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Exercise 1-1

Ex: 1.1 when output terminals

:
b. uoc :

ae open

For circuit a. oc

,()

Foi circuit

i,(r) X R,

circuited

100

.,)

,,.

For circui b.

i,. :

fR, =

is(/)

.,-:
" lomx--!--:5.
l+l

-rfl

vs(r)

f&

Figure 1.1a

I"

x| 1.2

i56

n:

mV

n.:

RL

R.

is

Gien

Rs + Rr10

A,

R5

: l

:9.9
Rr- lk.i- lOA
' X _-]
l(n+l
l00
For R, _ o k. i- : 10 uA x
'
l+]0

a 9.l A

t k

For

R,

l,,:5A
_ tk.r- - x
'
l(n I lo

Fo
+

lK
R,: lM.i-_ l0uAX
'
l+M

3 0.9

R'

0 mv and Rs

1 un

g :

f a load R1 gives 80% of the sotce c.ent, then

R,

"

kf)

For

80% of source cuent = 10

s()

Gien ,s(r)

l0

{"

1.1b

Rs

1'.('

Rs = l k,then

: a
10X_jr_=,
+i,

is

Ex: 1.3 Using volage diider

c)

_ mv

Ex: 1.4 Using current divider

-l),
l"

= 10
V :10mv
l l0

gives 8 mv when

8=

Fire

10

R. = 1

l)

,: G)

1L11

|
^:lomVx
"
!)+1K--qt
8o9o ofsource oltae = lo mv x !Q
'

Rs

Vr. :

R.: 19 1
l0
,^:
" lomx 1+l _-9l.v

For ialency

Rsis(r)

when output terminals a.e shot-circuited


ror crcut a.

z-" = 10mVX I :9-9mV


+

8 r.

= 1 k

:+R.

l0,',

25

l
l+R,

Xercise |_2

Ex:1.5

l :

2zf :

Ex: 1.6 (a)

(b):l=
t

7=1

161

+:

#:

101

:1

radls

: 1* :

16.7

60

----:;

l '

: 1v}D = 001
U^:2v, = 0
, : 15 vD : 1ll1
/

10Hz

(b) (i) +

.,.

470

l00O s

56 channels

t v2. ^ : v2
=-x-x,
TRR
P = Pt+ Pr + Pr +...
4v
r 4v ),1*
-/ 4v\,1,(
\il R - ]J2"JL,
R' 52".,

y(*!- l
{ra
R?r\92549t

-! r

..)

direct caculation that the

innnie series in the parenheses has a sum tha


approaches 2 / 8; ths P becomes y2 / R as
found from direct caclation.
F.action of energy in fundamental
0.81

Fracin of energy in first five hamonics

:!(r*]+1)=.sr

Fracion of energy in firs seen harmonics

,rr\

o.ss

Fracion of energy in Rrst nine harmonics

",r\

+ .l

*a*1*1):
8 /

9 25 49

.s

Noe ha g07 of he energy of he square ae is


in the first three harmonics: ha is' in he fundamental and the third harmonic.

Er: 1.9

(a) D can represent I5 distinct alues

between

and +15

: ovD:

V Thus.
o0

1og 05 = 50

: 15x8:

dB

l20m

PL:6/J' = 18mw
Pl"*ipun",l : l20- l8 : l02mW

,,, =

l' _-l0

_!g

l20

P, :

,?o /

I0" + 0

'

lla

- tov

l'v

R, - (lo x-10

6)'?

: to Ir w

with he buffer ampifier:

R,
RL
" x R,+RlxA ',''x R+R"
:lx l xtx l0 = o.25
l+l
l0+1
n^=

p' :

2r

'R.t0

:9J

volae ain

ls-w

_ b _ 0'25v -

lv

,r

o.25

= -12d8
Power gain (r) =

25t

:8(r*l+.1
g 25+1):
49)

Ex:1.11 Pr.

l0

Ex:1.12

lteraively,

s-8ll

,' = ar
lrn P,'

E:l.E P : 1[t'.,
TJ R

ort 9

20log 1 : 40 dB
20 log l0oo : 60 dB
ower gain = 1log,: l0log(,,)

ol1. The eor is -0.2 v or

cuent gain

channel 14 to channel 69

= 8/'z

5'2 1o0 : _4L

106

t can be shown by

Ex: 1.10 Volage gain

since i Stats with channel 14, i will go fom

is 5 v: hus D

_0.a

Ex: 1.7 f 6 Mz is allocated for each channel'


then 470 MHz to 806 Mz will accomodate

806

l v (ii) +2 v (iii) +4 v (i) +8

(c) The closest discrete value represented by

P,

7i

P:
v,:0.5Vand
:
r. : -----l-v
' iM+ lM

6.25 mw and P,

where

Thus.

Pi =

.5

x 0.5

= 'i'

0.5

uA

0.25 W

and.

1:6.25x10'=25xto1
u 25xroo
l0 log ,',

44 dB

'

Exercise I -3

This

Ei:

fie

belongs to Exercise 1.15

(no load) ouut olage

1.13 opn_circuit

' _ . '' ' _


!!x!!
-
-x
o,
oi, i' s

outp oltage with load connected


R.

] -------L

I aR-:
Ro+

For

P, :

!eR,

40

dB = 1

' "[l'-!-|'/
\
l+ll

22
nUi-|
t-

l'o

n.7

0 log ,4"

- 10'''l',
'i

2.5vj

= 2.s x

to4

w\ry

(see figure aboe)

|K
lo,/
'\lK,lK/

1.o11lo11o.99ol )(1)(.o9)

Ex:1.16 Gien ,"

1:

o.r,

zr, =

0.909 vs

oiz

iz

R;:lM

R" = l0

- :

'('*(-t)

R"

mV

,4 dB

r
b_(\lK.lM/

7,t4

7M

Ex: 1.17 Using voltage amplifier model, it can

Ex: 1.15 without stage 3

=
'o
,J

ForY":lmV
v.L :744 x l mV:

represent aE

A,=+

Vr'

lo =

1mV

'1.
.
'-- lt_' 12_- 1).ll
7].
'
'
''1l
.
"l]7
:.909 X 90.9 9.9 x o.9

: (o,,"",ffi)", r,

-,|

,, :

.:8l8":8l8X1=818mV

o.25k = 25ol

Ex:1.14 ,o

:818 V/V

"o'R+Ro

0.8:

go.g9.gyo'9

= 0.909X1 =

For,:1mV

s.s X o.9o9

b:9xr:9x1:9mV

Ai :

9.9 90.9 __ 900

v/v

V^:
v

--

R, A l
R{ '"'

-------Lx

R, +

R : 0

R,

-------_
RL+ R"

oerall oltage gain

lM
X 9(nX 10 :4N
1M+lK
0+10
For:16
:

ro

V' ""-jl:
v"

8l.s

For

l mv

A^ x

The oveall oltage gain

0.909 mV

9v/v

oerall voltage gain

M
XgX l0 :
=1M+1K
1000+l0

8l0V/V

.'. Range of olage gain iS from 409 to

v/v

81 0

Exercise

Ex:

l.l8

l-4
Ex: l-21

( +l) ib
R"
,.:
' i.----:"R+ R,
Ro
i^= A i,
"
'"Ro_R'

Rt R'
tr.;"
""Rs+R,Rol R

Ths.

io,R"Ro
'"-Rr+R,Rr+R.

But

&
+

l'

r, = ,.

and

i, :

i.,thus

fl"=--=?=,-+(+)R"

Er:1.19

i6ro* ( + l)'rR"

:r[r"+(+)ft"]

1.22

z
10 kz
lkHz
l MHz

Gain

10

60

dB

20

dB

d
dB

"R,+R,
G^'(Ro || Rr)

R,

,.

=c.UsR(Ro|| R)
Thus.

,k

c.ufu'o11 r.l

3dB
freqency

Ex: l.20 Using transresistance cicuit model he


circi will be

Ex:1.23

!:

i5

R,

Ri+RJ

ro.,9:
,s "!
i
R"
:R -----i"'R( + R,

.ls

R.

R, + Ra

G.v

R,
R"X"
-R, +Rn

iiRo ll R.

G.V,

ll c.l

a+a+,c,

RoR''
:
'rr. 9
y,

V: R.i1"#*
vo _ ^ R
"'R,rR,

G'

lLll'

JC

Ro R.' '_LJ

Ro R

R"

R,+Rs

hich is of he STc L yp.

Dc -ain

Gl*l Ro R,

l)

Exercise 1-5

ui.ul=*: #:
1=o.t

-$ :

n.=uft

* : +
C' =

(trt)
\s , l'

Ex: 1.24 Refer to Fig. 8i.23

o.rmA/v

v.:
R,
:
s n.+a1R
" rC '

o.o.lv
12.5

{)=

2 x

l2'5
|05

which is a

z.,
y

o3 )

/,o,

,
159.2

C>
pF

sTc

R,
,
R,*+

Rs+

fnction.

;;76|;1

C{Rs + R,)

= t

2?r(l+9)1o]x1

l"
0.16

Execise 2_1

x 2'l

Therefore:

The miimum number of termia]s rcquired by a


single op amp is fie: to int erminals' one output
termina|, one terminal fc,r positive po\er spply and
one terminal fo negatie power supply.
The minimum number of terminas reqired by a
quad op amp is 14: each op amp requies two
inp terminals and one output terminal (account-

V' : G.R(V''V1)

That is the openloop gain ofthe op amp

is

Exz 2.4

x 2'2

U,,j

= ?]

U|.

Uicm

(r_
:

l');

'(l,

a)

_0.02V -2m

- ''!A _ o_}':
Io'

'

aia: t.-

=0 ( 0.2):

Ul

+ 0.02

= 2m

,n. =

orequia-

dB

& .ndR,
R,

resecivel. Therefore. e hae:

1 k and

_& = _1_4. =
'
Rr

16,

Thus:

Rl:10x1k:1M

Ei:

2.5

R= l0k

lmV

and

The gain and input resistance ofthe inerting


amplifier circuit shown in Figure 2.5 are

R :

+ 2)

l0 mr'

A = l l0 I0 = l04/
lentty 80

ing for l2 terminals for he four op amps). n


addiion. he four op amp can all share one terminal for positive power supply and one terminal for
negative power supply.

Equation are

cR.Fr G.
l) we bae:

'(_2mv+):
b) lo : or(5 - v|) 9 r : 5.01 v
7i11 : 7_ al:5_5.0l:0.0lV:lomV
tt _
r 5) = 5.rn5 v
vrl _
4., _
1,

:5V

;(5.0l

From Table
c)

vj: A(r-UI) = lor(o.998 _ 1.2) : 4v


7,i : 2 | : .998 _ 1.2 = _4 mV
rl
_0.q98) _ v
+ ?,r) =
',^ _
;(|.2

)(1

d)

_3.6:

l03[ _ (_3.6)]

o,"-

0.36
\{.o,

v:

"r)

lor(v:+3.6)

_3.6 mv

Lt

V,,

3.6 +

(-3.6)l

yl : y,l and
= (G.V2 G.v'\R : G.R(V2- V1\

From

Fire

E2.3 we have:

R" _ +

. i.e..

oupu is open circuit

The negaie inpu erminal of he op amp. i.e..


is a virtual gound, ths = 0

V6:V,

Rii:0-Ri,:

R1
'

|o-n

Ri,

- -R+R- -

-R

: _lok

R, = #

and is a vinual gond ( = 0).

thusR,:!:oRi:

-3.6 V

Ex: 2.3

I we have:

R.=bl
i

+ ,f2 = _3'6036
id = 2_ vl = _ 3.636 (-3.6)

1.

Since ve are assuming tha the op amp in his


transresistance amplifier is ideal' the o amp has
zero oupu resisance and therefoe the output
resistance of his transresisance amplifier is also
zero. That is

Ro

Exercise 2-2

xz 2.7

R=l0k

vl
v1

connecing the signal source shown in Figure


E2.5 to he input ofthis amplifier \rye hae:
is a irtual goud that is = 0, thus he crrent floing through he

For the circuit shown aboe we have:

v^=(E!v.+&v"'l
" \R, ' R, 't

10kf,) resistor con_

nect between ad ground is zero. Therefore

vo= vi-

m:0_ i0K

Ro.5

0.5 m

since it is ruired that V6

-(V

5V).

We want to have:

&:
Rr

x 2'6
2

age of lo v the cuent in the fedback


does not exceed I mA.

Therefore

Rr=lk

JlJ

.
'

lv

R|

y'

Rf

Rr=lk
is a virfual gound, thus yl = 0

"na&:
R2

t is also desired that for a maximum output

Ru=l0k

v"

R.
/ !9l
--.2
lm

us choose

R'

R,

to

volt-

resistor

ok

be 10 k(! , then

R, = 1ok andf''5= & = utl

Ex: 2.8

lk

il

Assuming an ideal op amp, the current flov,/ing


into the negatie inpu erminal of he op amp is

: i' i2 = 1 m
=
Vo: V i2R2:o_ imX10k

zero. Therefore,

i2

;'' =Vo: |OV - --l


Rr 1k
i6: ir_ir= lomA lm= llmA
Vo _ _l0V
vo|ase sain _
to/
lv
|
or 20 dB

_ _ _lom _ _lo/
crrensain
'
i'
Im
or 20 dB

Poer sain

'

_ Pl - - lo( lo mA) = l
Pl
llmA

or 20 dB

Noe hat ower gain in aa is lolog,n|!|.


"'"lP,l

"

: (ftff),,-(tfl"_(ff)n

\iy'e want o

design the circuit such tha

Vo:2V1+V2

4V3

Ths we need to hae

(L,&) - 2. (&]r&) = l ana& \R|,/Rr,/ \R2,'\Rr/


fr
w/v

From the aboe thee equations, we have to Find


six unknown resistors, herefore, we can a

raily choose three of these resistors.


choose:
Then

v,/e

hae

us

Exercise 2-3

R.: T : !!:
z.s
4
(ft)(ff)

: ,,*

(ftfr)

: =f,x]{

x 1!

e have (refer o the soluion ofexercise 2.9):

:
=

,
=

l=r,:

Io

Ext 2,9
Using the super position principle' to find he conribution of to the outpu volage , we se y2= 0

To fid he contribuion of y2 to yo we set

V : Vl : 0'

then:.

vo

4v2

To find he contribution of y] to yo e se

= y, = ,

then

ek9v,=
v^:
"
I kl)

ev,

combining the conributios of yl,y2 and

V6:

Vs we have:

6V 1+

y.] to

4V2- 9V1

Ex: 2.11

The y* (the oltage at the positive input of he op


amp is:

V*

Thus

v,:

(r

;-v l

= o.6v

+?tfi)r- = lox.ov, :

= iv ,

v'

0.4 v,

(l 9'}r.' _
lk/

then it is desired that

Thus.

l0 _ lR,
Rt+R,
'R',
R,*Rr: l M and
R, : Rr+R, : R, :0.5M

|0V

i_

l0

x 2.12

ence

v"

19

R:

',

l' = l0 .

To find he conribution of y2 o he o.lpu voltage y e se vt = 0.


Then y*

V, =

v, -'*} R, = r-* Rr = l-fl

loYo'42 _ 4v2

a)

combining the cont.ibutions of 1 and 2


To Yo we have Vo : 6V | + 4V7
Ex: 2.10

vo: Alv v l..1v-: v'

v^

--!

i'' i'=Vo_V _ _-
\R]*)v
R, R, =(!
R,)
L
v.
3k
Using he super posiion principle, to find the conribution of y| to y \ir'e set y2 = V, = 0 Then

= (,

+fr), :(,.ft)(r-*)=

I + R,/R.
vo. ___?vo

(+RzlR|)y/

vo_ lI RrlRt
v , 'l'R2lR| --_
AA

l+
,

R./R|

l+R./R|

Exercise 2-4

Rl : l k

(b) For

i2 :

and

aue for he closed-oo gain

is

the ideal

l.

101 then

10

= lV, Vo = Gx Vr

For V,

V^=AV

vv' ' v

_ torne _ i,0
PL _ vox iL
10X10 _
P vxi - l10
(a) load oltage

|1

V and
yo _ 9'9o|

9.901

lk

1k+

X| - lmv
= lv

! M

(b) load oltage

Ex: 2.15

9.9 mV

f :

G : 9.99 artd. : _o.l%


For y/ = l ' vo = GxV' : 9.99'
lOa then

Vtt

therefoe,
vo
:
v.-v
'l4 =

A=

e:

105 then

9.99

vD

0.999 mv - I mv

9.999 and

_o.o|o

2 k

: l'vo: G Vr:9.999thus'
vo 9.9q9 :
v. - v =
0.09999 mv
=

(a) R| = R3 = 2

:. mv

(b)Rid=2R|=2X2k=4k

For

y,

I0'

:OA,

k, R: =R

Since Ry'Rj = R2lRl we have'

_ & _ 2 = tV/V
''" _!:V,r-V,, Rr
2

Since '.ve ae assuming the op amp is ideal

Er:2.13
i1

x 2.14

c = 9.901 and
G_10x:,|: _o'999 -

If =

hal is

c = l0
l+

lo. The actual closed-loop gain is

V1

Ro=0

: Vr: lV,

v':JJ:1-4
i,:
' lk lk

(c)

,. =

h:

#t4)( t)
o&

:[*],'ftfr

i, = i, = lm,

9k

Ro

:Rt

Rt

Ro*l

v.

lk

_L

Rr
The \ols case common-rne gain 4m happens
when

|",|

has its maximum vaue.

f the resistors hae

tolerance,

\,e

&< R4*,(t +0.0l)


haeR4no'(1 R1".n(1 + 0.01) Rr Rr"".(l - 0.01)
0.0l) <

V6:
i':
'

V1*

i29k = l

l X9

Vo': l0 :
tkt) tkl) torn.

io : iL+ i2 = nA
'
yo _ 0
= loY or2odB

v, lv

_ lov

where R3nom and ftano. are nominal alues fo R3


and Ra espctiely.

e hae

Rrno, = 2 k and Rno,n = 2 k, thus,

2 x

0.99 < R. <

2 l.0l

s'oz

8!

= R] =

R1

2X l.ol

oz'm

2xo.99

Exercise 2-5

simlaly, we can sho ha

,_(op mpr)

g8.o2=&=rc2.02

l\J

_&

Hence. _ 102.02 <

R =

_q.oz

lRr

4 =l 'l .
=I+98'02

1+&

9s.o2and& =
R1 =
Rl

CMRR

!.

0.l sin

-The o lage at the oupu

is

2R'

: l,'+'x]1
' 2R'
+ 5.005

U,(p mp

sin)v

.R,
_ ,:
)

ro2.o2

.-

: !"-': !,s
2'* 2'

CMRR =

:68 dB

",:ft(+&),,"

0J4

|0

We choose R3 =

i,

and R4 = Rz Then for the

circuit to behave as a difference amplifier wih


a gain

of

1 and an

input resistance of 2

we requrre

-i

y-(op mp Al)

(2.5 + 2.5025sint)

k(I * 0'5 M]

k\ .5 M.,, ^ o.I.ln.,
: l(t+0)X0.0lsiot

10.01 sint

Ex:2.18

,4.:&:16,n6
"R
Ri,1 : 2R1 = 2kR! = l0 k and
Rr: AoR' : 1 X 1k : l k

Therefore,R!:Rl:0k

_ lk

,,'?l

(2 5 + 2.5025 sin{rt)V

? (op mp 1)

26 t
1nn!!1o2 j

Ext 2.16

=
& *

+ 5.)5 sintl

_
cMRR _ 2
'" nn]jll
'"|eJ
20 tog(2550.5)

,.

...R] _ R4

'w

ofop amp A.

V"'

= (5

therefore. the corresponding value o[

for the o.st case

+0.5siv

The oltage at the outpu ofop amp A2

The differential gain Ad of he ampifie

isa,, =
"Rl

v2 -

Rr

Note that the worst case cn happens when

&

: 5 0_5 sin}t 50 k X '01 sint


lk
: (5 _ 5.5sint)

n he \orst case

1\2_ v|t

'

a=&-&-a=lRo-R,l
Rr Ri
Rrl =a
R:l

- : V,' R' !g

Therefore,

lR,,

and

v, (+

Ru=Rl:l00k

(+):],(+)d

E\t 2.17

GienV,".: +5V

The aeforms for one period ofhe input and the


output signals are shown below:

yd = losin mv

: 1 k, Rz : 0.5 M
Rr:Ra:lgk{)
tU- : urc. )U,o:,: 5 0_005 sint v
2R,

10v
1 x 0.0l sint
0

I
2 = \\fr + _'D

5 + .oossin}

'(op AmpA,)

Vt

:5

o.Ssin<o

Exercise 2-6

xz 2-2l

(+)J

20

(+)

liy'e hae

I r'
-20: :l
CR
RI,

10

-t

-20

CR

C:

0.0t F

differentiator.

X 10X I

s the input capaciance

ry'e

want

cR :

10

ofthis
(the time

constant of the differentiator), thus,

ms

,^

n=--.!lj-=I,t

c: !!xmsXo.sms

0.01 F

20

From uation (2.57), we know that the trasfer


fnction of the differentiator is of the form

xz 2.19

j!)

: _ i.cn

Ths, for

v,( iw\

10 rad /

s he differentiato

tans-

fer function has magnitude

v'(+

%(+)

ll _ Io" lO

lv

For

The input esistance of this invering integaor is

R, therefore, R : l0 k
since the desired inegration ime constan

is lO-3 s,

we hae:

6 : !l--J
o k()

CR

0 r s+

= 6.1 ,r

From equation (2.50) the transfer function ofthis

0.l

v/v

and hase

_90'

w=

103 rad /

s tbe differentiato. transfer

function has magnitde

ll
I

Y,l

: o'X

lo-2

_ lov/v

and phase

_90"

f '!e add a resistor in sries '\ith the capacitor to


limit the high frequency gain of the differentiator
to l' the cicuit would be:

integrator is:

o0')

v
v

(j.)

For

: _jCR

'r:10rad/s

the integraor transfer

function has magnitude

l&l : __] . _ l v/
l \ l0_'
l v,l

=90"

tion has magnitude

v,l

:90'

. _ l0) V/V
/
to-'
lo
-L.-.

t high fr9qencies the capacilor c acts like a


short circuit. Therefore. he hi-freqency gain

ofhis circui is:


and phase

Using equation (2.53) he fruency at which the


integator gai magnitude is unity is

|
l :
-'':
"" cR - ro1

vo(+)

and phase

For = 1rad/s theintegatortransferfunc-

l&l :

(+)

IOrad/s

To limi he maniude of

this high_frequency gain to 1, we should have:

n:l,=ln
- t-t," - 1
J

R]

Exercise 2-7

xz 2-2|

9yl(mv)

x]. 2'23

V'o = 1

Vo: V'_ Vo'_

V'

wheny+=-=0then

V: o

mv:

_5 mv. This inpt offset

v1

v.

voltage causes an offset in the voage transfer


characteristic. Rather than passing through the
oigin. it is now shifted to he left by yo

2'22

From equation (2.41) we have:

SR
2V6^^^

15.915

kHz

15.9

kHz

Using equation (2.42), for an iput sinusoid \ith


freqency

/ : 5./'

he maximumpossib]e

ampitude tha can be accommodated a the otpu


\,r'ithout

u"

incuing sR distortion

: u"*,(*):

iS:

rox I

V: Vz v|
Vro: V*-Vor-V
n order o hae zero differentia input for the offset_free op am (i.e., y* - y' = ) we need

V: V'_V _Vos:0

5mv=_5mv

Thus, he ransfer characeristic yo ersus d is:

2v(peak)

v,,,

(mv)

Exercise 2-8

x 2.A

t = Y: a
"22

Fom eqation(2'44) we have:

Vo :
1!"a
"1R1
:lnXlM

= o.16Hz

= 0.l

x 2.26

From equation (2.46) the alue of rsisor R3


(p|aced in series with posilie inpu o minimize
he output offse voltage) is:

,/?lRz
Rr: Rrll R,: R+i2
= lokf,rX lM
l0k+1M
: 9.9 k

R3 = 9.9k

1l0k

rly'ith this alue

ofR3 the new alue ofhe output

dc voltage (using equation (2.47))is:

Vo

o"R2

10

nA

10

k:0.0l v

|
\e

, '

Ao+

= |.
'Ao

106 and

/, =

Mz,

Ao'b+

kow

2o |ogAo

f"-l57

theefore

By definition the openloop gain (in dB) at

o(indB) _ 3 =

106 3:

una

is:

l03 dB

To find the open-oop gain at frequency/\e can


use uation (2.31 ) (especially when/>>/6which
is the case in this exercise) and wrie:

x 2.25
Using uation (2.54) we hae:

Vo :

From equation (2.28) e hae:

Vos +

v^"9

7ffl

|2

_ 2 mv

2
mv
:-.j],

_ 2Y_?mV l ms-6Dl _
=,
2mV

6)

openloop gain

atl:

20 b(+)

Therefore:

OpenJoop gain at 3 Hz
20

80 dB

MH' :

aB

Mz
los3
-

3)
Openloop gain at 3 kHz =
20 on3

-l kHz

Openloop gain at 12 kHz


20 lo

'12

MHz

a ag

kHz.
Open-loop gain at 60 kHz =

Mz

"60 kHz =

20 lon3

ag

x 2.27
with

the feedback resistor

Rl

to hae at

leas

:t10v ofoutput signal swing aailable, wehave


o make sure that the autput volage due to yos has
V. From equation (2.43),
kno that the otpu dc otage due to yo{ is

a magnitude of at most 2
vr'e

vo = vos(1

*\)-z :

2m(| l

l+ lR',
= l0oR. - loM
k(
Tbe comer frequency of he resuling

n"1*1;5, =

J-

CRt
\e know Rc : l ms and
R: 10k+C : 0.l F

husw

0.l F

l0 M()

--_L..._

vi(+

'v.

