus. l0 _ lR, Rt+R, 'R', R,*Rr: l M and R, : Rr+R, : R, :0.5M |0V i_ l0 x 2.12 ence v" 19 R: ', l' = l0 . To find he conribution of y2 o he o.lpu voltage y e se vt = 0. Then y* V, = v, -'*} R, = r-* Rr = l-fl loYo'42 _ 4v2 a) combining the cont.ibutions of 1 and 2 To Yo we have Vo : 6V | + 4V7 Ex: 2.10 vo: Alv v l..1v-: v' v^ --! i'' i'=Vo_V _ _- \R]*)v R, R, =(! R,) L v. 3k Using he super posiion principle, to find the conribution of y| to y \ir'e set y2 = V, = 0 Then = (, +fr), :(,.ft)(r-*)= I + R,/R. vo. ___?vo (+RzlR|)y/ vo_ lI RrlRt v , 'l'R2lR| --_ AA l+ , R./R| l+R./R| Exercise 2-4 Rl : l k (b) For i2 : and aue for he closed-oo gain is the ideal l. 101 then 10 = lV, Vo = Gx Vr For V, V^=AV vv' ' v _ torne _ i,0 PL _ vox iL 10X10 _ P vxi - l10 (a) load oltage |1 V and yo _ 9'9o| 9.901 lk 1k+ X| - lmv = lv ! M (b) load oltage Ex: 2.15 9.9 mV f : G : 9.99 artd. : _o.l% For y/ = l ' vo = GxV' : 9.99' lOa then Vtt therefoe, vo : v.-v 'l4 = A= e: 105 then 9.99 vD 0.999 mv - I mv 9.999 and _o.o|o 2 k : l'vo: G Vr:9.999thus' vo 9.9q9 : v. - v = 0.09999 mv = (a) R| = R3 = 2 :. mv (b)Rid=2R|=2X2k=4k For y, I0' :OA, k, R: =R Since Ry'Rj = R2lRl we have' _ & _ 2 = tV/V ''" _!:V,r-V,, Rr 2 Since '.ve ae assuming the op amp is ideal Er:2.13 i1 x 2.14 c = 9.901 and G_10x:,|: _o'999 - If = hal is c = l0 l+ lo. The actual closed-loop gain is V1 Ro=0 : Vr: lV, v':JJ:1-4 i,: ' lk lk (c) ,. = h: #t4)( t) o& :[*],'ftfr i, = i, = lm, 9k Ro :Rt Rt Ro*l v. lk _L Rr The \ols case common-rne gain 4m happens when |",| has its maximum vaue. f the resistors hae tolerance, \,e &< R4*,(t +0.0l) haeR4no'(1 R1".n(1 + 0.01) Rr Rr"".(l - 0.01) 0.0l) < V6: i': ' V1* i29k = l l X9 Vo': l0 : tkt) tkl) torn. io : iL+ i2 = nA ' yo _ 0 = loY or2odB v, lv _ lov where R3nom and ftano. are nominal alues fo R3 and Ra espctiely. e hae Rrno, = 2 k and Rno,n = 2 k, thus, 2 x 0.99 < R. < 2 l.0l s'oz 8! = R] = R1 2X l.ol oz'm 2xo.99 Exercise 2-5 simlaly, we can sho ha ,_(op mpr) g8.o2=&=rc2.02 l\J _& Hence. _ 102.02 < R = _q.oz lRr 4 =l 'l . =I+98'02 1+& 9s.o2and& = R1 = Rl CMRR !. 0.l sin -The o lage at the oupu is 2R' : l,'+'x]1 ' 2R' + 5.005 U,(p mp sin)v .R, _ ,: ) ro2.o2 .- : !"-': !,s 2'* 2' CMRR = :68 dB ",:ft(+&),," 0J4 |0 We choose R3 = i, and R4 = Rz Then for the circuit to behave as a difference amplifier wih a gain of 1 and an input resistance of 2 we requrre -i y-(op mp Al) (2.5 + 2.5025sint) k(I * 0'5 M] k\ .5 M.,, ^ o.I.ln., : l(t+0)X0.0lsiot 10.01 sint Ex:2.18 ,4.:&:16,n6 "R Ri,1 : 2R1 = 2kR! = l0 k and Rr: AoR' : 1 X 1k : l k Therefore,R!:Rl:0k _ lk ,,'?l (2 5 + 2.5025 sin{rt)V ? (op mp 1) 26 t 1nn!!1o2 j Ext 2.16 = & * + 5.)5 sintl _ cMRR _ 2 '" nn]jll '"|eJ 20 tog(2550.5) ,. ...R] _ R4 'w ofop amp A. V"' = (5 therefore. the corresponding value o[ for the o.st case +0.5siv The oltage at the outpu ofop amp A2 The differential gain Ad of he ampifie isa,, = "Rl v2 - Rr Note that the worst case cn happens when & : 5 0_5 sin}t 50 k X '01 sint lk : (5 _ 5.5sint) n he \orst case 1\2_ v|t ' a=&-&-a=lRo-R,l Rr Ri Rrl =a R:l - : V,' R' !g Therefore, lR,, and v, (+ Ru=Rl:l00k (+):],(+)d E\t 2.17 GienV,".: +5V The aeforms for one period ofhe input and the output signals are shown below: yd = losin mv : 1 k, Rz : 0.5 M Rr:Ra:lgk{) tU- : urc. )U,o:,: 5 0_005 sint v 2R, 10v 1 x 0.0l sint 0 I 2 = \\fr + _'D 5 + .oossin} '(op AmpA,) Vt :5 o.Ssin<o Exercise 2-6 xz 2-2l (+)J 20 (+) liy'e hae I r' -20: :l CR RI, 10 -t -20 CR C: 0.0t F differentiator. X 10X I s the input capaciance ry'e want cR : 10 ofthis (the time constant of the differentiator), thus, ms ,^ n=--.!lj-=I,t c: !!xmsXo.sms 0.01 F 20 From uation (2.57), we know that the trasfer fnction of the differentiator is of the form xz 2.19 j!) : _ i.cn Ths, for v,( iw\ 10 rad / s he differentiato tans- fer function has magnitude v'(+ %(+) ll _ Io" lO lv For The input esistance of this invering integaor is R, therefore, R : l0 k since the desired inegration ime constan is lO-3 s, we hae: 6 : !l--J o k() CR 0 r s+ = 6.1 ,r From equation (2.50) the transfer function ofthis 0.l v/v and hase _90' w= 103 rad / s tbe differentiato. transfer function has magnitde ll I Y,l : o'X lo-2 _ lov/v and phase _90" f '!e add a resistor in sries '\ith the capacitor to limit the high frequency gain of the differentiator to l' the cicuit would be: integrator is: o0') v v (j.) For : _jCR 'r:10rad/s the integraor transfer function has magnitude l&l : __] . _ l v/ l \ l0_' l v,l =90" tion has magnitude v,l :90' . _ l0) V/V / to-' lo -L.-. t high fr9qencies the capacilor c acts like a short circuit. Therefore. he hi-freqency gain ofhis circui is: and phase Using equation (2.53) he fruency at which the integator gai magnitude is unity is | l : -'': "" cR - ro1 vo(+) and phase For = 1rad/s theintegatortransferfunc- l&l : (+) IOrad/s To limi he maniude of this high_frequency gain to 1, we should have: n:l,=ln - t-t," - 1 J R] Exercise 2-7 xz 2-2| 9yl(mv) x]. 2'23 V'o = 1 Vo: V'_ Vo'_ V' wheny+=-=0then V: o mv: _5 mv. This inpt offset v1 v. voltage causes an offset in the voage transfer characteristic. Rather than passing through the oigin. it is now shifted to he left by yo 2'22 From equation (2.41) we have: SR 2V6^^^ 15.915 kHz 15.9 kHz Using equation (2.42), for an iput sinusoid \ith freqency / : 5./' he maximumpossib]e ampitude tha can be accommodated a the otpu \,r'ithout u" incuing sR distortion : u"*,(*): iS: rox I V: Vz v| Vro: V*-Vor-V n order o hae zero differentia input for the offset_free op am (i.e., y* - y' = ) we need V: V'_V _Vos:0 5mv=_5mv Thus, he ransfer characeristic yo ersus d is: 2v(peak) v,,, (mv) Exercise 2-8 x 2.A t = Y: a "22 Fom eqation(2'44) we have: Vo : 1!"a "1R1 :lnXlM = o.16Hz = 0.l x 2.26 From equation (2.46) the alue of rsisor R3 (p|aced in series with posilie inpu o minimize he output offse voltage) is: ,/?lRz Rr: Rrll R,: R+i2 = lokf,rX lM l0k+1M : 9.9 k R3 = 9.9k 1l0k rly'ith this alue ofR3 the new alue ofhe output dc voltage (using equation (2.47))is: Vo o"R2 10 nA 10 k:0.0l v | \e , ' Ao+ = |. 'Ao 106 and /, = Mz, Ao'b+ kow 2o |ogAo f"-l57 theefore By definition the openloop gain (in dB) at o(indB) _ 3 = 106 3: una is: l03 dB To find the open-oop gain at frequency/\e can use uation (2.31 ) (especially when/>>/6which is the case in this exercise) and wrie: x 2.25 Using uation (2.54) we hae: Vo : From equation (2.28) e hae: Vos + v^"9 7ffl |2 _ 2 mv 2 mv :-.j], _ 2Y_?mV l ms-6Dl _ =, 2mV 6) openloop gain atl: 20 b(+) Therefore: OpenJoop gain at 3 Hz 20 80 dB MH' : aB Mz los3 - 3) Openloop gain at 3 kHz = 20 on3 -l kHz Openloop gain at 12 kHz 20 lo '12 MHz a ag kHz. Open-loop gain at 60 kHz = Mz "60 kHz = 20 lon3 ag x 2.27 with the feedback resistor Rl to hae at leas :t10v ofoutput signal swing aailable, wehave o make sure that the autput volage due to yos has V. From equation (2.43), kno that the otpu dc otage due to yo{ is a magnitude of at most 2 vr'e vo = vos(1 *\)-z : 2m(| l l+ lR', = l0oR. - loM k( Tbe comer frequency of he resuling n"1*1;5, = J- CRt \e know Rc : l ms and R: 10k+C : 0.l F husw 0.l F l0 M() --_L..._ vi(+ 'v. ._f, |- , *,a, #) The waefons fot o.te priod of the inut and the otput signals are shovn belo: sTc t0v 0 _ lrad/s *l: xercise 2_9 \y, (*) slope=SR -20 We have -20: cRJ,, l dt -l l0x lms CR cn: !9x lms : 0.5 ms 20 =9 Since dc gain of the op amp is much larger than the de gain ofthe designed non-inverting amplifier, e can use equation(2.35). Therefore: -. and l+--i ./.,un : o-l X V/S 1_6 l.28 s 100 2o kz tf w,V < SR y5 49 y < 0.16 v. age sep is y:< JL 2f' thus' the agest possible input ol 0.l6 v. From Appendix F we kno hat the lo% o90% rise time oithe otput aeform ofthe form of eUaion (2.4o} is ' -' _ - 2.2! , 0.35 s From equation (2.41) we have: SR 2'rV o 15.915 kz l5.9 kHz ^^" Using equation (2.42), for an inpt sinusoid with fruency = 5 jrM, the maximum possible ,. : Exz 2.29 For the inpu olage step of magnitde he ou_ put waveform will sill be given by he exponential aveform of equation(2.40) Thus, r, amplitude that can be accommodated at the oupu without incurring SR distortion is: f':2Hz 162115 |-6 +& = land Rt Rt Hence 1. Ex:2.30 Ex2.fr "fn _9 t, f an inpu sep of amplifude l.6 v (l0 imes as large compared to the preious case) is applied, the the output is sle1v_rae limited and is linearly rising with a slope equal to the slei-rate, as sho\rn in he followig figure. u.^-(Lu') = 10 (peak) xercise 3_1 Ex:3.1 b. T:50K ' ^-3/2P [/(2K) l n': : n. = t'l2(2 x 8'62 X lo 5{)) X 1o5(35o)r/2e_l'l2(2x8'62xt 4.15 J^ : 5x35) 1.O8 : : lOrr/cml 0.25 10-8 T:35oK:4.5xtO/cm] Ex3'5 (4.15 |"72 lorr)'? 1.08 0.25 104 x l0 cm2 J,: qD" ,, : l-5 _ n_ - l0l0/cm3 lo ": ' l.5 .2 nr 6.75 J- 106 cm/s 105 10_6 /(m)'z /( m)'2 D" D^ Do .-diff = - ,E lo-' to8 Usig uation 3.2l Db ere negaive sign indicates that electrons moe in a direction opposite to E 'We use Ex: 3.6 : _,E |]5o 56 35 For/,:1m:J"X 10'l .=18 ., *: lT: J" ss (m)'? x toto)2 1.5 x to4 : 1.5 x 10r6/cm3 '-driff : -^5 lum -2 x lo-re x 1.6 = 56 lO!/cm} 1.5 Ex: 3.4 a;= l .': qD, l'5 X o|o " |5 _ dn |o6lcr3 want eectron concentration "-diff : !0|1 lcml : lo5z(m)3 D, : .15 cm'/s - 35 x (loa)2()2/s : 35 X 1o8(m)2/s lor'7 t 3 K' no x: 3.3 a. 10 From Figure E3.5 .2 2x Aqn" Note 0.25 m2 in lOa '/cm2 =21 A ND : |ol1cm1 ]on. lo'ux 1350x 1V d. Driff curren , = Aqn l0r7/cm3 .''No: n4 qnp" F.om Exercise 3.l i at nl: c. n n-si driffcuent density Jn Er(: 3.2 ly'o 6.75 = 1.6x to-rex BT3l2 e-F'El(2' 7.3 e- 3elcml x t0 T=350K 1 9.6 : 2|0" - l"nnh - 10'l(5o)]" 7.3 ]lme taken to cross 2 ,m ...tm - I0 6.75 1o4 /s acm 25.9 X 10 "V = 1350 oV1= 480 X 25.9 12.4 cm2ls -- ). = -r) cm /s Ex: 3.7 Equation 3.26 : /2" q *fr)v' 10 Exercise 3-2 lD1'l|i, + /L = ,l\ N^" " 2, one must lower ND (= n,) by a factor of 2. + o1u^ *z 2es1 "': i(): s one can see from aboe equation, to increase minority carrier-concentration (pn) by a factor of ^ \ NoNo ) " Ex:3.10 (ffi;'' uatin Ex: 3.8 "'n"" n a p+ n diode Equaion3.26 1v >> lVD " ff We can ne8lect the term 1r";'")u" as Comlared to -2!_ '' =w ff, :w 1y',4 >> uation3.29, w tv. a' : (i+"u }y since l{ 10 x lo-o x t0 !! l0 >> y'{D |.45 lo F"T#+)". N., >> _ : 2e, q Vt) , _L1o.l+ |zx .uy 9''(-l ,r/ .6 x to '' \t'' lo'o,, t.66 x l0 5 cm = o.sl 0.166 m ofthis pnjuction die (l.5 X lo|n)2 ll'' 2.25 v,l fr)v, E"1J4Xr l +. l \ i' '-- " 'ir l-: - l(0.814 - , l.6 X l0 '' 'l0'_ l''- , : 6.08 X 10-5 cm : 0.608 m lOlt/cm3 and n,:1Vr:1167"rl , x l r) Ex:3.13 lol6/cm3 !; l'e5/(25'9 1')v, - n the n-region lo'8 Ex:3.12 Ex: 3.9 n example 3.5. ly', x lo_'x 0.2 mA w: J : 4X 1.6x 1o-''x1.5 x 1o'1' =r"u : l J-z.gv o " 10 9-,^) = l.45 X lo-l4 : r("u'u' _ 1) =of*(,\u" since ly' D: AqN 1W Equaion 3.3, oo'i(+- lv;;* Wl(h) ND =wy2: 2_ lr= qn ffi Ex:3.11 :"# since here approximately can be neglected as co marto ". X" = u" simila aues, if Nn >> o, hen the erm since l{ >> Nr) Equaion.1.28. l . = on'( Do D" \ \LoNo'L'ol l.a/cm, Using uaion 3.29 o,: n(ffi)w + 2) Execis = l_4 } t.6 , ,o 9.63 la 10 lo|6l ' rot8 * rot6J =', : " pF 'nl x tor6\/ I \ * ,nlo /( 0.8 t4. 3.47 rr --1 (lt + 0.814 pF 1.72 Ex:3.15 : !-,-l c': " lv Ev : !^[",'x l r{eu"t .-1. ! '" dv 1gu' ' / : !! -l]l \v .,n Ex:3.16 uation 3.5l !i. "_: " fi) Dn x lo (5 y 1"av'v 1)l 1) al2 :25ns ) lt,,/ uation c. No: ^J(#h*) to'8 t' 3.57 (h)r n examle Equation 3.48, uation t8 lX l-4X x:3-14 3.2 o'|(}1* * :7.31015 o.o .6 X 1o_|9 (1.5 X 1'0)'? ro * ,(\5xI0ox!'o .,.= pC Reerse Curre' [ lo|8 3_3 3.6, N. 10|8/cm] 10r6/cm3 ssuming N^ >> ND =p:25ns :.Cd : ( 25 x lo-:) \25.9 96.5 pF X I "/ o.t x to ' Exercise Ex: 4.1 4l (c) Refer o Fig 4.3(a). for y/ 0' the diode con- ducs and presens a zero voltage dop. Thus vo v For y, < 0, the die is cu-off' zero crrent ffows throgh R and V, : -5V 0 The ' resuls is he transfer characteristic in Fig E4.l x 4.2 see Figure 4.3a ad 4.3b During the positive halfofthe sinusoid, he diode is forard biased. so i conducs resu|ing in : 0 During he negaie half ofhe input signal v,, the diode is reverse blased. The die does not conduct resulting in no cuaret flo\ring in he 5V ,, circuit. so vo 0 and (d) , : o = This resuIs in he waveform shown in Figure E4.2 Ex:4.3 , : ;, : R ^ " dc component rov lk of ,: lO mA :2mA 1^ 1^: l0 : _7 1 5V = 3.18 V (e) _] x 4.4 (a) ij:2m. ( lk (b) 'f,,: +3V + v: tv +2 +t Ex:4.5 lo -o 51 = -_ lm .'.R:3.133k ]! 7 Exercise 4-2 Ex: 4.6 uation Vz_V 2.3viol.j(1) t room temperatue V7 V' : R: lok 4.5 115 mV vx- vt v.: vD V' to Nowi:.|m 'o v 0.64 h(i) 25 X 10 ,".(#iF) v1+z.:xv,(,L) i = l m V=25x!1rlXl0-r'l \6 g 0'' +2.3x25x 10 : '' _ 5_0'679 to k _ For 0.76 x vrloc(r!) 2.3 i"c() : second iteraion v2 First iteration :1se07l025 /. : 6.9, V = 2.3x25y lo'X|oc(#) o-] Vrr_ 25 r x 4.7 ,, o.7 +2..l 0.679 0.432 m 25..1 \ lo-'l"c() V:0.68 V \e ge almost the same olage ro-lo/ .'. The iteration yields a1 o.43 m, yD = 0.68 b. Use consant volage drop model Ex: 4.8 : l25 1s 25 : lax l.l5 = l0 l0o"C Ato'c o.'1 5_'7 ,^ " l0 k = l.17 1o'8 x 4.9 constant oltage drop O_4] Ex: 4-11 |V : = lm t,-.a since he reverse leakage cuent doubles for eery 10"c increase, at 40"C l:4l A:4 : : =V 4 X l M @o'c r = 1*l 4 4.0V +v:Lx1:0.25v 4 Ex:4.10 a. Using iteration Diode has 0.7 Assume V, : drop at l m crrent. 0.7 : ^:5_o'1 " 10 k o.4] m Use eqaion 4.5 and note that Yr:0.7V. /,:1mA Diodes have 0.7 .'