._f,

|- , *,a,

#)
The waefons fot o.te priod of the inut and the
otput signals are shovn belo:

sTc

t0v
0

_ lrad/s

*l:

xercise 2_9

\y,

(*)
slope=SR

-20
We have

-20: cRJ,,

l dt

-l

l0x lms

CR

cn:

!9x lms :

0.5 ms

20

=9

Since dc gain of the op amp is much larger than


the de gain ofthe designed non-inverting
amplifier, e can use equation(2.35).
Therefore:

-.

and

l+--i

./.,un :

o-l X
V/S

1_6

l.28 s

100

2o

kz

tf w,V < SR

y5

49

y < 0.16 v.
age sep is

y:<

JL

2f'

thus' the agest possible input

ol

0.l6 v.

From Appendix F we kno hat the lo% o90%


rise time oithe otput aeform ofthe form of
eUaion (2.4o} is

'

-' _
- 2.2!
,

0.35 s

From equation (2.41) we have:

SR
2'rV o

15.915

kz

l5.9 kHz

^^"

Using equation (2.42), for an inpt sinusoid with


fruency
= 5 jrM, the maximum possible

,. :

Exz 2.29
For the inpu olage step of magnitde he ou_
put waveform will sill be given by he exponential aveform of equation(2.40)

Thus, r,

amplitude that can be accommodated at the oupu


without incurring SR distortion is:

f':2Hz

162115

|-6

+& = land
Rt

Rt

Hence

1.

Ex:2.30

Ex2.fr

"fn

_9

t,

f an inpu sep of amplifude l.6 v (l0 imes as


large compared to the preious case) is applied,
the the output is sle1v_rae limited and is linearly
rising with a slope equal to the slei-rate, as
sho\rn in he followig figure.

u.^-(Lu') =

10

(peak)

xercise 3_1

Ex:3.1

b.

T:50K
'
^-3/2P [/(2K)
l

n':
:

n. =

t'l2(2 x

8'62 X

lo

5{))

X 1o5(35o)r/2e_l'l2(2x8'62xt

4.15

J^ :

5x35)

1.O8

:
:

lOrr/cml

0.25

10-8

T:35oK:4.5xtO/cm]

Ex3'5

(4.15

|"72

lorr)'?

1.08

0.25

104

x l0

cm2

J,: qD"

,, :

l-5

_ n_ -

l0l0/cm3

lo

":
'

l.5

.2

nr

6.75

J-

106 cm/s

105

10_6 /(m)'z

/( m)'2

D"

D^

Do

.-diff = - ,E
lo-'

to8

Usig uation 3.2l


Db

ere negaive sign indicates that electrons


moe in a direction opposite to E
'We
use

Ex: 3.6

: _,E

|]5o

56

35

For/,:1m:J"X
10'l .=18 .,
*: lT:
J"
ss (m)'?

x toto)2
1.5 x to4
: 1.5 x 10r6/cm3
'-driff

: -^5
lum -2

x lo-re x

1.6

= 56

lO!/cm}

1.5

Ex: 3.4

a;= l
.': qD,

l'5 X o|o

"

|5 _

dn

|o6lcr3

want eectron concentration

"-diff

: !0|1 lcml : lo5z(m)3


D, : .15 cm'/s - 35 x (loa)2()2/s
: 35 X 1o8(m)2/s

lor'7

t 3 K'

no

x: 3.3

a.

10

From Figure E3.5

.2

2x

Aqn"

Note 0.25 m2

in

lOa '/cm2

=21 A

ND : |ol1cm1

]on.

lo'ux 1350x 1V

d. Driff curren , = Aqn

l0r7/cm3

.''No:

n4

qnp"

F.om Exercise 3.l i at

nl:

c. n n-si driffcuent density Jn

Er(: 3.2

ly'o

6.75

= 1.6x to-rex

BT3l2 e-F'El(2'

7.3

e-

3elcml

x t0
T=350K
1 9.6

: 2|0" -

l"nnh
-

10'l(5o)]"

7.3

]lme taken to cross 2 ,m

...tm - I0

6.75

1o4

/s

acm

25.9 X 10

"V =

1350

oV1=

480 X 25.9

12.4 cm2ls

-- ).
= -r) cm /s

Ex: 3.7
Equation 3.26

: /2"
q

*fr)v'

10

Exercise 3-2

lD1'l|i, + /L
= ,l\
N^" "

2, one must lower ND (= n,) by a factor of 2.

+ o1u^

*z

2es1

"':

i():

s one can see from aboe equation, to increase


minority carrier-concentration (pn) by a factor of

^
\ NoNo
) "

Ex:3.10

(ffi;''

uatin

Ex: 3.8

"'n""

n a p+ n diode

Equaion3.26

1v >> lVD

" ff

We can ne8lect the term

1r";'")u"
as

Comlared to

-2!_

''

=w ff,

:w

1y',4

>>

uation3.29,
w

tv.

a' : (i+"u
}y since l{

10

x lo-o x

t0

!!

l0

>> y'{D

|.45

lo

F"T#+)".
N.,

>>

_
:

2e,
q

Vt)

, _L1o.l+
|zx .uy 9''(-l
,r/
.6 x to '' \t'' lo'o,,
t.66

x l0 5 cm =

o.sl

0.166 m

ofthis pnjuction die

(l.5 X lo|n)2
ll''

2.25

v,l

fr)v,
E"1J4Xr l +. l \
i' '-- " 'ir
l-: - l(0.814
- ,
l.6 X l0 '' 'l0'_ l''- ,
: 6.08 X 10-5 cm : 0.608 m

lOlt/cm3 and

n,:1Vr:1167"rl
,

x l r)

Ex:3.13

lol6/cm3

!;

l'e5/(25'9

1')v, -

n the n-region

lo'8

Ex:3.12

Ex: 3.9
n example 3.5. ly',

x lo_'x

0.2 mA

w:
J :

4X 1.6x 1o-''x1.5 x 1o'1'

=r"u

: l J-z.gv o

"

10

9-,^)

= l.45 X lo-l4
: r("u'u' _ 1)

=of*(,\u" since ly'

D:

AqN 1W

Equaion 3.3,

oo'i(+-

lv;;*

Wl(h)

ND

=wy2:

2_

lr= qn

ffi

Ex:3.11

:"#

since

here approximately

can be neglected as co marto

".

X" =

u"

simila aues, if Nn >> o, hen the erm

since l{ >> Nr)

Equaion.1.28.

l . = on'( Do D" \
\LoNo'L'ol

l.a/cm,

Using uaion 3.29

o,:

n(ffi)w

+ 2)

Execis

= l_4 }

t.6

, ,o

9.63

la

10

lo|6l

'

rot8 * rot6J

=', :

"

pF

'nl

x tor6\/ I \
* ,nlo /( 0.8 t4.

3.47

rr

--1
(lt + 0.814
pF

1.72

Ex:3.15

: !-,-l
c':
"
lv Ev
:

!^[",'x l r{eu"t

.-1.

!
'" dv 1gu'
' /

: !!
-l]l
\v

.,n

Ex:3.16
uation 3.5l

!i.

"_:
"

fi)

Dn

x lo

(5

y 1"av'v

1)l

1)

al2

:25ns
)

lt,,/

uation

c.

No:

^J(#h*)
to'8

t'

3.57

(h)r

n examle

Equation 3.48,

uation

t8

lX l-4X

x:3-14

3.2

o'|(}1* *

:7.31015

o.o

.6 X 1o_|9 (1.5 X 1'0)'?

ro *
,(\5xI0ox!'o

.,.=

pC

Reerse Curre'

[ lo|8

3_3

3.6, N.

10|8/cm]

10r6/cm3

ssuming N^ >> ND

=p:25ns
:.Cd : ( 25 x lo-:)

\25.9

96.5

pF

X I "/

o.t

x to '

Exercise

Ex: 4.1

4l
(c)

Refer o Fig 4.3(a). for y/

0'

the diode con-

ducs and presens a zero voltage dop. Thus


vo
v For y, < 0, the die is cu-off' zero

crrent ffows throgh R and

V, :

-5V

0 The
'

resuls is he transfer characteristic in Fig E4.l

x 4.2
see Figure 4.3a ad 4.3b

During the positive halfofthe sinusoid, he diode


is forard biased. so i conducs resu|ing in
: 0 During he negaie half ofhe input signal v,, the diode is reverse blased. The die does
not conduct resulting in no cuaret flo\ring in he

5V

,,

circuit. so vo

0 and

(d)

, : o =

This resuIs in he waveform shown in Figure E4.2

Ex:4.3

, : ;, :
R

^
"

dc component

rov
lk

of

,:

lO mA

:2mA

1^

1^: l0
: _7
1

5V

= 3.18 V

(e)

_]

x 4.4
(a)

ij:2m.
(

lk

(b)

'f,,:

+3V
+

v: tv

+2
+t

Ex:4.5

lo

-o
51 = -_
lm
.'.R:3.133k

]!
7

Exercise 4-2

Ex: 4.6

uation

Vz_V

2.3viol.j(1)

t room temperatue V7

V'
:

R: lok

4.5

115

mV

vx- vt

v.:

vD

V'

to

Nowi:.|m 'o

v
0.64

h(i)

25

X 10

,".(#iF)

v1+z.:xv,(,L)

i = l m
V=25x!1rlXl0-r'l
\6 g

0''

+2.3x25x 10

:
'' _ 5_0'679
to k
_

For

0.76

x vrloc(r!)

2.3

i"c() :

second iteraion

v2

First iteration

:1se07l025

/. : 6.9,

V = 2.3x25y lo'X|oc(#)

o-]

Vrr_

25 r

x 4.7

,,

o.7 +2..l

0.679

0.432 m
25..1

\ lo-'l"c()

V:0.68 V

\e ge almost the same olage

ro-lo/

.'. The iteration yields

a1

o.43

m, yD =

0.68

b. Use consant volage drop model

Ex: 4.8

: l25
1s

25 :

lax l.l5
= l0

l0o"C

Ato'c

o.'1

5_'7
,^
"
l0 k

= l.17 1o'8
x 4.9

constant oltage drop

O_4]

Ex: 4-11

|V :
= lm

t,-.a

since he reverse leakage cuent doubles for


eery 10"c increase, at 40"C

l:4l A:4
:
:
=V 4 X l M

@o'c r = 1*l
4

4.0V

+v:Lx1:0.25v
4
Ex:4.10
a. Using iteration

Diode has 0.7

Assume

V, :

drop at l m crrent.

0.7

:
^:5_o'1
"
10 k

o.4] m

Use eqaion 4.5 and note that

Yr:0.7V. /,:1mA

Diodes have 0.7


.'.

Im : /se
: sen1V :

1, :

drop at 1 m

o71V-

6.91

25 m

to

'o

.679v

Exercise 4-3

For an output oltag of 2.4 V the voltage drop


across each diode

Now

^
:

. v

he current through each diode

I = lse ' :
=

: 11 :

6.91

(d)

,,*/l25
'

t 1o-'"e

is
.

-0.7V:V

,)

54.6 m

to

54.6

2.4

10

{' /

0'l_r.5 5

= 1 .72 m

139 {)

-5V

.,xz 4-12

(e)

(a)

3V

v=3-0.7
: 2'1

1.'2

(0
.)

5V

/:0

t
+

* 2.5 k

V:1+O.7

+3V
+2

+l v

Ex:4.lJ
v-

25Xlo r
0.lx10r

(c)

/o = 0.l m

/r:lm
1,

l0

m'

r,

25l1

25()

l X l '

rrn

_25Xlo-r-2.5
loX I

Ex: 4.14
For small signal model, using equation 4.15

-5 V

iD:

D+2',1

io: b'6uo

(lt

Exercise ,1-{

For exponentia mode

b.

lo

V, :

V,

D
vl

i22_ io. : i.e

i:

: iDlelv_' _ l
nthisproblemip, = 16

-_
' io,

/s _D
e

|2'
1

25mV

V(mV) l'r(m)

small
signal

-t0

'.

vv

_.4

-4.33

-5

-{J.2

_.18

+5

+O.2

+O.22

+10

+O.4

+O.49

4.7

Y l0 "'A

i-:5_1=4m

cross each diode the voltage drop is

v" = v,h(?)

rD(m)
expo.
model

c.fio:5

Using equations (l ) and (2) reslts and using

Vr:

voltage drop across each

diode=i=0.7sv

2 |v
v
:e
e

io

For

25

0.7443

'x l"/-1-]!_'
\47 x l

'6,i

Voltage dmp across 4 diodes

: 4xo.7443:2.977

in Vo = 3 _ 2'977

so change

23

Ex: 4.16
For a zeer diode

: V.o rr'
10: V,"+0.01 x50
v." : 9.5
For ,z : 5 m
V, : 9.5 + 0.005 x 50 :
V

Ex:4.15

+l5v

9.75

4.17
15

0to15m
a.

.'.

'

ln his probtem
Total small

:20

{! _ zo.v _ ,o
i,

sial

lm

resistance ofthe

.'.

For each diode ,,,

But

v = --J+5:

: ?Q:.
4
25 mV
D

'''1D:5mA

3:
x6a:15
5m

2.4 k

fourdies

The minimum zener current shoud be


:5m.
5 x lzk.: 5

Xl

since the load current ca b as large as 15 m,


we shoud select R so that with /.
= 15 mA, a
zener crrent of 5 m is available. Thus the curen shouId be 20 mA ,eading to

R _ 15 5.6 _ 47

20 m
Maximm power dissipated in he diode occurs
when /.= 0

.", :

is

20

X lo_] X 5.6 = ll2 mv

xercise 4-5

Ex:4.19

Ex:4,18

t5v
Vs=

t no Ioad y7

5.

FoR LNE REGULAoN


a.

The diode starts conduction a

'=Vo:o.7
,s : yssint, hee vs :
:

V5sin = Vo

rtsi
Line Regulation

19
i

For Load Regualation:

0.7

0.7

= .ln ,f 0'7 ) -

\zrtl_

200+1

|2{2

z-+'

conduction starts at and stops at l80 _ .

.'. Totaconducion angle

180

175.2"

0)

t
b. ,r*n - :- | {y'\sin
'zJ

D\d6

=;,'r,*_v,]t=;
_ 11 v.cos

yscos( _

:1, cos(zr
_2:
2V, VD
'\E
2 2
: vt vo
2

Bt cos

Vo

'
-

_
,

,r,

lm

For

,nA

V, =

uo'*"

2aD and yD

:_1

0.7

:s.sv

yD{ _ 2)|
and

Exercise 4-6

c. The peak diode current occers at the peak diode

oltage

"

'' _ --T-

= 163 m
P| = +Vs:
: l7v

eak current

'2{2_o'7
1

The fcaction of the cycle for

rt

2(1t

_ 2)
x rco

2zr

2[ zsin

xz 4-2l

'(ffi)]

2
=

2( _ 2)
which ,o > is

No zero output occurs for angIe

163m

91.41o

verage output oltage

X1

yo is

vo: 2\n vo:2x|2"2 -o.7 :


(rr +

_Vr_Vo_ nrt_o'7

'o-

shon in the diagam he output is zero

between (rr

) o

:2

163

mA

V: Vs_Vo+Vs
: nrt _ o.' + 12{2
= 33.2

ys

a.

?D is

eak diode currnt

+ )
xz 4.21

Here is he ange at which he input signal


reaches
.'.

yo

V5sin

= .ln
2
b.

: V,
,(

V')
yl

2s1-l!1
y.,,
\

-ys

eage value of he output signal is given by

'"

[' r,,'n - ,,,ol


__ !|r,
,nl ,,

u"^"'

1[_yscos _ v o
=',

='-

Peak Current

v Ssin(l2\ _

,s is 2 v(rms)
then ys : .zx

vD

: V'_

: rt

_
+|(y.sin
2J

t-vr"o'
2vn6
=:-|2v.

Bt cos

occers wben = !

RR

'"

c. eak curren

yo,",
'

Vo

cos(7,

2v

2voli-=u"
2)]

_ ): _t

_2-

't t)

=V""":'-5
- 15
: 'l'::-::-::::

2vD

= 'l '4 :

9'4

1o.l

Exercise 4-7

(b) Peak diode curren

vv
ri^ _/')r = t. -'J-:
2JRC -:2
2JR

Peak olage
R

_ vs-2vp _ t2rt -

Rl

=Yr

1.4

: 156 m
v: y5 vD: l2Jr- 0.7:

<R

|6.3V

+1,

angle.

Note he conduction angle is the same exprossion


as for he ha|f wae reciner and is gien i
EQ(4.30)

Fll wae peak Rectifier:

.o, -- E!-t

Dr
vo

-t

.V.

"

lR
where , is the conducion

Ex 4.22

Ja,

i^ :

j'
t-

(b)

substituting for , we ge:

!-+,

-io^":

[2u,.r
4"

since the oupu is approximately held at V


v,-

D7

;:-/.Thus:

iD' =

_
Llff,+

: ,|t+'fff]a.z.
f,

is a he peak, the maximum diode curren

occurs at the onset ofconduction or a

,:

During conduction' he diode cuen is gin

The ripple voltage is he amoun of discharge that


occurs'q,ihe the diodes ar no conducting. The
outpu olage is gien by:

v,,

v,.

voe

ft <-

discharge is only

halfhe peiod.

v,

: vr(t

-e D.-t

*)

RC|

= ,

-;:

+ 1

fRC

Qsppto = Qos

sUB

C l!v"+ '

: 2l
vn
= 2t

SUB

a)

To find he aerage crrent, note that the charge


supplied during conduction is equivalent to he
charge los during discharge.

cv,

: C4 VP csl + /,
d
: _csint X yp + /.
: -csin( r) X y,

in-*:

4)

l'2

i",,,, =

is cons.

Sub (b) to get:

forCR>>T/2

sin( r): ol. Thus:


io.,,, : c'txnv+

RC

v [
-- .

assming

for a smal condction angle

Tl2

r*

1"
cii+i

,D.m:

(a)

sb (a)

for/

2V,RC

'

v.

2n rz +
L

lie
: .!",, E. * t,
v.-v''

=)o.m

r.
by:

Exercise 4-8

!-1
= ''
' *!!'
v, ! v,J

,|'-"ff]

J-:

'o, =

: t,l'*2"ffif

a.r.o.

The average and peak diode currents can be calcuiated using equations (4.34) and (4.35)

-"E)Herel. = !J,
2rt 2 Xo.8, y,:1v

,D,'": /.(l
andVo:
i1,,."

1.45

rr*o:
:

(t +z

2.74

v of he diodes

Vs

Voo

l2,D - 0.8

16.2

To keep the safety magin, select a diode capable


of a pak current of 3.5 to 4 and having a Pv
rating of 20

The outpu oltage, vo , can be express as


(V

ca b obtained using

2rt-zxo.s

ad = 20.7'

x', 4.23

o =

The conduction angle

uation 4.3o

_ 2V
og)e 'lrc

x4.A

At he end ofthe discharge inerval

o: (V'2vDo_ v')

The discharge occrs almost over

Peiod =12
For time consta Rc >>

1l-

r..

halfofthe time

2RC

.'.Vp- 2VDo- V,

i*+

(Vo-2VDd(l

+v, : (vP_ 2vo x L


HeeVo: nrt
Vr, : 0.8 V

-II
t

v,

and

The diode has 0.7

: |

0.8)

C: *+*:

2X60X Xc

ouput voltage

r2.la,2 x0.8

15.4v

nrt'zro._L:
2

For z1

lasu

|2'.2.'.2 x o.8
1

drop a 1 m cent.

o'1v

l0 mV, vp

= o.|5

: iR:

1'0#

D _

25

yr:

D+ 10mv

Diode cuen without taking ripple voltage into

cosideraion

1(

i'
=r^:
" y,ln(\l mA,')+.v

:. iD

f rippie oltage is included the ouu voltage is

t is idea op amp, so i*

128l F

without cosidering he ripple oitage the dc

l,'D

iD

|)
- "
2 RC)

f60
(12rt -

1,o

x lo

0.59

= =

mv

'1)
\m,/

'rnl--o

0.58 + o-1

10

re
+

o.7 = .58

Exercise 4-9

o:-L:1.a
i^=
" lk
lk

ForU=_5v
Diode D1 conducts and

o= _5 +;(+l,,
I

v :

o.7

+ 1 k X 1 mA

For v,

_1

V: _12

v,

the

+ 5)

: [-zs-e)v
\
2.i

die is ctoff

ForU/5v

because it is idea amplifier

Ex 4.tr5

Diode D2 condcts and

o: +5+1(l_5)
I

lz.s * l!) v
\
2)

x 4.27
Reersing he diode results in he peak output
voltage being clamped at 0V:

irr>0 -

diode is cutoff

a: 0V
/,

< - diode conducts and opamp sinks load

curent.
Here the dc component

4'i2'6

!'

5V

l k

l0 k

Both diodes are cut-off


and ,, :

5V
+

for _5 <

D2

rl

+5

of 6

Exercise 5-1

!'Yv ov2 = 0.25 m

l^
=
for

' :

vS

450 cm2 /

,C,,

_ 34'q pFlm _
:
c,,
"' ',:
t",
4 nm
, : 550 cm2 z vs

s.Is

2.30 fFzm'7

Yv 2
/-9 : !
2J' o

Change in

/D

(a) doble

L' 0.5

) doubl

w' 2
=

case (c) would cause leaving saturation

vr,,<2vov

o: \l'fv

1u

, w.,
: "7vov:

k-" =

k'
.' : 2

if

Uos2Vov, So 2Vov

'so

Ex:5.5 yov = .5

xv

l, : l' 2x 0.8
l.s'?( + o.o25 X
: 0.51 mA
,'' =V^ = = 7a'4 k -8ok
D 0.5l
_

or1

o.ozs

,l

l v.

Ex 5.1

,".-JJ

+5v

l{'

l= 6o A l 2

modulation)

Ex: 5.4 n saturation

7'D

(e) changes (a) - (d),

V25: l V>Vou: o.5


+ saturation: o :

in saurai rn

(d) double V^' no change (ignoing length

'''

is:

(c) doble V.,- 22

,o,

= 0.025

,'" _ uo'
+ r^ - 3J
" 80K
tn

" 2"' ^ o.2 ^.Y'


2o
:.Vy:o'.
Vo..'in : V9: o. v, for saturation

Ex: 5.3

va

V'

\''Yrv"ou1l

l21 A/2

!Y'

Ex: 5.2

l^ _

o.5 V.

v^= vL:50XO.8:

388 A / V'?

- Y,) : 0.5 V.
_ l _ iY^',=!:
8os
!k
'L "' L
: 0.18 m, so w : 0.93 m

Vr, :

al ,Ds >

Ex: 5.6

vo, = (ucs

k"= "C.'

2aL

lo.

Y : rc= :6o0 uA/V2


(a) Conduction occurs for UGs

ole =vP

yJ:

+4v.

(b) Triode fegion occurs

or e

ot

< y

for ,cD

y,

- D< -|
e

1JD>

(c) Convesely, for saturation


!

,ffr
n/2

For ,Ds = 0'5 '= Vov

D<
(d)

cien

o =
\o|vo"t
:.V ou| = o.5

ls

= _cS+t

_o + s + v = 4 _ c

Exercise 5-2

.. ,c

U9 U6

l l:4.5

(e)

Fo.

uA and

75

V.

v '

_o.o2

r.,'

o.5

667

ad |vov|

|2| o

v.

3v' :
,'' : ^J-s::
lo 4.5

667

Ex: 5-8

r.5

Rs =

v. :

1.8

\"c.,!v

"

loRo

_ V-)1 :72

- (-2.s)

r--

*".

vov

3.33 k

s.slo.

0.3
72

l'8

o.s

v,

(saturation)

Vo=Vou=o'3
R,

v, J,,

o.

v.

t the triody'saturation

.'.

0.3

o : voo

0.8

,'

Ex:5.1

v" v
= -J------

V" = _l5 3"

vo :

0 < v

72 A

\'c,,'fv''vo.3 = 2 l)0
.. 120.,2 '
^ -,r, V6y:0.5 vycs: ve + v, = 0.5+1
1.5

..-R_1.8_0.8:13.9k

1,

":

o.l8 m

sauration mode (cD

t"

v" = 1 .
:'k"|v
+ ||lUDJ])

"
""r(l
= 75 (.M) : 78 A
At VD : OV,
/, : 75 (1.10) : 82.5 A
()At

_:4'o'12

+ 3'5 V.

V
12

0'3

boundary

= 2.8 k

Ex:5.11

vo

2.5

f,x: 5.9
+

l.8V

0.3

O.4

= 7k

Ro: 12.4x2 : 24.8 kA


V,;" : 5 V, ssme ''ode

egion:

lD k.l., V,lv", _ vJl


, =voo-vo,
t'on
I

t/

+ y;s -

l\

(5

_ t)yDs

8.8yDs + 0.4

7r, - 0.05 < ov


5 - 0.05
/^
= o2mA
"
)4.8
=

v,,

0.5

lriode region

xz 5.12
As indicded in Example 4.5,

v.

"C,,, = 0.4 nA /

1/2 \

V2

vD2 vc 'y,

for he ransisor o be in

saturaion region.

Execise 5_3

Vo^,n: Vo Vt= 5-l

t%a

rz

op = o.

7r :

Ex:5.13

D:

o.32

u/ : 0: Since the circuit is perfectv


symmetfical yo = o and therefoe Vo, = o vhich
implies he transistos ae tumed offand ID] =

v _

1o:0.5m9Rr.",:

Ex:5.15

nA :

\uL"

: !xxvbv

=Vr:0.8V
yJ:0.8+1: t.8 v
V6 : V' Vo' : 1.6+1.8:3.4V
Vo 3.4 :
^
3.4 M,
,

5_3'4: t.6M
R-,
"'
l

2.5 V: f we asum

thi

the

NMos is

r,,o would be les than 2.5 v and


this implies hd MoS is off (V65 > 0)

tumed on, then

'"

= :k,

Io"

o,

' v,)"

V' :
R":
" 0.12 s

Vos2 Vov-'+ Vo- Vou + ys


+ l.6 = 24
Assume

Vo

3.4

V,

yD

0.8

: 5-1,4 :5k

then RD

Ex:5.14
1.8

J l,,

tx

l(2.s

ys

/rr:0.5(1.5-V5)'
Also: vJ : R]o" :

/r, = 0.5(l.5 _

1)'

1oo"

loDN'2

I
I

J
I

V,o: _o'4.
lo=

ol

_ |0m
_
L 0.l8 m =+l _5.56 mA/Vr
Vs: 0.6 + V,o: _1.0 v: _ 1.8 + rDR
1rR:0.8-forvov = -0.6 V
!Y

o:

2.5

m^Iv2

!i

0.t m
)koV'u =

.'.R=80O

+ l1}, _
= o.lM m
Io" = 0, vo

V:
tum

32 D +

2.25

10x0.101

_2.5 V: gain if
on, then yo >

1.04v

we assume th QP\S

-2.5 Vand

impiies the NMoS o, is urned

o=o

: o+

V651 < 0

ofl

which

Exercise 5-4

_!
-- _ !-v
DP
2"L's-- ly.l l' 2 ,
x (us + 2.5 - l)2
Vs- loDP2DP _ ( lor" l

Ex: 5.17

_10x
= 1r, = 0.104 m^=a v =

l.5)'
0.104

:_1.4

oo'o---l

Ex:5.16

Vr, = 1.8 V.
V65 : 0.6 V.
k,= 0.4 m^ / v2

vr,:
RD :
Y, =

Y:o
L

18v
0.4

k' : 4
=0

for

v., ,, :

UDs :

l.8 v.

U65

|v

oo

!*"

Us tl.8 35(Uc'J
351s_

27

cs + 3.4

es = 0'613 .,

o =
o

Ve5

= tcs = v=o.4.

uo,

9o.1

uo,

'f

n"] _ o'

o.8 ,cs + 0.16)]

0.6

V., /, :

0.8

V.

= k'

:
,Ds :

Ex:5.1E

0.08 m'

R, : 17.5 k
_8.Ro = l0+8- :

UGs

1.8

V.,

t iode,

rDS:(k"v",)':179
Vol, : Vor1r= roo

make

57l |!A'/

^',

:.vv:0.|43'

.1585

= Voo

lV

ou = 8

12.5

o.4

(C) For u651.

.'

(b) kee

o'213

o.2

Au: -g.Ro = - 10,

Ro :

(B) Saturai o/T.iode Boundary


1.leo

c. = k"v

rn l v2

V,:o.4

kf)

17.5

(a) V6

v.

(A) cutoff/saturation Boudary

6 :

Ro

l7.5 k

-. o':

18 mV.

0.54

V,

l. v'

/,

= 6.

,4'

Exercise 5-5

0.7

v.

,
1'.
'
!,:!+i=-+g-

1mA/V2

..R"q:1,,il

Ro.*ii

Ex: 5.20

Desig for
:.

',=!b
"i

-25. n,"

5 1

E.Ro : 25 = k,VovRD

o'
n,":9=

Ui_

Uo

= R6

26R'^

13

R"

"n' : ()"v })n'

Voo: 5.

= )^RoVo: l2'5 V6y


and

V6y: V6o_V,

:. vv

8.:
Ro :

o.3|9

oRo:4.3 _ |2.5 vov

3l9 A'/v
78.5

vDs = vov + v

ico:0+26fi=V,

..-l'''j.L:z.v
26
Ex:5.19

:0
l" : 2o Al
Ro: l0 kO
Y=zo

v2

L
(a)Vcs = 2v+vov =

' : l'rvi":

|.

2 A

Vos: Voo_DRD: +3v


(b) g^ : k:"vLvv: 4 AlV
u

@)

(d) Us.

= !!:_r.Ro

= 0.2

sin ,

_4

: _0.8 sin t 1
I.los _ Vos+a"+2-2
UaJ

(e)

< UDJ<3.8 v.

Using (5.43)

io =
)k,(vor+

k"(vcs

io = 2 A

V,)'

v,1"r, *

l*,tfi"

+ (80 A)sin,

+ (8 A) sin2o

Exercise 5-{

(4

= [200 + 80 sin, +
/D shifs by 4 A

2HD _

4A
- 8o
A
"

Ex:5.21

x 40 x

(1.5

":

:1xx-!9xt.
l)'z
2 'k'0,.-|v,|)"
0.8
: 216 A

o.o5 (5.1)

: lxi"Yrv,o":

2^
o\g.=.I
v

Ex: 5.24

4 cosr)]

1x

60

0.3 m' Vy

l.2 m^

.5

o.5

, :Vo =.! = l
" ln 0.5

'^: ,'Vov

"

2X0.l _

50

10

..

- _

25

o.8

0.2|6

_ rs u/u.
92.6 k}

Ex: 5.26

8. : l rfiA'lv ' k'" : 5oAlv?


= 2x'o'l : o.2

\,!v'."-

^-l
0.04

m/v

O.1 m,

72o tLA

2J2
:2vo : A
, : Vou
D Vou
"vo
v'Ax L = v
_ 2X 2.5Y0.8
l:0.8m+
o.2
: l0O V/V

: 0.5 m=g. :
ff''"
:rz""l"os"

1, :

v'^x

Ex: 5.25

/,

x 5.22

- .oa+v." _ !
r'

]:
," =Vo:
lo 0.3 s

1.55

' , :

= o12 mt.l

l)'?

/D:31 :
2r0.1
" _

8- =

'.: #,:

A,o : .(Roll
'o')
(s.'72) Ro : Roll ro
(5.'7o)

2 o

k'"vu

1)

^^,

Ex: 5.23

8^:

"c

^yLv

ou Same bias condiions, so

same Vy and also same


and

p"c

and

8,,,

NMOS.

"'w.

-Ytw" :

"C

"'W "

=>

'

for bth

Mos

w
= O.4 : --!

wo

2.,

''

.'.

A,,

!9 : A'oRo R'+
o,

8.Ro;+

same as (5.75)

R'grc
'
irv
100K -f>
Rin

gJ

R'-,

: _.(Roll R) :

\| 5.27

i8

R L

g.(R"

ll

'oll

n,t

Execise 5_7

: o.25 mA' yov


Vr:50V
,^: \ : ,* ua
o

0.25

R,":1:R,,.:1

v,

98. =

16)

1_g.R : _4

i, : Rril 16 =R6=2Okd|
Ar, : Gu : _c.(Ro ll ,oll

R)

2l
c.(Ro ll R) :
for f'" _ (lv.\ 2Vou = 9.g5 .

1 m

(}) lo

,n l vlz l

= +i0

.ao: (vis"| : l v.

Ex: 5.28
D

Ex: 5.3O
CD amplifier

R..,: l : l 8-:
8.
2o

G
1*-1r---

lO

m/V

n _ v,,u= 2lo =l^ _ l-25


0.25v
fn: f.'' 8'R' : o.9l v.
" l+g-R

a,:

&'.

lK

cu=b=}o"'.",

_8.Dll

m/

b=rD
t=
'":

8.:2:2nS
A1)o

10

t,,*j;:

,' ,,.

+
'"ig
1V

ssuming Vo --)

Ex: 5.31
CD (sorce follower)

From Ex 5.27

g.:2ms
".
1
# - :---:
V

o'"

.'. R5

fl

G',

;, :

5 mv
- _-::--:jj-j-=g.Rr:.3
+
g-f,1
l
2 mv

l.5 1

A',

_ _s.(RD|l R) _ _20 - _s
4

l+8-R{

lc,i^,*l -- t v.

Ex: 5.29

R.,,,
g^

2
k'"Y'

(w).zs

\L/
l' :
^
"'-

: !=g. :
:

ou

vl-

8.

(o.4 mA / v'?)

w=
L

|"Yrv'o":
g^R

t+s-R.
for ,(<R.< 1 K
0.83<Gv<0.98

so

0.625 mA

m/v

Exe.cise 5-8

vs v,s
], '+ RJ : 6.2 k

2-(-5) - 6klr
0.5

R.' =

f we choose RD = R, = 6-2

k then

4,

sightly change:

wil

l^: lxtr(y-"-l)'z.Also
Vs=_Vs:5-Rr/,
2D: (4_ 6.2D)1
+ 38.441D 5|'62D + 16 = o
: o.49 mA, 0.86 m
=+ D

A1o :

A-l.lR,

-a o _ _---_
f n t
8.

/, = 0.86 results in % > 0 or % > y. which is not


acceptable, therefofe 1" = 0.49 m

8^ro

8-r

y.:

5 + 6.2x0.49=-t.96V
vD:5_6.20.49=+1.96v

R. should be seleced in he range of

1, :

()-()
:

A,,o

2o

_ --_t+ilg
4

j9 vl}

40 v.

\'Yr{v o,

12

: Ix

t(Ycs

^
^o'

J RD =

)(v oo

l.5l2
0.5

vD

.=>

o.s

0.125 mA

o.75

9V' = '2

RD D

_ l'|-

Voo
6.2

_ Ro6)
+

o =

o.! 11

1.96

Using q. 4.53:
75%

'=t"rn##,*/,..
+ /irF :

x Lu

"uo

'

o'l
{}

1'

)'

Ex: 5.36

:1xt
2

= Vu+Vr=

1,,:

p)2
\(
vn : 5 6.2xO.49 :

6k

0..5

6.2 kC)

o = \'Yrv2ou
=+Vo,

(Ves: Vo:

o.5 _ 0.125

voo
'

1t

:
l":

^=!|x(2

llx:5-34

0.5 mA

- l)

Vo' = 2.
F=I.5Vthen:

:
-'o
/,,

|Ves: +1:2
=
= y^R^:5_2
.5
.+ RD : 6.2 k standard vale. For this R,

ID:lXl(ycs

y,)2

v'o"
"Yrv'o" =

we hae to recalculate

Ex: 5.33

vo =

ov.

o'99

0.5

_ .52 _ l-

2o
, , V,,']-|
=rv,+*_L'-rv,J
Vo

M o

Ex: 5.35

(\t)

for

M to have low current.

+1= 2V

o.\

0.5x1

0.1 mA

)"(),v'""

x2 - o.25gv-,, l

Ves: Vou + yl : .5 v
+Vc:
5+1.5: -3.5

L"

0.5

Exercise 5-9

p : Vot-Vo,
"uo

- (-3.5) 0.1

s.: F':

s5 k()

.^: L

: Vo": o'5

vDs7:'_vovVo'^'"
yD.i" = _4.5 v

= ls

: Rc : 4.7 M
Aoo = E^Ro: -15
Ro., = l?, : 15 k
For r, : 150 k, R. :

Rl"

Y,:1,5v
t!:lmlv!
Vl :

-)

For ro

Ex: 5.37

1m/V

75 '

/o = 0.5m :

\*''Y,

v'o,

='nv :

1.0

v.

15

kQ

Ri" = 4.7 M

A"o = '^(Rol| r) = '13.6

R"- : R"ll .o: l3.6k

_
-Rr,R,
c,
;'n*,oR;_
2.5

_2_5

.5

Vcs

V, + Vou

Vc = 0
Vs = '2.5 .
V: Voo_ DRD

^:

inA

7los = 1.lo : Vn5l l4,

= 2.5 + cv(o.4 P-P)


o is a2.8 yP P sinusoid superimposed uo
a2.5 dc o|ae.
Ex: 5.39
8-g'

10v

2.5 V

+2.5.

kYrnu: l mA/V

,^ = L = ls k
"
o
_
Vo
0a
-figa=

0a

_7'o

8-roc'

------o

v, Vcn: 4.o.

Ex: 5.38
R'n

+G
(|| ^
-

: --

"'Ro *ro*Rs

(2\7t--:
_ 1t"' "e' "8

'o _
we vant

_roRD

R^+r^+R"

"

"

+ ,o + Rr(1

vs;#,

"

};ro'!

cr"''

Exercise 5-lO

l l ol
'' lR,
'* l,

Ex: 5-41

U*

= o

using (3)

(RD +

r)

8rr oR D

Rs(l +gnro)

1- 8^roRo

3 RD+ ro

2(R^ + r^\
R. : --j-_-a_------gj : 2 l85 k
'
1 + E-ro
basedon RD : 15 K, ro : 150 K,

g.:

rmS

Ex:5.40

8.

: l50 k
R'n :R^

4
R.;g

Etro

I + g^ro

8.oll

RL)

I]Jld-R,

ri8 __1r_____l
I

+-*

R"", =

Ri"

*il.,

8^: 1,A/
For R.ie : 50 f,)

k,"=a:l
: R, = 15 k
+ g.Ro :
A'r,o :
v = s.D| RL' =

R,.
"' A"v :
G-:
' R ++R.
Rt"^

7.1

tou,

15

+ 7.5
{b)

c :
''

R'"
R,. +

Ex 5.42
see the nex page

For oher R.ig


R*ie

Gv

lk

1.7 5

1 k

0.68

l0o k

0.07

A,.:
0.768
'

R,,"

Exercise 5_l

using eq. (5.107) on page 324 ofth

V,

V,o +'

6'

text:

u_ ^!-'l
V, = O.8+o.4J+3_J71
V:

'23

Exercise

using eq. (5.107) on page 324 ofthe text:

V,

V,o+

'6' +_

^!-'l

V, = 0.8+o.4J+3_J71
V:1.23

5-ll

xercise 5_12

Ex:5.43

'.: +lv'v,: -2v


%.-Y.=3V

To OERATE tN STURAON REGON:

VDS mir : V^. V:aV

':

\''Yr{vo,

-!2 tz"

t2

v*\2
9 mA

Exercise

Exi

: sc
""l = !!a = 16-,,

6.1
rD.v

:.c=

,e"'

962 _

""

'

t]

ll

lxz

758 mV

lsc

[,

i]

o.Il

V"u = V,

= 642 m

'51 : Vr| cz1

"r':7+25|
z-..

6-l

zsln ]!'l

Lll

25

[f]

to_'6

x !!1

1.0 l-16 A

"'[]#]

29.9336

= 748 mV
Ex: 6.6

6.2
B

VcC= +5

5
50+1

|5o

150+l
0.98<<0.993
-<_<Ex: 6.3

g :

- g

: l.4

m _0.01446 mA

1.M6 m

o:":l.:o.99
|.4
g : /. : l ''146 ' I .014,6
'-1_

c: lse"'
.
'
|sFl
=

t)

: 690 mV
19:lmA

urE

'

For acie range

l.446

"

-1

!1
=
2*

25

R-lmaxl =

16-l5a

vc

Ycc

y,

0'690

_5-0.69
I

= 4.3 k

Ex: 6.4

= .- and/c= lmA
For:0.99

B:
'

:k
""99

!9

For:0.98 B
'

0'99

I_-99

0l

'x: 6.7

reac = 1XreaE
s

=99

mA

15g

= l 0.98
=49
.98

10-15

loX 1s = t0-|3A

Er: 6.E

'.V'V.vc'V
_Isce
c:
se

I,
1" :
"49 : !! : o.z.l

foic=0

.
'V : Ise
scP
VrlV
,
|

Ex; 6.5
Gien:

Is

_ l0 16, : 1, Ic:

Is:/sc+1r,:l,.[r*|]

1m

'-u"cu'

vBE- Bc)/v

VclV

xercise 6_2

:.vc = vs_ v,c


For collector

v6s

Area : l

[f]

25tn

vrn

|f]

Ex:6.12

X Emier Area

.v

Ex: 6.9

..s/-Vc/V
c
lsce
= se
v'
.
.
. !c
+ sce
'n: "

: l .

,,,,"",

l-,

- r'V
Ise
V

- (vF
lse

v Bc)l

*n"'-"\

- 1sc

u*

.-/
* p

,*a:lffi
"u''"o"u'

rr/

l0O x 0.2219

:22.2

Ex:6.10
evv

I:

: 11

mA

v",

5v

;F'"p-,-"';

- |a''9
lsce

FiE6.12

: l' Yr, :

0.8

at

l.5 _ 0.817 X

]! k
101

:338

25tn

650 mV

1.96 m

[fr, ff,

Ex:6.13

'o'1

+tov

p l-:Exz
-:
'
5l
+I"

":

$=39.2 .

x:6.1l
. vuu

"

yr

ln[1.5

25

!.5
X l ll]

25.734

: lm

rz' V "', : V'lnfrr/r']


= 25 x 0.693 : 0.1733
:' v B7 : 0.817
_
- : V- Vr : l.5 0.5 k
'
2
:5
o Vru_Vuu
^'_
/. (*
V

"v/

1.

l0v

643 mV

B:50'vrr=6.7
vE: vB-o.7

Fig 6.13

Exercise 6-3

_0.7: 0.7v
_.7+l0
- IO K
:

Ex:6.15

.93 m

r: #r:

O.91

Yc:10-0.91 x5

5.45

' r 0.9l
"5
: 0.082
-5 V

Ex:6.14

+t0v

rise

V3g decreases approx 2 mV/ "C

for

30

rise

v.,: _2x30

5k
'v

+t.7v
vc

yE

= 60 mV
: _ mv

since /. is costant
,. is constant

.'.

yc:0v

Ex:6.16

-l0v
V_V'
'
''---R_ 10 - 1.7

A+

: .66 m
_ V"-o

,
" :
,

rrl

"
^r^:

Iu

1.65

o:lr:1.65:o.gq
1.66
g=]r:]'65'65
' 0 0.0l
vc : cc+ cRc
: -10+1.65x5 =

1""u"t'nt

s !s!
fo

..rc_,s,

0.01 mA

c, ic -

,v . vrr. r"u"''u,

_ ,."va' |1 1!S1

"

V^J

QD

i,
1.75V

= r"uo''u' + 1gg
rO

i-'= \
...

i, :

QED

in

rig

(u)

"u'u
piu+ 9s asinFig(b)

to

Exercise

, vcc- vc
'e R,
r0
5
_ -

Exr 6,17

,o:

(v)

()

l0

15

lo4

lM

00

: V"'*

.,=

69 =

0._1 : 2J
:
= 0.97 m
'
K
10
: /: o.97/50: 0.0194 m
: O.7 + 0-0194 x l0 : 0.894 V
V
""
(c) sauraed Vc : 0'2
Ic: (l 0.2)/0:0.98mA
B: c/pF = .98/I0 : 0.8 m

,^

0.7 + 0.098

l0 =

Er: 6.20
vBB

Fig 6-18

lv

By similar triangles BD CE

1' _
ro
D
C

c
V

r'

AD

A
: l X ll
t01

lm_ l+1

1+ Il
: 1.099 m

.'.
Ex:6.19

1.1

mA

For Yrs

Fig 6.20

I= 0
Transisor is

oFF

'"Ic
V, :

:
:

Rc:10k,=50
(a) active

Y.

0.3 V

l0 _

ys =

l,,=+

ofsaturation

(b) edge

Ex: 6.18

_l

"R"

: 0.7 + l0 x 0.01
:0.8v

0r

16

0.5 m

V""

100

oJol

oJ1

l0

.0

/c(mA)

=0
V66

+ 10 _
+10V

1.68

Exercise 6-5

\| 6.23

6.21

+10v

+l0v

vBB

lk

vc

vc

Fol vRB= |.7

-:
'lo

l.'|

_0'7

Vr:

= _l m

:500.1 :5m

:4_0.7 :3.3
R-: 3'3V :6-k

vc = v0+2

c:

9s

'

vc:10_5X1k
(a)

Vo-O.1

yr,

(so ctie)
ge of saturation Vc : 0.3
+5

>

1r =

=4+2:

_
- = Vr, Vr, _ lo - 0.3 :
l,
'
5
(b) de satuation vc : 0.2 v
0.1 mA (unchanged)

0.5 m

1.94

Ic : .n.""a : l00.l : l mA
|0_0'2 9.8
R-:
=
'
|m

ktl

+6

- = Vcc-Vc

0_6 = 8k
0.5
Ex 6.A

+10v

*6.n
+1v

ro.""a = 5

Fig 6.22
t edge of saration ,c : 0.3

V"r: rRro.3+ 'R'


- I[Rc + Rr] + 0.3
10 _ o'2
.' _ 4.7
= |'225 m
+ 3.3
Vuu : 'R't o.7
: 1.225 x 3.3 + 0.1

Then1.:51,
"=6".
10

v
:

_ .2

5x4.7 +6x3.3
o.226 m

6 "x 3.3
= 4.48 V
V"": V" + O.1

v,=

= 5.8

Exercise

x 6.27

Ex:6.25

+t0v

+0.7

+t0v

_v +0.3

0.4

Rc

lk
50=150

l0v

.
'L

,':

5 07
' - lK -

1"

V"-o

v':

n actie range

+o.'

.lowest for larges


, : ": 150 X 0.043
p- .c 0'3

to-0.7
2

4.65
o.99

'

m
,

l0-0.4

+0.7

kdt

[.(max):0+o"1

x
k

t50

:
:

_o.4:

----:--

l.5

0.04.1

For = 56

99 x 465

2.2

0.04:l mA

+.3

v]

l _ 5 X 0.043 =

For

6.78

156

0.3

x6.

x 6.26

+10
V""

i1
-t0v
R.'t - l_.7

R_:l0
'1

:50
y"":155

'"

9.3k

4=6k

Rr,

15

5 1|

00

100/3

V_

sv

R+[Rsrl(+l)]

'^

4.3

l
3

= 1.18 m

5t

Execise 6-7

,:
q

,# :

change

Ex: 6.31

l.l5 m

+5V

1.28
1.15
1.28

9.8%

OFF

x 6.29

@l"

+15V
ttt

+0.i03 + |.252

2.78

Total cuent d'awn


0.103 + 1.252 + 2.75

:4.135 m

mA

3.94

ON: lk

mA

0v
_'ur.:,

.7
,*
10+100l

o\erconsum: y X
: l5 x 4.135

:62m

Ex:

( + t)/,

0.039

Ans: V,

6J)

-3.94

,r.*,

= (-)3.94

x:.632

+5V

/6,: /9' X Saf

N
_ ,a\L: ( + l)r,
= 7.03 m y Sa'

-+

lk

OFF
a

rr=o

:10

,2 unchang
1c2

unchanged

v: va

0"l

$vu

vC' - o7
1p, =
"

lcl
2,7

,
"
J

Hence

ll_
"^^
"' L( + l)oj7- z7 kJ

=Vcz:7'06
v : vc2 _ 0.7 : 6.36 v
, : !lx ! : 1.1.4n'a

o'47

II

vu+o.l

.'.

Saturation

-=V cc -

O'2

:5.5

o 470

101 1s3

= tI z.ls _

7.03

>5

2.75

--JL-

( + l )0.47

l0-5.5

+ 4.8 m

0.45 m

@/.,.",,

: lu l,

:
:

4.8

0.45

4.35 m

0.45

v_-vcc-o.2

1,

9.6 aq 3

4.8

4.8 m

Exercise 6-8

Ex:6.33

Vcc _ Vc

10_ yc _
-.120 V/V
.25

Ex: 6-38
+t5

=>v6: 10 -8 : 2.0v
n.: o:Je = 0i2:
YcE Swing : 2.0 - 0.3 : 1.7 V
. V- = _z : lL

^*
: .ll
lV,,|
=
l2

Ex:

6.3

ciuen, g-

s..r

.v

165

/c

= l00

vb.

v"t

n-:r:lm:4om/v
v 25 mV
1-::

g^Rc

10

: _4 V/V
V6 : Vr, rR6
:15 lxl0:5V

Nc(0:vc+Ndo
: (vcc cRd

(l5 _

:5

ibQ)

Ex: 635

0.5 m
25 mV

1m

:-40 x

1l _lse
"t

l0

A :

Jic
--'c=c

lV

",

But

2o

ml

10)

+ Av1'be|)

_ 4) 0.5 sinr

2sio(t)
R + beQ\

+ 2 sin ,

()

Er: 639

Ex: 6J6
/c : .5 m (conslan)

5
:2
/. 0.5 m
25 mV
: 20 mA/V
= 20 m/V
0.5
' .5
"5020
:2.5m
= 0
B 5
2oo
'" s- 20
20
: !0 kf,
: 2.5 k

Ex:6.37

:10 /c= 1mA


n : -]-g = m,l
z111

25 mV

" 8':-:

]!9:z.s

r" : ---- +]

40

25

oe:

g.

:
:'"'.()

gien

ic

fi and r.
i/,

: (g-r.)i

Exercise 6-9

, : !

E: 6.40
+

l0v

= lq. ,nv

0.25

: l :

2.53

39.6

v^
c

ic

ys

chage Rc to 7.5 k

vc= -10

3.1

+ o.92

:9 :

7.5

g.R,

: 36.8 x 7.5
:276N
:

- r_l39.6
ll n. ll n. ,
_

il&

hus effect of ro is

:276xlbmV
2.76

Ex: 6.41

+lv

V)

1""

(3.s5)

_76.2

3.35

4.oo
3.9%

Aro : - g.(roll Rr)


R6 : Q6ll R4')

8'RoV

"^
'8. ..
^

R
-'Rr+R.

R"R'
Ro* R'
(rol| R.)R
a; ') + R

- c^Ooll R.

ll

R.)

x6.