. Im : /se : sen1V : 1, : drop at 1 m o71V- 6.91 25 m to 'o .679v Exercise 4-3 For an output oltag of 2.4 V the voltage drop across each diode Now ^ : . v he current through each diode I = lse ' : = : 11 : 6.91 (d) ,,*/l25 ' t 1o-'"e is . -0.7V:V ,) 54.6 m to 54.6 2.4 10 {' / 0'l_r.5 5 = 1 .72 m 139 {) -5V .,xz 4-12 (e) (a) 3V v=3-0.7 : 2'1 1.'2 (0 .) 5V /:0 t + * 2.5 k V:1+O.7 +3V +2 +l v Ex:4.lJ v- 25Xlo r 0.lx10r (c) /o = 0.l m /r:lm 1, l0 m' r, 25l1 25() l X l ' rrn _25Xlo-r-2.5 loX I Ex: 4.14 For small signal model, using equation 4.15 -5 V iD: D+2',1 io: b'6uo (lt Exercise ,1-{ For exponentia mode b. lo V, : V, D vl i22_ io. : i.e i: : iDlelv_' _ l nthisproblemip, = 16 -_ ' io, /s _D e |2' 1 25mV V(mV) l'r(m) small signal -t0 '. vv _.4 -4.33 -5 -{J.2 _.18 +5 +O.2 +O.22 +10 +O.4 +O.49 4.7 Y l0 "'A i-:5_1=4m cross each diode the voltage drop is v" = v,h(?) rD(m) expo. model c.fio:5 Using equations (l ) and (2) reslts and using Vr: voltage drop across each diode=i=0.7sv 2 |v v :e e io For 25 0.7443 'x l"/-1-]!_' \47 x l '6,i Voltage dmp across 4 diodes : 4xo.7443:2.977 in Vo = 3 _ 2'977 so change 23 Ex: 4.16 For a zeer diode : V.o rr' 10: V,"+0.01 x50 v." : 9.5 For ,z : 5 m V, : 9.5 + 0.005 x 50 : V Ex:4.15 +l5v 9.75 4.17 15 0to15m a. .'. ' ln his probtem Total small :20 {! _ zo.v _ ,o i, sial lm resistance ofthe .'. For each diode ,,, But v = --J+5: : ?Q:. 4 25 mV D '''1D:5mA 3: x6a:15 5m 2.4 k fourdies The minimum zener current shoud be :5m. 5 x lzk.: 5 Xl since the load current ca b as large as 15 m, we shoud select R so that with /. = 15 mA, a zener crrent of 5 m is available. Thus the curen shouId be 20 mA ,eading to R _ 15 5.6 _ 47 20 m Maximm power dissipated in he diode occurs when /.= 0 .", : is 20 X lo_] X 5.6 = ll2 mv xercise 4-5 Ex:4.19 Ex:4,18 t5v Vs= t no Ioad y7 5. FoR LNE REGULAoN a. The diode starts conduction a '=Vo:o.7 ,s : yssint, hee vs : : V5sin = Vo rtsi Line Regulation 19 i For Load Regualation: 0.7 0.7 = .ln ,f 0'7 ) - \zrtl_ 200+1 |2{2 z-+' conduction starts at and stops at l80 _ . .'. Totaconducion angle 180 175.2" 0) t b. ,r*n - :- | {y'\sin 'zJ D\d6 =;,'r,*_v,]t=; _ 11 v.cos yscos( _ :1, cos(zr _2: 2V, VD '\E 2 2 : vt vo 2 Bt cos Vo ' - _ , ,r, lm For ,nA V, = uo'*" 2aD and yD :_1 0.7 :s.sv yD{ _ 2)| and Exercise 4-6 c. The peak diode current occers at the peak diode oltage " '' _ --T- = 163 m P| = +Vs: : l7v eak current '2{2_o'7 1 The fcaction of the cycle for rt 2(1t _ 2) x rco 2zr 2[ zsin xz 4-2l '(ffi)] 2 = 2( _ 2) which ,o > is No zero output occurs for angIe 163m 91.41o verage output oltage X1 yo is vo: 2\n vo:2x|2"2 -o.7 : (rr + _Vr_Vo_ nrt_o'7 'o- shon in the diagam he output is zero between (rr ) o :2 163 mA V: Vs_Vo+Vs : nrt _ o.' + 12{2 = 33.2 ys a. ?D is eak diode currnt + ) xz 4.21 Here is he ange at which he input signal reaches .'. yo V5sin = .ln 2 b. : V, ,( V') yl 2s1-l!1 y.,, \ -ys eage value of he output signal is given by '" [' r,,'n - ,,,ol __ !|r, ,nl ,, u"^"' 1[_yscos _ v o =', ='- Peak Current v Ssin(l2\ _ ,s is 2 v(rms) then ys : .zx vD : V'_ : rt _ +|(y.sin 2J t-vr"o' 2vn6 =:-|2v. Bt cos occers wben = ! RR '" c. eak curren yo,", ' Vo cos(7, 2v 2voli-=u" 2)] _ ): _t _2- 't t) =V""":'-5 - 15 : 'l'::-::-:::: 2vD = 'l '4 : 9'4 1o.l Exercise 4-7 (b) Peak diode curren vv ri^ _/')r = t. -'J-: 2JRC -:2 2JR Peak olage R _ vs-2vp _ t2rt - Rl =Yr 1.4 : 156 m v: y5 vD: l2Jr- 0.7: <R |6.3V +1, angle. Note he conduction angle is the same exprossion as for he ha|f wae reciner and is gien i EQ(4.30) Fll wae peak Rectifier: .o, -- E!-t Dr vo -t .V. " lR where , is the conducion Ex 4.22 Ja, i^ : j' t- (b) substituting for , we ge: !-+, -io^": [2u,.r 4" since the oupu is approximately held at V v,- D7 ;:-/.Thus: iD' = _ Llff,+ : ,|t+'fff]a.z. f, is a he peak, the maximum diode curren occurs at the onset ofconduction or a ,: During conduction' he diode cuen is gin The ripple voltage is he amoun of discharge that occurs'q,ihe the diodes ar no conducting. The outpu olage is gien by: v,, v,. voe ft <- discharge is only halfhe peiod. v, : vr(t -e D.-t *) RC| = , -;: + 1 fRC Qsppto = Qos sUB C l!v"+ ' : 2l vn = 2t SUB a) To find he aerage crrent, note that the charge supplied during conduction is equivalent to he charge los during discharge. cv, : C4 VP csl + /, d : _csint X yp + /. : -csin( r) X y, in-*: 4) l'2 i",,,, = is cons. Sub (b) to get: forCR>>T/2 sin( r): ol. Thus: io.,,, : c'txnv+ RC v [ -- . assming for a smal condction angle Tl2 r* 1" cii+i ,D.m: (a) sb (a) for/ 2V,RC ' v. 2n rz + L lie : .!",, E. * t, v.-v'' =)o.m r. by: Exercise 4-8 !-1 = '' ' *!!' v, ! v,J ,|'-"ff] J-: 'o, = : t,l'*2"ffif a.r.o. The average and peak diode currents can be calcuiated using equations (4.34) and (4.35) -"E)Herel. = !J, 2rt 2 Xo.8, y,:1v ,D,'": /.(l andVo: i1,,." 1.45 rr*o: : (t +z 2.74 v of he diodes Vs Voo l2,D - 0.8 16.2 To keep the safety magin, select a diode capable of a pak current of 3.5 to 4 and having a Pv rating of 20 The outpu oltage, vo , can be express as (V ca b obtained using 2rt-zxo.s ad = 20.7' x', 4.23 o = The conduction angle uation 4.3o _ 2V og)e 'lrc x4.A At he end ofthe discharge inerval o: (V'2vDo_ v') The discharge occrs almost over Peiod =12 For time consta Rc >> 1l- r.. halfofthe time 2RC .'.Vp- 2VDo- V, i*+ (Vo-2VDd(l +v, : (vP_ 2vo x L HeeVo: nrt Vr, : 0.8 V -II t v, and The diode has 0.7 : | 0.8) C: *+*: 2X60X Xc ouput voltage r2.la,2 x0.8 15.4v nrt'zro._L: 2 For z1 lasu |2'.2.'.2 x o.8 1 drop a 1 m cent. o'1v l0 mV, vp = o.|5 : iR: 1'0# D _ 25 yr: D+ 10mv Diode cuen without taking ripple voltage into cosideraion 1( i' =r^: " y,ln(\l mA,')+.v :. iD f rippie oltage is included the ouu voltage is t is idea op amp, so i* 128l F without cosidering he ripple oitage the dc l,'D iD |) - " 2 RC) f60 (12rt - 1,o x lo 0.59 = = mv '1) \m,/ 'rnl--o 0.58 + o-1 10 re + o.7 = .58 Exercise 4-9 o:-L:1.a i^= " lk lk ForU=_5v Diode D1 conducts and o= _5 +;(+l,, I v : o.7 + 1 k X 1 mA For v, _1 V: _12 v, the + 5) : [-zs-e)v \ 2.i die is ctoff ForU/5v because it is idea amplifier Ex 4.tr5 Diode D2 condcts and o: +5+1(l_5) I lz.s * l!) v \ 2) x 4.27 Reersing he diode results in he peak output voltage being clamped at 0V: irr>0 - diode is cutoff a: 0V /, < - diode conducts and opamp sinks load curent. Here the dc component 4'i2'6 !' 5V l k l0 k Both diodes are cut-off and ,, : 5V + for _5 < D2 rl +5 of 6 Exercise 5-1 !'Yv ov2 = 0.25 m l^ = for ' : vS 450 cm2 / ,C,, _ 34'q pFlm _ : c,, "' ',: t", 4 nm , : 550 cm2 z vs s.Is 2.30 fFzm'7 Yv 2 /-9 : ! 2J' o Change in /D (a) doble L' 0.5 ) doubl w' 2 = case (c) would cause leaving saturation vr,,<2vov o: \l'fv 1u , w., : "7vov: k-" = k' .' : 2 if Uos2Vov, So 2Vov 'so Ex:5.5 yov = .5 xv l, : l' 2x 0.8 l.s'?( + o.o25 X : 0.51 mA ,'' =V^ = = 7a'4 k -8ok D 0.5l _ or1 o.ozs ,l l v. Ex 5.1 ,".-JJ +5v l{' l= 6o A l 2 modulation) Ex: 5.4 n saturation 7'D (e) changes (a) - (d), V25: l V>Vou: o.5 + saturation: o : in saurai rn (d) double V^' no change (ignoing length ''' is: (c) doble V.,- 22 ,o, = 0.025 ,'" _ uo' + r^ - 3J " 80K tn " 2"' ^ o.2 ^.Y' 2o :.Vy:o'. Vo..'in : V9: o. v, for saturation Ex: 5.3 va V' \''Yrv"ou1l l21 A/2 !Y' Ex: 5.2 l^ _ o.5 V. v^= vL:50XO.8: 388 A / V'? - Y,) : 0.5 V. _ l _ iY^',=!: 8os !k 'L "' L : 0.18 m, so w : 0.93 m Vr, : al ,Ds > Ex: 5.6 vo, = (ucs k"= "C.' 2aL lo. Y : rc= :6o0 uA/V2 (a) Conduction occurs for UGs ole =vP yJ: +4v. (b) Triode fegion occurs or e ot < y for ,cD y, - D< -| e 1JD> (c) Convesely, for saturation ! ,ffr n/2 For ,Ds = 0'5 '= Vov D< (d) cien o = \o|vo"t :.V ou| = o.5 ls = _cS+t _o + s + v = 4 _ c Exercise 5-2 .. ,c U9 U6 l l:4.5 (e) Fo. uA and 75 V. v ' _o.o2 r.,' o.5 667 ad |vov| |2| o v. 3v' : ,'' : ^J-s:: lo 4.5 667 Ex: 5-8 r.5 Rs = v. : 1.8 \"c.,!v " loRo _ V-)1 :72 - (-2.s) r-- *". vov 3.33 k s.slo. 0.3 72 l'8 o.s v, (saturation) Vo=Vou=o'3 R, v, J,, o. v. t the triody'saturation .'. 0.3 o : voo 0.8 ,' Ex:5.1 v" v = -J------ V" = _l5 3" vo : 0 < v 72 A \'c,,'fv''vo.3 = 2 l)0 .. 120.,2 ' ^ -,r, V6y:0.5 vycs: ve + v, = 0.5+1 1.5 ..-R_1.8_0.8:13.9k 1, ": o.l8 m sauration mode (cD t" v" = 1 . :'k"|v + ||lUDJ]) " ""r(l = 75 (.M) : 78 A At VD : OV, /, : 75 (1.10) : 82.5 A ()At _:4'o'12 + 3'5 V. V 12 0'3 boundary = 2.8 k Ex:5.11 vo 2.5 f,x: 5.9 + l.8V 0.3 O.4 = 7k Ro: 12.4x2 : 24.8 kA V,;" : 5 V, ssme ''ode egion: lD k.l., V,lv", _ vJl , =voo-vo, t'on I t/ + y;s - l\ (5 _ t)yDs 8.8yDs + 0.4 7r, - 0.05 < ov 5 - 0.05 /^ = o2mA " )4.8 = v,, 0.5 lriode region xz 5.12 As indicded in Example 4.5, v. "C,,, = 0.4 nA / 1/2 \ V2 vD2 vc 'y, for he ransisor o be in saturaion region. Execise 5_3 Vo^,n: Vo Vt= 5-l t%a rz op = o. 7r : Ex:5.13 D: o.32 u/ : 0: Since the circuit is perfectv symmetfical yo = o and therefoe Vo, = o vhich implies he transistos ae tumed offand ID] = v _ 1o:0.5m9Rr.",: Ex:5.15 nA : \uL" : !xxvbv =Vr:0.8V yJ:0.8+1: t.8 v V6 : V' Vo' : 1.6+1.8:3.4V Vo 3.4 : ^ 3.4 M, , 5_3'4: t.6M R-, "' l 2.5 V: f we asum thi the NMos is r,,o would be les than 2.5 v and this implies hd MoS is off (V65 > 0) tumed on, then '" = :k, Io" o, ' v,)" V' : R": " 0.12 s Vos2 Vov-'+ Vo- Vou + ys + l.6 = 24 Assume Vo 3.4 V, yD 0.8 : 5-1,4 :5k then RD Ex:5.14 1.8 J l,, tx l(2.s ys /rr:0.5(1.5-V5)' Also: vJ : R]o" : /r, = 0.5(l.5 _ 1)' 1oo" loDN'2 I I J I V,o: _o'4. lo= ol _ |0m _ L 0.l8 m =+l _5.56 mA/Vr Vs: 0.6 + V,o: _1.0 v: _ 1.8 + rDR 1rR:0.8-forvov = -0.6 V !Y o: 2.5 m^Iv2 !i 0.t m )koV'u = .'.R=80O + l1}, _ = o.lM m Io" = 0, vo V: tum 32 D + 2.25 10x0.101 _2.5 V: gain if on, then yo > 1.04v we assume th QP\S -2.5 Vand impiies the NMoS o, is urned o=o : o+ V651 < 0 ofl which Exercise 5-4 _! -- _ !-v DP 2"L's-- ly.l l' 2 , x (us + 2.5 - l)2 Vs- loDP2DP _ ( lor" l Ex: 5.17 _10x = 1r, = 0.104 m^=a v = l.5)' 0.104 :_1.4 oo'o---l Ex:5.16 Vr, = 1.8 V. V65 : 0.6 V. k,= 0.4 m^ / v2 vr,: RD : Y, = Y:o L 18v 0.4 k' : 4 =0 for v., ,, : UDs : l.8 v. U65 |v oo !*" Us tl.8 35(Uc'J 351s_ 27 cs + 3.4 es = 0'613 ., o = o Ve5 = tcs = v=o.4. uo, 9o.1 uo, 'f n"] _ o' o.8 ,cs + 0.16)] 0.6 V., /, : 0.8 V. = k' : ,Ds : Ex:5.1E 0.08 m' R, : 17.5 k _8.Ro = l0+8- : UGs 1.8 V., t iode, rDS:(k"v",)':179 Vol, : Vor1r= roo make 57l |!A'/ ^', :.vv:0.|43' .1585 = Voo lV ou = 8 12.5 o.4 (C) For u651. .' (b) kee o'213 o.2 Au: -g.Ro = - 10, Ro : (B) Saturai o/T.iode Boundary 1.leo c. = k"v rn l v2 V,:o.4 kf) 17.5 (a) V6 v. (A) cutoff/saturation Boudary 6 : Ro l7.5 k -. o': 18 mV. 0.54 V, l. v' /, = 6. ,4' Exercise 5-5 0.7 v. , 1'. ' !,:!+i=-+g- 1mA/V2 ..R"q:1,,il Ro.*ii Ex: 5.20 Desig for :. ',=!b "i -25. n," 5 1 E.Ro : 25 = k,VovRD o' n,":9= Ui_ Uo = R6 26R'^ 13 R" "n' : ()"v })n' Voo: 5. = )^RoVo: l2'5 V6y and V6y: V6o_V, :. vv 8.: Ro : o.3|9 oRo:4.3 _ |2.5 vov 3l9 A'/v 78.5 vDs = vov + v ico:0+26fi=V, ..-l'''j.L:z.v 26 Ex:5.19 :0 l" : 2o Al Ro: l0 kO Y=zo v2 L (a)Vcs = 2v+vov = ' : l'rvi": |. 2 A Vos: Voo_DRD: +3v (b) g^ : k:"vLvv: 4 AlV u @) (d) Us. = !!:_r.Ro = 0.2 sin , _4 : _0.8 sin t 1 I.los _ Vos+a"+2-2 UaJ (e) < UDJ<3.8 v. Using (5.43) io = )k,(vor+ k"(vcs io = 2 A V,)' v,1"r, * l*,tfi" + (80 A)sin, + (8 A) sin2o Exercise 5-{ (4 = [200 + 80 sin, + /D shifs by 4 A 2HD _ 4A - 8o A " Ex:5.21 x 40 x (1.5 ": :1xx-!9xt. l)'z 2 'k'0,.-|v,|)" 0.8 : 216 A o.o5 (5.1) : lxi"Yrv,o": 2^ o\g.=.I v Ex: 5.24 4 cosr)] 1x 60 0.3 m' Vy l.2 m^ .5 o.5 , :Vo =.! = l " ln 0.5 '^: ,'Vov " 2X0.l _ 50 10 .. - _ 25 o.8 0.2|6 _ rs u/u. 92.6 k} Ex: 5.26 8. : l rfiA'lv ' k'" : 5oAlv? = 2x'o'l : o.2 \,!v'."- ^-l 0.04 m/v O.1 m, 72o tLA 2J2 :2vo : A , : Vou D Vou "vo v'Ax L = v _ 2X 2.5Y0.8 l:0.8m+ o.2 : l0O V/V : 0.5 m=g. : ff''" :rz""l"os" 1, : v'^x Ex: 5.25 /, x 5.22 - .oa+v." _ ! r' ]: ," =Vo: lo 0.3 s 1.55 ' , : = o12 mt.l l)'? /D:31 : 2r0.1 " _ 8- = '.: #,: A,o : .(Roll 'o') (s.'72) Ro : Roll ro (5.'7o) 2 o k'"vu 1) ^^, Ex: 5.23 8^: "c ^yLv ou Same bias condiions, so same Vy and also same and p"c and 8,,, NMOS. "'w. -Ytw" : "C "'W " => ' for bth Mos w = O.4 : --! wo 2., '' .'. A,, !9 : A'oRo R'+ o, 8.Ro;+ same as (5.75) R'grc ' irv 100K -f> Rin gJ R'-, : _.(Roll R) : \| 5.27 i8 R L g.(R" ll 'oll n,t Execise 5_7 : o.25 mA' yov Vr:50V ,^: \ : ,* ua o 0.25 R,":1:R,,.:1 v, 98. = 16) 1_g.R : _4 i, : Rril 16 =R6=2Okd| Ar, : Gu : _c.(Ro ll ,oll R) 2l c.(Ro ll R) : for f'" _ (lv.\ 2Vou = 9.g5 . 1 m (}) lo ,n l vlz l = +i0 .ao: (vis"| : l v. Ex: 5.28 D Ex: 5.3O CD amplifier R..,: l : l 8-: 8. 2o G 1*-1r--- lO m/V n _ v,,u= 2lo =l^ _ l-25 0.25v fn: f.'' 8'R' : o.9l v. " l+g-R a,: &'. lK cu=b=}o"'.", _8.Dll m/ b=rD t= '": 8.:2:2nS A1)o 10 t,,*j;: ,' ,,. + '"ig 1V ssuming Vo --) Ex: 5.31 CD (sorce follower) From Ex 5.27 g.:2ms ". 1 # - :---: V o'" .'. R5 fl G', ;, : 5 mv - _-::--:jj-j-=g.Rr:.3 + g-f,1 l 2 mv l.5 1 A', _ _s.(RD|l R) _ _20 - _s 4 l+8-R{ lc,i^,*l -- t v. Ex: 5.29 R.,,, g^ 2 k'"Y' (w).zs \L/ l' : ^ "'- : !=g. : : ou vl- 8. (o.4 mA / v'?) w= L |"Yrv'o": g^R t+s-R. for ,(<R.< 1 K 0.83<Gv<0.98 so 0.625 mA m/v Exe.cise 5-8 vs v,s ], '+ RJ : 6.2 k 2-(-5) - 6klr 0.5 R.' = f we choose RD = R, = 6-2 k then 4, sightly change: wil l^: lxtr(y-"-l)'z.Also Vs=_Vs:5-Rr/, 2D: (4_ 6.2D)1 + 38.441D 5|'62D + 16 = o : o.49 mA, 0.86 m =+ D A1o : A-l.lR, -a o _ _---_ f n t 8. /, = 0.86 results in % > 0 or % > y. which is not acceptable, therefofe 1" = 0.49 m 8^ro 8-r y.: 5 + 6.2x0.49=-t.96V vD:5_6.20.49=+1.96v R. should be seleced in he range of 1, : ()-() : A,,o 2o _ --_t+ilg 4 j9 vl} 40 v. \'Yr{v o, 12 : Ix t(Ycs ^ ^o' J RD = )(v oo l.5l2 0.5 vD .