/6:1mA

r-'

l":
"

llQ
lI

|l

o.qs rnr

:0.0099 mA

Vc = lo_ 8 0.99 : 2.18 v


V :
l0 x 0.0o99: _o.9 - -o.l V
_0.1
_0.7: _0.8v
V:

For/a:1,4
n : , : !-
v 0.025

= !:
,-:
"s-

= 41 ,,o,7

z.s

V^ :]!9 :
,^:
lrn
" l,

: r. :

2.5 k
Avo = - c^?ll Rc) = _,0(5 ll 1)

R11

= _97.6N

R.)

x6.41(2'l

Rc

(-)s.(.oltR.ll

: _,
r,

#tt

,*'":

),

tol

Rs

vc
7.5

: 0ss
f :

Exercise 6_l

6,42 (cont.)

= "
'

R,* : 2.5 :L
1:
,s Rs+RN 5 +2.5 3
o ' | .o
= _1 x sz. :
lrs

l^l

us ul

A-^'

R1
32.5

v/v

.q

:z.s

For /c = 0.5 m and

Rc

_la
lN)
:

l0 k

s.:ffi=2omA/

: ]
,_"20
,^

]@

s.

R9 =

R:||

zz.s

= o._,s

0.33

.]5o r}

x 6.44

n : vI, = --]_: a."


0.025

.'" . -25 (t
' : +l
R,*: r" = 25
Ao : E^oo\l Rc) - .Rc
:X5:2V/V

r.
2k

- 40.4k{'
lrol1 f. l R,-.)
_ t x lo
R*-R"
l4oj
: - 19.8 V/V

,..

x lom

5 k + ( + 1)0.35

5 = 1=i,.'": I.v
'l/. : 5+5
2 "''

.
0l

,-:L:]!9:z.s
'' 8- 4t

: 10k||
:9.5k
_190.5 5
.

5+5
: 65.6 vr'
: 'o : ! rs. : _l2.8v/v
1;''
,,,2

li'ol

]l
l

" .5 =
R,': r,:5k
Avo : _20(2 k |l 0k)
: 190.5 vr'
urn

A: Anx-
)+) = Ivr

R," .e,,
c,' _ Rs+R'*
:

0.5

x t
---?L
50 + 25

V/V

Ex: 6.45

Rs=50
R.., =

r : !:
l,

zs mv

l,

-.n

=+' = 2515n: 0.5 m


Ao = +9nRc:2X5 =

10

v/v

c.,:!xA'':4ol
'2
+,4u : 80 : g.Rj
.'. R;: so/2o: 4k

Ex: 6.41

x 6.4

i"= b

*1R,"==r.+(+l)R
Vs _ Rs+r"+(+l)R
R
' R.,
r" l"/(+

_,*Rrn&q

|)

,,s:1:1*161*-5/l0l
{o l0

P nser 30

ib

: !!_:

and

, (g.vn

g.v

oR L

+ ihRL

R,:1:
-

r.+(+1)R1

Exercise 6-11

=0.5+l0l:101.5k
G : |fR1 moed, ro: co]

"*R, _
+l

R^ =
"

lol

RL

n _o_

''v

.5 + 1o=9

Rr'R':lo4+l-

2
l5

0.91

V/V

t.r
Er:

+ ':.

0.995 m

0.995 _ 0.984
I

6.,18

x| 6.47

V.r: 12

0.3

Design

^
"8'

Av'

R=3k
80 x4
8 +40

26'' k

v--:|2x=
"" 80+40
!_91 :
-:
' 26.7.

:50
3'3
1. :
' 26.7. =

t.t m

l5l

qo ch^'le

-l

: l'M

= |o.3

s3

'"
Vt /6gien

l.04 m

_ 0'9'17
X )

Rr+Rrl(+

00

3.3

For independence from , set Rd

1-

'

3'3

2.6.+ -t.J
^^
-5t

:15

(oK for cs)

/.

.9

+10v
Rc

2A

0.99 mA

10o

t0t

1
Yc(min) = YE+0.3 V = -0.3V
VCQ : V e(min) + 2V : +10 V
-' = Vrc V.o - |0 : 8.48 k

4-O.7
26.1 . ^-

R"/( + )

4.3

ffi:

l50

RE +

Ex: 6.49

R-" = 8X :2'61
"
8+4

v"":

1)

1) = 4.3k

Design 2

... maximize Rc

Vg = qRg}2+0.3+IR

+Ro =

^1

-t

R + Rr,/( +

l0

R, =

0.984 m

vc:
:

v+o.4+2
+2.4

Vcc-Vc

^
"._-T":
"

'

lO-2.4

7.6
1

:-]-m,
10l

= 7.6

xercise 6_12

6.49 (conL)

v'_ v" _ lo{2.4


R" _
"
l"

o.7)

17l.7 k

Usig 5% resistors:
R.'

7.5 k

& =

180

Rc Vcc:
l0_'7
1,_
" l80 l 7.5( , |)
s _ q'92
o.'1

+ BRB

1.002

mA

:2'5

V
Y lower

6.9196.O so Y, : - 1.96 V
l.96v _ 0.4 _ 2: _4.4
: 2: uppe. still 8v'
o'ver + 1, : 0.005 m so ys : _.5
+ 1,

2:

_2.9

y. '

l()

8- =

t" I m :
i: ffi 'lrv

,r:ffi:

: lo 7.5(l.

6.50

0.5_.4_

1:lolxs
yc

Swing: -1.4 -2 = -3.4


50: upper still 8

.-:L=|:2.5k}
'' R- m

vcc

1 =zs

Ex:6-52
Example 6.50

Rs

_v

=l R,= lk
: 7.5 kf'
g : g/(p + l): / 1u'
: 0.01 m
V: 0_ 13R9 = _lV
Vg: Vs O.1 V: -1.7V
v-_v-- _-L7171.5
+|

v-_o'7
R_

*,,.

vL

= t9.3 =

2'51

l9._]

: (t m) r
1r: 0.0l m
Vc : !0 _ 8 k(l m; : .2
7 = lk X (-o.ol ;) = '1 v
V: 1 .7: 1.7v
: l00: Upper limit.9 v cc _ Vc:8v
ower a|ue +v_ v'c: o.4v (where
Ic

v; = -1.4v)

Ex; 6.51
Refer to Fig 6.5l

r r

Rc,

|- v"

R: r.

10

R,.

,'$:
I

),, *:

vo

'l

RL

n"= r"lln,

R,::r":2.ska
R," : R, ll r" : 1 |1 2'5 : 2'44 k
Auo !
8,Rc:_4oX8: 32oN
Ro: Rc: 8k
Avo: -8^to ll Rc ll R.)- 40x 3.5
: l19V/V
Ro = rol Rc = l|| 8 = 7.4k
Avo : - 8.Oo ll Rc)

_4o '1.4 =

'296N

^R,*.Rc
+R;"'R"+R,
7

= ---::-:-:(
+LM
5

_ 2|

= 39.1 V/V
Rs*Rri/:
1,.:
|;'

R,"

cn

:i19.1

6-----'74+5
!5mV

x !5:586mV

Exercise 6_ 3

Ex: 6.5-l

yr

+
Rs

vo

t:

V.i :5+20

smv

R,
lRu

6.9

g.:40m/v

m/r' r- : 2.5 k
ro: lk : oov &: 1k
R,;*:5 k
&:8k &=5k
: Rrll R :4XR.ie:20k
_
R.' _ 25 2'5 _ o.22 k _ 223
1l
"'
_8-Rc
(8)
_ _.12v/v
'
luo:
ii-,J:,- ffi
Rou,

= 8 k

_Rcll R. _ _sKI| 5K

a,' _ r.R

G,,
'
oR c,,'

_
R"i* +

25+223

( Rc

i|

- _D.4

R)

9.9 V/V
( + 1)(r. + R) = -

y 1,, = 2!3 7
=RtieR,"
* R
25

oe: \hout

&: Av

_g^(Rc| RL)

: -l23N

p,4

6.25 mv

= 1

R.::2561
Auo

R, = rtr + ( +1)&

R'"

r",. =

lk : l0o
r,:2.5k :0.99
r,=25 1.:lmA
ro=

Example 6.50
8.: 40

i-

s,:::ll ll-]+y.
-r
5mv= (2.5|| l) l-'J
|vr| : lv,l x Av : 512.4 : 62 fi

Ex:

Rl

20

&:

/o

E*"
JL

t.

&:

ih

g.(Rrll ro)
:4010 3x111
: _296N
+

t)

n.", = R. ll r : '1.4 k
, = +g.(R. || R' |l ,o)

:x3:'l2o

tt:tr=

r"is

Rsig +

0.5

0.6

R"--

v/v

''" :
R*;. :
*_-_

v/v

(R. |l R)

^
"'_

r.

(Rc ll R)
G

54

5(m

+ 25

t5 m

Exercise 6-14

Ex: 6.55
RJ

,.R,o =

tnt

r"+(P+ X/o|l

0.s + (10r)(2011 r)
96.7

kf)

: fia ll R,, :
c,,' : vo : vt
vs v\"vo
vl

R'*

:R,*,
:
V
c

:
.-,, : lQ
5m

0.796

z
" =Vo
I, =]@:
5m
ib : b::-9 and yo = ( + l)i,(r,
l( + l)(ro|| R)

Rl

11

96.7

28.3

( + |)(roJl R)
(R. |l Rs) + ( + l )(r. + oo||) RL)

V/V

,lo\

20K

l K.|Llo )(5E . 5
l

-- V/V
Gvo = 0.8

R.,, = .oll (r.+tRr|| Rs])/( + l)


: 20 || t0.05 + .o79] k

,^

. ' _ V

Rs *

^40
uvo
," :

5m

Rr)

-84

||

R.)

,,

V, x lroll

For

RI(k) 0.5

G'.(vr')

o.l ./

r,1

0.95

0.5
1.0

.68 0.735

2.0
0.765

20 K)

Exercise 7-1

Ex: 7..1

(a)

when

o.2

Vo,, =

l^

The minimum value of 1, occurs

and

:0.1,thatis

\ ^c.'rviy
0.4

^-:

V arrd

ID

1, hat is

mA

(v q-"' -

vg

v'

v,, : vln(ffi)
+ V"'

3.1 mA
0.8 A

'^

and v.=(25) mv

2o1 m

Ex: 7.A.2 Fo an NMos Fabricat in the o.5

_ lo'

'

m pfocess. lih

ve wan o find he

rsconductance and the intrinsic gain obain


for the followig drain curents: ( : 0.5 m)

ID:(ro)

,,:

*o,r^:f*4!;",

(l9ol

,.:2-

intrinsic gain

:8^r,'
For ID

6.62

,.:yo!,D
g.r. :

o.62

19oX

166

V/V

,:

X_8.

o.57 mA /

cr,: wc.'

::1

cs, =

0.5 x 3.8

8.3 f F,

C:

8'
2 lCn '
8.8

+ 0.4

Cox|

0.4 X 5

o.57

C"

21

:2 fF

(8'3 a 2'

Gz

{"'1vs
For ID

: l0,

7'"

,8,/5(1(1

62

+ cou

, =

O.28

using eq. (7.15):

x o'5
=
00

20

For his problem, use e4. (7.1):

\e hae:

20

l k

,^:ui'=20Xo.5-!?k
" I' 85.5 A _
A. = g^r. : 66.7 N

!0o

"

,'^ff-&

Ao

5o

! - 6.6
vv
_

xlM:2l

'._ F-\:"DX

"n- :

10

= 2

Ex:7.1

_'%iot'= l v

1 A

/, :

4'

o.z}4

r-

J2y l90x l0 t -v
-02 ja:

-=

x o'5

lmA

o' !p,c.')v'""
z'' "'L "' =l2 ,* 4x-xo.3']
2 0.5
1 : 85.5

_ a'' v,

20

We hae

Se'mia/v

6^in) l

E: 7J For an NMos fabricated in the 0.5 m


cMos aechnology spcified in Table 7.A.1 ith
:0.5 m' W - 5 m. and V6y:o.3

r"uu'^^''u'

'

,.:q!.D
c.,.

(b) For a simila range of current in an npn


rasisto we hae

1c.,, _ 3.l mA
1cni 0.8 A

mA

".r..(r),,

occurs when

\.c.'!vLv:3.l

: JzxrsXloX1-z!
-v

1O.8 A

The maximum value of


%,, :

For/:

Since g, vaies with

o - o

*itn

ft

mA/V

xercise 7_2

Ex:

For

1, =

10O

==r

7J

g. :

0'r8

rn(#)' :

.89 m./

^:50(-!q.)':58/V
"
l/
For

1, = l mA:
,l\2

mAlv(7.J

. =

.28

a_:
"

sl.00'l, =

\r,,

2. mA/v

.,:/=tooA
r' : QJ-.
n

svlv

': v
R"' _ r,=

x: 7.2

25

mv

= +.e"nv

_ 4 l

= 2s

8,r mA./V
,''' :Vo: 50V : sfflk
0_l m
50 :50k()
,":|v:
"'
.l m
:

Ao

A':

(4 m/v) (500 k)
8',' r,,
_(4 m/V)
_ g^ (r.
|| r., ) =

(5 k

Since all transistors have the same

'.':

]z

:
:

la2:

/or :

1v,1

l0o A

_ 5 v/m0.36
.l mA

volage Gain is
g",

(,

ll

m)

18k!!

Since

(18 k

l|

2l.6 k)

w_

9-E!. 6
2

(0'55 rn )

'

z'

:
2

(o_1
126

|..]75

(l0 )

(t.37s v),

\r,llo )
k

\',c"'l(Yr)u*(('
2

'

2 v/

l0 V/V

.-)

A'= _ (1 .24 mAN)


: - l2.2l

|v,,|.,

-^)

, ^ _1voo|L, 6 v/m (o..1o m) = 2l.6k


'n'
n
.l m

":

is halved:

y.l _ s lom
'2

L24 mAN

.'''' v"L,
o

lyol lvol
"- - v-,

*"c.'(l), ';'

-^^{].,.),*

/';

5 k)

r: 7.4 f L

7.2 U-ro

0.36 m'
we have

||

ffi)

Exercise 7-3

x: 7-5
Vo = l.1

vor = 0.8

YDD = +1'8

Flx;7.7

ta:

s^:

0_25 m

'25 l2

:
5

,-:Vn:
" ID

0.25 mA

|l,Ay'

:20k

(a) From Fig. 7.13,

I
8-

,q._

"'

RL
\8

^r

")

+(2

m"/

m/)(2 k)

:5)+3--+o

R:lM:

l M:
R,_:50o+
'"
4|

f all transistors are identica and he gate votages


are fixed,

Vor:

|Vrr]

:0.7_0.5:

R"

V62 V,n-Von
0.5 _ 0.2 : 0.3 v

Vr.- =

.o

the oest yDs2 cangois |vru]

:. Vo-in

.2

= Yscl : 0.7 V
Vo = Vs: v+v||+|vo
: 0.8 + 0.5 + 0.2 : 1.5 V

0.5

similaly, ysca

VsDj can go

Vo.^'

as low as

t.5

0.2

l_1

8^1|:8.2=8.=8^=8.
lo : 0.2mA _ 2 m/v
=
02 2

fn=foz=r:to4:r

: lyol : 2v :l

D 0.2 m
Ron : (g.2.2)r.1 : (2 m/v)(10 k)'?
:2 kf}
R = (l r,,)o,^) = (2 m/v)(lo k)'
:2 k
R. : R., | R. : l0 k

= _t{',.)"

: _2

l0o k:

R.-

-}t{z ..){r )]'

20 k:

:5+

?9_Q =
40

0:

R.-:5+g
'"
40

x.7.6
|v

R =

'"
R:

lVoul, so

Vo _ Vsr:'., =

25.5 k

l k _ 3
a,-:5+
'"
40

0.2 V

VDtt + VD.2 = 0.3 + 0.2

40

= .5 k

(b) Fram Fis. 7.13,

Ro: ro+ Rs + (g.r.)Rs


Rs: 0:
Ro : 20k+0+ (40)(0) :
R" : 1k:

20k

Ro = 20k+ l k+ (40X1 k)

:
Ro :
Rs :
R,

Ro =

is :'
Ro :

10

20

k:
10

+ (40)(10

k) =

+ 20

+ (40X2

k)

k +

20 lc:
2o

ko

l0O k:
20

61

k +

10o

k + (.0)(1

: E^1 : B^
_ /o _ lA: i m/V
V nu
o'2 l2

Ex:7.8 g-,

t'|:rr2:ro

430

8 k

k) :

4.l2 M

xercise 7-4

2V - ,nU,,

-V;ID

0.1 mA

so, (8-r") = l m/v(2 k)


(a) For R,- : 20 k'

so, the gain remais the same

f&

20

,4,

R, *',, _ 20k + 20k _


-'
"'' = 1+e-tr,,7
1+20
.'.

vl : _8.l(r,I
_

||

R-2)

K)

mr'(2 K || 1.9

is connected o he outpt'

_ I.74

|.9k

#;t(

|| R1.

( + grRr)r,,R
(l
8.RJ + 8Rs)r,, + RL

8.

:-r."

v/v

g.Rs)r.,]

R,
(

I+

g-Rr)/,

or
f we se he approximaion

R. _ |
,
"'n'=-8.r..,., %'

ofeq' (?.35)'

Ex: 7.10

2k- l
20 ./v

Vno = +1.8

= 2k
hen.

Av

m/v(20 ko

1l 2

k)

: - 1.82 v/v

Either method is coect.


continuing, from eq. (7.31),

, :

gmr|(gmrr.rr,,r)|| Rrf

19.04

m/V{[(20X20 k)] l| 2 k}

/v

A''' = Au
"

Au'

(b) No, for

19'04
1.82

0.5 Vr'

R, : 4 k,

R
| ,lOok ,
"'z = |^}l,-;' - 20 - l.A/v
:2lk
A : - | m/v(20 k |] 21 k) : - l0.2
A = 1 mA/v{[(20)(20 k)] ]| ,0 k}

(a) D|: and D1=

since yovt = Vo,

v/v

0.2

ve have

,- :','''(),u""" ,

o'

| "c '"(Yr),v""",

2 v/v

l.^ : Au : :?Q9 :
" Au, - to.2

lq.

vlv

b"(),
4

Ex: 7.9 The citcit of Fig. 7.14 can be


modeled as

o-

,,
'"

(w\
|l,

"(w\
"7,,,

vi

(b) The minimum olage allowed across current

source /' would be

"'

Rn: (l

made with

olage ould be

Where Gand

|vo = 0.2 if

single transisto fa 0.l yP signal swing is o be


allo'vr'ed at the drain of o!, the highes dc bias

I + g-Rs
+

g.Rs)r.,

The open-circui (no Ioad) volag

"'

|vo
1.55

0.1 vP

(c)vsG2:|vo
gain is

A'= -G-Ro = , +8.


=.(|+8,Rs)r,,
I g-Rr

+ lvtpl

yG"2 can b set at 1.55

= r.s - 0.2 1(0.1)

O.2 +

0.7 = 0.85

0.5 = 0.7 V

Exercise 7-5

(d) since curret sorce 2is implemented ith a


cascoded current source similar to Fig. 7.10, he

minimum olage requi.ed across it for propr


o.4
2(o'2)
operation is 2Vo

(e) From pans (c) and (d), the allowable ange of


signal s\ing at the ouput is from 0.4 to l.55

Vov or 1.35

so. 0.4 V < Vo < 1.35

Ex:7.11 Referring

to

and

and biased so that

oI and oa can be selected

and ron are very high and have insigificant

effect (/o >> r-) hen,


R"^
Ro

= (g.rrot)rnt

8.r. :

Ron:9:ro:
Roo

R"
R"e)'

.z =

'.,

'.,

fi:

0.2

lr -1

Lgr=

lv..l

25

mV

8 m/v

"2)

= (s m/v)(25 k)(25 k || l2.5

tu.s

R""

1.6?

c^':c.o=:
v
r

=,ro:

k)

Mf)

For the np tansistors,

0.2 mA
25 mV

50-

*:

roj: ro4=
H:
R", : (.:rlXro

m/v

m/V

6.25

r.:)

k)
= (8 m/v)(2o k)(20 k | 6.25

R.,
,

:-

:
:

k
_8.l(R""
762

1|

R"p)

(s mA/v) (1.6? M
,,
-4.186 Vr'

kfl

#h: '*n
ll

||

.762

mA/

s.(R.ll r.)l

kl

176.7

+ 40

+(o.5

k l 2.5 kf'

: rr:

191

Ex: ?.14 Fig. 7.21(a)

: 5V : zs
0.2 mA
r

r6fr

R,

1 :

= k,2r6)Oq1ll

1.0M)

without R. (hat is, /?, = 0),

From Fig.7.l9,
R"^

7.l3 - = 1/.l =

R":

g.r(9zror ll ,.rr)

Ex: 7.12 For the npn trasistors,

-:

||

-v J.4
/) m
= l : z.s
' =9
R- mA/v

Ex:

R.1

i, : -g.r(R-ll

|v.",|

5(20

Refeing to Fig. 7.20'

= 9rro:

Since

: Fro
:
k) lMo

(8^ro')rn

t
' :Vo:10V
/. lm =

: (gfiro1)r.1

since

:
Ro :
Ron

,,", : _(8 m/v)(2.5 M


A,^'' = _5114N

fig.7.9,

: (g.ro)o|| r.3)
R". : G^z'o)Q|l r"'')

ro,

Then, Ro. : (g^7ra2\ro2 : 9zroz


R.' = 1(25 ko) : 2.5 M

Finally,

Roo

v-,' occurs hen ol and o4 are selected ad bias


so that ,o1and ro4 are>> r

M)

rot:ro2:ro=i:

v,

5V

0. m

50

kf)

k)

.l7;
-A)

"6(r7,),l
c., : 1#' G^: g. = 1m./v
_ o.lA:4mA/
" : lg1
v 25 mV

1 :us
.-:-9_ =4 m/V
8^7

ssuming an ideal cuent soulce,


Ro : (8'ro)(', o|| r oz)

R"

.6

(4 m/vxso k)(5o k || 25

'G^R6

_3.33 X

13

v/v

-(1 m/v)(3.33 M)

3.33

xercise 7_6

W
l0m=W:50m
5m - lm

Fig. 7.21 (b)

so he dimensions of he mach ransisors 0!


and 02 should be changed to:

W:50mand,=5m

Ex: 7.16 For he circuit Figure 6.7

.
: *'''@77'

/ L\,
t'_;-_::-,.

nd .' :

,/e hae:

(w/L)\

(w

/ '\.

':-----------:
"w

L'4

Since all channel Iengths are equal

L:Lz:...:Ls:lm

and

: l0
: :

x1'1,

e have:

From part (a),


g,'1 =

'''

g"2:4rA1

ro\: r1 = rr,: rr:50k


nl : to2: r" = 25k

: (g-1ro1)R" so,
R" : ( 1 m/)(50 k)(4

"z)

R,,

167

A,n = _8-R-

_668 X

E: 7,15

13

m/v)(50 k)

7.

and \e wan to redce

the change in output current, 1(), coresponding


to a

change in output oltage'

yo, o l7. of

o.
Tha

is

r, _

= 0.0l

0.0l /, = !J
roz
foz -

,o.:JJ:161
' |

To keep yov of he mached transistors he same

7.l5.

of he fansisor

shuld remain the same. Therefore

= 20 ,

80 ,

.,_W., _ _2-1
,' _,R''
r-* |o

| /*r.

|o

n order to allovr' the voltage at the drain

of02

to

o",
\ ^c,^(l),'

\|'(l),v'

-,

;2$(}),orr_ Iz - _ l5=+w1_ 5\L2


[)
\ L 12 2 t (o.2)'
y,

w-

_ z=w\

*'

n ordr

15m. _ u=w' =
wt

'

vou,

2.5m

2x W, _ 5m

o allo the oltage at the drain

go up to wihin 0.2

,o^:V'o'L-tM:20Xa
'
Io
l
l) v
r-- =-::rrm
20 V/m

as ha of xamp|e

11

w' w'_ -:-L


. _ |'y

60

v/v
10o

A'

20 Aand /5 :

"'"--+-^' '

l' :

4mA/v(l67M)

n the cuent source of Example

we hae 1()

= 60

go down o within .2 v ofthe negatie sply


voltage we need yo2 = 0.2

(50 k || 25 k)

R,,

12

l.=t'\-\=!=:+
' 'Wo w I 10

G.=gq:4mA/

FromFig.7.19, Ro = (g.zro)Oorll

A,

v ofposiive

,(l),

of5 o

supply e need

=v"o"'

io$(}).o.zl'=

_ zx - - 50--eWs 50s
l.y]
\ ,, 80 10.2;2
Ws:50m
Y: = o.- v. _ lqJ*m _ l2.5 um
w

"

Exercise 7-7

Thus:

:
Wa :

2.5 q"m' Wz

15

l2.5 m and l{''

m, lv]

Ex: 7.19

5 m

50 m

Ex: 7.17 From equation (7.72) we hae:

'.: '"..[;fuJ{'-'o)
.

r\

l mA|- ,,
\' '-i_/l(,'

" :

#)

: l ko

t.O2m

'l.02 mA

Ro=,o,=

#*

=98

Ex:7-18

Fom eqation (7.74) we have:

Inr'r rtVo-V\=
V^ t
t2/9)\
Inr (,+2_o.7)
0._5 m l+(2/l)\
50

l^:
"

1+

,/

/a6p

0.5

.Affi :

0.497 m

=v- Rvuu-p = vcc-v"t


/"..
R : 5 0.7 : 4.3 .s
0.497 m 0'497
1^,-

Vrr,n

V,.n.n.

0.3

For % : 5 Y From equation (7.74)


l = n' (, +V"_V"'\

'

I" _

{2/)\

+ (2,i

0'497 (l

vA

we have:

:-qJ) _

|)\ + 50

o.5.| mA

See next page:

Exercise 7-8

/tl, = ,co*,,.