=> o.s 0.125 mA o.75 9V' = '2 RD D _ l'|- Voo 6.2 _ Ro6) + o = o.! 11 1.96 Using q. 4.53: 75% '=t"rn##,*/,.. + /irF : x Lu "uo ' o'l {} 1' )' Ex: 5.36 :1xt 2 = Vu+Vr= 1,,: p)2 $$vn : 5 6.2xO.49 : 6k 0..5 6.2 kC) o = \'Yrv2ou =+Vo, (Ves: Vo: o.5 _ 0.125 voo ' 1t : l": ^=!|x(2 llx:5-34 0.5 mA - l) Vo' = 2. F=I.5Vthen: : -'o /,, |Ves: +1:2 = = y^R^:5_2 .5 .+ RD : 6.2 k standard vale. For this R, ID:lXl(ycs y,)2 v'o" "Yrv'o" = we hae to recalculate Ex: 5.33 vo = ov. o'99 0.5 _ .52 _ l- 2o , , V,,']-| =rv,+*_L'-rv,J Vo M o Ex: 5.35 (\t) for M to have low current. +1= 2V o.\ 0.5x1 0.1 mA )"(),v'"" x2 - o.25gv-,, l Ves: Vou + yl : .5 v +Vc: 5+1.5: -3.5 L" 0.5 Exercise 5-9 p : Vot-Vo, "uo - (-3.5) 0.1 s.: F': s5 k() .^: L : Vo": o'5 vDs7:'_vovVo'^'" yD.i" = _4.5 v = ls : Rc : 4.7 M Aoo = E^Ro: -15 Ro., = l?, : 15 k For r, : 150 k, R. : Rl" Y,:1,5v t!:lmlv! Vl : -) For ro Ex: 5.37 1m/V 75 ' /o = 0.5m : \*''Y, v'o, ='nv : 1.0 v. 15 kQ Ri" = 4.7 M A"o = '^(Rol| r) = '13.6 R"- : R"ll .o: l3.6k _ -Rr,R, c, ;'n*,oR;_ 2.5 _2_5 .5 Vcs V, + Vou Vc = 0 Vs = '2.5 . V: Voo_ DRD ^: inA 7los = 1.lo : Vn5l l4, = 2.5 + cv(o.4 P-P) o is a2.8 yP P sinusoid superimposed uo a2.5 dc o|ae. Ex: 5.39 8-g' 10v 2.5 V +2.5. kYrnu: l mA/V ,^ = L = ls k " o _ Vo 0a -figa= 0a _7'o 8-roc' ------o v, Vcn: 4.o. Ex: 5.38 R'n +G (|| ^ - : -- "'Ro *ro*Rs (2\7t--: _ 1t"' "e' "8 'o _ we vant _roRD R^+r^+R" " " + ,o + Rr(1 vs;#, " };ro'! cr"'' Exercise 5-lO l l ol '' lR, '* l, Ex: 5-41 U* = o using (3) (RD + r) 8rr oR D Rs(l +gnro) 1- 8^roRo 3 RD+ ro 2(R^ + r^\ R. : --j-_-a_------gj : 2 l85 k ' 1 + E-ro basedon RD : 15 K, ro : 150 K, g.: rmS Ex:5.40 8. : l50 k R'n :R^ 4 R.;g Etro I + g^ro 8.oll RL) I]Jld-R, ri8 __1r_____l I +-* R"", = Ri" *il., 8^: 1,A/ For R.ie : 50 f,) k,"=a:l : R, = 15 k + g.Ro : A'r,o : v = s.D| RL' = R,. "' A"v : G-: ' R ++R. Rt"^ 7.1 tou, 15 + 7.5 {b) c : '' R'" R,. + Ex 5.42 see the nex page For oher R.ig R*ie Gv lk 1.7 5 1 k 0.68 l0o k 0.07 A,.: 0.768 ' R,," Exercise 5_l using eq. (5.107) on page 324 ofth V, V,o +' 6' text: u_ ^!-'l V, = O.8+o.4J+3_J71 V: '23 Exercise using eq. (5.107) on page 324 ofthe text: V, V,o+ '6' +_ ^!-'l V, = 0.8+o.4J+3_J71 V:1.23 5-ll xercise 5_12 Ex:5.43 '.: +lv'v,: -2v %.-Y.=3V To OERATE tN STURAON REGON: VDS mir : V^. V:aV ': \''Yr{vo, -!2 tz" t2 v*\2 9 mA Exercise Exi : sc ""l = !!a = 16-,, 6.1 rD.v :.c= ,e"' 962 _ "" ' t] ll lxz 758 mV lsc [, i] o.Il V"u = V, = 642 m '51 : Vr| cz1 "r':7+25| z-.. 6-l zsln ]!'l Lll 25 [f] to_'6 x !!1 1.0 l-16 A "'[]#] 29.9336 = 748 mV Ex: 6.6 6.2 B VcC= +5 5 50+1 |5o 150+l 0.98<<0.993 -<_<Ex: 6.3 g : - g : l.4 m _0.01446 mA 1.M6 m o:":l.:o.99 |.4 g : /. : l ''146 ' I .014,6 '-1_ c: lse"' . ' |sFl = t) : 690 mV 19:lmA urE ' For acie range l.446 " -1 !1 = 2* 25 R-lmaxl = 16-l5a vc Ycc y, 0'690 _5-0.69 I = 4.3 k Ex: 6.4 = .- and/c= lmA For:0.99 B: ' :k ""99 !9 For:0.98 B ' 0'99 I_-99 0l 'x: 6.7 reac = 1XreaE s =99 mA 15g = l 0.98 =49 .98 10-15 loX 1s = t0-|3A Er: 6.E '.V'V.vc'V _Isce c: se I, 1" : "49 : !! : o.z.l foic=0 . 'V : Ise scP VrlV , | Ex; 6.5 Gien: Is _ l0 16, : 1, Ic: Is:/sc+1r,:l,.[r*|] 1m '-u"cu' vBE- Bc)/v VclV xercise 6_2 :.vc = vs_ v,c For collector v6s Area : l [f] 25tn vrn |f] Ex:6.12 X Emier Area .v Ex: 6.9 ..s/-Vc/V c lsce = se v' . . . !c + sce 'n: " : l . ,,,,"", l-, - r'V Ise V - (vF lse v Bc)l *n"'-"\ - 1sc u* .-/ * p ,*a:lffi "u''"o"u' rr/ l0O x 0.2219 :22.2 Ex:6.10 evv I: : 11 mA v", 5v ;F'"p-,-"'; - |a''9 lsce FiE6.12 : l' Yr, : 0.8 at l.5 _ 0.817 X ]! k 101 :338 25tn 650 mV 1.96 m [fr, ff, Ex:6.13 'o'1 +tov p l-:Exz -: ' 5l +I" ": =39.2 . x:6.1l . vuu " yr ln[1.5 25 !.5 X l ll] 25.734 : lm rz' V "', : V'lnfrr/r'] = 25 x 0.693 : 0.1733 :' v B7 : 0.817 _ - : V- Vr : l.5 0.5 k ' 2 :5 o Vru_Vuu ^'_ /. (* V "v/ 1. l0v 643 mV B:50'vrr=6.7 vE: vB-o.7 Fig 6.13 Exercise 6-3 _0.7: 0.7v _.7+l0 - IO K : Ex:6.15 .93 m r: #r: O.91 Yc:10-0.91 x5 5.45 ' r 0.9l "5 : 0.082 -5 V Ex:6.14 +t0v rise V3g decreases approx 2 mV/ "C for 30 rise v.,: _2x30 5k 'v +t.7v vc yE = 60 mV : _ mv since /. is costant ,. is constant .'. yc:0v Ex:6.16 -l0v V_V' ' ''---R_ 10 - 1.7 A+ : .66 m _ V"-o , " : , rrl " ^r^: Iu 1.65 o:lr:1.65:o.gq 1.66 g=]r:]'65'65 ' 0 0.0l vc : cc+ cRc : -10+1.65x5 = 1""u"t'nt s !s! fo ..rc_,s, 0.01 mA c, ic - ,v . vrr. r"u"''u, _ ,."va' |1 1!S1 " V^J QD i, 1.75V = r"uo''u' + 1gg rO i-'= \ ... i, : QED in rig (u) "u'u piu+ 9s asinFig(b) to Exercise , vcc- vc 'e R, r0 5 _ - Exr 6,17 ,o: (v) () l0 15 lo4 lM 00 : V"'* .,= 69 = 0._1 : 2J : = 0.97 m ' K 10 : /: o.97/50: 0.0194 m : O.7 + 0-0194 x l0 : 0.894 V V "" (c) sauraed Vc : 0'2 Ic: (l 0.2)/0:0.98mA B: c/pF = .98/I0 : 0.8 m ,^ 0.7 + 0.098 l0 = Er: 6.20 vBB Fig 6-18 lv By similar triangles BD CE 1' _ ro D C c V r' AD A : l X ll t01 lm_ l+1 1+ Il : 1.099 m .'. Ex:6.19 1.1 mA For Yrs Fig 6.20 I= 0 Transisor is oFF '"Ic V, : : : Rc:10k,=50 (a) active Y. 0.3 V l0 _ ys = l,,=+ ofsaturation (b) edge Ex: 6.18 _l "R" : 0.7 + l0 x 0.01 :0.8v 0r 16 0.5 m V"" 100 oJol oJ1 l0 .0 /c(mA) =0 V66 + 10 _ +10V 1.68 Exercise 6-5 \| 6.23 6.21 +10v +l0v vBB lk vc vc Fol vRB= |.7 -: 'lo l.'| _0'7 Vr: = _l m :500.1 :5m :4_0.7 :3.3 R-: 3'3V :6-k vc = v0+2 c: 9s ' vc:10_5X1k (a) Vo-O.1 yr, (so ctie) ge of saturation Vc : 0.3 +5 > 1r = =4+2: _ - = Vr, Vr, _ lo - 0.3 : l, ' 5 (b) de satuation vc : 0.2 v 0.1 mA (unchanged) 0.5 m 1.94 Ic : .n.""a : l00.l : l mA |0_0'2 9.8 R-: = ' |m ktl +6 - = Vcc-Vc 0_6 = 8k 0.5 Ex 6.A +10v *6.n +1v ro.""a = 5 Fig 6.22 t edge of saration ,c : 0.3 V"r: rRro.3+ 'R' - I[Rc + Rr] + 0.3 10 _ o'2 .' _ 4.7 = |'225 m + 3.3 Vuu : 'R't o.7 : 1.225 x 3.3 + 0.1 Then1.:51, "=6". 10 v : _ .2 5x4.7 +6x3.3 o.226 m 6 "x 3.3 = 4.48 V V"": V" + O.1 v,= = 5.8 Exercise x 6.27 Ex:6.25 +t0v +0.7 +t0v _v +0.3 0.4 Rc lk 50=150 l0v . 'L ,': 5 07 ' - lK - 1" V"-o v': n actie range +o.' .lowest for larges , : ": 150 X 0.043 p- .c 0'3 to-0.7 2 4.65 o.99 ' m , l0-0.4 +0.7 kdt [.(max):0+o"1 x k t50 : : _o.4: ----:-- l.5 0.04.1 For = 56 99 x 465 2.2 0.04:l mA +.3 v] l _ 5 X 0.043 = For 6.78 156 0.3 x6. x 6.26 +10 V"" i1 -t0v R.'t - l_.7 R_:l0 '1 :50 y"":155 '" 9.3k 4=6k Rr, 15 5 1| 00 100/3 V_ sv R+[Rsrl(+l)] '^ 4.3 l 3 = 1.18 m 5t Execise 6-7 ,: q ,# : change Ex: 6.31 l.l5 m +5V 1.28 1.15 1.28 9.8% OFF x 6.29 @l" +15V ttt +0.i03 + |.252 2.78 Total cuent d'awn 0.103 + 1.252 + 2.75 :4.135 m mA 3.94 ON: lk mA 0v _'ur.:, .7 ,* 10+100l o\erconsum: y X : l5 x 4.135 :62m Ex: ( + t)/, 0.039 Ans: V, 6J) -3.94 ,r.*, = (-)3.94 x:.632 +5V /6,: /9' X Saf N _ ,a\L: ( + l)r, = 7.03 m y Sa' -+ lk OFF a rr=o :10 ,2 unchang 1c2 unchanged v: va 0"l vu vC' - o7 1p, = " lcl 2,7 , " J Hence ll_ "^^ "' L( + l)oj7- z7 kJ =Vcz:7'06 v : vc2 _ 0.7 : 6.36 v , : !lx ! : 1.1.4n'a o'47 II vu+o.l .'. Saturation -=V cc - O'2 :5.5 o 470 101 1s3 = tI z.ls _ 7.03 >5 2.75 --JL- ( + l )0.47 l0-5.5 + 4.8 m 0.45 m @/.,.",, : lu l, : : 4.8 0.45 4.35 m 0.45 v_-vcc-o.2 1, 9.6 aq 3 4.8 4.8 m Exercise 6-8 Ex:6.33 Vcc _ Vc 10_ yc _ -.120 V/V .25 Ex: 6-38 +t5 =>v6: 10 -8 : 2.0v n.: o:Je = 0i2: YcE Swing : 2.0 - 0.3 : 1.7 V . V- = _z : lL ^* : .ll lV,,| = l2 Ex: 6.3 ciuen, g- s..r .v 165 /c = l00 vb. v"t n-:r:lm:4om/v v 25 mV 1-:: g^Rc 10 : _4 V/V V6 : Vr, rR6 :15 lxl0:5V Nc(0:vc+Ndo : (vcc cRd (l5 _ :5 ibQ) Ex: 635 0.5 m 25 mV 1m :-40 x 1l _lse "t l0 A : Jic --'c=c lV ", But 2o ml 10) + Av1'be|) _ 4) 0.5 sinr 2sio(t) R + beQ\ + 2 sin , () Er: 639 Ex: 6J6 /c : .5 m (conslan) 5 :2 /. 0.5 m 25 mV : 20 mA/V = 20 m/V 0.5 ' .5 "5020 :2.5m = 0 B 5 2oo '" s- 20 20 : !0 kf, : 2.5 k Ex:6.37 :10 /c= 1mA n : -]-g = m,l z111 25 mV " 8':-: ]!9:z.s r" : ---- +] 40 25 oe: g. : :'"'.() gien ic fi and r. i/, : (g-r.)i Exercise 6-9 , : ! E: 6.40 + l0v = lq. ,nv 0.25 : l : 2.53 39.6 v^ c ic ys chage Rc to 7.5 k vc= -10 3.1 + o.92 :9 : 7.5 g.R, : 36.8 x 7.5 :276N : - r_l39.6 ll n. ll n. , _ il& hus effect of ro is :276xlbmV 2.76 Ex: 6.41 +lv V) 1"" (3.s5) _76.2 3.35 4.oo 3.9% Aro : - g.(roll Rr) R6 : Q6ll R4') 8'RoV "^ '8. .. ^ R -'Rr+R. R"R' Ro* R' (rol| R.)R a; ') + R - c^Ooll R. ll R.) x6. /6:1mA r-' l": " llQ lI |l o.qs rnr :0.0099 mA Vc = lo_ 8 0.99 : 2.18 v V : l0 x 0.0o99: _o.9 - -o.l V _0.1 _0.7: _0.8v V: For/a:1,4 n : , : !- v 0.025 = !: ,-: "s- = 41 ,,o,7 z.s V^ :]!9 : ,^: lrn " l, : r. : 2.5 k Avo = - c^?ll Rc) = _,0(5 ll 1) R11 = _97.6N R.) x6.41(2'l Rc (-)s.(.oltR.ll : _, r, #tt ,*'": ), tol Rs vc 7.5 : 0ss f : Exercise 6_l 6,42 (cont.) = " ' R,* : 2.5 :L 1: ,s Rs+RN 5 +2.5 3 o ' | .o = _1 x sz. : lrs l^l us ul A-^' R1 32.5 v/v .q :z.s For /c = 0.5 m and Rc _la lN) : l0 k s.:ffi=2omA/ : ] ,_"20 ,^ ]@ s. R9 = R:|| zz.s = o._,s 0.33 .]5o r} x 6.44 n : vI, = --]_: a." 0.025 .'" . -25 (t ' : +l R,*: r" = 25 Ao : E^oo\l Rc) - .Rc :X5:2V/V r. 2k - 40.4k{' lrol1 f. l R,-.) _ t x lo R*-R" l4oj : - 19.8 V/V ,.. x lom 5 k + ( + 1)0.35 5 = 1=i,.'": I.v 'l/. : 5+5 2 "'' . 0l ,-:L:]!9:z.s '' 8- 4t : 10k|| :9.5k _190.5 5 . 5+5 : 65.6 vr' : 'o : ! rs. : _l2.8v/v 1;'' ,,,2 li'ol ]l l " .5 = R,': r,:5k Avo : _20(2 k |l 0k) : 190.5 vr' urn A: Anx- )+) = Ivr R," .e,, c,' _ Rs+R'* : 0.5 x t ---?L 50 + 25 V/V Ex: 6.45 Rs=50 R.., = r : !: l, zs mv l, -.n =+' = 2515n: 0.5 m Ao = +9nRc:2X5 = 10 v/v c.,:!xA'':4ol '2 +,4u : 80 : g.Rj .'. R;: so/2o: 4k Ex: 6.41 x 6.4 i"= b *1R,"==r.+(+l)R Vs _ Rs+r"+(+l)R R ' R., r" l"/(+ _,*Rrn&q |) ,,s:1:1*161*-5/l0l {o l0 P nser 30 ib : !!_: and , (g.vn g.v oR L + ihRL R,:1: - r.+(+1)R1 Exercise 6-11 =0.5+l0l:101.5k G : |fR1 moed, ro: co] "*R, _ +l R^ = " lol RL n _o_ ''v .5 + 1o=9 Rr'R':lo4+l- 2 l5 0.91 V/V t.r Er: + ':. 0.995 m 0.995 _ 0.984 I 6.,18 x| 6.47 V.r: 12 0.3 Design ^ "8' Av' R=3k 80 x4 8 +40 26'' k v--:|2x= "" 80+40 !_91 : -: ' 26.7. :50 3'3 1. : ' 26.7. = t.t m l5l qo ch^'le -l : l'M = |o.3 s3 '" Vt /6gien l.04 m _ 0'9'17 X ) Rr+Rrl(+ 00 3.3 For independence from , set Rd 1- ' 3'3 2.6.+ -t.J ^^ -5t :15 (oK for cs) /. .9 +10v Rc 2A 0.99 mA 10o t0t 1 Yc(min) = YE+0.3 V = -0.3V VCQ : V e(min) + 2V : +10 V -' = Vrc V.o - |0 : 8.48 k 4-O.7 26.1 . ^- R"/( + ) 4.3 ffi: l50 RE + Ex: 6.49 R-" = 8X :2'61 " 8+4 v"": 1) 1) = 4.3k Design 2 ... maximize Rc Vg = qRg}2+0.3+IR +Ro = ^1 -t R + Rr,/( + l0 R, = 0.984 m vc: : v+o.4+2 +2.4 Vcc-Vc ^ "._-T": " ' lO-2.4 7.6 1 :-]-m, 10l = 7.6 xercise 6_12 6.49 (conL) v'_ v" _ lo{2.4 R" _ " l" o.7) 17l.7 k Usig 5% resistors: R.' 7.5 k & = 180 Rc Vcc: l0_'7 1,_ " l80 l 7.5( , |) s _ q'92 o.'1 + BRB 1.002 mA :2'5 V Y lower 6.9196.O so Y, : - 1.96 V l.96v _ 0.4 _ 2: _4.4 : 2: uppe. still 8v' o'ver + 1, : 0.005 m so ys : _.5 + 1, 2: _2.9 y. ' l() 8- = t" I m : i: ffi 'lrv ,r:ffi: : lo 7.5(l. 6.50 0.5_.4_ 1:lolxs yc Swing: -1.4 -2 = -3.4 50: upper still 8 .-:L=|:2.5k} '' R- m vcc 1 =zs Ex:6-52 Example 6.50 Rs _v =l R,= lk : 7.5 kf' g : g/(p + l): / 1u' : 0.01 m V: 0_ 13R9 = _lV Vg: Vs O.1 V: -1.7V v-_v-- _-L7171.5 +| v-_o'7 R_ *,,. vL = t9.3 = 2'51 l9._] : (t m) r 1r: 0.0l m Vc : !0 _ 8 k(l m; : .2 7 = lk X (-o.ol ;) = '1 v V: 1 .7: 1.7v : l00: Upper limit.9 v cc _ Vc:8v ower a|ue +v_ v'c: o.4v (where Ic v; = -1.4v) Ex; 6.51 Refer to Fig 6.5l r r Rc, |- v" R: r. 10 R,. ,': I ),, *: vo 'l RL n"= r"lln, R,::r":2.ska R," : R, ll r" : 1 |1 2'5 : 2'44 k Auo ! 8,Rc:_4oX8: 32oN Ro: Rc: 8k Avo: -8^to ll Rc ll R.)- 40x 3.5 : l19V/V Ro = rol Rc = l|| 8 = 7.4k Avo : - 8.Oo ll Rc) _4o '1.4 = '296N ^R,*.Rc +R;"'R"+R, 7 = ---::-:-:( +LM 5 _ 2| = 39.1 V/V Rs*Rri/: 1,.: |;' R," cn :i19.1 6-----'74+5 !5mV x !5:586mV Exercise 6_ 3 Ex: 6.5-l yr + Rs vo t: V.i :5+20 smv R, lRu 6.9 g.:40m/v m/r' r- : 2.5 k ro: lk : oov &: 1k R,;*:5 k &:8k &=5k : Rrll R :4XR.ie:20k _ R.' _ 25 2'5 _ o.22 k _ 223 1l "' _8-Rc (8) _ _.12v/v ' luo: ii-,J:,- ffi Rou, = 8 k _Rcll R. _ _sKI| 5K a,' _ r.R G,, ' oR c,,' _ R"i* + 25+223 ( Rc i| - _D.4 R) 9.9 V/V ( + 1)(r. + R) = - y 1,, = 2!3 7 =RtieR," * R 25 oe: \hout &: Av _g^(Rc| RL) : -l23N p,4 6.25 mv = 1 R.::2561 Auo R, = rtr + ( +1)& R'" r",. = lk : l0o r,:2.5k :0.99 r,=25 1.:lmA ro= Example 6.50 8.: 40 i- s,:::ll ll-]+y. -r 5mv= (2.5|| l) l-'J |vr| : lv,l x Av : 512.4 : 62 fi Ex: Rl 20 &: /o E*" JL t. &: ih g.(Rrll ro) :4010 3x111 : _296N + t) n.", = R. ll r : '1.4 k , = +g.(R. || R' |l ,o) :x3:'l2o tt:tr= r"is Rsig + 0.5 0.6 R"-- v/v ''" : R*;. : *_-_ v/v (R. |l R) ^ "'_ r. (Rc ll R) G 54 5(m + 25 t5 m Exercise 6-14 Ex: 6.55 RJ ,.R,o = tnt r"+(P+ X/o|l 0.s + (10r)(2011 r) 96.7 kf) : fia ll R,, : c,,' : vo : vt vs v\"vo vl R'* :R,*, : V c : .-,, : lQ 5m 0.796 z " =Vo I, =]@: 5m ib : b::-9 and yo = ( + l)i,(r, l( + l)(ro|| R) Rl 11 96.7 28.3 ( + |)(roJl R) (R. |l Rs) + ( + l )(r. + oo||) RL) V/V ,lo\ 20K l K.|Llo )(5E . 5 l -- V/V Gvo = 0.8 R.,, = .oll (r.+tRr|| Rs])/( + l) : 20 || t0.05 + .o79] k ,^ . ' _ V Rs * ^40 uvo ," : 5m Rr) -84 || R.) ,, V, x lroll For RI(k) 0.5 G'.(vr') o.l ./ r,1 0.95 0.5 1.0 .68 0.735 2.0 0.765 20 K) Exercise 7-1 Ex: 7..1 (a) when o.2 Vo,, = l^ The minimum value of 1, occurs and :0.1,thatis \ ^c.'rviy 0.4 ^-: V arrd ID 1, hat is mA (v q-"' - vg v' v,, : vln(ffi) + V"' 3.1 mA 0.8 A '^ and v.=(25) mv 2o1 m Ex: 7.A.2 Fo an NMos Fabricat in the o.5 _ lo' ' m pfocess. lih ve wan o find he rsconductance and the intrinsic gain obain for the followig drain curents: ( : 0.5 m) ID:(ro) ,,: *o,r^:f*4!;", (l9ol ,.:2- intrinsic gain :8^r,' For ID 6.62 ,.:yo!,D g.r. : o.62 19oX 166 V/V ,: X_8. o.57 mA / cr,: wc.' ::1 cs, = 0.5 x 3.8 8.3 f F, C: 8' 2 lCn ' 8.8 + 0.4 Cox| 0.4 X 5 o.57 C" 21 :2 fF (8'3 a 2' Gz {"'1vs For ID : l0, 7'" ,8,/5(1(1 62 + cou , = O.28 using eq. (7.15): x o'5 = 00 20 For his problem, use e4. (7.1): \e hae: 20 l k ,^:ui'=20Xo.5-!?k " I' 85.5 A _ A. = g^r. : 66.7 N !0o " ,'^ff-& Ao 5o ! - 6.6 vv _ xlM:2l '._ F-\:"DX "n- : 10 = 2 Ex:7.1 _'%iot'= l v 1 A /, : 4' o.z}4 r- J2y l90x l0 t -v -02 ja: -= x o'5 lmA o' !p,c.')v'"" z'' "'L "' =l2 ,* 4x-xo.3'] 2 0.5 1 : 85.5 _ a'' v, 20 We hae Se'mia/v 6^in) l E: 7J For an NMos fabricated in the 0.5 m cMos aechnology spcified in Table 7.A.1 ith :0.5 m' W - 5 m. and V6y:o.3 r"uu'^^''u' ' ,.:q!.D c.,. (b) For a simila range of current in an npn rasisto we hae 1c.,, _ 3.l mA 1cni 0.8 A mA ".r..(r),, occurs when \.c.'!vLv:3.l : JzxrsXloX1-z! -v 1O.8 A The maximum value of %,, : For/: Since g, vaies with o - o *itn ft mA/V xercise 7_2 Ex: For 1, = 10O ==r 7J g. : 0'r8 rn(#)' : .89 m./ ^:50(-!q.)':58/V " l/ For 1, = l mA: ,l\2 mAlv(7.J . = .28 a_: " sl.00'l, = \r,, 2. mA/v .,:/=tooA r' : QJ-. n svlv ': v R"' _ r,= x: 7.2 25 mv = +.e"nv _ 4 l = 2s 8,r mA./V ,''' :Vo: 50V : sfflk 0_l m 50 :50k() ,":|v: "' .l m : Ao A': (4 m/v) (500 k) 8',' r,, _(4 m/V) _ g^ (r. || r., ) = (5 k Since all transistors have the same '.': ]z : : la2: /or : 1v,1 l0o A _ 5 v/m0.36 .l mA volage Gain is g", (, ll m) 18k!! Since (18 k l| 2l.6 k) w_ 9-E!. 6 2 (0'55 rn ) ' z' : 2 (o_1 126 |..]75 (l0 ) (t.37s v), \r,llo ) k \',c"'l(Yr)u*((' 2 ' 2 v/ l0 V/V .-) A'= _ (1 .24 mAN) : - l2.2l |v,,|., -^) , ^ _1voo|L, 6 v/m (o..1o m) = 2l.6k 'n' n .l m ": is halved: y.l _ s lom '2 L24 mAN .'''' v"L, o lyol lvol "- - v-, *"c.'(l), ';' -^^{].,.),* /'; 5 k) r: 7.4 f L 7.2 U-ro 0.36 m' we have || ffi) Exercise 7-3 x: 7-5 Vo = l.1 vor = 0.8 YDD = +1'8 Flx;7.7 ta: s^: 0_25 m '25 l2 : 5 ,-:Vn: " ID 0.25 mA |l,Ay' :20k (a) From Fig. 7.13, I 8- ,q._ "' RL \8 ^r ") +(2 m"/ m/)(2 k) :5)+3--+o R:lM: l M: R,_:50o+ '" 4| f all transistors are identica and he gate votages are fixed, Vor: |Vrr] :0.7_0.5: R" V62 V,n-Von 0.5 _ 0.2 : 0.3 v Vr.- = .o the oest yDs2 cangois |vru] :. Vo-in .2 = Yscl : 0.7 V Vo = Vs: v+v||+|vo : 0.8 + 0.5 + 0.2 : 1.5 V 0.5 similaly, ysca VsDj can go Vo.^' as low as t.5 0.2 l_1 8^1|:8.2=8.=8^=8. lo : 0.2mA _ 2 m/v = 02 2 fn=foz=r:to4:r : lyol : 2v :l D 0.2 m Ron : (g.2.2)r.1 : (2 m/v)(10 k)'? :2 kf} R = (l r,,)o,^) = (2 m/v)(lo k)' :2 k R. : R., | R. : l0 k = _t{',.)" : _2 l0o k: R.- -}t{z ..){r )]' 20 k: :5+ ?9_Q = 40 0: R.-:5+g '" 40 x.7.6 |v R = '" R: lVoul, so Vo _ Vsr:'., = 25.5 k l k _ 3 a,-:5+ '" 40 0.2 V VDtt + VD.2 = 0.3 + 0.2 40 = .5 k (b) Fram Fis. 7.13, Ro: ro+ Rs + (g.r.)Rs Rs: 0: Ro : 20k+0+ (40)(0) : R" : 1k: 20k Ro = 20k+ l k+ (40X1 k) : Ro : Rs : R, Ro = is :' Ro : 10 20 k: 10 + (40)(10 k) = + 20 + (40X2 k) k + 20 lc: 2o ko l0O k: 20 61 k + 10o k + (.0)(1 : E^1 : B^ _ /o _ lA: i m/V V nu o'2 l2 Ex:7.8 g-, t'|:rr2:ro 430 8 k k) : 4.l2 M xercise 7-4 2V - ,nU,, -V;ID 0.1 mA so, (8-r") = l m/v(2 k) (a) For R,- : 20 k' so, the gain remais the same f& 20 ,4, R, *',, _ 20k + 20k _ -' "'' = 1+e-tr,,7 1+20 .'. vl : _8.l(r,I _ || R-2) K) mr'(2 K || 1.9 is connected o he outpt' _ I.74 |.9k #;t( || R1. ( + grRr)r,,R (l 8.RJ + 8Rs)r,, + RL 8. :-r." v/v g.Rs)r.,] R, ( I+ g-Rr)/, or f we se he approximaion R. _ | , "'n'=-8.r..,., %' ofeq' (?.35)' Ex: 7.10 2k- l 20 ./v Vno = +1.8 = 2k hen. Av m/v(20 ko 1l 2 k) : - 1.82 v/v Either method is coect. continuing, from eq. (7.31), , : gmr|(gmrr.rr,,r)|| Rrf 19.04 m/V{[(20X20 k)] l| 2 k} /v A''' = Au " Au' (b) No, for 19'04 1.82 0.5 Vr' R, : 4 k, R | ,lOok , "'z = |^}l,-;' - 20 - l.A/v :2lk A : - | m/v(20 k |] 21 k) : - l0.2 A = 1 mA/v{[(20)(20 k)] ]| ,0 k} (a) D|: and D1= since yovt = Vo, v/v 0.2 ve have ,- :','''(),u""" , o' | "c '"(Yr),v""", 2 v/v l.^ : Au : :?Q9 : " Au, - to.2 lq. vlv b"(), 4 Ex: 7.9 The citcit of Fig. 7.14 can be modeled as o- ,, '" (w\ |l, "(w\ "7,,, vi (b) The minimum olage allowed across current source /' would be "' Rn: (l made with olage ould be Where Gand |vo = 0.2 if single transisto fa 0.l yP signal swing is o be allo'vr'ed at the drain of o!, the highes dc bias I + g-Rs + g.Rs)r., The open-circui (no Ioad) volag "' |vo 1.55 0.1 vP (c)vsG2:|vo gain is A'= -G-Ro = , +8. =.(|+8,Rs)r,, I g-Rr + lvtpl yG"2 can b set at 1.55 = r.s - 0.2 1(0.1) O.2 + 0.7 = 0.85 0.5 = 0.7 V Exercise 7-5 (d) since curret sorce 2is implemented ith a cascoded current source similar to Fig. 7.10, he minimum olage requi.ed across it for propr o.4 2(o'2) operation is 2Vo (e) From pans (c) and (d), the allowable ange of signal s\ing at the ouput is from 0.4 to l.55 Vov or 1.35 so. 0.4 V < Vo < 1.35 Ex:7.11 Referring to and and biased so that oI and oa can be selected and ron are very high and have insigificant effect (/o >> r-) hen, R"^ Ro = (g.rrot)rnt 8.r. : Ron:9:ro: Roo R" R"e)' .z = '., '., fi: 0.2 lr -1 Lgr= lv..l 25 mV 8 m/v "2) = (s m/v)(25 k)(25 k || l2.5 tu.s R"" 1.6? c^':c.o=: v r =,ro: k) Mf) For the np tansistors, 0.2 mA 25 mV 50- *: roj: ro4= H: R", : (.:rlXro m/v m/V 6.25 r.:) k) = (8 m/v)(2o k)(20 k | 6.25 R., , :- : : k _8.l(R"" 762 1| R"p) (s mA/v) (1.6? M ,, -4.186 Vr' kfl #h: '*n ll || .762 mA/ s.(R.ll r.)l kl 176.7 + 40 +(o.5 k l 2.5 kf' : rr: 191 Ex: ?.14 Fig. 7.21(a) : 5V : zs 0.2 mA r r6fr R, 1 : = k,2r6)Oq1ll 1.0M) without R. (hat is, /?, = 0), From Fig.7.l9, R"^ 7.l3 - = 1/.l = R": g.r(9zror ll ,.rr) Ex: 7.12 For the npn trasistors, -: || -v J.4 /) m = l : z.s ' =9 R- mA/v Ex: R.1 i, : -g.r(R-ll |v.",| 5(20 Refeing to Fig. 7.20' = 9rro: Since : Fro : k) lMo (8^ro')rn t ' :Vo:10V /. lm = : (gfiro1)r.1 since : Ro : Ron ,,", : _(8 m/v)(2.5 M A,^'' = _5114N fig.7.9, : (g.ro)o|| r.3) R". : G^z'o)Q|l r"'') ro, Then, Ro. : (g^7ra2\ro2 : 9zroz R.' = 1(25 ko) : 2.5 M Finally, Roo v-,' occurs hen ol and o4 are selected ad bias so that ,o1and ro4 are>> r M) rot:ro2:ro=i: v, 5V 0. m 50 kf) k) .l7; -A) "6(r7,),l c., : 1#' G^: g. = 1m./v _ o.lA:4mA/ " : lg1 v 25 mV 1 :us .-:-9_ =4 m/V 8^7 ssuming an ideal cuent soulce, Ro : (8'ro)(', o|| r oz) R" .6 (4 m/vxso k)(5o k || 25 'G^R6 _3.33 X 13 v/v -(1 m/v)(3.33 M) 3.33 xercise 7_6 W l0m=W:50m 5m - lm Fig. 7.21 (b) so he dimensions of he mach ransisors 0! and 02 should be changed to: W:50mand,=5m Ex: 7.16 For he circuit Figure 6.7 . : *'''@77' / L\, t'_;-_::-,. nd .' : ,/e hae: (w/L)\ (w / '\. ':-----------: "w L'4 Since all channel Iengths are equal L:Lz:...:Ls:lm and : l0 : : x1'1, e have: From part (a), g,'1 = ''' g"2:4rA1 ro\: r1 = rr,: rr:50k nl : to2: r" = 25k : (g-1ro1)R" so, R" : ( 1 m/)(50 k)(4 "z) R,, 167 A,n = _8-R- _668 X E: 7,15 13 m/v)(50 k) 7. and \e wan to redce the change in output current, 1(), coresponding to a change in output oltage' yo, o l7. of o. Tha is r, _ = 0.0l 0.0l /, = !J roz foz - ,o.:JJ:161 ' | To keep yov of he mached transistors he same 7.l5. of he fansisor shuld remain the same. Therefore = 20 , 80 , .,_W., _ _2-1 ,' _,R'' r-* |o | /*r. |o n order to allovr' the voltage at the drain of02 to o", \ ^c,^(l),' \|'(l),v' -, ;2(}),orr_ Iz - _ l5=+w1_ 5\L2 [) \ L 12 2 t (o.2)' y, w- _ z=w\ *' n ordr 15m. _ u=w' = wt ' vou, 2.5m 2x W, _ 5m o allo the oltage at the drain go up to wihin 0.2 ,o^:V'o'L-tM:20Xa ' Io l l) v r-- =-::rrm 20 V/m as ha of xamp|e 11 w' w'_ -:-L . _ |'y 60 v/v 10o A' 20 Aand /5 : "'"--+-^' ' l' : 4mA/v(l67M) n the cuent source of Example we hae 1() = 60 go down o within .2 v ofthe negatie sply voltage we need yo2 = 0.2 (50 k || 25 k) R,, 12 l.=t'\-\=!=:+ ' 'Wo w I 10 G.=gq:4mA/ FromFig.7.19, Ro = (g.zro)Oorll A, v ofposiive ,(l), of5 o supply e need =v"o"' io(}).o.zl'= _ zx - - 50--eWs 50s l.y] \ ,, 80 10.2;2 Ws:50m Y: = o.- v. _ lqJ*m _ l2.5 um w " Exercise 7-7 Thus: : Wa : 2.5 q"m' Wz 15 l2.5 m and l{'' m, lv] Ex: 7.19 5 m 50 m Ex: 7.17 From equation (7.72) we hae: '.: '"..[;fuJ{'-'o) . r\ l mA|- ,, \' '-i_/l(,' " : #) : l ko t.O2m 'l.02 mA Ro=,o,= #* =98 Ex:7-18 Fom eqation (7.74) we have: Inr'r rtVo-V\= V^ t t2/9)\ Inr (,+2_o.7) 0._5 m l+(2/l)\ 50 l^: " 1+ ,/ /a6p 0.5 .Affi : 0.497 m =v- Rvuu-p = vcc-v"t /".. R : 5 0.7 : 4.3 .s 0.497 m 0'497 1^,- Vrr,n V,.n.n. 0.3 For % : 5 Y From equation (7.74) l = n' (, +V"_V"'\ ' I" _ {2/)\ + (2,i 0'497 (l vA we have: :-qJ) _ |)\ + 50 o.5.| mA See next page: Exercise 7-8 /tl, = ,co*,,. -l.oRF Thus: gnoring he effec offinite output resisances' we hae : ]z : ... : / : rQ"u, * : /r(*) 1 : /r",r,* u /ar"., + ... + N c, /cOllr' ' ." ,:,"n**(-i- -J) : -^ ..Rl l ryjJ From (*) 1coR|.| \ir'e have: +/: /RF, ,.r*,r, /" aa ' - ryl] For an error not exceeding l0% we need: /^.,a/r(| 0.l) t + il-j-.1 /t ?o.9r".' l !',ry+l l_+ l-l I = I + {-L-.1 = I.r = 0.9 r + N-1-1 = / + < >0.9 o.It=9iv + l S 0.1 ly'< The maximum number of outputs for an eor not exceeding to be lesstha 10% then we need N<lO. n this case the maximum number of outputs fo. and eftor ofless than l07o is = 9. Exercise 7-9 Ex: 7.20 Refering to Fig. 7.32, : Io : ]ol = o: I*uo = l Since , : \'"c"'()v'." Io = 0.23 lz a l v]l(J) "',"'() 0.5 + 2(0.23 v) = 96 To obain the output resistance, Ro, we need 8.3- _ 0.87 mA/ v o' _ vov/2 o.23 V v(L) _ (5ylrn)(0.]6 m) _.o2_ o! : o.l ma h : 18 k. From eq. (7.77) ' 2(0. m) Rn- g6rorrn7: (0.87 mA/V)(t8 k)'? 1" 1 = l' + ? "n"" ln = o.q *or| 1*oa x |: 2% For the wilson current mirror\e hae =pr. _ 2lk_5Mandtor the simple mio R, : r, = 1 k R- The minimum ouput voltage is v*'+ 2vo" = whefeas for the simple miro from equation (7.69) we hae : 282 k Ex: 7.22 For the two curent Sourcs designed in Example 7.6. \re hae n = , : l0 _ o.om-o v v 25 _V^ _ l0v_ |o M..' = . " "^ l0A 8. 25ok Fo the current source in Fig. 7.37a we have Ro: roz = r,:10M For he crrent sorce in Fig. 7.37b from equation Ex: 7.21 For the wilson mirror from he equation (7.80) e hae /,: /r Thus ' l 2 .ggg 11.5 therefoe. ( + 2) !!:-sd x fiO : (7.98) we have: R.a tl +g.(Rrll r,)lr, n Example ?.6, R, : R1 o.o2% ..'-'-Ll .a - ',J v l t.s ll 25ok)'loM =R,: 54 tr1 Exercise 8-l Ex:8.1 Refe.ring to Fi9.8.3, fR, is doubled to 5 Vo : Voz: - = l.5 + Voo K' Voo_ Ro 0'4 mA5 j.s Ro:5k Rl=5k vc.u': v,+vD:o.5 +0.5: l.0V since he currents /D|, and 2 ae still 0.2 mA each- Vo, : 0.82 V So,V.r.,n = yJs+ yc + yoj = 1.5V 0.4V 0.82V = -0.28V So, the common-mode range is -0.28 V to 1.0 1,ir' hat causes to conduct he enire current is ^/Vn, 'l th, yD .5 v : vDD xRD x 2.5 = 0.5V x .:t "D 1.5 0.4 " l"_ 2(/ m) : g.(Rrll re) o : (4 m/v)(5 K|l 50 K) l8.2 Vo=Voo:+l.sv Ex: 8.5 (b) For o2 to conduct the entire curret: with 1 = 2 , foral ransistors, then. Vo = V.,2 = Voo: 1.5 V/V ! 2P: I,,.a. ^= '22 = L: l.5V -'' o _ o.4m(2) "-_ vo/2 .2 v = 4rnA/ : ,^:V^:20v " lD 0.4m4 s A1 :-JiVov__o.45 J;r(,.,v|) /^'7' Ex:8,2 (a) The ale of ','- _ 2(o.l8 m) 0.36 m -0.4x2.5:0.5V (c) Thus the differenial outp range is: VD2- VDt.from to 0.5 Ex: 1.5 = -l 1.5 0.5 = + I V .l mA Since 8J Refer o anser tabe for Exercise 8.3 where values were obtained in he follolving way: v^'' = ^/I/ w/''')L = L v n2 1,, (f),: 2( (4 A ": l "'r' (10V.zm) (0.36 m) ' : \ Vor lo, = (), = l00 0.l --l ll , = 2 ^' "loj EE: E.4 -8 mA " : \'"(l)oul' 2( l00 A) / v'?)(.2) 0.4 m L^ v)' .n ' (t_4J(2) ^,0o,l1 ,o) 18V/V #tr} so, so^t r^()r*' :;#r / v'?)(.2 (y).: (9. ( ':'= :,uo 1( m / 1m/V, v)(36 || 36 Exercise Ex E.6 2(o.l8 m) ,o : |v_: cMRR(dB'= 0.36 m ' : : '*'*o : '* ., \'^c"'()v""f W/L: " = foall NMoS$$, t--------------- 2(tA) :.n / v'?(o.2 vf ,q:+P : (2 "'Rss\ ('\ cMRR(dB) = 20log Er:8.9 : (9616)16r: (l K) 2(4 m/y)(25 lo( 20,0) = 86 dB 0.0t +5V 1m/V ,5 t, 1k 0.7 4.3 m +0.7 mA/V)(36k)'? a Roo : {g-5 r65)rq: (l m/v)(36 = 1.296 M = 25k From Fig. 8.12(b), Ron o.a.. \c-l 1 p For al transistos. /2), p"'lus'' ,"** (g),:(g).=(y),:(:), 2o : pC.'(V o)2 08fl : := mA sing eq. (8.64), and the fact that Rss | ) _ 4 A /2(o.2)2 nC.'(V o" 2( '. l,"C.'{o.2 = J2(0.2 m / v')( |0)(0.4 m) 8^ = 4 mA/ rw\ rw\ |)._ = l.296 k)'z +0.5V Using eq.(8..18). Ao s-, (R..ll R.,) (l m/)1'296( M|| l.296 M) 648 v61 : -5V 62: 1k - 5V Ex:8.7 The ransconducance for each ransisor is Exr 8.10 g^: "q'1w ll" l^ : ! = 0.8 m _ o.o.o "22 from (8.35), the differential gain for matched is, _ Voz Vo _ n V'" fe ignore the 1% here' Aa : 8. Ro : (4 m / v)(5 K) From eq. (8.49), V.a .'' = v"= R, _ 2 R'' 20 (0.0l)(5 ) _ 2(25 o.7 ( 5+4.3xt) lk R^ alues From Exercise 8.7, *o V/ .)(!,36 m) _ ,u*n (ffi -'oI"lo Ex: 8.8 Refering to Fig 8.12(a), Since D 20 |ogl0 = 86 dB The drain crrent for all transistors is (10 8'2 v o.l v/v _25 _ mA +-43 (:l) 20, oo Exercise 8-3 c = c : l : !: 2 0.4 m Ex: t.13 +Vcc 0.2 m From . (8.66)' vcMfr'-vc+o.4 Vr. gR+o.4 _ = 2.5 0.2 m(5 From eq. (8.67) Vr' Vct ^rn K) is - l.5 subsifuting ig1 * i62 I ,* / "(z B1 ' B1 _ B2: 2stn(r 25 + l.9V Voz = -v+vcs+v Ex:8.11 v: Vz : - 2.5V+0.3V+0.7V:-1,5V -rn Ipu rage 0.99 + 0.4 v84 _v. o + l.9 Il=zrl" in Eqn. (8.70) yieds t)/ /:20oA D|\/ l"(s_ Since>l, t) I-'-^^-/ 2_ 22 99) :o ln(99) = l15 mv Rc:Rc2:Rc:ro in each ransister is .5 m. Thus yB for each wiIl be _ 10v :l)k Dc curren -. = "' o'7 + 0.025lnr) \L/ l . _ V, -_ = 0.683 V .+=5-0.683= + 4.3|1 .nlo : 0.5 :2o vT 0.25 v (c) jc : o'5 * g.13r, = .5 + 20 0.5sin(2 X r) = 0.5 + 0.l Sin(2 X 1r)' mA icz = 0.5'0.lSin(2 X Ir), m (d) 61 (V66 * 1cRc) _ .1 Rcsin( 2rr X l)0) _ _ = (l5 0.5 l0) 0.l x l0sin(27rl0|) = l - l sin(2r' 10r)' v v.2 : l0+ lsin(2r'X 1000r), (e) 62 _ z., : 2'sin(2 Io0,), v (0 voltage gain =c_' 7A1 2LP"uk = .l vPeak = zn vl c 7'A' IOV 2 - 25 mV lv^l ' ",="r:t':i: l0A:4.zv l ^ !: E:8.l2 (a) The l0o 50 25 mv .1 mA o.25 k Since R.. >> r", |A R.l' ,o |0 || l K _ r. 0'25 R',=2r-.-_" 8^ R'o : 2(25 K) = 50 K 2o v/v | _ z5l 4 mA/Y fthe otal load resistance is assumed to b mismatched by l%, R. -l = 2R'' = cMRR(dB) .: (0.ol )(l0o ) 2(50 ) 20 loc,,, :86d8 Note: fonly the oad andsince-1. lj:l o0| ransiso$ are mismatched.