-l.oRF Thus:

gnoring he effec offinite output resisances' we


hae

: ]z : ... : / :
rQ"u, * : /r(*)
1

: /r",r,* u
/ar".,

+ ... + N

c,

/cOllr'

'

."

,:,"n**(-i- -J)
: -^
..Rl l ryjJ

From (*)
1coR|.|

\ir'e have:

+/:

/RF,

,.r*,r,
/" aa

'

- ryl]

For an error not exceeding l0% we need:


/^.,a/r(|

0.l)

t + il-j-.1

/t ?o.9r".'
l
!',ry+l
l_+

l-l

I = I + {-L-.1 = I.r
=
0.9

r + N-1-1

=
/ + <

>0.9

o.It=9iv + l S 0.1

ly'<

The maximum number of outputs for an eor not


exceeding to be lesstha 10% then we need N<lO.
n this case the maximum number of outputs fo.
and eftor ofless than l07o is = 9.

Exercise 7-9

Ex: 7.20 Refering to Fig. 7.32,

: Io : ]ol = o: I*uo = l
Since , :
\'"c"'()v'."
Io

= 0.23

lz a l v]l(J)

"',"'()

0.5

+ 2(0.23

v) =

96

To obain the output resistance, Ro, we need 8.3-

_ 0.87 mA/ v
o' _
vov/2 o.23 V
v(L) _ (5ylrn)(0.]6
m)
_.o2_ o! :
o.l ma
h
: 18 k. From eq. (7.77)

'

2(0. m)

Rn- g6rorrn7: (0.87 mA/V)(t8 k)'?

1"

1 = l' + ?
"n""

ln

= o.q

*or|

1*oa

x |:

2%

For the wilson current mirror\e hae

=pr. _ 2lk_5Mandtor
the simple mio R, : r, = 1 k
R-

The minimum ouput voltage is

v*'+ 2vo" =

whefeas for the simple miro from equation


(7.69) we hae :

282 k

Ex: 7.22 For the two curent Sourcs designed in


Example
7.6. \re hae

n = , : l0 _ o.om-o
v
v 25
_V^ _ l0v_ |o M..' = .

"

"^

l0A

8.

25ok

Fo the current source in Fig. 7.37a we have

Ro:

roz =

r,:10M

For he crrent sorce in Fig. 7.37b from equation

Ex: 7.21 For the wilson mirror from he equation


(7.80) e hae

/,:
/r

Thus

'

l
2

.ggg

11.5

therefoe.

( + 2)

!!:-sd x fiO :

(7.98) we have:

R.a tl +g.(Rrll r,)lr,


n Example ?.6, R, : R1

o.o2%

..'-'-Ll

.a
-
',J
v l t.s ll 25ok)'loM

=R,:

54 tr1

Exercise

8-l

Ex:8.1
Refe.ring to Fi9.8.3,

fR,

is doubled to 5

Vo

: Voz:
-

= l.5

+ Voo

K'

Voo_ Ro

0'4 mA5

j.s

Ro:5k

Rl=5k

vc.u': v,+vD:o.5 +0.5:

l.0V

since he currents /D|, and 2 ae still 0.2 mA


each-

Vo, : 0.82 V
So,V.r.,n = yJs+ yc + yoj
=

1.5V

0.4V

0.82V = -0.28V

So, the common-mode range is

-0.28 V to

1.0

1,ir'

hat causes

to conduct he

enire current is ^/Vn,

'l

th,

yD

.5 v
: vDD xRD

x 2.5 = 0.5V

x .:t

"D

1.5

0.4

"

l"_

2(/ m)

: g.(Rrll re)
o : (4 m/v)(5

K|l

50

K)

l8.2

Vo=Voo:+l.sv

Ex: 8.5

(b) For o2 to conduct the entire curret:

with 1 = 2 , foral ransistors,

then.

Vo =
V.,2 =

Voo:
1.5

V/V

! 2P: I,,.a.
^=
'22 =
L:

l.5V

-''

o _ o.4m(2)
"-_ vo/2 .2 v = 4rnA/
:
,^:V^:20v
" lD 0.4m4 s
A1

:-JiVov__o.45

J;r(,.,v|)

/^'7'

Ex:8,2
(a) The ale of

','- _

2(o.l8 m)

0.36 m

-0.4x2.5:0.5V

(c) Thus the differenial outp range is:

VD2- VDt.from

to 0.5

Ex:

1.5 =

-l

1.5

0.5 = + I V

.l mA

Since

8J

Refer o anser tabe for Exercise 8.3 where values were obtained in he follolving way:

v^'' =

^/I/ w/''')L =
L v n2

1,,

(f),:
2(

(4 A

":
l "'r'

(10V.zm) (0.36 m)

' :

\ Vor

lo, =

(), =
l00

0.l --l ll , = 2 ^'

"loj

EE: E.4
-8

mA

" : \'"(l)oul'

2(

l00

A)

/ v'?)(.2)

0.4 m

L^

v)'

.n

'

(t_4J(2)

^,0o,l1 ,o)

18V/V

#tr}

so,

so^t

r^()r*'

:;#r

/ v'?)(.2

(y).: (9.
(

':'=

:,uo

1( m /

1m/V,

v)(36

|| 36

Exercise

Ex E.6

2(o.l8 m)

,o : |v_:

cMRR(dB'=

0.36 m

' : : '*'*o :
'*
.,

\'^c"'()v""f

W/L:

" =

foall NMoS

\),

t---------------

2(tA) :.n
/ v'?(o.2 vf

,q:+P :

(2 "'Rss\

('\

cMRR(dB) = 20log
Er:8.9

: (9616)16r: (l

K)

2(4 m/y)(25

lo(

20,0) = 86 dB

0.0t

+5V

1m/V

,5
t,

1k

0.7

4.3 m

+0.7

mA/V)(36k)'?

a
Roo : {g-5 r65)rq: (l m/v)(36
= 1.296 M

= 25k

From Fig. 8.12(b),


Ron

o.a..

\c-l

1 p

For al transistos.

/2),

p"'lus''

,"**

(g),:(g).=(y),:(:),
2o :
pC.'(V o)2

08fl :

:=

mA

sing eq. (8.64), and the fact that Rss

| )
_
4 A /2(o.2)2
nC.'(V o"
2(

'.

l,"C.'{o.2

= J2(0.2 m / v')( |0)(0.4 m)


8^ = 4 mA/

rw\
rw\
|)._

= l.296

k)'z

+0.5V

Using eq.(8..18).

Ao

s-, (R..ll R.,)


(l m/)1'296( M|| l.296 M)

648

v61

: -5V

62:

1k

- 5V

Ex:8.7
The ransconducance for each ransisor is

Exr 8.10

g^: "q'1w ll"


l^ : ! = 0.8 m _ o.o.o
"22

from (8.35), the differential gain for matched

is, _

Voz Vo _ n
V'"

fe ignore the 1% here'


Aa : 8. Ro : (4 m / v)(5 K)
From eq. (8.49),

V.a
.'' = v"=

R, _
2

R''

20

(0.0l)(5 ) _
2(25

o.7

( 5+4.3xt)

lk

R^ alues

From Exercise 8.7,

*o

V/ .)(!,36 m) _ ,u*n

(ffi

-'oI"lo

Ex: 8.8

Refering to Fig 8.12(a),

Since D

20 |ogl0

= 86 dB

The drain crrent for all transistors is

(10

8'2

v
o.l v/v

_25
_

mA
+-43
(:l)

20, oo

Exercise 8-3

c = c : l :

!:
2

0.4 m

Ex: t.13

+Vcc

0.2 m
From . (8.66)'

vcMfr'-vc+o.4

Vr.

gR+o.4

_
= 2.5 0.2 m(5
From eq. (8.67)

Vr'

Vct

^rn

K)

is - l.5

subsifuting ig1

* i62
I

,*
/

"(z
B1

'
B1 _ B2:

2stn(r
25

+ l.9V

Voz

= -v+vcs+v

Ex:8.11

v:

Vz

: - 2.5V+0.3V+0.7V:-1,5V
-rn

Ipu rage

0.99

+ 0.4

v84

_v.

o + l.9

Il=zrl"

in Eqn. (8.70) yieds

t)/

/:20oA

D|\/

l"(s_

Since>l,
t)

I-'-^^-/ 2_
22

99)

:o

ln(99) = l15 mv

Rc:Rc2:Rc:ro

in each ransister is .5 m.
Thus yB for each wiIl be

_ 10v :l)k

Dc curren

-. =
"'

o'7 +

0.025lnr)

\L/

l
. _ V, -_

= 0.683 V

.+=5-0.683= + 4.3|1
.nlo :
0.5 :2o
vT 0.25
v
(c) jc : o'5 * g.13r,
= .5 + 20 0.5sin(2 X r)
= 0.5 + 0.l Sin(2 X 1r)' mA

icz = 0.5'0.lSin(2 X Ir), m


(d)

61

(V66 * 1cRc) _ .1 Rcsin( 2rr X l)0)

_
_
= (l5 0.5 l0) 0.l x l0sin(27rl0|)
= l - l sin(2r' 10r)' v

v.2 : l0+ lsin(2r'X 1000r),


(e) 62 _ z., : 2'sin(2 Io0,), v
(0 voltage

gain =c_'
7A1

2LP"uk

= .l vPeak = zn

vl

c
7'A'

IOV
2 -

25 mV

lv^l

'

",="r:t':i:

l0A:4.zv

l
^
!:

E:8.l2
(a) The

l0o

50

25 mv
.1 mA

o.25 k

Since R.. >> r",

|A

R.l' ,o

|0

|| l K _

r. 0'25
R',=2r-.-_" 8^
R'o : 2(25 K) = 50 K

2o

v/v

| _ z5l

4 mA/Y

fthe otal load resistance is assumed to b


mismatched by l%,

R.
-l = 2R'' =

cMRR(dB)

.:

(0.ol )(l0o )
2(50 )

20 loc,,,

:86d8
Note:

fonly

the oad

andsince-1.

lj:l

o0|

ransiso$ are mismatched.

Exercise 8--4

K)yl..
u'ol _ _ Rrll Vo u _ _( K || l
2Rfr. r,' '',(5o ) , o25
: _o-499 vi._
,, _[(Rc + R.)|| r"]v'-

"o=

2l;;T;7-

_ _(l.0l)t K]|| l.v

= l5(t|y.

2(50 ) _ 0.25 K

2
CMRR: l| _
1,.l 0.50l 0'499

r*&

lK

l(l

l)(5o K)

ro

l.68 M

&

/ RD

as:

Q x o.oz
2

Use

n.

y^.

due

o.)2

i.e 2

mv

wlL

:
:

^/12

3.46

vt

(y!! ^+#)'

mV

10

Ro = r orll

ron

o'2

m/

: yo: 20 :
(0.8
o'

/2)

20

so

= 50k

25k

G'Rq: o"25k:

:
is obtained

(8.117) th total input offset is:

x ro t1'+ q2x

i'"

From Eqn. (8.141)

(8.l 16)

*'

G-: g- :

Ro:50|| 50:

mV

The offset oltage arising from

t(?

20 m

thus,

--r 2

n.

lo' = (.8 m/2)

- "" : (92)
\2 t x o-o2 = 0.2

Finally, from

^!fiir

,^' = y-'
"'

v^"

vs= vt = 2m

0. m x 2

"'

(8.l l3)

n.

x :

x 1:20

.8 m-/2)
"
8.=;:-l-=*.v

,^'

Ayl

"*:()(#)

from

o.2m

Fom Eqn. (8.138)

() (*)

To obain

L),x ^C'":

thus,
e obtain y due to

u. (8.l08)

(w

" ou

o.2

,.,:

Ex: t.16

vl

From Exercise 8.4:

v*:

:256.f * ,1r
: 2.5 mV
1 : l
l_
'" : 2(+l)
2X1l =s,,a

since all transistors have the same drain cuent


(1/ 2) and the name product
then all
transconductances 8. ae identical.

Ex:8.14

Using

,.ie:*(J

(w l L)

. IK+2(5K)
l

R;..

,,,

:0.5 X0.1 =50n

: Rr.
---"-

R;..

From Eqn. (8.127)

u,: u()

:10o.00--)10dB

Using eq. (8.103),

Ex: E.15

(',)'l''

1o-r;2 + 12

lo-312

From

n. (8.l48a)

|
O.OOsv/v
2g-.Rr, 2x4x25 =
1"rr = lAo| : l = 2.0{)

A--"'i

l."l

86

0.5

dB

Ex:8.17

:3"

From Eqn. (8.156):


(-8 m/2)

I/2
""- v,

25 mv

From Eqn. (8.159):

Ro = r nrll

roo

'ul

Exercise 8-5

Vo 1 V
7l ='-2
: lV = 125 k

Using Eqn. (8.179)

Vou

!!

.' =
(w/Lt\|'

0.8 m

A,t :
From

Ro :

G^x

n.

16

125

:2oy

(8.l62)

2x25mx160

|V = 0.8
m

l25 k

l20

. ls

= l04

O^

dB

l, ?9L! _
2

16

a']

M : 5 M
x
Al: 8. R': 20 50 = 15 v/v
= (l0|1 10)

i.e.

dB

Ex: E.19
Refer o Fig (8.41)
(a) Using Eqn. (8.178)

.=(W'L\o(/2,
'' (w
/

=1111 =
thus.

L')

(W/L)n

(lVl L) 6

0.775 mA.V
0.775 m./v
1.90

m/v

&

= 10/0.05
= lo / 0.05

r" :1o/0.l = lk
n. (8.l76):
A : _8. Qo'|l ,o)

(e)

-775 12

ll 2}

_?7.5

y
v

Eqn. (8.177):

,^l|

0.129

:2ko
: 2 k
:10/0.1
:
lk
n

(d) r",

From qn. (8.174)

[.

V
0.129 v
l0A 0.105 v

50 A
50

a,

l/2 lm/z :20m


^
U-:8m:':'-:-:= 2) m
A l v 2 k
/2 0.5mA
-) Roa = aro4 : 50 x 2 K : l0 M

y^''2

a,

Et: E.18

n,

x920

a,2-=!

2 og0(160,)

R^. _

0.29

q,

lJ tr5l
160,

similarly for 0,, %a

0.129

yov6:0.105v

-2 / |25
' _ l6i,
"'la5
A : .OI25y

Cr*^

1rlrzn
trn:

"R*

- MRR_

thus. (}v/ )' = 20o


(b) Fr o''

For

From Eqn. (8.67):

1611

(0.8 m/2)

= 20 k
For a simple cuent mior the otput resistance
(thus RJ is r"

'_,R"' _\

: (w/L), ;

l : \,c,,'(l),v*",

R,": 2x ro

vt g
_-2x |/2)'
"

11p

l)
: 2

an

11

Az

g. (roll rol)

oerall volage gain

A' x

l,:

is:

11.5 X 95

7363 Vr'

Ex: E.20
Refe.ring to Fig. 8.42, al| /D aues are the same.
so' '.|. : yct + /AR,
Usig the equation deeloped in the ext'

r"_ffi"tr]
n-"
=

^E
5'21

,lzlll,

,a, :0

l.l

Exercise 8-6

v-,,:
,.', :

- v"
0.l5 + 0.7 = 0.85 V
v,","

thus, y",1,, = vcs

, _ yss
- 2.5

= 0.8s + 0.15

:-

8^:

0.38 m/v

):

Ex E.21

Finaly'
V.": V,"

/,:
p'C-:

1 pA12

p"C-: AN2
Fr

Q."nd Q,:w

L:

oul

)lv

C,''(w

oul".n

- v*.:

+2.5 + (-0.3

+1.4v

0.8)

Ex E.22
R'=2o.2kd

40 l0.8

(as given in xample 8.5)

lv

t.5v

: |Vou"| = 0.3
on
''
tVcsl: o.3+0.7: lv
Ve : _ 1.5+l: _0.5V
V

- :

v/v

8513

R.:152
with&: 10kand&: 1k

L)

40o;

0.3

20'2 x sl:l x ----!(r + 0.rs2)


r0

A,':
'

20.2 +

:4943N

then.

2I" 2X9ou
8.s'9:|v=_'-

since 8. of o,
and 0, hen:

Y.,, =

0.3

o11 and

o,,

ae

Ex E.23

identical to & of

Thus, for O,.

i,l

lQ5 +

Ri4

l5.7 + 33.5

Ri3

3 +234.8

o.u9z

=,:l

29
o.1)2:
'
l 'lw/L)n
)(W/L)0: 12.5

il
i.s

i.e. (10 / .8)

0.26

b5

40

i5

i"z

^s

-1)

R3

Rr +

:'=l

Since Q,, is 4 times as wide as Q,,, then

rw\ _ 4xl0 _
i,,
ol

il : r+t: Iot
ba
irr: R, 15.7 ,

il+R2
Rr + R2 + Ri2

+ 5.05

0.8879

?:,:r
|

Thus the overall current gain is:

_
|

2x'|xlgxqo
-+Rr: 1.67 111

160uX:Y
'

.8

0.8879

X 1

55993 ./A
and the overall oltage 8ain

The oltage drop on R, iS:


t.67 k x A
150 mY

Il x-M92X 10ox.0126X lo..

0.15

vo ,

Ru

: -'t't

591

is

-i,"

V,, R,,

i,

a256

Exercise 9-1

Ex:9.1

:
'4M

c,,

x s-(R.ll

RD)
R-&l0 .-^.-l0
t0+0.1
2

,cc(Rc

;e

_1

''

'-

0.I M)

,!

:8Hz

0.016 Hz

_.
: 3l8

r, :

2.5

k =

=:

. :V':25mv
'"
l,
ImA
,:l

zC., IR,ll r,

+ R,,r]

2z1[1 K|| 2.5


21

8-

K+5 K]

,o ' r-, *

10 :
-'z_lJ

ooo

24:2 fF

4.1

fF

0.6

AtVl= Vn : 5

|'(l)'

v, rv,^l'

_ 1\2y205_2)'z- 18
2

Ex: 9.5

n-=r:lmA_40m
v
v 25 mV
12
Co":.r'8.:20x 10
l0
: 0.8 pF
C\.:2Ci",,:2x20: ff
c,: c," + Cl" = 0.84 pp
Co
C:
(

'rlJ

"L' +

* :'e.l-'u'
vc
2

lo :6l

Peak current occurs

.4 z

Rll

fF

.72

Ex 9.4

x 9.2

Cc:C=C62:lF
3. : ao$-+l. : 4mX25rn : l

3.45 + |-72

vo

ea

318 Hz

l *

2rl X (l0 + 0)

vo

--:_-

RD)

2cc2(RL+

* cou

=:P_
/'* ll

2n| x (l0

f =-fn:

Cg: C6:
C'" =

\wc,,'

: ?x t,

V/V

9.9

fF

t2 fF

(, * u1)""

_
" ,;G;'
8.

2 ' Cc2' (Rc + R'\


I

2"l(8K+5)

f.:
Ex:

|2.2

9J

'"'_

n'
;

3.45

X 0

\ l0'

: 3.45 X 10 rF,i m2 : 3.45 fF / m


C6v: WL6vC",: l0 x 0.05 x 3.45
:172 tF

,0

X l0

2(0.84 + 0.|2)

=
Y |0 ,

7'47

cH

Ex: 9.6

l'l

- f- _ 'o

.fr :
] _

: fJ

50o MHz

i-;;\

4 l r
= ---j:----_j-:-

2x5fi)\ 106 C: l2.7 _ C: 12.'7 _2 : |o.'1 pF


(

,'7 +

('U"

'

Ex:9.7 Diffusion componen

:10.7-2:8.7pF

of

12.7

cat

Since C,i, is proortional to /., then:

pF

/, of

l m

Exercise 9-2

cd,(:

f--

o.| m)' =

4x10

'M
^ :-

7.l4

68p . 1.65

Aoc

A):

l+

here

Hz

.42

is the

Dc gain

2nfo"

fruency of the amplifier.


n this case we hae

/Md :

Xl7.l4

1000 and

00 Kz = 1 Hz

Therefore

C., --

of the amplifier and/3J, is the upper 3dB

_4'7 l1
(4.7 + 0.0 ) Mf}
_7'12 /

l)

+ l.5 +

10_3

write th genera form of the transfer function of a


direct-coupled amplifi e. as:

2C'"(R';.||R61

Ex: 9.11 Usig equations 9.6l and 9.63, we can

R,,.u'"'
k, g. : 1 .47

Ro

10

Ro +

l3O-7

Ex: 9.E

R':
:

-----_g!2'(c + c!,)

2(2.87+2)X10-12
MHz

Rg,

cia:'' + |(1
=68pF

.'| m) = 0.87 pF
0.| m) : 2.87 pF

C(r:

A(s)

t+

4,26 oF

10
J

2 lo5

Ex: 9.12

2 y 4'26(lo K

For this amplifie we have:

4.7 M)

t():

Ex: 9.9

cs":1pF
C.q: (l + g.R)C"a
C ra : 8.l4Cra

= (1 +

7.14)

a.l4cga'pF(l K

1.63>
C

+ 8.|4C"

< 0.o17 PF or

C<

77

|| 4.7

M)

=1MHz

2.540.o-]XR;
2.5 + 0.05 + (10 || 5)

-0.013 x R.
= t.s k

=n.

l.5 k = (10ll 8

R, =

-J
(

Cin

'7

'' :

.4

kll

1|

ro|i Rc|l R.

A'M ,
,_'

(,-(ff)')('-(#)

['.(ff)']l' .(#)'l='
:

p1and fl = 0.9 l, then

RL

R_.^ __ l.65

'

''"

s. R;)

+o.g'?)(l

:'

-()')

-()' : l.1=(l)' :

f ,

0.99 t, then

0.l

+K :

['-eP]['-(#] :,
,

2C,. ' R"1"

c(l

(l

1r *o.oo,1(r

R.) k

l.9 k

: +

['-()']['"(**)']

Ex:9.10

1 +

= ,we have

at

A1

f 72

ff

A": _3912: _19.5 V/V


R r"' 8-' R
' _ nr+*
^"
r+r+(Rr+Rsig)
,0

By dennition

|a11,,"1f

/r > 1 MHz.e 2rCii(RsisllRc) 1MHz


C^: C*+ C, = I pF + 8.14 CslD
2(l

('.*)('.*)

-()')

-()' :

K:

9.88

r.ol

,-

=+(s)' :

o.or

2.78

Exercise 9-4

nj-4:

Ex: 9.16 Refering to the solutio ofExample

of|

ale
anatysis is:
9. l 0, the

f : f"1
lso'

determined by the exact

143.4l1z

Au: _c'.RL: _l'25x|o: _12.5N

Therefoe the gain-bandwidth pmduct (f,) is:

f, :

x l2.5 : l.79 Gz
since, is less than, :2.44Glzuld:

of

Ex:9.17 Referring to the soion ofExample


9.10, ifa load resistor is connected at the output
haling the value of R;

rolL roz

n;:

then

2.{{C'"

x 2'5

we hae:

l.25

6.25

(c.

.RL)I.

R:ie +

5f|l

+ l'25

5)l. l0 K

"o(|

+ csl)R;.]

+(2sl+s/)xsKl
'' = 223 |Hz

1, =

|M|.f

l :

6.25

223= l.4

Gltz

is1,,is increased by4 atdV*by 2

+,

'^=ffi:2,.,
2.5

t.zs

,o,|1 r o

(rrll'o)

n;

k(

in example

+ (25 + 5)

250

44

Hz

1.56GHz

r:o

,",r"ll roono: 130k| 50k

" '
'-:E-:
(a) From

M :5k

4n

uation (9.97) we have:

- ____.'--G-n;)
,s|3rf/

: _ --_j__{ 40 X 36 k)',-16+0.2+5
A,, =

75

-fisy

(b) Using MiIIer's theorem e have:

16

r-

pF + 0.3 pF(l + 40 X 36)


448 pF

,48 pF

'"_ 2nc,.R',"

27 448

2C,^tr"|| (R.ie + r,)]

pFt5ll

(36 + 0.2)]

4.3

t!92

f X2.5 K

R;:36k
,a lm :46m4
v 25 mv

increasing /, by 4 reduces

lo-sil

(cL+ csd\R;}

:#:so

",.=l?l
:

boh roQ and roq2by 4


:

f,' !f" :

ffi:

,.""^=+:

C;"

ro J' +

+ 6.25)]l0

-+

Cin: C'+C'(|+.RL\

Ri
= 0

f(l

Ex: 9.19

Rr, = ronrll ron,

Since

zx

To calcuat

9.0

+ Cr7(l + g.,Ri)iR"I* +

25o l1jz

lu:

Ex: 9.1t Refering to the soluion of


Example 9.0

s,, =

2|[Cr'

f,=lAtl' 7" : 6.25x25O:

+ C

"" _ 2LL20 [ +

Thus

2.5

Using uation 9.93 and assuming/,1/",

fH :

Using equation 9.92 and assumingJ,s/",,

lf

|ul = g.. R, :
: 6.25 A

21[[20 f + 5

e have

and herefore

: s. 'o' 'o, :

|A'|

= 2.sko

143.4

40 GHz, theefore it is a good aproximation


the unity gain frequency.

then

lxroK

:8z.6kz

(c) USig the method ofopen_circuit time constats, from equation (9.l00) we hae:

r:

C,R.'.
=

crt(l

g.Ri)R.l. + RL+ 1LRL

i.,. = r- ll (R.ie + r,)


"-ll ro,n, : 36kO

We hae

3 4.3

xercise 9-5

Thus:

to : |6x
+5x36
o =

36)4.3 + 36]

2.12 nsec

f, : :L
I

:75.1 kHz

(d) Using equations (9.l02)' (9.103), and (9. 04)


e have:

18. I 4
v
2Cu 20.3 pF - -,.-

40

CP(

g.R.)]R.',

"
75.1 k{z
= f pt =

(c

+ c)R;

l [c, + c,(l + 8.R;)]f;i + GL+ c.)RL


2z IC"(CL+ C) + c.c]R.iR
f : 25.2 Hz

Sincef <<f.udfo1 <<f' tdx f11 fo1 = 1 5'1 Hz


=
(e) f :Afl: l75 75.l kHz : 13.l MHz

/,

MHz

remains he same as that of the example' to place


J, at 2 GHz e eed

+ cL

l2.5

2lk2GH7
94.5

Ex: 9.21 For

_s v
:

f'

'

5 k,

Example 9.12:

g-

'l.25

28o K

6.75

179.5

(ci,, + c) 'R*,'

+ (5

f+

15

f)

179.5

0.135 ns + 3.59 ns = 3.72 ns

Thus. i,,

: _L

2T g

42; .'