Exercise 8--4

K)yl..
u'ol _ _ Rrll Vo u _ _( K || l
2Rfr. r,' '',(5o ) , o25
: _o-499 vi._
,, _[(Rc + R.)|| r"]v'-

"o=

2l;;T;7-

= l5(t|y.

2(50 ) _ 0.25 K

2
CMRR: l| _
1,.l 0.50l 0'499

r*&

lK

l(l

l)(5o K)

ro

l.68 M

&

/ RD

as:

Q x o.oz
2

Use

n.

y^.

due

o.)2

i.e 2

mv

wlL

:
:

^/12

3.46

vt

(y!! ^+#)'

mV

10

Ro = r orll

ron

o'2

m/

: yo: 20 :
(0.8
o'

/2)

20

so

= 50k

25k

G'Rq: o"25k:

:
is obtained

x ro t1'+ q2x

i'"

(8.l 16)

*'

G-: g- :

Ro:50|| 50:

mV

t(?

20 m

thus,

--r 2

n.

lo' = (.8 m/2)

- "" : (92)
\2 t x o-o2 = 0.2

Finally, from

^!fiir

,^' = y-'
"'

v^"

vs= vt = 2m

0. m x 2

"'

(8.l l3)

n.

x :

x 1:20

.8 m-/2)
"
8.=;:-l-=*.v

,^'

Ayl

"*:()(#)

from

o.2m

Fom Eqn. (8.138)

() (*)

To obain

L),x ^C'":

thus,
e obtain y due to

u. (8.l08)

(w

" ou

o.2

,.,:

Ex: t.16

vl

v*:

:256.f * ,1r
: 2.5 mV
1 : l
l_
'" : 2(+l)
2X1l =s,,a

since all transistors have the same drain cuent

(1/ 2) and the name product
then all
transconductances 8. ae identical.

Ex:8.14

Using

,.ie:*(J

(w l L)

. IK+2(5K)
l

R;..

,,,

: Rr.
---"-

R;..

u,: u()

:10o.00--)10dB

Using eq. (8.103),

Ex: E.15

(',)'l''

1o-r;2 + 12

lo-312

From

n. (8.l48a)

|
O.OOsv/v
2g-.Rr, 2x4x25 =
1"rr = lAo| : l = 2.0{)

A--"'i

l."l

86

0.5

dB

Ex:8.17

:3"

(-8 m/2)

I/2
""- v,

25 mv

Ro = r nrll

roo

'ul

Exercise 8-5

Vo 1 V
7l ='-2
: lV = 125 k

Using Eqn. (8.179)

Vou

!!

.' =
(w/Lt\|'

0.8 m

A,t :
From

Ro :

G^x

n.

16

125

:2oy

(8.l62)

2x25mx160

|V = 0.8
m

l25 k

l20

. ls

= l04

O^

dB

l, ?9L! _
2

16

a']

M : 5 M
x
Al: 8. R': 20 50 = 15 v/v
= (l0|1 10)

i.e.

dB

Ex: E.19
Refer o Fig (8.41)
(a) Using Eqn. (8.178)

.=(W'L\o(/2,
'' (w
/

=1111 =
thus.

L')

(W/L)n

(lVl L) 6

0.775 mA.V
0.775 m./v
1.90

m/v

&

= 10/0.05
= lo / 0.05

r" :1o/0.l = lk
n. (8.l76):
A : _8. Qo'|l ,o)

(e)

-775 12

ll 2}

_?7.5

y
v

Eqn. (8.177):

,^l|

0.129

:2ko
: 2 k
:10/0.1
:
lk
n

(d) r",

[.

V
0.129 v
l0A 0.105 v

50 A
50

a,

l/2 lm/z :20m

^
U-:8m:':'-:-:= 2) m
A l v 2 k
/2 0.5mA
-) Roa = aro4 : 50 x 2 K : l0 M

y^''2

a,

Et: E.18

n,

x920

a,2-=!

2 og0(160,)

R^. _

0.29

q,

lJ tr5l
160,

0.129

yov6:0.105v

-2 / |25
' _ l6i,
"'la5
A : .OI25y

Cr*^

1rlrzn
trn:

"R*

- MRR_

(b) Fr o''

For

From Eqn. (8.67):

1611

(0.8 m/2)

= 20 k
For a simple cuent mior the otput resistance
(thus RJ is r"

'_,R"' _\

: (w/L), ;

l : \,c,,'(l),v*",

R,": 2x ro

vt g
_-2x |/2)'
"

11p

l)
: 2

an

11

Az

g. (roll rol)

oerall volage gain

A' x

l,:

is:

11.5 X 95

7363 Vr'

Ex: E.20
Refe.ring to Fig. 8.42, al| /D aues are the same.
so' '.|. : yct + /AR,
Usig the equation deeloped in the ext'

r"_ffi"tr]
n-"
=

^E
5'21

,lzlll,

,a, :0

l.l

Exercise 8-6

v-,,:
,.', :

- v"
0.l5 + 0.7 = 0.85 V
v,","

, _ yss
- 2.5

= 0.8s + 0.15

:-

8^:

0.38 m/v

):

Ex E.21

Finaly'
V.": V,"

/,:
p'C-:

1 pA12

p"C-: AN2
Fr

Q."nd Q,:w

L:

oul

)lv

C,''(w

oul".n

- v*.:

+2.5 + (-0.3

+1.4v

0.8)

Ex E.22
R'=2o.2kd

40 l0.8

(as given in xample 8.5)

lv

t.5v

: |Vou"| = 0.3
on
''
tVcsl: o.3+0.7: lv
Ve : _ 1.5+l: _0.5V
V

- :

v/v

8513

R.:152
with&: 10kand&: 1k

L)

40o;

0.3

20'2 x sl:l x ----!(r + 0.rs2)

r0

A,':
'

20.2 +

:4943N

then.

2I" 2X9ou
8.s'9:|v=_'-

since 8. of o,
and 0, hen:

Y.,, =

0.3

o11 and

o,,

ae

Ex E.23

identical to & of

i,l

lQ5 +

Ri4

l5.7 + 33.5

Ri3

3 +234.8

o.u9z

=,:l

29
o.1)2:
'
l 'lw/L)n
)(W/L)0: 12.5

il
i.s

0.26

b5

40

i5

i"z

^s

-1)

R3

Rr +

:'=l

rw\ _ 4xl0 _
i,,
ol

il : r+t: Iot
ba
irr: R, 15.7 ,

il+R2
Rr + R2 + Ri2

+ 5.05

0.8879

?:,:r
|

Thus the overall current gain is:

_
|

2x'|xlgxqo
-+Rr: 1.67 111

160uX:Y
'

.8

0.8879

X 1

55993 ./A
and the overall oltage 8ain

t.67 k x A
150 mY

0.15

vo ,

Ru

: -'t't

591

is

-i,"

V,, R,,

i,

a256

Exercise 9-1

Ex:9.1

:
'4M

c,,

x s-(R.ll

RD)
R-&l0 .-^.-l0
t0+0.1
2

,cc(Rc

;e

_1

''

'-

0.I M)

,!

:8Hz

0.016 Hz

_.
: 3l8

r, :

2.5

k =

=:

. :V':25mv
'"
l,
ImA
,:l

zC., IR,ll r,

+ R,,r]

2z1[1 K|| 2.5

21

8-

K+5 K]

,o ' r-, *

10 :
-'z_lJ

ooo

24:2 fF

4.1

fF

0.6

AtVl= Vn : 5

|'(l)'

v, rv,^l'

_ 1\2y205_2)'z- 18
2

Ex: 9.5

n-=r:lmA_40m
v
v 25 mV
12
Co":.r'8.:20x 10
l0
: 0.8 pF
C\.:2Ci",,:2x20: ff
c,: c," + Cl" = 0.84 pp
Co
C:
(

'rlJ

"L' +

* :'e.l-'u'
vc
2

lo :6l

.4 z

Rll

fF

.72

Ex 9.4

x 9.2

Cc:C=C62:lF
Bl

for (V,r)

Assume iP

i"

.iP

iB2

: ^
tl-.t-^

lr\/l)/l )
/\, i",
P

'()'
i(yr)'

(ycc_ /*R4)

: Vrr_o.2

soR3,R9,andR1

can be found by

0'2
R,:
' lo :
j'2 :
R":
z

n,,,:

|''

20k
|0 k

) =
(b)

Ex:12.30
(a)

Find

:,,

(;tri;)

(40)'

='9

iN

ir. = |01

ssume

;--

ial

^2

(ssume

6.25

i",

: 4

i,,

: --!- :
(10)'.40

;"

, - 40)

(ssume P
2.5

Io )

xercise l3_1

Ex:13.1

n he ow-opt sate' the transistor is on and

7,. Since V.

"c.'|{vo, _

v,)

lso:

P"*."," =

yol : v oo;!L
fo + fos

and

hence:R,

To obtain

48

3 rr, : 219

2x fi!

|25

.-"
"L

w
L

v,)

2.5 X 50

l25v

Ex: 13.2
when input is lo\, he oupu is high and equa o

Rc

Vo, _- Vcc_RcJ:5

*. ur", (-R^
""
L
.

o.o89v, RD

R.

-2X l

E:13.3

V'"

RD

_1

Ro

= l0 k

and

K,

ence

o'zz

lo

"43

><

0.22 _ 0.22

V,
,,voo'
v,

= 1.3l

1.8

I + 1.8-0.5

**"
voo

0.22

and sub-

\ro: \vooo':

lrv

r"

- vo,

RD

P,,'..,,"

: ]'
2

oe ha keeping

l.
w

"

;,0:
I k

= l3s \

l0*'

0'26

Voo- V,o : 1,8 - 1.31 : 0.49 V

NM1: V
Vo : o.12' 0.26:0.46v
NM"

= 3v

_
/_ loy |o -L=[
0.089

y4 _

V, l.rry'Dv, v'

= .5 + 1.63

ual

3 /V2:

}()0, t0 ^x x

and wilh

frdVoo'V'n'V'r'Vor''
Vol: Voo = l.8 v unchanged
vlL: v+ v' = o.5 + o'22 = 0'72

Pa

use:

The power dissiption becomes:

llence,Vo!:V66:5V.

t,' :

unchanged resuled in

'r-

is zero.

y :

when the s\ich is open' no cuent is drarn

from he suppy: PDD : 0

situte

y.

=V_:0.o89
v,t = R,),

X 10_6

'R"

V'z

To deermine

302.4

unchanged:

X l0 6(2.5 _.5)

: V2]:

|68 A

: l5l w

Y, , we

To determine

P16

;Ppp

168

Ex:13.4

{Vo,

^d

stayed he same.

. ,e use:

p"c.,,

Subsituing for
2.5_9!=_

l.8 _ o.2
lo k

lDD'

= 56L

Rr}rrr:0.l :

'

has not changed. noise margins

DD V"" V"'
R"
Poo = Vooloo: 1.8 x

Voo :50=R^*r
^^: RD+
rD\
50

v DD' v

stay the same.

o.der to calculate he power dissipation, e
need to first recalcuate

Therefore' he curent drawn from he spply in

this state can be calculated as:

= 2J

oL'v o]' tL' H only depend on

_ :.ls

Exercise l3-2

El

.
'

Ex: 13.7

13.5

t(w/L\,: /l :
L\' \ll3 -'
Fom E4. 13.20: Vol : Voo_ y, :

4(w /

l.3

P7r,: loox

unchanged
From q. 13.28:

"o'_- (vDD v') _ (l.s_.5l

2k',(voo- 2v) z :1 _ 2 Y ).5)
'
: 0.12 V
From Eq. 13.22: vL : vi = o'5
unchang.

,,
'" _ --:+l
:0.7V

].8 - (3___]ll

-.r-l

From Eq. 3.26 ogether l,h setting

z'x|u

",)'o

oo

_
q
'''',']
aI

_ v, _

l *

1l

(V

aa

6)2

_1

d'

'oL"!

+v DD

1un'

_ v _

Ex: 13.6
The inverter area is approximately

A = W,L, l w''

since

= a.,r"1,uu" |

'

l, = l.lV, . ssuming
Lt: dandw2: L.

= kd2 + kd1

k. >

W"krWz

2k"d2

Ll

= J(-

an

= k'L,.nd

Thus:

A : k,LrL, *

l,

v oL

: l.8_o.5_.12
: 0.61V

NMs: V6"-V,":1.3 -.61 :.69V

NML: vL_ Vo = .5 -.12 : .38 v

L7

o.5

32'4 w

P-!!!
'

: crv'oo,
C

dvn2

x52 _

0.13

v.l' _

66.7j

L22

"vt

oo"

:66.8

v.( _

y...) _

"(o''\"-'''
l#)'
v^^U"o-(Ve6-O\e '"'" ,Vo
-t:

.'.

+o'5 + 0'121

".32o.l2_v
9[0.74 _ v ] : 1.18+ Vrrr

Pu..'C,v2 oo +

for

a,I J
'"f

odar

k,2fo

lo_6

1.82

l]

_(_'P'l)

\ 2) = Vrr'C

2k,|6+ @1_
L
_2(V

loox lo-'t x

106x

13.8

lnr _

-t,

drr

fCV oo2

Ex: 13.9

32'4

Ei:

P* :

we have

1r"12, + k.W2z

"'-

tpp:

Voo'C '

o'un

18 10/.0.69:

t.2mA

Exercise 13-3

Ex:lf.10

For rPr the output starts at yoa and goes o yol,

hrough the Pu which is 20 k

voQ): vor-) (o@) - voQ\)e tt.

* vor) : Vo_ (Voll_voL)"'PL"

\tvon

(- \v""

hrough Po which is t0 k

*
\tv oo
()v

\v.,)

(Vog) + Vo

.(

R.C = 0.69 (20 K) (100 = 138 pSec

For ,al, the ouput stats at yol, and goes to yo
,p/-fl = 0.69

"(i))

,-

'"

,pl/

or1

:
_

",)
vor+v* =
lv "'

"(-,"(i))

',Pry'

}v

"-:

,P.,. = 0.69.R.c

t"

)""r+ '"r"1

0.69X

"

10

){z

KX l0/ :
p

69

p)

69psec
16

rr".

xercise

Ex: 13.11

:
v oQ) :
v o(t)

,is

vo@' _ tyo(-) _ v o(o')]e ''

o _ [V aa _ o'!e l(7' |'' = r

hen voltage

'|Vn:
ln(.1) =

is

ooe

-(0

.1

yDD

.'la

rr

2-3..t=t
.2 . 1
t
J:2.3

.,c

6.46 n.""

3-_4

xercise I3_5

' : r"'(l).|v' - v,")v o _ :v "']

Ex: 3.12

. l3.58:
v., _ r(vpp-lv,,,lt+v-

a) From

'"

r+l

+0.2

r(12 04)+o'4+0.6+0.6r

0.6 =
=

or

1+r

0.8r+0.4=r:

_-_

,= n!"."
E{"_ 44
'.

|a

.1(w|:

m: .52 m)
Vpo = |.2'Vo: o
lt
_
vH (svDD_2y,)
i(5 l.2_2

b\ V6g :

v', =

From above:

4 X 0.13

= 0.65v

f,1voo+

2v,)

:(3

. 0.4)

0.55

.,*,

o,:
"
=

since oN and oP are matched, the outpt resis-

.:

/]xl=s

hence:

V-- :

= rry) _
\ L l
\ L lh

0.5

0.4

IPHL
g.5.1

Ex:13.13
Using Eq. 13.58 and 13.59:

u..
-

lv,ol+
: 'tvoor+1

v.\,-zs

/{-5-ll+l

l.99

)4.7 ps

ol
v

"'

k'(\
'' \L l"
gl-,,, - 24.6'

* !p)

\{,","

x L!
.

l{z.l

* o')

'l"

l3.68 \e hae:
and if ve substitute for RN

o.69RNc

in riode region and hence he circui is gien as|

rv]

("

10

t2

O.2v,oNoperaes

= -J2 1

11'"n'

\L)'
-''' = 0'69. l x Io' 6 _ !
(w\
(w\
\1'
50

r+1

)n I
F
l/2
ni "r"
y,
:
\hen
vDDndvo :

L',

Ex:13,15

0.4) +

l+5

\ )"

Fom

l.2

',C

H = L

we have

'

| *o ,tw\
,o

l.0.

an

= 49.4 ps

2.9 k

()

|v ,n|' then

\lo\lo
])x1''l5X1R

Pa _

tance in he high-ouput stae is he same:

a,rn.

lqq

l.g9

'

= 29 k

:r_ = []
\ L I,

'"

,,,'()

r"x

.-

z]-.l'o.s*)':
4
18 l8.'

v,"l

43oXl061(l.2-.4)

= s

"oz']*(f),

z1 -tv'. +(!:!!\'
4 Vno \VDDI

'
lpl
p

r,rr"

qY;

Noting that v

"c".(l)'v""_

l ^xf)
\ t"

nC

':I

s,<

= 0.55 V

Ex:1f,.14

x|.2+2xo.4)

Mg: V6g_V1 : 1.2 _ 0.65 :

NM1 : V1 Vo : 0.55 V

- llz

[s

l l0 ' :

.-) =
\ I,
L

'

8625 X 20

q1

X lo-5

rq)
\Li"

ls

similarly, sing Eqs. 13.69 and 13.7l, we obain:

xercise 13_6

Ex:13.19

,r:0.69RPc: 0.69X30x13--

a)

(),

or

PLr

2o.'l

lgr-!-

(),

=e

59;

2Cr7z

0.|125

+ 2

b) From

par of

.69(R"qC"l +
r

}n"oc"',)

:
:

Cord

C".*
C""*

(-

+l:
L

exrinsic

+.lp

orequivalenly

''ld

/,.r, n *

, :

476 Dsec

2BD

10625P
6.25f

Cin, + C",,

old

vP is reduc from l.|25 mtoo.3.l5 rn

ForS _

...9 x

= 20.5 ps

Cg: = Cgal =

33Eo redction

d) -

0.3375 fF

C6: Cg:0'7875F

C = (4x0.3375f)+ lf

lf

(2x.7875f) +.2f

24.6 rc']tr

3l.5

tl
" _ ^("''

x o "
+

16.6 psec

x(#):

2t.3 psec

:l6.6p

2l.3p)

Ex: 13.18

l =---------------
: ,|.gcRz
"
]-^'_
-llo 228 X l0 '')

The minimum period at hich the inverte can

reliability oprate is
T'n" : tPE'+ rPrr. Thus,

-r1l
=

17.96

Ton
Hz

PHL+

}Y

:'6ff\28ps
'o!??,'

andsince () isaoulun

\L)

is constant. then

Using

(fl):

"''\ _

2:,*

or

aea is aso doubled.

Ex: 13.20

4.225 fF

PHL

(f ) -o(f), '"*,."

1!! _ cii+clls

increased by factor of 2.
c) From Eq. 13.79:

Ex:13.17

|.25

s: $R"o Therefore, R* has to be reduced by a facr of 2 .10625 pF part by a factor of 2, S has to be + .lp = 6.25f 2'9 fF 'e e*t.in.;" and l : 13.79, we have: the _original = 3.35fF s.r L ld |pH 0.7875 + 2.3625 + 0.2 :' PH] : PH _ orgina| * :-!l: Ipll = is the * Caz 0-3375 + c. : C"u= Cg+ cga+ ,P tPlL d t PLH ae ploportioal to .'. Cin \), Ex:13.16 C'n, = 2eg 19-t2 Ii+|/y) _ =2o.7XlotY20Xlo \Ll (w\ conribution ofintrinsic capacitances of 0N and P. Therefore, Pul 2|o 22s 3.35 Po, : fCV oo t x loe x6.2sxlo = 39.1 t5 The maximum possible operating frequency is: 9 sec I ..nence' " 'J*: ' PDP : Pa"x to : f *CV2oo = x cx Vzooxo:9!3.2 6.25xlo-tsx2-s2 19.5 to fF /J x2.52 Exercise 13 7 Ex:13.21 a) For NMOS devices: .8.-.0.l8 Mos For The Dower densi. i.e.. o.21 w: 4D : 0.18 ._ , .. b) For NMOS devices: Y: For olR 2.t6 Using Eq. 13.94, we have: 0.l8 .54 Since dynamic power dissipation is scaled by s' -s b : . hence. PDP I and proDasaion dela is sca|ed .s', Ex:13-24 lf yDD and vt ae kept constant, unchaned_ \phile o, jL.hus v"" scaled by s. herefote n is scaled by will ,(' 43ox 10 1.5 4(1'2- .+ }x o.:+) would be: io '2- ]4.16. l0''\ l.5(l.2 is +s ,i .6 _ I ,."''ar'r, ',r'*r'"o CY- oo and hs is scaled thus Pdyi increases. l3.l and thus i is givon by Eq. o.4)'? l by ' 'l/s'1 |y,| 0.8 and |yDs| 1.2 are + 0.1 X l.2) yDs < l.2 55.4 .o) wihout elocity safu ratio " ' !l o\ = 59.1 v ' 2tn are satisfied and the NMos transisor be operaing in he velociy-sauraion region 6 l.5 xo'6(|.2 o'4 1x i^= "\2)ll0Xl0 I s p'''- . l3.l0l boh larger than |v o- = 0.6 v he deice will be opraing in velociy sauraion and any- remains is scaled b -.s1 . and """orrr*n"n,"* "r"," l.2 v results conditions in |yorl more. They are kept constant! " k'v"" in the absence of elociy saturation. For the PMos transistor. e see that sinc the entries in obis|y, vDD and , do no scale by ,ince |o Vos = 0.34v o l.2v cmpared to Vos : Vov : (1.2 0.4) : 0.8 V to 1.2V Table 13.2 tha change are as foows: oC lo') X (l + 0.1 l.2) = 21|.2 A sauration is obtained oer the ange : I so pop decreases by a facto of 8. ,, (1 + 0.l X 1.2) : 154'7 1A if velociy-sauration_were absent, he current Ex:13.2f x!: l0 1.2 - o.4 : .8 v which is greater than yd : 0.34 V. lso' Vo': l.2 v iS greater than yDsa' thus boh in vcs _ v o io l. 's2 S 400 NMos transisto ycs For he cuen aailable to charage a oad capacitance is tha provided by a single Mos device. The maximum current aailable to charge a oad capacitance is that provided by four PMoS transistors. Thus. he ratio is 4. (b) There is only one possible configuration (or pah ) for capacior discharge. Thus he minimum and maximum cuents are the same isscaedb X lo : x o'25 Ex: 13-26 0.l8 13.22 ratio is y.", ' , = 0.63 0.l8.-_ 1 0.l8 -x (a) The minimum osu, l'8 deices: ry ' ' /.S' x:13.25 lR n:9Jxax1.5: 0.l8 Mos 1, ,"u1"4 ,S-l 0.l8 deices: _fu_ deie area "= v Ds= .2 I.5 0.6(l.2 .4)](t +o.l.. or 0.8v < v Ds= 1.2 Note tha the elocity saturation reduces the NMs curren by 33% and he PMos cuent by 1qo. |.2.) Exercise l3-8 Ex 13.27 Eq. 13.102, e have a) Using io: ",Vo'/nV, iD = log/s v^- + -i+log(e) 11V Theefore, the slope of the straight line representing subheshold conducion is gien by: Thus' og !! los(e) = z'zn- : 25 mv atV 65 : .2| b)V7 |n : for iD 1 n e|ll '2x(25r) '=.ln c) For Ycs : 0, iD : .tnA ,o'o1 = 5 x lo6 X .1 X 1O-9 = 50 mA Pai,,: oo Vrr: 50mX 1.2 : mW ir:.lne xercise l4_l 14.1 (w/L)": ,P, = ,P., : ('v/L)P: .5 14.3 v, 0.32 0.5 ns v,. o" + z' u-v ^[_z6,1 = DD v' v,_ v'''-1aoo 0.3 ns v, zq _ Jo, substituting aues, we get : 0.5 + o.3vt/': Jv_v,+:sv_^Fasvl Y, 14.2 Using . l4.l l) ( vDD _ v,)| l_ voL - tl _]| Jl (2.5 0.5,x Vor= o'27 NM" l l=.zv , 4 |l'_ '5-,:,[ .5 + |Voo _ v,)l _ ./sll ): rl" ,o "(: ..(\ : ' (:)" ractical alue for y, : .648 : Vo 1.15 86.4 0.s1'z 2.5 ro 36.4 ""(") js "" 0.22 mW ", 'll_,(t)- ()'] = '* I' lr., _ l'68 \7 /x l0 - o.l lO ' |.44 t5 x t0 i) \{tror+ .'. t"ri: l.8 .648 oo "()'( u,)' r,rv'{ffi)s V.)' t"(l) oo "v \tzo",$$|)s 25 ./ }(.11n 0.03 nsec :.. + o.o3n) l Vl' : 3 ro !v)' : = 1120 A )(-(t] l..37s) ;k Fig' l4.l2(a). j20 A .07 nsec + 320 ,D/{ lPLl' we no|e ha lhis siuaion is idenical o that in Exampe l4.2 and we can se To obain t.97X1 6 v, ic(o) = iDN(o) + DP) = 80A nsc 2.5 1.9 capacitor cuent is using eq. (14.17) and ( 14.18): ' using eq. (14.15) and (14.16): -i(, (b) Referring o t : j: )(l.49Q.5 z/| soling this quadrati equation, yieds one vo!)5 voL -'o using eq. (14.12): "": y,) (a) Referring to Fig.14.12, without loading, \ L IP >\ .09(2.65 14.4 '= Po = .,n,Va6 = o.o5 sotha,yi _ .356y, _ .189 rrs,,(ffi) -.,".() v: _ o.446v'+ Vo. '51 2 /r_ . J.',1.4',)=.s lO o.3vl'2 squaring both sides yieds V, Vn v,)| /, t_] L "y J( l trl M, . ^lri5 using eq. (14.13) and (14.14): NM1 = y, - v'_ o.3vl "'.5v vl_ 0'223 = u r.65 _ v, _ /TJl t { 4J ' Since v oH THE NosE MRGNS wLL NT cNG l.,,, he result of part (c) iD\PL\: 50 in"\t",') = "(\ , \LP |u"'_ u,.l ' i()'1 Exercise 14-2 = zo 'l'1(!)|,,'_ 2'15 Thus,i.(rP.r) i|"' _ = 0.24 ns ""o 722.5( ro oo "" : \,:"(l) = oo "v iD(o) + iDP(o) 4l;v; J_2 |y,.| _ 0.613 _ o.svl lv+o.svr" Jrs vl "./ - |y|- _ o.g76|v,P| _ l.o242 = o solvig, \re get |v,r| 8 A V.\' 8A (d) lV,ol squaring both sides and setting one side equal to zero, we hae the quadra.tic equation, V.)' v)'? " t{ _l';oj v tt )|"' 1.6 v ns { 0.19 ns) 1(0'24 0.22 ns R-_ '"A= + 320 + PHL\ _ 14.5 _ v12 :32n"s zo",\()SV ,c(o): "|| lv,,l |v,|' v_l l v"l()15 Soling for |V,r| Fig. l4. 2(b)' l|'(Yr) 6)A ^v 325 : ' |v'| 7(lo_'5)F(T) tcl" (c) Referring to \here | 325A' _ 722'5 A 4) ---:--- P'H ',()_ i()'] ' 50 + 275A 1lll20A O, will tum off when Rc * Rez 2 4.5 + 6.5 kf) = 5.5kf) e6 : 0'69RC: = 1120 ""t""'1 : *"(l),x pLH 0.69(5.5ko)(70)( lo O.27ns which is close to the value '5)F of 0.24ns obained in Exercise 14.l4 l,u''_u,;_i()"] _,,,() = so llzv'?(|)[s, 14.6 \L)"=():ls \Lr l'''l i(T)] Using = 688A To fid i/pg)' e firs determine y hen ,, : }rr1r1"1''"oo"soonoso : tv,"t =r ^,1ffi, - lra,1 o.s v"'[F. oi v - )zo t "(),|?' ;k: v"l(!)| _ l.v]" : 14.1 ic( p ) = i DN( PH r.ao ," irl-, 'zoro'5lr(}) 94(lo 6)A (14.36) we se tha l2'5 '" = (v\ k R-- l2'5 = (l) k 0.19 ns 2.5 k!! \ L ), Using Eq.(i4.38), 0.69[(C,,",1 + cIcl)Rl (ci"2+ cc2' + R2) = 0.69[(1OfF + 5fF)(i5k) x ( 5 k + 12.5 k)] ,/, = 0.64 ns So, 15k \L) with x (Rr W*:9l4A ,() l, : + i DP1 P!L' =688+20:708 ',.'': J0 '' = w\ k-lqk_ (2} R-, ]' zo .: Using.(l3.7l)' : ^,f.o v] |v (4.36), r,.:ffi": ff: v,.. Ths, DP(,P,.) = = v"o + (10fF + 5fF) xercise 1,_3 ]^srt,_s !l' 2 = 4A i6,(l'1 Y=A+B OR _ V,) _ = 175A i^,l - NOR (c)iDI Y=AE+AB xoR XNOR 14.9 (f so rD(yDD) is new(f wirl o :2(76.1 )., A): '"():2(68.9A) This doubles /a', "and " 152.2 o( 137.8 o) 145 "", c(v^^ Y2!\ \"")t -'-:- 30(10 '5)F(l.8v o.gv) _ 0.l9 6) 145(lo 14.10 :1(w)=!x1:r ,,,(') \L)"q1 2\Lt 2 2 2 (b)i,,(1, = "'s \"(l) i,,,l,.| _ 8i :vl _ l,|) : - ll' \L'c| i^'l : !X50ll] 2 = lA (e) v ''' = It' i^'l .l -:jj.]jj: Ctt 6X0.56X lo'9 _ _t010 40 l 15 U2 decrease to 3.6 14.11 ol = o Vo : _0'88 V sHoULD BE SHFD BY _ .88 v Vol: 0.88v AFER SFNG Vo : _ 1.76V FER SFTNG L4.12 Refer to Fig. E 14.l2 Neglecting he base current of , he curren through Rt' is 5,2 Vo, 5.2 - o.75 - 0.75 0.907 + 4.98 _ v,l' Vo, R+R2 Vn: V_V"'': "" l 15 4 6 288 X 0 40 = .56 ns Thus,Y, = -IRr ",,v 288uA u1 i,l,,, D1, D2 and R2 Refer to Fig. E14.10 : lrg):.L,.1: r) \Ll,,] 2\L 2 'iJ the new ,psa is (d) Follo\ing he hint we assume that Thus' to 2('lz.5 A'\ io(}) *lII also ole oo- V')2' ""u ae(!) _ v,lv, _ remains saurat during , ' =AB+AB aorin C(Voo- V,) i/,.,|.. '"' |""r,,'l(l) '00 + l75 l,',, -* C11 6, = "" =50xts t2J |)t 1,'rl Y=AB since iD(y,D) .(!) \ L l.qtL|v o.6285 m -0.57 V _ o'57 o.15: l.32 Exercise 14-4 t4.13 oR Refer o Fig. 4.26 ' 'u - vR_ vB|oR- _______ o, v '' o.7't9 V.Irrrr= 0V 4xo'245 = '| (because the cu.rent throgh Rct ",|n, 14.14 Refer to Fig. 14.28 _1.24 l5.2 m o.orsh() o.75 + = 0.818 V 'o.49 0.818 _1-3t V t4.15 ForV' : V'r' ' .=+ _ ..12_Vn+5'2 REFER To FG. 14.32 for V:V:_1.205 99 1' 0.779 ssume yr|oR Thus a better estimate fo voi is on = is zero) IR- : _#- 0.'15 + 5.2 Vc|": 1x 4x Rc1= ' _ 0'49' 0.15 A better esima for yrr|o2 is " - 1.32 o.75 0.99 X 4.018 : The alue of 1 e found in Execise 4.14 o be 4.l2 m. The vc|aR: _0.22 x 4.l2 ' 4.018 m = -0.906 V oR-'0906 - 0.75 : _ 1.656 v _ l'656+ 2 I|^. = = 6.88m .5 3.98 mA Thus a beter estimate of Vru ,^ is | = 0.15+ o.or5n() A beter estimate forysEIca is = 0.785 ,-' _ t.32 "'|n, and corespondingly, V' : For r 5.2 _ 0.785 0.179 _1.32y r-' _ ' l.32 ' 9* o.'5 + 5.2 0.119 -1.97 9o mA 6/2' 4.018 mA Thus a fter estimate for Vrr|r* is V96|'^ = o.16' o.15 + o.or5 h() "'|n' o.75 + = 0.798 V and correspondingly Va (b)Fol _0-906 _ 0.798 = _1.704 : Vor: = 4.58m o.75 + V'": _1.205 v, q:99' l'2o5'o''15+5.2 = 4.66mA -_ ' 0.779 bettr estimae for yrE] is vB|oA = o.?88 V o.15 + oozsl"[}-1J) 1. ' \1V l.25 _ .788 + 5.2 0.799 __ 0.788 + 5.2 o-7't9 V.lp: _ 4.l2 A 2:2mA ' : x Thus, Yc]oi -2 0.245 : -0.49 V 0.788 4.53 mA : _0'22x4'53: _1 V Von: - 0.75: _1.75 v /t-_ : --_l:ji--l : 5 mA vc|a 05 Ve6lnr:0.75+OOr5h(i) = 0.79 V and correSpodingly 0.or5h() : .88 4.00 m btter estimae for yrElo is Vgg|'^ FoV' = Thus a _0.88V, ,,-_# and correspodingly, o.oh() "or (c) The V __ _ | _ o.79 _|.'19 input resistance into the base of O3 (B + 1)[r.3 + R.] = II Ls 5l = 5.55 k is Exercise l ,-5 u_:)r vi o_ (5.55 k || o.22 k) r.|nn + R Thus, -------- -5.s5ll 0.22 _ _0.269 [25 * uzl)r. I' \4 5t 5+5f' c| 15. J1i orlo^ +Vr: ssume ysE _o.24 o.79v .7?9 k 2 X 0'75 4.98 + 0.97 "l' V = _ 0.629 m v _.75:'1.32v o.57 0.57 |'32 + 5'2 6.l -5.2 V (because he crren \ilI be 4 to 5 m). t the range ofsauration' = o.99u .6]6 mA Thus he reference circuit draws a cuen of (0.629 + 0.636) = l.265 m from the 5.2 v supply' t follo\,s that the o\rer dissipated in the reference circuit is l.265 5.2 = 6.6 mw. since he reference circit supplies four gates, the dissi_ Daion alribu|cd o a u. , : ' 6.59 5'2 .|^ - || (-0.79{.3) _0.79 0.99 14.16 o.22 kdt Refer to Fig. 14.26. For the reference circuit, the cu.rent hrough Rl, D ' D2' nd R2 is d) see figue belo. 0.3 0.779 0.9 0269 X .9o9 0.79 o.22 v_o"19+5.2 NoR i. l.o5mw n addition, the gae dm\rr's a cuent 4 m from the 5.2v spply. Thus he oal po\re dissipaion / gae is PD:4 5.2 + 1.65 22.4 mW Exercise 15-1 Ex 15.1 5+ Refer to Fig. 15.5 (a) when v "': v2_ 9 satumted /^ ur6 ' *1l ;n --- () |" ""' - )' " ""( vl " - ;(1'1 ro*{1)().( _ _ ;(ffi[r ,lz, l-ulf) . = .\ L,/. l?2 (v),: z=;*ffi 15.2 Bits for row address: 2: logr( l,024) ,i Iog2(2) : logr(1,024) ,,=ogr(|'24) ' og.,(2 ) Bits for column address: 28 32 logl32) log?(2) (}l."._,,"[a5,l Ex 15.5 :voo_"' " i^u ' "'c,,'l()voo- 144 v,.- vu)" x lo-o 1o ux l.5 x1l._o.s _o.s1' A 144 a1 2-8 ns -J_ s61 lW th6ss161g. r: l.7nsx1-5 = 2.8ns or: 11 '1cR To find 5, we us al()": zs l. : 1* 3r, lo-u x 2.5 x 1t. - o.s - o.s1' : 24o l, : 1:-]C1j? : t.z n, o":Voo(l-""c") _,, =(f).= zs Ex 153 |/ ol'] \' vDD_v') l(f).: ls r. : 1 x:x Bits for blok address: Bit" 10-6 2Ao :!99:!?8):7 10E2(2) 2ttt : *)' os{f)- (_ v^ l.. ', 'o24 logr(2M) 6.9 ns , : Et (fl"1 k; : 4k; : 3 /V2; lY,l : 0.5; Vaa: 1.8 Ex 15.4 Fom xample 15.l: }: " -7:Jz d: CRln2 :2|o'|2x5x1o3x.69 ; () )o tLz"' ,:i 1.1o6" n*'(): L()'" \-' or,.-__< ', o illbe then$$" ' xercise l5_2 Ex 15.6 y. )'| v"'_u.1 ] () \)",t"_(\],-=tU} "L' \' (),=().,+,,[r -(, r] (),=''().* = ,, (f),, "zs-([),= : Wp: lV. 0.18m CB"! 2 V1 .l o, : "}.rij' : P : Vo : M2M(NMos) ' CV'oo 1.8 18 l8O A : 324 Refer to Fig. l .26 From E4s. 15.14 and l5.15' ve have: , _ our decoder is an extension of ha sho\; We have M bits is the address (as opposed to 3) and correspondingly here ill be 2M word lines. Now' each ofthe 2M word lines is conneced to M NMos deices and to one Mos transiso Thus the toal number ofdevices reqired is Ex 15.7 V111 From Eq. l5.l8: Ex 15.12 e.zs Fo minimum area: selec W' Ex l5.t I x lo '' , ! _ 0_lr '' o. .v z"1,Ios1 2M(M + 1) Ex 15.13 _ _3ox lo_'' : _rn v _" yV ^ C "y29 2 oJ l "^ " mV _9} = -60 Refer to Fig_ 1 l.28: Our ree decoder will hae 2 bit lies' Thus it wil hae N eels: t the first leves here will be 2 ransistors' a he second 22,..., at the Nth lee here will be 2N transis- Ex 15.8 tors. Thus he total numbet oftmnsistors. can be find as rea of he storage array Number 64'loA lo24x2 m') 134.2 rnrn2 or equivalently = ll.6 mm 1.3 134.2 l'14.46 mrn2 13.2 13.2 rnmz Number Refer o Examp|e l5.2. S. - by a facor of 2 by decreasing same facor. " can byhe G. Hence' cn has o be doubed. G. = g.' + 8-b 8,, and 9,1, have to be increased by a iacar of 2. The increase in 8- can be achieved by and both ' increasin he corresondn _ hus: .54 " z^ . 8 6 (\ = z x 2-.J9 : z (Y\ : \L \L)P : .'_| 2_| r I 2-l =2 l ThS, since is pfooniona| o 0.t8 :2 ^ :tum Ex 15.9 reduce !- Gemetric series . 11.6 mm Total chip area 134217728 : 2+22 +23 + ''' +2 2 (l+2+2''' 2n') 2(2 |) Ex l5.l4 l J" - 2x 'o I 2 x 5 x tO l00 MHz xercise l5_3 Ex 15.t5 (a\ (c) n one time-constant the volage reached is ." = k; (y)"[,, _ |)2.5 -'2'517 = zo x 4Uo 1.65 .lzs1 '--> r=2.2 <_ +5V Voo1'e r = 11 '" : o.632V p : 3.16 V 5 V--> 4.5 +2.5V t----' * : Ths, ,ch'sins (b) tt : 2x 10 x2 : r.65 x ro ' 6.1 ns sahrated ": \"(l)'<.e " : !xsx9xz.l' 22 0.35 ^' cBv D - 2x -2 x 0.5 0.35 = 2.2 19.8 ns ro t'x3xrol x to 2_9n" Exercise l6-1 Ex:16. : 20 og |T| tdB] Tl : r 0.99 0.9 0.8 : 0 0.l 1 0.7 0.5 .1 1 620 Ex:16.2 .', : 20log l.05 _ 20log 0.95 e-.: zologl |0.|| Ex:16.3 T(J) : =f (s + 0.9 dB os 7(0) Thus:f(r) since i2\ (s- i2\ t t-J J i,r 44 I ---------------- (s+ l) (r'+ r + l) 1 ^, .,./ -- =-_ r'+s+l 1! : s+1)(s2+i+s+1) J ;1]| (s2+4) (,-l",f)(, -\_') : t .. T(s) T(j,r): , (sl +41 7161 = 1_ 2Q2 Q:I ll = ____j ,=r,, 2 (l + ia ) : _2lo -fi l .4_]) (" *4) .-rr.t:1 ' 4.'+.+! .' +.' +.' +.' o..o -. Thus: 1:! 4 ;T;;l; :28.6dB *Y Ex:16.6 Jlo"' _ Er;16.4 (s) = t (r ,("' + 4) j8) (s + 0.1 j8) j1.2) (s + 0.1- jl.2) s1s2 + 41 (o.) (.l'?+ 0.23 + .65) (J'?+ o.23 + L45) Ex:16.5 l: o.s 1rU.)1 + 0.1 + (., + 0.1 + lradzs _20 IogIT(i.)l _t *.'(9L)'nl P,/ 10 ls I .] Thus. I0log[ + 0.58882 l{ : l0 Ls : 29.35 dB l{ :1 I LHS : 32.87 dB . Use N : 1l I.52N] 30 and obtain A^''': 32.87 d Fo..," o be exactly 30 1o ]ol2Q = 1cos60:12 logtl +.' x 1.5"1 = o..t654 0.54 .,' - ,,: 1andQ:1 6/zQ:1cos: log.[ , _,l The real pole is a J -l The complex conjugate poles are a J:2cos'a 36 dB Ex:16.7 s sho\n, he pai ofcomputex poles has dB 0.s jJi 6 jsin60" Exercise 6_2 valleys are obtained hen co.'co.''f9)l L oh(+)'o \or,/J scos'9):k'k=o'1'2 '.; T(r.) : (s + 1)(s + o.5 -rf) for (s+l)(s'+J+) DC,- o., _ ;f) k: o'l'2 = .","",(} dr1 "Cos0 Cos 0.81oe : orCosf : r: 16.9 O.3l e _L (,) = oon t .'cosh'(,cosh Ex:16.8 : : lo ogIl + 0.34932cosh '''\l J] -'2)] 2(7cosh 64.9 dB 1og,. = 'dL1: (3) = 10 logIl + .5o882cosh For.,,= o.so 2(7cosh-|2)] 68.2 dB This is an increase of3.3 dB lr(j)1 Exr 16.10 +.'cos'[cos '(9)] r for o [""" "..'s [s"* scos ... Jroto 1= 0.5088 (a) For the Chebyshev Filter: eaks ae olrtained ryhen *"s .: ''(-e)] ''(:)] : '(J) : Qk + N : ;,:,"co'(fi,,) :o.so', :o log[1 + 0.50882cosh21/vcosh -ll.511 7.4... choose Excess Attenuation = ;,:."co,(ff) :o.ss." ;,:",,co,(rt",) 10 50dB '),k .,cos[QtJ_Dz], .A(3) 1O o,|,2 o, 'z _'l.5) _ log[1 + O.5O88'cosh2(8cosh :55-50:5dB 50 (b) For a Butteronh Filter 0.5088 (.) lo [t lo log[1 N: 5.9 +;(:)'t + o.5o88'(l.s)'?N] .'. choose N : 50 l6 Excess atenuation = l0 log(l t 0.588'( l.5)"] _ 50) = .5 dB Exercise I 6-3 Ex: 6.1l Rx "..-*:p-. 9 : l0rradzs selected to yeid a centre. Fency gai of 10. Ex:16.15 (a) lo = _L ' cR = 0.0l F .p 6u1n = R2 10o l0 k :& : - l0 Rl r(sl Ex:16.12 Refer to Fig. 16.14 '' : lcR : ,. t'+ ta sz + s / Q + : .__:!__ l' lr(l.)l t0'radzs ' ',' lok()c: ___: . I l0' l" :0.l di For R arbitrarily selected o be \''2\n The two resistors laled R, can also be selected to be l0 kC) each. for any two frequencies , and )' at whih EE:16.13 111 = -------J9n (fordc gain = s+s'/2r,,+<']" lr(j)] : ll .?-b - .1 .b 'i)' @b -7)' (.3 - : 2@?6 : ,,$ (l)

',1.}

.=>

+ 1z|

')

j1

l 1

-b.,lQ
Olo

,,,

||= ]

J2

vaue at de(unity)

which is 3 dB he|ow he

Q.E.D.

Ex: ll-14

''i|;':Q'J]=l

1}

> ^,

u,

|-"//ll,-

1- "o4'l|1-

',

This 7(s)
o

1Oas

.2+|]"+ll

_ l s;g
1

1,l, f Q
.,, 1>
l_l o ^//l,,

9(b)

vn _
oR

-9 l

BW.^tlol
For = 3dB

BvJd'

BW':

JQ

BW,, Q

,|)

Now to obtain aenuaion > dB at , and :

wh9re ( _ , : B\r,

tolo_ l

At o =

|r| is

the same

q...

no

B|'
Q.E.D.

tl

Exercise

Ex:16.16
From Fig 12.16 (e)

1
From Exercis 16.l6 above 3dB bandlridth

= <n/Q

2rrlQQ = 6
:
Q "CR
6 2 c |o4c _
210 =

j''' /.'l2+1

dc gain

= lo

1.2

a:+

.6F

R : |oa : .42H
.Q 2 x 6

)
'[;)
,2
2

Ex: 16.19

1.44

J :|oo:20
:
_ "/',,n
500

l.all_l)_l
2m/

Using the data at the top of Table l6.:

lr(j,-)l
= 3.17

lr(j-,

r)1r}"

o,

l. 7
2 -l
a2|( l _ mu)l

: ,L*:

fla 0:

Q: "CR+C
= ll25 pF

J1

10

Ex:16.20

rtx2105x|o!

(16.25)

s|:+x

**

n"L

lot
z",l5 x

tu

Ex; 16.18

265

(s'

k thenrz =

8.l8(J

90

2loa
^

--------------_

l0

+ 0.2895)

+ o-42g3e2)

+ s0.1789n + .9883,,')

The circuit consists of 3 sctions in cascade:

(a) First order section

_&

R:
..r: oQ

r| =

selecting

*.
:

20

centre-fruency gain =

(s2 + so.4684P

13.26

2104 1.2 x 10
the data in Table l6.l for the bandpass

'+12/r|=

*---

1;.o

.. :

Q/

Now sing

R : lk

l.2 'o-9

'

o:2XlX1or
rbitrarily selecting

2104

Ro:

o.eo

x:16.17
Maximaly

c:c6=1.2nF
R=R:=Rt=f:_l

= 2.25mH

*-

th

number cofficient

11.1'

-0',2895""

s + 0.2895,

kf)

Execisc 16_5

Let

n, =

dcgain=
as

19

RrlR, :

x: |6.21

1 = R, : lok

C=lnF

j '+ ..

lr( n,rl

'_
^t

2985t,

: -_L
CR'

: l5.9k

2lo4 X Io_9

Rt = 10k

Rr: , :

--------

Using

R1

0.42951

s'+

l :
nC

0.28952.104X1o4

r(r):

l6. choosing

coefficient was selected to

yield a dc gain of unity
\rr'here the numerator

: t0 k!l
R2QQ -l):
0(2X2'1):30kfl
freuenc ain= K _ 2 1
l.svr
'0

ish

0.4684,, + o.42%o?"

16

R2

gator is

v^.
v"'
l
y,scRv.'^2

s / CR)
r_ + s--_'+ -

=Q-o_l'5\2=.l/v
CR.'
\| l'6.22

Select Rr

C =

Cc

R: =

".zN

: C

R:: l?5:

10k
2.43 nF

= 2.43nF

Q :

a ='9:!:-"
0.4684,

,,C

(c) second_order secion with Transfer-fcion:

r(s):

0.9883'
s2 + so.1789 + 0.9883o2,

The circui is similar o that in (b) aboe but ih

Rl : Rz:

R1

1 ,:
u
' l0"

cr=c6=
=

1.6

: R: Iok

nF

J.98&r .

gien

2r, too

, lo'

,=ffi=r.ro
_

1789

Thus R6

Q /

''C =

55.6

v.
V,

Placig he three secions in cascade, i.e. connecin8 he ouput ofhe firs-orde. section to the
inpu of the second-order secion in (b) and the
oput of of section (b) to he input of(c) resuls
in the oerall transfer function in . (l6.25).