Ex: 9.23 a) Low-fequency gain

Ay, g,ro40, R,.:


_

ro

: -g,(Rrll

Amplifier: Au

Since:Rr:rr-+
Av= \.,ol: _!xo:

re)

_20 /

cscoDE mplifier:
Au: _ g-(Rol Rr) = -g.(R'l1| 16)
where Rq : roz+ rot + (.g^2ro"1ro,
since ro2 _ ro| _ ro !d 8.z _ g. _ 8.
Ro : 2ro + (B.ro\. ro : ro(2+ g^ro)
4216

'8-(42tol|

vcoscrr

_c^.ro

:_4o:z
-2O

CS'Amlifer:

C, + r
: C"o
=4 :

20 f

include R.is; also C"1

c.l(zoc") : C C"a
C
8^/2(cL+ c')

x 9.22 R1

:6.75 k

b)J, : Neglec componens of ,, hat do not

Therefore.

Cg,' Ri"

Avcs

"'t-=- 2(Cr+C"ol
8'
and f :
"' 2C"1

:
:
a :

+ A

\e know that:

fu

20.8

(8,ro) . R.ie

Rsl :5K|1 28K =

fF

CS amplifier fed with Rsie

l0 K||

(same as in Eq. 9.12)

CS

Ex: 9.20 Referring to the solution ofExample


9.l 1 we have /. : |r| ./, ' since |rt

lAul
=s,=
' 2Rl 'f , -r,,

Ri,

: R. ll t?o
Ra : ra * R.i

'fz =

: ' l3.l

R.ie ||

R,,1

To obtainjl:

R. _

.;Hz

f :.

2c

: 20 fF, csd : 5 fF C1 : 15 F,
R.,* : l0 k, n. : 2 1f,}.
, _ |' R _ l '' 500K
% R^r" ll5 rn 12 ' 20
: 20.8 k
R'
50
c.'' =
b.2/
R't" + Rl.
o + 20.8
Cr"

4.3 + 0.3[(1 + ,

'

r,,

r+

a
C"a

and from

20

k'

+
where:

O.25 C r.

C",'Rsig + c s,f(l

g.'n.1R",*

.1

(cL+ cd)RL

Rr' =

, ,,

since Cr,r

ro

ll

r. :

ro
2

css.R.j.+a,[(t -

o.25

C' ad

s)n.',]

g^ro = 40

Exercise 9-6

+1H:

css'

x cs,X

Rsig + .25

To calculate, we use the method of open-circuit


time constants. Fron Figre 9.30 e have:

21 XRsi

=Rsigcs,X6.25

R',,. = r.1||(r,r

R'.,. :
R., :

cscoDE - Amplifier:

9.l 8 and neglecing the terms that do


not inclde Rsis
Using

R.i[C, +

Cr/l

2'o
(t'+Rtl :
R,,:
"' r^ll
"'' \ g^ro l ,^11
"' -ro

, :

---l

R.;r|Cr'

+ 0.25

= Rslg ' cs, .75


"fa

cscon
-/

cs

'""

t, :
r,':

3.6

1-

2x3.6

.,

' /,,,-

s.:40

and

r.

=|u1' 1o
l l3.5 Mz

,^ mA
: 8- : ,'J
-
Rn : r.t + r : 5 kr, + 0.2 k = 5.2 kf}
A. : 8-.'. : x 130 = 52 /
Ro : ro: ro : ]30k
5
^ ^r 5.- r^1+ R
,(.
R'
20+ l
"' F+1

8-z

._ 130+50

Ro

A..

lq

242

l
339 nS

_- 469Hz

469 1-lz

;*

- azy

2 X

130

k =

r'* ,_L"'c'('" ll

V/V

to

Mz

"

26

R.,)

159 ns_ hus

x 10.6 K + 16 p x 35
+(C.+0.3p).(50Kll 26M): 159 ns
+CL: l.4pf
x 4.4 K

Ex: 9.25

R'.

+ 0.3 p

:
=

R ll

l0K

2 K

|1

20

From Eq. 9.121 we have:

, _

^"

8^R'

i^R,

"8- ;q"''
J
:8Gz

20

=p2r92

o' :

: -_L :
2of

.,,"

16 p

t|:to2=r.:5k

35

has increased from 175

l l3.5

this exercise:

| _
2'

To incease, to Mz we need:

= 5k

Noe that for the cascode amplifie considered in

R1"2

16p)

242 /
icreased from 75.1 KHz to
'J"has
469 z and, has ineased from 13.1 Mz o

Exe.cise 9.19 we have:

13 +

', {.
R,. ll
(",*ffiJl
L

compared o the cE amplifier in Exercise 9.l9,

Ex: 9.24 Referring to he solution of

- ,,ll
- [,"J
I -l

339 ns

'

l.4rl

8n

kO

X 35 + (5 p +0+0.3 p)(50 | 26 M)

= |Au|' f
.fr.n..,,,n. /lvlc,scoo\,lt'"fac.scoo\
=

4.4

C"). (n ll Ro)
r, = i6px4.4K+0.3 px 10.6K+(0+

c) f

,-

Ro| + (CL + C,", +

cAscoDE

R.ia.Cs, x 6.25
R*ip.Cz, )/ L75

R'",.

Rol : 130 I| 35 :35


Rnl : R',r*(l +g-,Rot\*Rot
Rr1 : 10.6 k
n: C..Rot * C*l .Rn1 +(C""r+C.:)

/'#1

cs,l

4.4 k

Ro, _ ,o,l R,",

8^R\l

: ,"ll'#
='fi

+ R.1.)= 5 K|(0.2 + 36)

1.25 x 10 :
Y
1+1.25l0 6_93 v
l _- 1-25 n
2 (2of +5f)

| .8. _ 1 . !-9 _- 196112


-'r' = 2
C"" 2 2ot

: 10
R.i"+R',. 10+l0K
t-s-.R!
t+t25xto

R3a = R,i3

1.48

kO

Exercise 9-?

R..

R.ll R.

:20 K

R..

||

20

n"1 (."U

1|

1.l kl| [2.5 +


R = 1. k

;)

= R'7C3a : 10kX5fF : 5ps


., : R., X Cr. : 1.48 k 20 fF:30 ps
7cL: RcLC = o'74 kX 15 fF:ll ps
'rH: '* r,+ca: 9l ps
79

= R''i*R' _ l.l + 0.99


- 1.1 . o-99
+R''ip+R'
2.5 2.5
r r.

, associaed ih c"i, c.", and c

we hae:

= 55ga: 19

9t

x l

l.75cz

25

mv -

2.5 k

n :L: J-:
n,'ll
25 mv
noting that in this case

R, -+.

( + l )(r"

R'.ig + ( +

"

R'*i :

l)tr.

, \e hae:

|| R1)

+ (r,1| R.)1

R.lc * r, ssume r,

+c - 0.965 Yv

l x

+ l
2zrC -r-

2C,r,

zoc '-!:+
l

2nlc

8"

'e hae:

R''

R'.', ll tr" + ( + l )R'.]

: R.,.*r,: l k+.l
:

l.1 k
R,||r,,=

l.l

A,t:

(c) For a

r. :

m/V2

0.2

a
o8m
n - -L
Vo o'2- o'v

g-(Rr|| r")

where

4 m(5 K l! 50

K)

18.2

CS amplifier, when R.i8 is low:

2(C,

I
+ C

here

E-9-

"nlR'1

'

5l

R'. = Roll r, : 5 K|l 50 : 4.5 k


and c. = l fF + CDB : |lo fF

k]|

l0o

f.

2?r( |1

4.5 K

295 MHz

: l0 k
_L(Eq e.8s)

R.

, : Cr,' i,
*

C'R'
:50f

csa[R,(l

8.f'.)

R']

l0K+...
10fuo K(l +4 m x 4.5 K) +4.5 Kl +...

thus' 11

(lf+lf)X4.5K

0.5 ns +

1.96 ns +

0.5
0.99 k

f.)

where, from Eq. 9. 84:

f,
k

f + l0

(d) Using the open-circui ime-consans method

/, :

C!\

R'.,*

Vo
20
,-:
" (/2\: 0.4m

for

c"'' :4"
-c,,n - 2,4Hz
^---=:- -2pF
2 l.
c" = 14 F
ThusF : +l :459MHz
' 2C.r.
R, =

(b) 7

Vo

hs.

e have:

r:
"

1a1

n2Yt

_ 9V' _ l
,'.-lm

C.R,)

MHz

55

x':9.27

2 9|

= ]_37:

Ex: 9.26 e have

G"=

2n(cp

/ :

are:

R.:5 fl

The percentage contibution of ime consants to

!!'ul:lzco
9l
| |- - 2'

+ l)0.99]

we hae:

E x t
9t

(l

0.74 k

To find r,

ns

fH:

2.96 ns

1/(2 2.96ns) :53.- z

Exercise 9-8

Using

Ex: 9.28

,:z

n'.:

2' C.5'

Ad

ro

tgn

0.5 m
25 mV

R._ !
=

lv -

/2

0.5 m

20

mA/V

2k

" :

:7

Ex: 930 (a)

AM
A

To calcuate

l1

vo :

.,)

using the mehod of o1n-circuit

vo : (--.19_*)v..

ysis

: r. ad

2V

1:j-'

l k

= 6l'2z

z"'{}

+ c)<n",,11

20X 6|.2 = |'22 Gz


of Rs

Ro: r6fl + g^Rsl : 3ro


Ro:3x20k:6k

: ;

'4-2eF)(10Kll

10K)

:6.4\1z

rl

e = !Ln6 s
'',
:8Mz

p |

Therefore, the transfer function of this CC-CB


amplifier is:

(s)

-s^roxl;L** = -2xzo

20 =-toY
, 2+

o-: f-r-= fh:' : ?^A


3

z,"t

f pt =

we hae:

The gain-bandidth p.oduct is:

(b) With source degeneration

',e hae:

+8DR')+R'.l

cL.R'L
+20)+10 Kl
1 = 20x2oK+5f2 K(l

+5f1K
1 : 2.6 nS+ f E = *-

(9'84)

AM=

rr'

i(k;),".

V,,,

kfr) = -'o

|l 20

time-constants we an employ
= C.,'R.ig + csdlR.ig(l

GB :

'* '""
Gz

we hae:

_c,(R

r.' :

:z:lvehave
_ 2r,
^ :
,l?,n = ro ] r.

Mz

= '1lx R' :
: _2g x 1z k

X lo9 Mlz:1.

Since i this case

x7pF z l1l l
0.8

}a:

R,.= (' + l)(r.| +..2)

(ro|| ro\

10

Ex 931

= 0.?96 MHz

2+ l
kRs. _'"j'-t'sk

1.46 ns+ f 11

GBP =

The dominant pole is se by the output load


capacitance
C

T, = Cl?g, + C' Rr1 CR'


:2o f(1o.5K + 5 f 235 K + 5 f 15)

=A,:''X20X2k
:20v/v
l'_ 2'

':_o

R.ie * Rs
').

where,

/2
8^:_

= i5 k

R"i" + Rs
R +R.
-----_---------_
"' l u 8.R,
|] 2 20
";u,

ampli6er:
1

Ro:2oKll K

..:

loaded bipolar differential

(9.l53) to (9.157) ve have:

R,.ll

Rr2 = R.ig(l +G.R'L\+ R'. = 235k

R55

I
- 2z ' (0.4 p)25 :15.9MH2
Ex: 9,29 For

l(s)1"

^L

('* 2of ' '*#,")

1!
11

le(,)l'

A:M

Exercise 9-9

Ex: 9.33 To obtain R:


A1

A,M
'-

(, ' z"1"1'](, , zf uf \
'G;})

' ;'

('*&\('*/i):,

\ ri,lt

r'",)

: R,l! roz \l ,"s


R::20k
l0
,^':Vo
"' "' - 0.25 m = 4k
r-. = ( + t,V' : ll ,25'V
,
lmA
Req

=2525

soling this eqaion for/r/ e hae:

Thus.

f =4.6z

Using the approximate formula, we hae:

|
r--
t-2
l

_-sMHz
-2

tp'

(9.l78)
G''
-'' : cc from xamoIe 8.4
G-:c-z=0.3mA/V
thus, forf : l0 MHz:
c. : _!.!_!/J- : 4.g ,p
2r

n.

, - :'+1'Le

G-z

8-o

:
91,:0'6mAzv
'
27,\4.8pF
From

n.

'..:4
c,.

.6

Ceq
0.6

m/v

:
=

lma =*u
,^ mA

25,nv

=
zJ

40m
--------jj-__:::2 x

4l[| m

48 MHZ

'f '"

^
2

14

pF

2o * 14pF+2pF(l +x3)
258 pF

Fialy.

2oz

pF

c..
'

thus.

mA/v :

2x2

/.

''''

(9.l77)

r - C.z
trz
lo.g,

^
('-

X 10 u I0''
(9.l73)

|1 2525 = 2.2k

C
Ceq = C"2 c"s + c5(1 * 8.sRs)
Cn': C", = 2F
R6:R1 :3 k
To obtain

Ex: 9.32 From

From

'Req:20|] 4K

2. Req' Ceq

2x2'2x258
= 280

KHz

Exercise

Ex:10.l (c) = l00 v/v and.,": 10v/v

l
.=
, ll =g_| AJ

l
l
l0 ]

= 0.

=&:
Rr -l-0.09

.t:

Ex: 10.4 For Example

o.09

Rl
";n""'11&:

l0-l
8.1

Ao: {' = 1o
l ,): (l +(6 lor) x 10-1.1 : 7
:' fl : f'(| +) : l x7 : 7 ktlz
3

Ex:10.5
1 :1o.rl

(d) The amoun of feed-back is:

v^: v.' +A',A'.' = * "--+ lr


= v'| l
"
'l A1A2p "l l2
|XyI
_ (| xl)yJ +
l+(lXl)Xl
l+(x1)1

l +:1+ 100X0.09= l0whichis20dB


ys = 1''Vq:
V5:10 X l:10V
vr: 9.vo = 0.x l0: 0.9V

= 0.99 + 0.09
Tttus, V,, - I V and Y"l

.=Vo:-]9:.lv
Al

an improement

(e) Fo

(f)

If

decreases by 20%:

,4:.8X1:80v/v

8o

A.:
,

1+80x-9
:
, 10 _ 9.756l +

Er:10.2 (c)

New s/N ratio

-1/

of 20 log(

Ex: 10.6 Replacing

0.01

/l

, dB

the amplifier by its small

signal model

9.1561
2.44% of .47: 1o

1v/v andr=1

A' _ A +g _ l _ l = _
' ll
Ar A lor l04
: 9 l |

: !-1:110.r
.-E
R1

enloop

(d) The amount of feed-back is:

1+ = 1+lo4X9x10_a:

is 20 dB
(e) For ys = 0.0

Vo

v'

Ar. Vs = l0r x 0.01

Vr: F.Vo: 9X

10 hich

1o_aX 10 = O.9 V

^n6

=_
! +

and he larges closeJoop gai

fthree of these ampliRers ae cascaded:

: 1l A A

the total

dA'

A1

= l0 v/v

variability is:

4
A1

Rl

factor:

r: fi-v,:

cosJoop

gain J.

g.Ro

rh

vo'+

_ Jr

'

possible occurs when : 1o V/V


9 / : 0.01 X 1000: loV/V

A1.'1

the gate

6.396.*i.u,

: _g-Vr, {(R +Rr) || RD}


., (R, + R )RD
= _8vss'
RrJ. R' + f"
i
>>
butRz Rl
Ro Rz+ Rl + R:R2
Vo

1"/o

| |.44=.ol . l
lL_(
A| \lJ/
|
A,, _

Rl ang

A.=b
vt

lo4

0'1o1"

Vo = -g-Vr,

Vr": -Vs+ A :
Fed-back

l0 V

'=Vo=]9:.olv
' A
"r.s :
AtA

gain: ihout R2 and

gronded:

and

'->vo:

(_g.v,,.#)

= g^V Ro
",,
-v :v"-v.:v.-

RtVo
R, +R)

+ RI

vl

xercise l(}-2

^.''
"
-

v,

{r

: \o

R,yo l

Rf+ R,I

: ,.*,,,

ffi}

8.Ro

I + 8-RDRr /(Rr + R2)

(8-RD) 'Rt /(Rt + R2) >>


g.Ro
, _
_ R, - R2
^' 8-R"R/R' -R,
&

if

,4

' >>

R.

R
Ex: 10'7 From Example l0.2 we know hat:

_'zR
o,' _

' '

8"'

hus:

\here 8-2RD isheopen-

A
arA.:
,
+
f >> l + RFl8.2
A g-
.
n,=F,-/,],

'

--c gdg

g >> l

>>

t*&
RM

_s'lRo
-- (' *
'=
, g.zRD
\

Ex: 10.9 The equialent small-signal circuit for


|

Fig l0.l I b)

Ro1

vo

R,/

AV,

Fig 10.10 b) is:

Vo

AV,

>v,: _!

": ,+, ,':

,
'

OpenJoop gain: V, = V,

_g-2V""' and V..

R,

:-"(#;.

AR..

RF

+)

: -"{*-.;.

#.

*1*,l
=-'o'
RF |ARi, A

AtVt

ti,

'tvo:
-.

o,r-,
if

(l)

vo

: #

v,-v" -v.,

)+(2): /s

+ ,, = g^2(A|vi)

and

Rr

Ex: 10.E The eqialen smal'signal model for

>> l

-->., _-!

l+&
RM

l1
\
RM)

"

R7

, : }
'
vs
6: 'g^2V, and y, : yJ vF
6 : A'g^2lV5_ V7} : A9'zfVs_ oR}
+ 6(1 + R1g.r) = A8.z'Vs
Ag'
A. _ Io which is lhc samc
' V, I +RFAfi.2

>

Ioop gain
i[ loo-ain

R7=:

ClosedJoo gain:

Thus:

tr.:vo:
' V,

.r,-\h

-R,
f.)
(l*]*
\ ARta)

>> l and Rin >> RF

=l+1+j-trnaA.-_R'
A AR;.] _

+}

Execise

Ex:10.10.

o-60,:10r
(l | ) = (l+(6X o1) > |0-1.1 : 7
:'ft:.f(1 +) = l x' :7 kllz
Ex: 10.11

15':162:0.5m
V67: 10.1 -0.5x20=
V.= O.7-V"r^:O
fel:

o_:]

Ri

From Example 8.1

11 =

5m
fc2: Vo/l:

20t l0 =

R,l _ Rs =

n"l = (R*,ll

R., :

i.)

191

# = j$

= r.

l9.1

Er: 10.12

The feed_back network is compos


he voltage-drier resistors Rl and R2

of

a) The loading effect of the feed-back network at


the inpt

+0.7v

is: R| | R2

b) The loadig effect of the feed-back netork at


the output is:

5o' r"l : 5

he

+ R2

circuit is:

-circuit:

Fo the CG amplifier:

To

A:\:

|l

lo|

[,",

,,

*-jg1]

rr

B_circit:

.__'____n^

u'}r'
:

Rr)

obtain :

v'/v,'

= _L :

6.1

s:5=
' v,

A Substihin:
,, : |+
,
8^Ro
Rr+i2

if Rt + R2 >> RD \re obai the same result as in


Exercise 10.6

R,
7

R,

Rl +R:

From he circuit:

9+1

(Ri

^'_,*4rl-lL

R2

ll

/V

R, = RJ + ( + 1)(r. + r.r) + R| R4
= 10 + l0l(50 + 50) + (1l| 9) = 21 k

,tRr

t20 || (, + 1r,1 + 2 || 10)]

= 85.7 V

A _
85.7 _ 8.96,i v
l,_V._V, l+
tl85.7X0.l
'
R,, : Rll + A9\ : 2| X 9.57 : 201 k

= /g-il. : l1l *,1

R, : R,

8^

ll (R

+ R2)

+ R."

(RD

l|

Rt 1 R,)

Exercise

Ex: 10.13 Referring

E:

to example 10.5

|
'-J'+R.
' =5x !o-r
'-RF

1(
10.15

zo

A'8'
A.:
] l + A |'RF
-

Rn

2o2Xlo
---------------l+2)2Xl'X2
R,a + RF +

4.a4 m,/V

(A'gn2RF)Rid

=l0o K + 20o+ (2 X 2 lo'] X 2). 1 K

:8.l M
since ro2

>> R,.

R"u,:roz(l
:

'

i.e 20

>>

net\ork:

20

ArB^zRr)

:20K(l +22X lo r2)


l.62

lf 8.1

!\
A1

x:

m+/ :

4.878 _ 4.94

4.94

:
0.4 B
'

1=!:V,
'

4.878

mA/v

_1.25%

R:'Rl

RF2+RFt+RF

11

A.-!
'-
|-lt" _ 8ol
B' _ !o _ |\
2+RF

with .4/ =

Fed_back

-j:
v

l)mA/v

en1

mr',/v

_lmX6: _60v/v

:l:l
' v
(a)if B
(b)

RF

>>

t =l.

- 1 s_n.

-circuit:

vo:

-8^vr"(ro ll R.)-and

v.. = /r(Rs ll
v

Rr)

+A: J =
/s

(R.

'- = l

-(Rs ll Rr)s.(ro il RF)


I + (Rs ll R.)s.(ro 11 RF) / RF

'.

A
+

This figure is fo. 10.15(b)

11

Rr)g.(ro

l1 Rr)

Exercise l0-5

R,

(c)

R5 ll

Following the procedure used in Example 0.7

R,
" = l+ =l:1*4
R,, R, R,
I
l . {Rs || no1g.{r"||
". R7 r!.^ \r/e cal
(Rs 1l R.) R,
R,r R,
1 : g^('r' |l Rr)
R,.

]+or-.
=!Rir= R,
Ro
substifuing fo.

t,

Ri =

||

R. ll

&

nr:

R,l = RJ|| RF ||

,,
R.
:R" ll

----

(1 +

:R,
t

Rin

-_:-

' = 8.(Rs

l
t*4
= Ror= Ro Ro

||

-:

n.,

'o ll

Ro:

.^ l

r,

.+Rn,, = ro
(e)

R",

" l+
l?"r : R.,,, ll R,

Since:

For

8. =

5$

||

||

_(l K

l+
Ro
R-':
_ l+

| l
30.3 k

4.0J

-,-..
99l-!
= t.
4.3

-;## , *l

t.66 k

: t

: lK,

unchanged

_ rn.
: _'
-_!
'R, {.,
R, =
l 90

ll

.1 X

and

R, :

o.

1o3

_l.X

m(20

lo3

K
t00

9.9|

= 9

Ro = 9 K, unchanged
R.", : (l + 111). 9 K :

ll of

/,

/A

l M

Rl
- 0=B _ R+R) :

is fed_back.
>>

1-+

ideal

l. = _! = t
'
R,:Rsll R,, ll R,=o|| c|| n':n1
Ro : ro2+ (Rt l| ) + 8-ro1(\ l| o) : ro2

rr:2ok
).5

/
unchanged

I+ III

.=c if /

*;fo

||

: _0.1 /,
:111

r: t0.l7 f R,

Rs:1k

:
:

"

Rr:10k
,4

n,.

R.- =
'"

substituting fo

Ro

l0
l+5m(2 l| lo K} =2sl
R, : 9 = 225.6
=

R..:

., =

RF)

R.

,,

R", = R, ll

n. ll R,: l 1l t0 = 9 f,)
Ro= rol Rr:20 |l lo:6.67k

R,:

R,

(R. ll RF)s-(r- ll RF)


-.:- +
"
ifecall
Ro
Rr. (ra ll RF)

R.r -

_7.52k!t

Refer to Example 10.8:

Folowing the procedure used in Example 10.7

R-.:
l+

m/V

Rs=-rol:1KRl:loK
Rr=90kg.:5mA/V
ro : 2O kdl

ro ll Rr

Ro

0.1

_30.3

Ex: 10.16

g.(r, ll Rr)

(d)

Rs ll Rin

R",, _ 20 * ll
,

Since

i,, :

= 1/l0K=
X'0.1 : 3.03
_.1.0.1
A.= A _ + _
' l+AB I 3.0:l
9:_l/RF

R,

l| l0 )

Replacing R2 for 0 in Eq 10.69

Exercise

R.r o'

o = i'

'''

'

From

R",,

1+f

8.R,

8-R

_'8-'Rl
l +},s-.R'

10.77:
R,
_ ''''.ror'

R'

g.ror'R1

To obtain,/?in:

^R,Rr
l+ l + ,-R'
n,,:
'" I
R,, Rs
_
"= x_lR = R'
l + g-R,
I

Thus

Since

8-

+8-

= l/8^
', l=,"
,ll

:(

Ex:lo.2 A(l&,)

\l + j,o/
1./
1oo1
: -3 an

t ,,.,f'

(ts/loa)

: .E-r'r,
if

-v. :
v

g^z'Ro
Ro+ Rz* R]|| 1/ 8-'

(o**.)
A:

toa rad|s

= l: .,

: --:J JtxrI

lo/ (l

= 0.8

+ (")'?)3/'?

x: 10.21 Pole is shift by facor (1 +,4,,)

^,

4 m 1
(l0+9+l l|

r\1 K ]l/4 mr)


ll

.'. ". =

"6

6"

|| < 1 at ,*,,.

J,1

Er:10.1E Small-signal equivalent circuit:

l80" =s an-l(l80./lo4)

mpifier stable

\hen ||

,l'

10"'

l/4m)

10K=|666

Compared to 17.39 obtained in Example 10,4

1:

l+lO5x0.0l:

l0Ol

+,) = lX !! = .l*z
'f u(|

l' :
r _ r' l B)= lot{l0l) _ lo'Hz
-t

For closed loop gain

Ex:10.22 From Eq. l.92 Poles will coincide


when

(,l"' +

")2

Using

: l.

4(

")

\oa

'

,l"ro"

(14 + 106)2 _

t+

4(l + l0o )
(l.ol)'? X I/4

corresponding

8:

l0o :
: .245

---------=- '

ro+R.+RJ

R'vl

_
8- r^
+
v
ro Rr + RJ
-r==--_-a-.R.
5mX2XlK
Al1 :-:t.22
' ,n + l + ]
as compared to 3.03 obtained in

|_u(|

radls

10'o = 0

= .707

and

-ffi-'5" _ "
* loo)^1o| -

Corresponding gain is

A:
Exercise 10.15

.5

For maximalIy flat resonse

Ex:l0.l9 V.' =

106

A :
t+Aop

I + l0ox0.5

= l.96 /v

Exercise 1O-?

Ex: l0.2J Closed loo poles are fond using


l +(J) :

&:!-

'" ;;:0

l+

(l+ Si l0')(l+s/4)3+10]=o

4-q*_{*1,+l):o
0'' 10^ t0'

20oglI

=s;

+ 3s, +

(1+ 1oo)

o for

s"=+

to'

Roots of this cubic equation are:

( 1

-l

lot/r),

+5l/3

t j5J31'1

Amplifier becomes unstable hen complex poles


are onjo axis ie. when = *

1o;.

x:1o.A

-- 2+ .l

;;;

j l9

1+

l + /2/1
Af = rc4z

thus

f lf

tan

_ lo50.ol _

^t;;

lo6

!( o4/ 10)

+ f

making phase magin 180

Ex: 10.25 From

ffi
:

AJ/)l =
quency gain

:.fn:

_ =

i;l;Ri

1'

respons

_2o

80

A=A^-2O dB

'

l0.105

lo 1

r'

-o}-ro*r."-

1o3

l 1 1/
f"+

Ex: 10.2E The le must be moved /Pt to

/,
,

20'

R + l/SC

106

origina|

_9"

|At0)|/ (|/) = l'o


For PM :9o". : 90'
IAt0,.")| l ( l) = o.lm

l0O l4z

l8o" _ PhaS margin

PM: '. :

20 dlde.

loa z

PM = 30'. = l50"
IA/j)1/ (| /p) : |.g3

Ex: 10.26

For
For

_f

"
!D

to'
: |+jf/o

B _ o.ol /4sl

Ex: 10.27 Must place ne dominant pole at

.8
A

Rate of cosure

whee

Freqenc of 2nd oole

Ao* A'

_ ox

_t

:
+

SCR

tu

1o4

<_

(1 dB _

20 db)

to3 z

The capacitance at the contoling node must be


increased by same factor as/is lowered.
.'.

c"e* = cod X

l0

Exercise

Ex 11.1

vcc _ vcu,,u,

'

l-l

Ex 11.3

Fo Q,

15

&

u'

0.2

rkn

= l4.8 m

_Vo_(_Vcc)
:
14.8

0",rt'' : (8z 'Dl' o.r, *


,'Rll
=
P': 2v',, x l:2 x 10 X 10 l r

:2w

0.7 _ (_

15)

n = &,

Efficienc

14.8

= 0.97 k

q'..":y.,._r'"

= Q?

: 15 0.2
: 14.8 V

.,"

:
:

y., +E-,

15 +0.2
14.8

Er

output signai swing iS from l4.8 to _ l4.8


Maximm emier currenl: 2 : 2 x |4.8

x 1l.2
t

Uo:

10Y

is

= .64

Ths,

Ths,

l4.8

. + o.ozs

-1 m and
l0 : 4.8 m.

0.67

:
:

(b) P,

0.64

{.|)

PeAk innlt

= 24.8 m

0.6 + 0.025 ln (24.8)


0.68

(e)

and,

=+l0Yil
Thus,

.995

1+

0.17

+ o.00l

62 :
ntx4

2^

'R.
o-9t

sistor:1qX.'

v/

Toal power dissipat in the two transistors


: 2la x v,,

l'1

0.998

= 24.8mandre|

oo=
i l

(a) The quiescent powe. dissipated in each tran-

,
4. = v, r. _ ffi

uo:
v,

: P"p-,'

Ex 11.5

4,a

similar|y. al

lll

Usig Eq. (l2.22)

R,

2'5]

2,2'15

_ I x4.5
51 4
: 22.1 rA

Po"-,.

I + 0.0052

lrre.,. : -- '
+lR/

rr-,omandir|

2.53

0
=P :V^^x:__
Rl

:59

i = RL+ r\
,, : l0 V' i61 :4.8 m and
, ' : : s'z
''

1:
v,

_e!x=z.tsw

To calclae he incremental votage gain we use

Ths.

(4.s)'?

24

,", ''_&yt_
' P

V
vr = 10'68 V
uo

= +0.67

At v.,:+16
Thus, v6g1

:
v,

!Y
^' P':
' 2R'

\l/

: 9.36 V
= 0V' i:0andi61 : 14.8 mA
v"., : 0.6 + 0.025 ln
l0

16%

nf|a8)

x ln

11.4

mA

29.6

he load current is

the emiter current of Q1

Thus. l/--,

P.

0.999

v/v
1

v/v

:22Xl0
: mW

(b)

1X

15

is increased to l0 m

t:0,,tr:i:10mA
From eqation l

l.3l

V' _ 25 _ l.:sl
i+i l0+l0
R, :
l0
'!:
i R + R,,u l + l.25
R'.-

Exercise

1:
t

o.s

r.

at

A:

= 0.l

,*,

ir

'

Io- "'1

isbecausebiasinediodeshave

areaof

the output devices.

1:0

_ li"_

This

r'"

,,' _ ,. _ /or: 0

l.i

lOom

uation 11.27 to calculae

use

-2

:/,'._r*:3_2:rA
/\
V*= 2V'll , l0 '

v.: ov

16

,,' _ v
l0 {)

I I

99.99 m

using equation 11.26

--

" =

&

_ '

''''

i^/

"
,i

25
iP = 99.99+ l--

R
Roo l

n example l l-5, In =

V,

,i

+ o.2A75

l _'988X rco _

-t =

cbae

!::

R +

R.:

0'2475

l.2%

{' d fq 4 :

L:'zsa

ii/+iP = 2+2

R, :

R + Rnul 1
10v

4:
lOv :
,,:
'
l

+ 6.25

o.q+

-vcc

lo mA

Again alculate ii (for

i": 99'96 mA'


' 22
'
N 99.96
R,, : _yj= :

10

2 mA) usingequation

|.27

25
99.6 + .04

,r

R,

-t =

% Chane

R",,

0.25

:3mW

l0 X 10 1X

15

15R.: 1
and ( : 10 " and :

.4' y." =

on and o, matched

Forz,: lOv. l, : 19 =
l0

s a firs approximation

91 _-2.1
50+

in

o.t

50,

: 0.l A'

i"

(l)

1 and

jl)]

zl

l = ,,l" |.'l--t'1
\ li
' |---9:]l!xl''|
\.]

11.6

v'F':

v.l"(fl)+r.'(

r\
2v,|n

l_0'94X l:6

From example

uating uations

Total por'er dissipat = 2

Ei

vF^

= y,1n
' [i"(i,-_

l0 m, change is l.2%
2 mA, chane'S 6q
(c) The quiesent poer dissipated in each transisFor 1o
Fot a

0.04 mA

lvs'

0,

l' = i(i, - o.1)


,. "l lo]P
l.

'n-,

i,(i,-0.1)=9x106
f is in m, then

,(,,_1{0)=9
,,1 _ li,_ 9:0

+in = 1.1 .o
:i, i,:0.l mA
_I0 _
-.l
Fr,,- = lOVandi':
l)
: -lm
s

a first approximation assume

:0

sice

i,

i, = 1 mA,

0, current through diodes

mA

xercise 1l_f

(\

3X l0 l
Ij' l '''1

'.'van 2v
But

: ,,,, (;)+ v.L (;h)

ys,

(ffi)*

_ ,.,,

i'

Here

0.1

v,l,

(fi)+,

uating uations

/\
?y-|n|'rl0|
' l1^16,,
'1
v,l,

,.,,

ln|

3 and

,]'

8l lo

where

mA

*#

Fr

ys,

V39

= +2 mv:

r"^:

1.4

Xe

0.48 +

O.4

V66

/cr

0.55

For

Refer to Fig. 12.14,


(a) To obtain a terminal oltage of 1.2Y and since
y/el = Vnu : 0'6 V
t is ery lage' i folows' that
I mA
Thus /c.1

-" = l'2 : ! :
Rr +R, 2.4

:
v""'2

0.625 V

1'25

nFl

xe

2.'2 mA
2''72 + o.52:

For

V;g =

= o.s

,e

l" :

0.52 m

ltll21/|25

3.24m^
l0 mV

161

0.85 mA

I xe-oo5/oo?5

yr, : _2
l^

o.

!):
:

o.37m

0.59

O.l1mA
mA

mv:

{o

o.tl m

: l Xe

/:

"'""'n2l = o.o18m
0.43 m

Ex 11.9
Using uation 1l.43
w / L'''

'_'"'',@tD,

+50 mV:

rl

/cl +/R = l.5 m

Vug:1.25

,al :

o.s

0.37 :

/ = 0.46 + 0.13

m/mV

\'231\J'015

Vr, = 1,n'

Vg6: 0.5

yr, :

2.4

l.l5

Ex 11.8

(b) For

!J

l.15V ":#:0.48m

V3g:l.0V

1:

e-o5/0'25

.39

Thus'/.: o.4x2 5 :4m

Ths,

7.39 + 0.54 = 7.93 m

vBR:'|.l

X2mv,/'cX5"c,mA

For

g, is in mA / mV

Ic :
1:

L=0.8m

c = g.

6.54 rna

= o.os v

= 0.575

"

i,(i" ):8l
i",-1,"_8l:0

Ex 11.7

: lJ :

rr: 17"]v:

/ "'2

Expressing cuens in m

i,:

ll

:
v".
"'2

V33:

'o ,,1 ,lo ,'l


lt
,^
\.1 '

iP = |.8

v 1-

1..'r

,ct : 1 x e')l'025 : 54. m


1: 54. +0.58: 55.18 m
For yss : _50 mv

',

i(iP _ .l)

i. (i,, _ 0.1) =

V: o.'1

(-}1)+,.'(;a)

|., ,.

v..

|W / L'
,' : n.,
"'(w/L)P

\w / L)"
(w / L)\

Q':

s^,

o.z

=(f),

lo'(),,u"'

:,

V,),

)xo.2so(y),(0.2r

Exercise 1l-4

Q:

l^.

\,,,(Yr)"v^_1v,1l'

o'z

lro.Ir()
\L1
2'

=l)
\,,,
o",'n :
l

L''(l)"v.,

V,)2

x (14.14 +
:3.5

o'z'

Ex 11.12

l x o.zsx (Y\
2
\ L l

see

lv,|l,

l x.trnxf] x
\ IP

10

zoo

*",(l),v",_
2

() :

.z,

srn

\Lr

No\, %o = %s, + %.,

(V.,r

+ V,) + (Yo", + 1Y,l)

: (.2 + 0'5) + (0.2 + 0.5)


:1.4V
Ex 11.10

1":-,:10mA
.. Io

: l.'[)
t
\L

tn

v:'

- l,
2"'.:sx zrnx
+ y : 0.63 v

Using equation
V

:
o^^'
:
:

ya

1.46

Voo_ y""|Bi".

y,,

0.63

2.5
1.t7

Ex 11.11
New alues of

O.2

WL

0.5

Vo"

are

() =?9:ln
\ L)P
2

(U'l =!:arn
\L) 2

":

"'(l)"va'

1 l0
+ Y.,
Gain

3: l r.t r, to'rr
2
:

Error :

4R1
0.35

: .--l-+
:
l8
8-t)
I

'n

R.,,,

= In

:
= l)
\ L l
a",

,19.21,

':::':1:'
"="r^ro"i*u"'
0'i4

]"'"]',':=

0.14

lo X v;"

4Xl0X10

3Xl

soluio

14.14)

x l0

on ext page

Exercise l1-5

x |l.|2
eed to prove hen

yo':

ssume Q off (V65,

4 qlthen Vcsz
y/i) so

2 =

vn

and

i..':i,':--'!!!:4^

Rr"

|(Viz_

: :k;(),r,"",
"f

lV,u|\'

2(V sepa ' |v ,o]) : (v 56rz - |v ,])


V ro"2 : 2V 36"q _ 21v P| + |v ?|
= 2V,orn - lV,ul

V6p2 :

the gate ohe' v cP2'.

(V11- V'o'n) +

Vo) :

+v 01

(v

:
_

(V

or'

seo + 2v scPa

|v

tcPa

56rn

lv ,"1)

v o7

V
'2')
|

+ Y:-9!9

lug his vaue for y,2 into the alue for ycrr2

Vorr, = V,n
(_u+ vesNd+ p(Voz_vi2': vaN2

lv,J)')

Find yi2 for

,2

(Voz Vn)
_ Vro"* (Voz_ Viz)

Vscp+

IyGsP2 R] _ Vscz

using (l):
_ 2v scPo +
\v

v^"

40

(V"'_Voo) =

(Vo'_ V'r)

and show

u.*o.ul %
where

(l)

VoQ
v

y''o

(V esu, _ v ')
v y'o +

V,,

Same proof for p ransisto

ff)

u".''

(v scPa

Vo.r, Q.E.D.

,|)

uy's)

Exercise

Ex 11.13
T1

_ Ta:

s,t

lo.7

and,

/, : 15

,':175=].s'c/\ry
"5
r,a

l-6
V5'

4 Pp

200_25:rex50

But,

10.7

r. + .. + ,

0.86 mA

l5v

3.5:1.4+0.6+r,

T1'T6:

1.5"C/w

rcPp

Tg= T1_ 16Pp


: 2 _ 1.4 X50

Ex 11.14

(a) From symmetry we se that all transistor$ wi


conduct equa currents and have equal ys's Thus.

l5v

- 15V
Neglecting ,s3,

g116

=J1=

0.86

Bu at this current

vrr,
_

x lo t)
\]_] x l 'o,'

o.o25lnro.86

:0.6v
Thus,

V36:0.7 V The

V., _

0.7

V and 1,

5 _ 0'7
5

2.86 mA

f ve neglect aj then

: 2.86 m
this cuen, yrf is given by

--

Thus

|0

]')
,
\-1.3, to'"/ yl : 0.63 v and ' = 2.31

o.ousln(2's6

(b) For ,,

o.r

^o

i6a12.87 mA

+10v'

To start the iterations


Ths,

and

|o_o''7: +9.3

,-

11:-.(:]

letV3

=o.7

"5

o more iteraions are required and

ic : ia: ig3:

+ 1.6

vn:

161

y," _

Vr'

0.88 mA No fur-

ther iterations are required and /61 3 0.88 m.


To find 162 we use an identica procedure :

- t5v
f

h(?)

v.

jg2

0.3

vn:

z:

4.86 m

o'o25ln(4'86
\ ]-]

lq-])
l0 '-,

lo -.643 : +9.351

4.87

62=4.87 mA
Finally,

: c

= 33 71n-

y'here

Vu'_V'' :
"-:
"2

Thus, lca

/6a = 1.95

n'62

mA

"vl
y

Exercise l1-7

The symmetry of the circuit enables us to find the


alues for r, = _l0vasfollows:

1 = 4.81 mA /c2: 0.88 mA

: /ca:

/ca

1:

For

1.95

V
For 1 = _ 10 V , :V_Vsj
=-9.351 - 0.62 : 9.98 V
(c)For U = +|0v'
l:_- l0

10

,l_
','

Thus,

V51

V363

: 10.58 o Vr2

V664:

+9.98

9.86

I.n

0.72

9.36 = 0.5

3.3

x 10

+9.86

l4eosl0025

:0.02 mA

For symmery we ind the value for the case

[: lmA
/6j

0.72

Thus, ,,

|o' ,,:Vg1_V'3

x t0 ''l

-t.J

mA

10.6 0.62:

Vur' = o.o25ln( x lor:)


\

Ur: -lvas.
: 4.87 mA
/cr : 0.02 m
u., = -9.86 V

mA

cz :0.38 m

:0.5 mA

1c+

l mA

Ex 11.15
For Or

"rgIV

,f

i.

,+l

i6

c-

"

nD/

lsp e "

Thus' Effectie scae cuent

.Qz

ffi+lc

ssuming that yd| has not changed much from

V61

10.6

:0.38 m

"e'
0.58

o'o25ln(o': ^ lo ]1
}.1 X l ',"

,',5

15

10.58

Thus,

/6.1

0.88 m

vn:

l0

n(**,)

l;-

lP*l]

'1.

0.643

9.357

94=o

:250:i
l

1o_]

><

1'l'

*
=
a

"''10125

:0.651V

100

V--, = Vrl,

/c2:4.87 m (as in (b))

/61

se Figue t 1.34
when yBF : 150 X 10 ' Rll, then

4.87 rA

ssuming hat

Ex l1-16

:0.30 m

Now for Q2 we hae:


V 3g2 : o.3

Iz:

lllJ

,c

,Eu: o.o25 ln (2 X 1oll)

-jc

Jlthi*

(b) Effecie curen gain

10.88

Vl

p*-,

o'

/,:
,5 15 106 = 0.88 mA
u: |_ = 0-88 _ 0.5 :0.38
/61

]v /sP

-ien
i,.

v,,"

0.6 V. then

m'

25

0.651

(f

10 ,"

(%)

/cs

/F'.

'

Rxercise

5 X 1 rR, = 0.651

fi.'

4.34
lf peak ouput current

"

: |o-|4 eo'434125
3 0.35

4.34

l-8

P,' _

= 1 m

_
%^-R.,> toomA
: 0.434 V
ia' = 1, slv

l X |o'

(v. /_J2)
R

: Jivx

hs 7,

Er 11.20
Volagegain:2K

rryherer

Thus,":

o
_ _ 2,
_- L --:
Toal crre ou of mode B

ft
3

Peak-to_eak,o

(i:. ft)^ : -1

P, =

2R -'

=,";-J

"'

b-_
. lR
R'
_ - 2R2/ R\
+ (R, /

Q.E.D

R)

+*

6oV

:30v =:.zsn
8

=('-#^)
-6

= (,

fr), -,

x|L.22

o:

o =

1Xlo 3:

For R >> R2

o.l:

- _2R'
Rl
i

(lvcsl

1.44

},,c..}lv.rl
}xz11vor1

'v,l'

_:1,

-v,)?

(,S = 3'32

v:zvs:6.64
o ' Voo = 6' r =
,.
20mA 20x l0

Ex 11,18

Ex 11.19

(12.58)

Refer to Figure

1l

'Jrx

ro

10

20

_ 3 _ 3 = _6 mV/'C

T
but From

=:
R4

35

o /rt)2 = 56.25 W

Vce

rhus

150

\e wish to vaue

R,

= t's

Ex \1.21

_2R

D
'm,i -

R1

eak load current

R\_

t.ft

V/V

nput resistance

Thus

82

or 16.4 V peak-to-Peak

Ex 11.17

8=

50

Using equation

,"o

2.9W

to be less

For Fig. 12.32 we see that for 66"1rr1;on


2v is
than 2.9 , a maximum supply otage of
called for. The 2o'v-suppIy cure inteScts the
the oput
3% distoration line at a point fo which
.
Since
poer is 4.2

= (, *

ft)r-.

_
(, * \)v ",, v

6.64: (l+2)o.7*(r

R, -_-R2---

.l.:z

*}),

01

u,

_4x0'1

Exercise

Ex:12.1
V

c'^"l

oo

|V

orr1

+ l-65 o.:1 .5_3


s+.55v
_ yJs

+ yoy'1 + v |"

'cl,^nl2
l.65 + 0.3 + 0.5 > 1.35 V
v

o@i<

v DD

<+l.65_.5
=

1v

|v u

l2-l
Fom he above we can write

|v

ou'l

|v

l.u' = G.2V'2 + --.!

\iJhere

V,, = -G.rVi,rRiand
Vn: vo +i2 = c.Rlvnul herefore:

P1

.5

ov

/,,,|

8-^8-|RIy"u + --9

/.,,

y.,,(s..8.,R,

+ 1.15V

8-,8^lr",l r ") + r"l] r"l

l.65 + 0.5
_

Since

1.l5v

30v' /u =

(v

0.5

r,, is huge,

\e can negte.t

_|

r""ll r"t

R = ----------i'' g-68-|( r"r||


I

0.5 m,

Vou, = o.2. Voro

r.,o ||

and have

12.2

|y| =

i)__!-

Vn.,nl -..vss+vov6

Ex

oiz

r,,)

12.4

: r(0.5)'?r : 2 mA'/1
For Q2 , = 2(o.2\2 + r: 0.8 mA
e-: J_
= ^,: ',' = 4 ,nn,'
V

For6:o.5

-9

=n'.::Im/v
0.5

,.' = \-,'':
"'

29 = zs

:r':r'=29:
.5

A: _8.zroz: _4x25 = '1 v/v


Az: _8.roa: _l X: _40/
A : A'A, = (_l)(_4): + 400oV/V
R : r.ll .-1 :19!:26L
2

Ex:

l2J

The smal-signal equiaen circuit for he op-amp


in Fig. I2.l on page of he Text is rawn blow
for a uniy-gain buffe
From Eq. 12.8, |2'7

Text:

'12'14'12.15
c.| : 8. G-z: 8.a

R, = ,u\l

r,,a

R1 = r"oll r,,,

o page of

he

G.:ImA/G.=2mA/
C : lP
oz: fo : 1 K,r,,o : r,', = 4oK
|'/V _ lMH.
Q| ''|' _ !-!L
2C6 2C6
cc: l.6 pF
A1 : -G-1R1: (l x lO t)(.,,,11 ,.,)
= (1 X 10 '11l zz1 : _50 V/V
A'2 : _G.rR : (2 X 1o ')(r,,o ll ,.,)
= (2 X 1 ')(ao( )zz) : _40 V/V
A: A'. A2 = ('50)(-) : + 2000
l) l6,/2 X l03 = 50 KHz
f ,,: f,ll:
(b) o moe zeo to s : "
l
R=l-:
G^ 2x l =5
1

xecise l2_2

t ^- G.z _ o.2 to
2C2

2,lo-9

: ta_1!!:
f

1,n

-l

]8 Y

106

3l8 X

106

Hz

l7.4'

P:90_:'2.6"
Ex:12.5
Find sR for

(c) |.2

Mz

(d)

2 1 X

o.2

106

= |25.67=126/S

s=|+1=SRXCc
c
126

= 2

X 106 1.6X 1o'l2

_ 0.3 +0.5

+ 1.65

+ vn

+ .85V

yn{.in) >

oo

|v ounl

1.65 _0.3 _0.3

>

1.65 + .3 + 0.3 + 0.5

V o^^'l
=

0.55

|v ou|

1.05

-0.55 V

' ou : 0.2V, = 1A
2 - 2 l 10-6 : l.o m/
G-"'
0.2
"'
, :V^ = 20X06+2 k
Ro : |8-4r.4t.2|| r"lo)] !l [,..r,sl
20

c^,""'| ]

= 1.OX

2002

A : G.R":
=

13.33

X 1/3 X 06=
1.0

103

Ex:12.t
Given : all Vey

V: V55:

lo-3

13.33

13.33

106

0.7

v/v
:

0.3

V, lVrl

2'5

(a) Yrc(.",) for NMOS

v cu^^in=

v DD

_ vo + v

1w

11vor, _ v -1'

l r11v

or,

V')"

Vr)t
V7)

Ex:12.10

:
pnp: /s :
npn:/s

lo'l4, = 2'vA = |25


lo-raA, : 50,V, : 56

x t2.7

,:
" :

-yss + vovr + vovt + vn

1.66 + 0.3 + 0.3 + 0.5

:
|v |

x: 12.9

- V)7 = 4(V6s2
i.e.,ycs V7 = 2(Vo'r_
o Vor, : 2ve9_ v

V,cu^in'2 -Vss } Vor, +vo|+vn

(v cM)Bo < + .2

(V65,

_
lc^^') v DD vovg

1.2

_2.9 v < (v
cr)o'e| < + 2.9

\1w
Fo I| : 2|

x:, |2.6
V

- 2.5 + 0.3 + 0.3 + 0.7 : _


+ 2'9
.'. -l.2v
=(vICM)N

_2-9<(vc)P<+|-2

Vou' = o.2

...:

vc-n1"> _ vss+ vov + vov

(b) By Sym.

/l = l

SR:2f ,V6y:

s+2.5_0.3+o.7:+2.9

=.C V

"r:

V'!