*K(RF/

R)S2 +

(RF/ R)n2n

,' *co,,/o}o2n
C : lnF R. = 10 k

I
_,.il.83 k
. l'l l0 "
R: l0 kRF : iokf)
R, = l0k+Rl: R28-1)
= 10(10_ l) = k
: 25.6 k
._

I
.c

25

*&t,,'=','-',:to( )'

DC ain
.R, =

& :

l'10:
R.:
' 2 t/5

?-

RF
b) R,

l6.7 k

Exercise

x' 16.23
Refer to Fig. 16.25 (b)

l.59nF

,'+

r13

, : -:

104)

+ ro8

x t',t,',6 x

|
l

to* _ 4

ld

= _0.382 X 10a and _2.618 X o4

:
Q20
R":R/:20R:2k
..r( =

2
I
_)*
+,(
+
\l-'xzx l5 t 95X fl

,t

1
:
C:!+C
o - 2104 x 104
Rr:QR=20xl0:200k

lffi

@
s

Ex:.16.27

\| |6.A

Refer Fig 6.26 nd'lbl'e 16.2

C = 10nF

{*'*"*^, }'l_"

1
:
: l6k)
"c 104 X 10 l0-9
QR:5x l0: 50k
C1 : C flagain= l0 1 : 10 nF
n:1

Rr:+=
galn
r:

Vo
v,:
' o- scrRl

1at()

R.zl = lok

* sc,1vo-

lOk

galn

x l0 =

50

From eq (16.76)

cR:29: ?JJ:2y1sos

l4

ForC: C : C2: lnF

=2xlo-a :2k
Thus

R]

vi

_/Ra

sc,+t,/R,+

This is a bandpas function whose poles are idenica| o he zefos of (s) in Fig. ( 16.28 a).
Fo c1 =
10 'oF,&:2 X l05&R.:5 X

The tansfe. fnctin of the feedback network

gien in Fig. (16.28a). The poles ae the roots

is

of

|),
_o
t I
.'+.l._L
\cIR] CrRjnc|R4l cc2R!R4
ForCt: C2: l0 eF,R3: 2X lO5(t,
5X,o4,

scrRlR4

\CrRr+-J-).
C2RJ CtCtRtR4

.s)+.sf

x |6.i26
the denominator polynomia,

c,+

cR]

_S.z (C1Ra)

269 111

m:4Q2:4
Thus. R. : E:1:
'M4

scrRlR4

vo

From eq. (6.75)

R4 =

Rr/

Rhl

Vo
,, , sc|yo - (l lV ,

x 16.25

l0

vt- vo :

v,4) +

c,:
l
Vo: SX2XlOax
yi s2+sx104+tos

For uniqi centre-fruency gain

2XlOaX = lOa+:0.5

r*

&:
rl

m k.

-4'i :

t r)

t8

|ln

Exercise 16-7

|-.o

Ji

tJro

_'

_ 1=4Qs9
"42Q2
vn

'r:_1_1:

9!
(vn-

scavo

y.,)

C3

'Q

= ' ' =

: ,(l
,

: ''c, + s::AQ
"c,
a sl:44

4Q:

R,)

at (.4)

sc'vn
''" !,},}sc,'
R R' R,

!R, _ y^.s,c.c.n'.
"t
vo _

sC.'R, ,

R,

ysc4{sc\f2)

,,ns(+&)*
" "c"R,' RJ

, = ":

as ln Eq.

^!c{4R1R2

D.C.gain:

asinq(l6.7El

R,:R,=R:l0k

C'2Q
R'

214

2/rt
X

|01) lOa

5.6_

nF

m=42=(!\=z
\2.,,
C.

From Eq (16.l 0)

Co

Ex

16.32

5',

Ro

Ex:

I 6--1-1

(b) R'

l R':

.j14

,p

: 21o6 x3.2 l0 6X l5o :

R: R.|] r ll Rr: 2kR.: l5k

Bw

o'Qo

(R, 1l R,")

.,r^O/O
2%

=!2 2

1%

: flQ

+Cr":

Cr

+2o/

:
R\2 -l

c5

oL

: _l /2 .a-o : _ lx 2:
s'"
R']
.So

ll

|t

(16.99)

6.:Co=9!i:.;lan
'420

0=

Ex: 16.30
^R'lR'

x2o

6.283 pF

2.81 nF

()

10r

Q..D.

2Ql.

2 X

From

From Fig 16.34 (c)

s9,99+s9^C,+

From(l6.96)&(l6.97)
C1 = Ca = 6TC

xl. 16.29

cR

0%

:2,l0a

lo. / /)

|\
'-cr [l
1Rr* Rr)

''C
"C,
Q
:o(-2)+(o)(-2\+o:osa

'
C'qR&

C''

a- _ +''

_! _2l _

Ex:16.31

.sc,. f,I

I / C 1C 4R1R2

''

_.1 _2\ +

1)
:2-2 =

+ SC,V" R.
+

oq.

49s
:

V,,

2qo

2o high we hae:

u-'o
Rr

V^:

|o

(c)

R1

]rz_

= 455/35

13

l0

Kiz

ttbL

_t
:
c1

(2x455;19:12x5x0

24.4'1 nF

: 24.47

0.2

24.21 nF

:15

3k

Exercise 16-8

163

Ex:
To

^l

jus meet specifi cations

: fo :1 :
6'wl
. Rrll n']R," =
oL

R,ll r2R,"
=

45.5

45.5

2R', :

!:
2A.36

10

= z.'l

:to.

aol?'6s = ro.rf,

13''7

.'.

lo.1x

106)2

X 3 X 10

x lo

|2

X 2 x 310.8

1O3

=6.9s kf)

Ex:16.36

B|

= fo+

l0.7 MHz
Bl

Jn,=
=

{2

|0.77 MHz

{2 :'!4|.4z
|6.|16}

MHz _ 22f,2

n.:2
'J1 :
For stage I

(!6.l15)

, 2 . 111

1O.7

(16.110)

CR

CBt

74.7

x lo

12

x !4l.4 x

lo3

2z lo3

15.l kf)

: !xts.sx15.l:117

l,
(2

(210.63on)2X3Xo6

zL

rl
+R.,,,.I x +R","",

g- Rln
'here

_1

Jo,

x 2

tional to

13; F

141.4

c: ,nbL
-L:
o

ro_

"

lo

o, = R/n &

2:t/alt'''
o

Ex:16.37

Ex: 16J5

&:

15.5

t^"^:

106)2X3 X

For stage 2

r.-,o

Ic: g.Vo,:

12.8 pF

= 14.1 pF

1(R, || n'Ri") . Thus,

nF

resonance,

-^l

1
..*9r:
-' n2 ,nb L

x 103x

1.36

/|

C:

455

(21 lo.''

n: CBI :

650

,:

as.s

|4|.4Hz

10.63

Mz

R.,,a"1

: 6.95
:48.3
Ratio

R,,uu"2

6.95

: 7 :
48.3

2.42

xercise 17_l

Ex:17.1
ole freqencyi = 1kHz

+.s

AMLFER GAN

lv;v

:5+0.93 =

L:

,fr

v"

30

:_2 /

Rr

R.

60

(}1
+
_'"-"

ll

vb+15

3'

!(o.t

=9o

nx

R,.ll

)-

.l

-o-95

30

l.

a) for oscillains to sart, R, /R'

2 ths the
potentioneter should be set so tha is resistance

o ground is 2

z'
lal ,-{Jl' : ( * !1
\ RttzP+zs

:i

:('-ft)('-)

-+{

k(!

16

kz

Vo
Vo ,
,-Vo,
' scRrR- sCRlR scR
(vo, vo I
I

.--.1;-l
andc:

l+516x10s+

16nF

,,
|

16

x lo

The closed loop poles are found by seting

a(J) = ' that is, they are he alues ofs, saifiying

]+S/l6y l0 t , ____
.s

16

X l

&

''

Thus

(J):

x lor x

Jy'orking from he output back to the inpt and

coninuing he equaions \e get

3156'1_!
.scR
:

27'l

Ex:17.5

\here R

t0.68v

Ex:17.3

s)

from symmetry' \rr'e see ha he negatie peak is

equal to the posiie pak. Thus the ouput peakto-peak age is 2l.36 v

'! 2.9'l

l?6

o_vb
13

\hich is about l/3 of %; thus

hus.

,,(,-ft)

?lo /

+5.93V

V/V
Llmltergaln : -R.

o.7 +

(
io vu-vo
_

. j)

-5.93

he positine pak to ' the

will be one diode drop (0-7 v)

rent through D, in compaison wih he currents

throgh R' and R" we find hat

=_ts,]_.?(l+;)
=

j)

(b) The fruency of oscillaion is (105/16) rad/s

or I kHz

volage at node b
above the oltage

L' =yR]Rs+v"(l-ft)
rs(l)+ o.u(,

i_:_(0.015 :t

x: l7.2

= l.or

_
=

.scRiR,

vo

.scRJ-

l(Vo'

Vo \

s scRl /

ff(,.*,*)

_Vo, |
, l

l(I*

:-vo(+ -l- + |
scR,\ SCR 16]2./
')

sc

scR/l

Exercise l7-2

t( ;*&._ *

(#

."l_"^J

].-*

Ei:17.8

.' v"l+
L= v"(l
,l l
"\ r s'c''
s, sc

Thus:

vo

-.scR

Node qatio

^4t
'r+rar+r1:*:

:
v'",-,

jC

9,

)
*;(l-cn
'\
CR)

9a

i-t

"

Thus.

/.

: --l_=-^ :
nCR

"/__1CR

Hz

v^

;:(j)
that

shou|d

ua| to (or

geatef than) uniy.

is

4
This the minimum alue ofR/is

12 k

1+Cn:
.,^:
" CR
) lo3
:
ForC:16nFi l0kf)
I

is

4V

4(2\1.4\
--:'.o

D,

(oscillations have stated) it ca'

s'rrc(^+ 1)
+.sL+
R

l:

s'1'c

rc1

Substituting S = j@

l-n2c(L1 +L)!+j

[?

"

R:

!r)x.,,'c]:

a.E.D.
+
lc(Lt + L2\

o=r:

Lt+

L2

L2

+B.R :

Lt/

L2

l7.7

.'. he output is wice

y.

'|'L7C

4
4R
4R
^ = -i_-;--fil
' oiC'R= _-;---;--:
iC'R' l
:12 R or

Since

s2c Lr)

/-:O+3.R+:_J-

-lct
" nn.'

x|.

*__L):

2Jax|6Xl-9XoXl]
= 574.1

be eliminated resuling in

a reat ntrmher

follows that " is obtained from

-1.u^6'

-!
#,* '.u-.+('. #")
*L( l
so \

Ex:17.6

.rk".

t^u.* rL *

#,t

R'

at collector:

L7 Q..D'

xz |7.9

R:

q|l R.||

11 2X lrll lX
X | 3'
:l0|l 2|l 1: .64k

l6

='.r:x1.64:65.6

lo1

Exercise l7-3

cr:65.6.0l :

.t

E:17.13

0.66 F

1 .l .
;
'' c2
''cr +
I

o.o1 0.66 10
1012 X
0.01 + 0.66

l A

Ex:17.10

from

''

from

(l7.24)

_
;;,

_
zn

Ji.sz

2.0I5 Mz

"

on

''

lo "

(17.25)

JP: ---!-C'C
z.n

l'CD+

"CP
Time delay =

o.0l2x4xl

---!-

ms = 0.125 ms

Ex:17.14

2.018 MHz

' '

O:

-i

'l" t'

-!-

_r"r.oir"ro""o.r,
120

^= 55,0
Ex: 17,11

V=V:itl
5= R' x13
R,+R,

&:l.
R
R:

17.12

16

comparato \ith

:t 12

E:17,15

lyJ

R,,

V vL=;|Ll
,2

s:

of

eels

R2

Possible choice

R :

]!9
2

hreshold of 3

s mv

50X1]:10&R2

&xro

R2 = 2Rl

l0 k

Rl = 20k

Rz:
R
R2 :

to
0.06
200 R,

forR' = 1k

, :

2L

and otput

Exrcise

7-4

Ex:17.16

R,
y
too
=
' R,+Rr: + l0 :0.091 v
7 : 2,r1!!-P
l_
6
l'09l )
2 / o.o| / lo 06 X lnr
:0.365

\t -

! :
T

0.09t,,

274,

k----t<-----+1

T'

During

xz 11.17

T,

v(t): 2_(|2+V)e-/5
vR : vD att: T2
vD: 12-{t2+vo)" t'"

+v

o\
z,n(|2
\12_D)

xo.r x

10-6

x rox ro' x

h(]]+)

"T

^(ry._)

Tt: T2: T/2

vA(v\

'"(i#)

:428l z
A 0"c , yD

_":

0.7 + .05

i, =
l,rJ2)
\ 25 .'

.fl-.

50'c. VD

\l .]5./

: 0.7
5 :

t l00"c' yD

.lnt-t
/t255\

0.65

= 4.6|l z

l,(1?)

fl._^-^

0.75

],995Hz

0.7 _ 0.05

= 5

rl

0.15

.55

5.451 Hz.

!.45-'

Ex:17.18
To obain a riagula aveform with
to-peak ampifute we should have

vE:_v:5

BuV-,
''
Thus

,5

: _t+&

R,

= ,ro x

Rr: 20k

!!
R2

peak-

Exercise l7-5

For l kz fruency, T = lms

To obtain

Ths.
T

/2 : o'5" rn l _ rV-V

:0.0l X l0 6XiX,/lo
R:50k

Rz =

lX lo
R]

_ nI X

10

"XR, |"(i#)

+ R, =

0.6q,/

l'\ |0

''(Rn + 2Rr)

Now. subsifuting into (2)

Use 7.2

v'

1.25
the

circui provides

5-

l
-Rr l2Rs 69X l "' l4.4q k(l)
Using (13.45)
A+Ru
o15 =
R + 2RB
(2)
Re * Rs : o.15 x |4. : 10.88 k
(1) (2)+R, : 3.61 kf)
'1.2"

8ywe must have

i _ 0.l' 9 _ o.gmA.Thusheeoris

o.69C(R+ 2RB)

R :

; = 3 = .rnn hileideallv

Exz 17,21

l''

1,

8.8-.1 . 8.7
5 .25 Rl

t X

(i.e. to obtain

x |7.2o

'

4V

To obain a perfect match a

6171

T:

1.25

y:

z__] _7
Rt R.2 R]

'

(17.37)

perfect match at

for >_'7v

Ex:17.19
Using

i : 1.6 mA)
t.6:!+4-3
5R,

k
and 3.6 k

standard 5% resistors.

Ex 17.22

-0.3 mA.

v:

54 he circuit proides

, =:_=
5 125 - 2.6 m.whieideally
i - o'l / 25 _ 2.5 m Thus he eor is
.

+.] mA

*t

: 7

the

circui rovides

i - !5 *1.1.25
^:\ he error
x

, :

4.6 m. hi|e ideally. Thus

is _0.3 mA
104 the circuit povides,

+19-3+19..7:
6 1.25 t.25

ideal|y i

_ l0

lomA'hile

mA. Thus he error is 0 A.

i (mA)

R3

i =o'l,1

Tru
Slope = 17,

i:o.l;
At : 2' i = o.4 mA
Ths

f,, = -1
'
0.4

:5k

For3yy=7V

'

-3
l?t R2

Exercise 17-6

Bxj \7.

Thus,

, :

0.5

so

1ra : 1to + vp : 0.51 V

,, = 1V=9/o: 1V
ip:1m, p: o.1 1 : |.1
Ur : '1V - The negatie feedback loop is no

operative.

": o

A =

_l2

-1V

"r:
=

+(2.42V7)/R

*2-:f
lLrRl

2'42 v
2.5

-'1

vJ

l\

/,l

/
1 ''\
/l
+2J-J

+24\
25.'

Exr 17.25

.2= l'2-4\
\
15
o=

(V,'"_ ,R,)_ (y.._r"R")

: ("1_ ,)R,

:1'272-!
'
2.5
_ o.25x |o x zx?-! _ '
2.5
:

lt

For the diode to conduct and cose the negatie

feedback loop, Uo must be negatie, in \hich

F'x 17.A
A

|"

case, the negative feback cases a irtua short

cicui to appear between the inpu terminals of

rr

op amp saturaes in he posiiie saturatio levei.

The diode will be cut off and vD

R= lk

ideal o

1 : lOmV :

i, :

!.9Y

Given

=+

16

, for

>o'

l0 mV

i, : 1 m 0-1 m
n:0.7V 0.6V

10

o.5

0.

n summary

,:0 for 1>0

o: fol 1]=o

x 17.26
Refer o Fig(17.34)

For

,a

U/

+ v:

D, ill conduct and close the negative feedback

loop arund the op amp. U_ : 0, the curren
through R| and D, q,ill be
at the op amp output' v,

0.7

V hich ill set

Exercise 17-7

I0-D,on
- ] goes the & forms D| off

D, off and no crren il flo hrough R,. Thus

For

, :

0 mV

D \il conduct

Rr: v1 :0V
-v^:0"

R,& R,to vr. The negaie feedback oop ofthe op amp will hus be
th.ogh

closed and a virtual ground ill appear a the

inerting input rminal. D,will be cofi The
cuent through R,, R,and D, wi be

l9,' _,o
Ik

will be 0.5

A.

Thus lhediode. D,.olage

,,: o l0AX10k:
1]A

D. + z,,

0.5 a

o.

+0.l

Forvr=_1
This is similar o the case hen
The current thrgh R|. R?' D,

7: -L = 1.a
1k
.'. lr, : 0.7 V
1,o : 0 + 1mA X l0 k :
v

= 10+a1 :1o.7

vl

0.6

v
v
l0 mv

ill be

10

17.28

Ex 17'27

V/> 0 - Equialant Circuit

-D,on,D! off

-J

}o
current flos from U, through R,, R,, D, into he
outp erminal of the opamp. v goes negativ
and is thus

+!!
3R R

s ,,
hat

= 0.

15

spply

This situation remains the case until

....!+1:o
3RR
'o:
vr

Rz
Rr

5v

D, offD|

-on

Exercise 7_8

b)

z,

-similartothecicuiin(a)bu

, : l v

nas at

: l/lo k:

0.l mA

A: l+D2
=l
uo

0-1R

(QJ)

l0 V - similar

to ()

"\ l/

:1.6v
(c)

=_]l+1)
]R Rl
=45

l:

& (b)

- all inpu( erminals (no gound) of opamps is

equal o l0 v'

: __4'3>o
:. D2=o'Vn<o D' off\

note

.l

+ .? +

= 7]0+o.7

_l
, _ l0
1

^: o+Uor=

lo

+0.7: l0.7V

d)vr:0.1 V
Vs: Vr*V^
= o.l + 0.7 +
= 0.63

o.

t ton f0

02)

-\ 1

./

v
vA=_12

lmA

+ 12=

=0.1V

{o.or.ne

Up

Vs=Vo+

>D
o

0.1v

0.lV

{o.r...

(e) 1

/:0.1

+ 0-7 +

oltages in

/ \

0.l g-\,
/ o'o2 \

=0.63V

: -1

: 0.1 mA
: + ,:

NB

k &

0.l

1,

a)vr:6.1
tance in

Vo:_r:1

vB _l2

o.02 nA

o.2

mA

= 1+o.7+o.loc()

xercise l 7_9

r : _ 10 V
/:.0m
(0

,() :

use

circit (d)

10V

^=2r^

is a sinusoid of

^D

be

vB = v0+ vD|
10.73

l,
5

= 1.0mA

Ex:17J1
)

:'t ' <ll

aJ-'
R

cuenl m5
1

peak' i.e.

1
lo I mA. Thus \,srt
'1R
-

be equal

obain

maximum

zo

will

4.5

: 5^Dv.thisvalueofvA,we

vD| + yM + yD1 + yR

Vo = Vo = 0.7v

r'here

and

V,,
4.5

For

v2

=-

|1| and
|z,]

For
2

i.e. v1

'2

Thus
|vr|

x _|,|

< 0, i.e.

|'

y.l.," =

v, = |r,1
_|, _
:
vn
lll

: 0'

+ ],|

Thus, he block diagram implemens he absolute

value operation.
Using the circuits of Fig(l7.34 a), wih the dies
reersed, to implement he half'wae fecifier' and
a \eighed summe results in he cifcuit sho\n
below.

UseR =

Rr:

l0 k

.7 + 0.8 + 0.7 +

8.55

k
y
when
is at is posiive