"

V-" = 25.u,n-1!]:633 m
l-'o

8^: / r : 2/5k:40 m/v


rn- - 200 25 + 5 k
' 25
,' :V, :25m
lmA
,' =Vn: l25v - l25kO
. lmA
Ex:12.11

/ 5)
""u"'u' -v
=V
'ln(
",
:
and , = Ia,11
2
From ect: Yrrr *V"rr= V j4* VsBa

v.rnL*l+ r.'"[*] -

r.,"[*ji]

/i ]
.-l"lLsl ,i. szl
l:hL/sl/sl]
.'.

l'' :

1,[/sl/sl)
'L/sr

/J2.1

xercise l 2_3

x |2.12
Vs6 : O.7 Vforlc

Ic
V

l0 A

for

"6u,

o.7

mAforoll

QlO

v,l"|#] :

0'585 V

"'

v
V cu.inl : _

: /-.+R
r".+R+R

^.

"

-R
ror
-

+v

v s5

+0.6+0.6

+ 0.3

+ v Bfi + 3"a + v

^re^

o.25o,',,

0.02

-"':

*
= 3 normal

: l80F.iJ

: l80x3:540A

Ex:12.15
Assume 1c7

1c5

/c6

and r" = 2.63

for 74l

t.oz +

5._

x o

9.5

+2.63)

= 3.63/1

2 _ 3'63
R1' +1 50 '2L
2o1

vs6

= .8r

"' - .81. - .oal.


Eji ]lv

Vgu+

gr",

= .].6]1. + .or.
= 3.84k X

( +

l)

R llRolo

R.r: t,,r:

? :

(. ''sx o

6/2 X 25 lo-1

R,'

10

|9x|ol

5X11

R.ro = 31.l

19

M
3l.1

2.63 ||

2.63

ll s

I'))

2.42l\1

Ex:12.18

llr,= ?+5+86

{c) ,s? =

12.17

From Fig. 12.23 on page ofthe Text:

lf

V"6: '(R2+t.6\: i.(l

x
R.

l:[J-'

',n

'''

l2+a.sj

Q|a' Q2o he

o'o2

p_amp, we have

Assume Q1s, Q19 (now diode connected transistors) have normal aea

R-'

sbstifuing R = l

+0.6

l2.9

(d)V:

0.02

B|

x L2,t4

(e}

r.lRlR

o.2R
-"'=- R +0.02R+
r"l

14.?

(neglecting R, & R2 drops)

(a)

= l?,

r.5+R+R

vcMlnui': Voo V"^* viol+ vB


= + 15-0.6_.3+.6

=
=

r"lR
^ r..5+R+R

12.13

15

Rl

Ssumo >>l and re5 = r, then


Vg5 = Vg6 = i(r.5 + R') = i(r + R:)

R : V, Vs
: 0.115 v
= 0.7 0.585
O'||5 -1
=>l-'-3!-n'=
"' R ' l0A tt.s (!

=+

Rz =

VoItage across

12.16

see Fig. 12.22 on page oftheText,

9.5

2"

Ex. 12.l6 and l2.17 in he Tex. we

, =

5.5

/ l0-'. f,,

2.4]

p.q

hae:

Hence:

t
2x2.43 t

c... -

5'5

' - = t.|.] l o mA/

lO"

Fom Eq. 12.95 we hae:

CMRR

: 29''(R.'l|
2(9.5

1E

k
-.].84

(i... _

From Eq. 12.93 we hae:

CMRR

\2s

R"lo) /

6Y2.63

_r.. ]
l '/\2.63 +3I.l ,/
5.5x 10 r

Exercis l2-4

1.68

(A).t"

105 or 104.5 dB

f the common-me fedback is not present, as


exp|ained in the text, common-mode t asconductance and common-mode gain are both reduced
by a factor of r. Hence,

CMRR

1'68

CMRR

7O.5

1o5
5

-G^,

R.

8. :

_6.5

_526.5

v/v

x lL23

3360 oi

dB

Ex 12.|9
a=

l=2

, '. = !-:
16'2 A

,''. :

l.54 k

m :

25

45'5

0-55 mA

R:1,Rs

25 mV

16

= 1.56

:2N
4 X 0.165
: 3o.3 k

= 50k

substituting ito Eq. (9.77)

Riz = 201[1.54 + 50|| (20 X 0.0455)]

=4M
Ex,12.2O

V'

l' Rs

r"n
1

V,l
45.5 + l

Vr,
45.5

(Re

ll RirT)
v!7 _ v'2R9i-;;;
needs Ril7

l
6.6 X0.917]
.' _
'' -""LE _'
]
: Vr[0.05 + 6.05] '8J

"

v-

+R.=

( + l)(r!?

+ Rs)

2o1(45.5 +

l00)

29.2

= 163

"

x |2.A

..Vbn-V12xO.92

[R,*,,

*'.r,.

x; \2.21

i,2

'o+1

R,r3D

\rhere Ro3B

Ror,

ll R,r7

f,l3,

.9 1

ro(l +g,,r(R3|| r,17))

0.55 m

ol7

: -l9!- :
227 '1

0.55 mA
0.025 v

22

.'1

9.09 k

mA/

R: 1
Thus Rn,,

722

Hence Ro2 = 9.9ll '122k


F,xz

- U kA

1L22

I'
I
y : 18.8
= 6.11

+ 6.6

x 0.917 =

open-circuit oltage gain

o.o5 +6.05

0.025

- * 0.05

R^

f ,o, n

\
+

2 * r, *'1
l80 5l /
201

ssuming 23 = 50 and ,o
1.'3 n :

Ro

Ro-

180

5 + ( 163 +
14.4

dl

#e]
:

and

from Table

l?9 + 1588)

5 +94

Exercise I 2-5

Ex

x' 12.28

12.25

SR

0.63

using eq. (12.129)

/S

using eq.

0.63

"sRlavo-nt :

2(l0) X

X 10'6

|'2.26

,:

10

kHz

r'here yr : 25 mv
H,,(f)
R::Rn:ffi=z,o

n''

,:
A,,-243147x10s

c_,:_]-xt1
"" 5-26
.'. n : G', R
.'.

R=

A''/ G^

12.27

SR

: L

: 2L n,,
c_,

o = 9=t=sn

2l

R,

Hz

here

with

1279

inserted in emiers of

l _
4rJ 2R' 2*
mv-r \
____^

:9.5xl0

now

0.050 _

g.5

SR

5.26

X l_6

: 2J!!y12r'

= 4v

2r,l

z'
^..0.025

for I

oj' oa

+ Rt2]"'

1pr1

QD

n.*c.
' c,.= 9'
2c,
.'. c. must

be reduce

factor of 2

c,".-::f:rson

GainG.t .'. alsohaled


n"*: l 6dB: l01.7dB
f

= f ,lA =J

has been haled

''
f ,'.. : 2x f o,,tu: 8.2H2

Ll"l'e)

\1)

ffilnzl:

l,7]3

Exercise 12-6

12.29

: R!:20k
and 1 : l0 A from Exercise 12.28
For /r _ l0 = /. hen (f),
(#),
useR1

/'\
IJ

For 1,

For/,o:5
since ys

20

":

21, then

(r')"

!,then(),":

Find

$
Bl

for (V,r)

Assume iP

iE2 ad c1

i"

.iP

iB2

: ^
tl-.t-^

lr\/l)/l )
/\, i",
P

'()'
i(yr)'

has to equa the origina

(ycc_ /*R4)

: Vrr_o.2

soR3,R9,andR1

can be found by

0'2
R,:
' lo :
j'2 :
R":
z

n,,,:

|''

20k
|0 k

) =
(b)

Ex:12.30
(a)

Find

:,,

(;tri;)

(40)'

='9

iN

ir. = |01

!83 for 1V,*)

ssume

;--

ial

^2

(ssume

6.25

i",

: 4

i,,

: --!- :
(10)'.40

;"

, - 40)

(ssume P
2.5

Io )

xercise l3_1

Ex:13.1

Noise margins say unchanged, because

n he ow-opt sate' the transistor is on and

7,. Since V.

"c.'|{vo, _

v,)

lso:

P"*."," =

yol : v oo;!L
fo + fos

and

hence:R,

To obtain

48

3 rr, : 219

2x fi!

|25

.-"
"L

w
L

v,)

2.5 X 50

l25v

Ex: 13.2
when input is lo\, he oupu is high and equa o

yorr. n his case. he switch is connected to

Rc

Vo, _- Vcc_RcJ:5

*. ur", (-R^
""
L
.

o.o89v, RD

R.

-2X l

E:13.3

V'"

RD

_1

Ro

= l0 k

and

K,

ence

o'zz

lo

"43

><

0.22 _ 0.22

V,
,,voo'
v,

= 1.3l

1.8

I + 1.8-0.5

**"
voo

0.22

and sub-

\ro: \vooo':

lrv

r"

- vo,

RD

P,,'..,,"

: ]'
2

oe ha keeping

l.
w

"

;,0:
I k

= l3s \

unchanged resuled in Ioer

noise margins and higher power dissipaion.

l0*'

0'26

Voo- V,o : 1,8 - 1.31 : 0.49 V


NM1: V
Vo : o.12' 0.26:0.46v
NM"

= 3v

_
/_ loy |o -L=[
0.089

y4 _

V, l.rry'Dv, v'

= .5 + 1.63

ual

3 /V2:

}()0, t0 ^x x

and wilh

frdVoo'V'n'V'r'Vor''
Vol: Voo = l.8 v unchanged
vlL: v+ v' = o.5 + o'22 = 0'72

Pa

to yo. . The switch is connect o

use:

The power dissiption becomes:

llence,Vo!:V66:5V.

t,' :

unchanged resuled in

'r-

is zero.

\iy'hen the input is high, he ouut is Iow ad

y :

To cacuate he ne' noise margins, e have to

when the s\ich is open' no cuent is drarn


from he suppy: PDD : 0

situte

y.

=V_:0.o89
v,t = R,),

X 10_6

Rc2. |herefre lhe crren hrough

'R"

V'z

h crrent dra\n from the spply is 50

To deermine

302.4

unchanged:

X l0 6(2.5 _.5)

: V2]:

|68 A

: l5l w

Y, , we

To determine

when the switch is cosed o in lo\-oupu sate'

P16

;Ppp

168

Ex:13.4

{Vo,

^d

higher power consumpion. bul noise magins


stayed he same.

. ,e use:

p"c.,,

Note that keeping

Subsituing for
2.5_9!=_

l.8 _ o.2
lo k

lDD'

= 56L

Rr}rrr:0.l :

'

has not changed. noise margins

DD V"" V"'
R"
Poo = Vooloo: 1.8 x

Voo :50=R^*r
^^: RD+
rD\
50

v DD' v

stay the same.


o.der to calculate he power dissipation, e
need to first recalcuate

Therefore' he curent drawn from he spply in


this state can be calculated as:

= 2J

oL'v o]' tL' H only depend on

_ :.ls

Exercise l3-2

El

.
'

Ex: 13.7

13.5

t(w/L\,: /l :
L\' \ll3 -'
Fom E4. 13.20: Vol : Voo_ y, :

From Eq. 13.35 e have'.

4(w /

l.3

P7r,: loox

unchanged
From q. 13.28:

"o'_- (vDD v') _ (l.s_.5l


2k',(voo- 2v) z :1 _ 2 Y ).5)
'
: 0.12 V
From Eq. 13.22: vL : vi = o'5
unchang.

Voo I lk, _'|)v' _


,,
'" _ --:+l
:0.7V

].8 - (3___]ll

-.r-l

From Eq. 3.26 ogether l,h setting

z'x|u

",)'o

oo

_
q
'''',']
aI

_ v, _

l *

1l

(V

aa

6)2

_1

d'

'oL"!

+v DD

1un'

_ v _

Ex: 13.6
The inverter area is approximately

A = W,L, l w''

since

= a.,r"1,uu" |

'

l, = l.lV, . ssuming
Lt: dandw2: L.

= kd2 + kd1

k. >

W"krWz

2k"d2

Ll

= J(-

an

= k'L,.nd

Thus:

A : k,LrL, *

l,

v oL

: l.8_o.5_.12
: 0.61V

NMs: V6"-V,":1.3 -.61 :.69V


NML: vL_ Vo = .5 -.12 : .38 v

L7

o.5

32'4 w

P-!!!
'

: crv'oo,
C

dvn2

x52 _

0.13

v.l' _

66.7j

L22

"vt

oo"

:66.8

v.( _

y...) _

"(o''\"-'''
l#)'
v^^U"o-(Ve6-O\e '"'" ,Vo
-t:

.'.

+o'5 + 0'121

".32o.l2_v
9[0.74 _ v ] : 1.18+ Vrrr

Pu..'C,v2 oo +

for

a,I J
'"f

odar

Now ifwe substitute for

k,2fo

lo_6

1.82

l]

_(_'P'l)

\ 2) = Vrr'C

2k,|6+ @1_
L
_2(V

loox lo-'t x

106x

13.8

lnr _

-t,

drr

fCV oo2

Ex: 13.9

Fom Eq. 13.23:

32'4

Ei:

P* :

we have

1r"12, + k.W2z

"'-

tpp:

Voo'C '

o'un

l0 psec. with C = 10ffandyDD:1.8V

18 10/.0.69:

t.2mA

Exercise 13-3

Ex:lf.10

For rPr the output starts at yoa and goes o yol,


hrough the Pu which is 20 k

voQ): vor-) (o@) - voQ\)e tt.


* vor) : Vo_ (Voll_voL)"'PL"

\tvon

(- \v""

hrough Po which is t0 k

*
\tv oo
()v

\v.,)

(Vog) + Vo

.(

R.C = 0.69 (20 K) (100 = 138 pSec


For ,al, the ouput stats at yol, and goes to yo
,p/-fl = 0.69

"(i))

,-

'"

,pl/

or1

:
_

v 61- (v 61- v on)" '"""t

",)
vor+v* =
lv "'

"(-,"(i))

',Pry'

}v

"-:

,P.,. = 0.69.R.c

t"

)""r+ '"r"1

0.69X

"

10

){z

KX l0/ :
p

69

p)

69psec
16

rr".

xercise

Ex: 13.11

:
v oQ) :
v o(t)

,is

vo@' _ tyo(-) _ v o(o')]e ''


o _ [V aa _ o'!e l(7' |'' = r

hen voltage

'|Vn:
ln(.1) =

is

ooe

-(0

.1

yDD

.'la

rr

2-3..t=t
.2 . 1
t
J:2.3

.,c

6.46 n.""

3-_4

xercise I3_5

' : r"'(l).|v' - v,")v o _ :v "']

Ex: 3.12

. l3.58:
v., _ r(vpp-lv,,,lt+v-

a) From

'"

r+l

+0.2

r(12 04)+o'4+0.6+0.6r

0.6 =
=

or

1+r

0.8r+0.4=r:

_-_

,= n!"."
E{"_ 44
'.

|a

.1(w|:

m: .52 m)
Vpo = |.2'Vo: o
lt
_
vH (svDD_2y,)
i(5 l.2_2

b\ V6g :

v', =

From above:

4 X 0.13

= 0.65v

f,1voo+

2v,)

:(3

. 0.4)

0.55

.,*,

o,:
"
=

since oN and oP are matched, the outpt resis-

.:

/]xl=s

hence:

V-- :

= rry) _
\ L l
\ L lh

0.5

0.4

IPHL
g.5.1

Ex:13.13
Using Eq. 13.58 and 13.59:

u..
-

lv,ol+
: 'tvoor+1

v.\,-zs

/{-5-ll+l

l.99

)4.7 ps

ol
v

"'

k'(\
'' \L l"
gl-,,, - 24.6'

* !p)

\{,","

x L!
.

l{z.l

* o')

'l"

l3.68 \e hae:
and if ve substitute for RN

o.69RNc

from Eq. l].7. i.e.R,

in riode region and hence he circui is gien as|

rv]

("

10

t2

O.2v,oNoperaes

= -J2 1

11'"n'

\L)'
-''' = 0'69. l x Io' 6 _ !
(w\
(w\
\1'
50

r+1

)n I
F
l/2
ni "r"
y,
:
\hen
vDDndvo :

L',

Ex:13,15

0.4) +

l+5

\ )"

Fom

l.2

',C

H = L

we have

'

| *o ,tw\
,o

l.0.

an

= 49.4 ps

2.9 k

()

|v ,n|' then

\lo\lo
])x1''l5X1R

Pa _

tance in he high-ouput stae is he same:

a,rn.

lqq

l.g9

'

= 29 k

:r_ = []
\ L I,

'"

,,,'()

r"x

.-

z]-.l'o.s*)':
4
18 l8.'

v,"l

43oXl061(l.2-.4)

= s

"oz']*(f),

z1 -tv'. +(!:!!\'
4 Vno \VDDI

'
lpl
p

r,rr"

qY;

Noting that v

ofthe inerter in the lovr'-

"c".(l)'v""_

l ^xf)
\ t"

nC

output stae is:

':I

s,<

Using Eqs. l3.63 to 13.67 e have:

= 0.55 V

c) The oupu resisance

Ex:1f,.14

x|.2+2xo.4)

Mg: V6g_V1 : 1.2 _ 0.65 :


NM1 : V1 Vo : 0.55 V

- llz

[s

l l0 ' :

.-) =
\ I,
L

'

8625 X 20

q1

X lo-5

rq)
\Li"

ls

similarly, sing Eqs. 13.69 and 13.7l, we obain:

xercise 13_6

Ex:13.19

,r:0.69RPc: 0.69X30x13--

a)

(),

or

PLr

2o.'l

lgr-!-

(),

=e

59;

S mentioned o page of theText,

2Cr7z

0.|125

+ 2

b) From

par of

.69(R"qC"l +
r

}n"oc"',)

is: o.69lR"qc",, and in order to reduce

increased by a factor ot z. ote rat

:
:

Cord

C".*
C""*

(-

+l:
L

exrinsic

+.lp

orequivalenly

t" = ilpl t t'g) :


''ld

/,.r, n *

, :

476 Dsec

2BD

10625P
6.25f

0.69(R"qoci"' + 1n"orc",,). "n""'

Cin, + C",,

old

vP is reduc from l.|25 mtoo.3.l5 rn

ForS _

...9 x

= 20.5 ps

Cg: = Cgal =

33Eo redction

d) -

0.3375 fF

C6: Cg:0'7875F

C = (4x0.3375f)+ lf

lf

(2x.7875f) +.2f

24.6 rc']tr

3l.5

tl
" _ ^("''

x o "
+

16.6 psec

x(#):

2t.3 psec

:l6.6p

2l.3p)

Ex: 13.18

l =---------------
: ,|.gcRz
"
]-^'_
-llo 228 X l0 '')

The minimum period at hich the inverte can

reliability oprate is
T'n" : tPE'+ rPrr. Thus,

-r1l
=

17.96

Ton
Hz

PHL+

}Y

:'6ff\28ps
'o!??,'

andsince () isaoulun

\L)

is constant. then

Using

(fl):

"''\ _

2:,*

or

aea is aso doubled.

Ex: 13.20

4.225 fF

PHL

(f ) -o(f), '"*,."

1!! _ cii+clls

increased by factor of 2.
c) From Eq. 13.79:

Ex:13.17

|.25

s: $
R"o

Therefore, R* has to be reduced by a facr of 2

.10625 pF

part by a factor of 2, S has to be

+ .lp = 6.25f

2'9 fF

'e e*t.in.;"

and

l :

13.79, we have:

the

_original

= 3.35fF

s.r

L ld

|pH

0.7875 + 2.3625 + 0.2

:' PH] : PH _ orgina| * :-!l:

Ipll =

is the

* Caz

0-3375 +

c. :

C"u= Cg+ cga+

,P

tPlL d t PLH ae ploportioal to

.'. Cin

\),

Ex:13.16

C'n, = 2eg

19-t2

Ii+|/y) _
=2o.7XlotY20Xlo
\Ll
(w\

conribution ofintrinsic capacitances of 0N and


P. Therefore,

Pul

2|o

22s

3.35

Po, : fCV

oo

t x loe

x6.2sxlo

= 39.1

t5

The maximum possible operating frequency is:

9 sec

I ..nence'
"
'J*: '
PDP : Pa"x to : f *CV2oo
= x cx Vzooxo:9!3.2
6.25xlo-tsx2-s2

19.5

to

fF /J

x2.52

Exercise 13 7

Ex:13.21
a) For NMOS devices:

.8.-.0.l8

Mos

For

The Dower densi. i.e..


o.21

w:

4D : 0.18 ._ , ..

b) For

NMOS devices:

Y:

For

olR

2.t6

Using Eq. 13.94, we have:

0.l8

.54

Since dynamic power dissipation is scaled by

s'

-s

b : . hence. PDP
I

and proDasaion dela is sca|ed

.s',

Ex:13-24
lf yDD and vt ae kept constant,

unchaned_ \phile

o, jL.hus
v""

scaled by s. herefote n is scaled by

will

,('

43ox 10

1.5

4(1'2- .+

}x

o.:+)

would be:

io
'2- ]4.16. l0''\ l.5(l.2

is

+s
,i

.6

_
I

,."''ar'r, ',r'*r'"o

CY- oo
and hs is scaled

thus Pdyi increases.

l3.l

and thus i is givon by Eq.

o.4)'?

l
by
'
'l/s'1

|y,|

0.8

and |yDs|

1.2

are

+ 0.1

X l.2)

yDs < l.2

55.4

.o)

wihout elocity safu ratio

" ' !l o\
= 59.1
v

' 2tn

are satisfied and the NMos transisor


be operaing in he velociy-sauraion region

6 l.5 xo'6(|.2 o'4 1x


i^=
"\2)ll0Xl0

I
s

p'''-

. l3.l0l

boh larger than |v o- = 0.6 v he deice will


be opraing in velociy sauraion and

any-

remains

is scaled b
-.s1 . and

"""orrr*n"n,"* "r","

l.2 v results

conditions in

|yorl

more. They are kept constant!

" k'v""

in the absence of elociy saturation.


For the PMos transistor. e see that sinc

the entries in

obis|y, vDD and , do no scale by

,ince

|o

Vos = 0.34v o l.2v cmpared to


Vos : Vov : (1.2 0.4) : 0.8 V to 1.2V

Table 13.2 tha change are as foows:

oC

lo')

X (l + 0.1 l.2) = 21|.2 A


sauration is obtained oer the ange

: I so pop

decreases by a facto of 8.

,,

(1 + 0.l X 1.2) : 154'7 1A


if velociy-sauration_were absent, he current

Ex:13.2f

x!:

l0

1.2 - o.4 : .8 v which is


greater than yd : 0.34 V. lso'
Vo': l.2 v iS greater than yDsa' thus boh

in vcs _ v o

io

l.

's2 S

400

NMos transisto ycs

For he

cuen aailable to charage a


oad capacitance is tha provided by a single
Mos device. The maximum current aailable to
charge a oad capacitance is that provided by four
PMoS transistors. Thus. he ratio is 4.
(b) There is only one possible configuration (or
pah ) for capacior discharge. Thus he minimum
and maximum cuents are the same

isscaedb

X lo : x

o'25

Ex: 13-26

0.l8

13.22

ratio is

y.", '
,

= 0.63

0.l8.-_
1
0.l8
-x

(a) The minimum

osu,

l'8

deices:

ry
' '

/.S'

x:13.25

lR

n:9Jxax1.5:
0.l8

Mos

1, ,"u1"4

,S-l

0.l8

deices:

_fu_

deie area

"=

v Ds= .2

I.5

0.6(l.2

.4)](t

+o.l..

or 0.8v < v Ds= 1.2

Note tha the elocity saturation reduces the


NMs curren by 33% and he PMos cuent by

1qo.

|.2.)

Exercise l3-8

Ex

13.27

Eq. 13.102, e have

a) Using

io: ",Vo'/nV,

iD = log/s

v^-

+ -i+log(e)
11V
Theefore, the slope of the straight line representing subheshold conducion is gien by:
Thus' og

!!
los(e)

= z'zn-

: 25 mv
atV 65 : .2|

b)V7

|n :

for iD

1 n

e|ll '2x(25r)

'=.ln
c) For Ycs : 0, iD : .tnA
,o'o1 = 5 x lo6 X .1 X 1O-9 = 50 mA
Pai,,: oo Vrr: 50mX 1.2 : mW
ir:.lne

xercise l4_l

14.1

(w/L)":
,P, =
,P., :

('v/L)P:

.5

14.3

v,

0.32

0.5 ns

v,.

o" + z'
u-v

^[_z6,1

= DD v'

v,_ v'''-1aoo

0.3 ns

v,

zq _ Jo,

substituting aues, we get

: 0.5 + o.3vt/':
Jv_v,+:sv_^Fasvl
Y,

14.2

Using . l4.l l)
(

vDD _ v,)| l_

voL -

tl
_]|

Jl

(2.5 0.5,x

Vor=

o'27

NM"

l l=.zv

, 4
|l'_

'5-,:,[

.5 +

|Voo _

v,)l _

./sll

): rl"

,o

"(:
..(\ : '

(:)"

ractical alue for

y, :

.648

: Vo

1.15

86.4

0.s1'z

2.5

ro

36.4

""(")

js

""

0.22 mW

", 'll_,(t)- ()'] = '*


I'
lr., _ l'68 \7 /x l0
- o.l
lO '

|.44

t5

x t0

i)

\{tror+

.'.

t"ri:

l.8

.648

oo

"()'(

u,)'

r,rv'{ffi)s

V.)'

t"(l)

oo
"v

\tzo",\(|)s

25

./

}(.11n

0.03 nsec

:..
+ o.o3n)

l Vl' : 3 ro

!v)' :

= 1120 A

)(-(t]

l..37s)

;k

Fig' l4.l2(a).

j20 A

.07 nsec

+ 320

,D/{ lPLl' we no|e ha lhis siuaion is


idenical o that in Exampe l4.2 and we can se

To obain

t.97X1
6

v,

ic(o) = iDN(o) + DP) = 80A

nsc

2.5

1.9

capacitor cuent is

using eq. (14.17) and ( 14.18):

'

using eq. (14.15) and (14.16):

-i(,

(b) Referring o
t

: j: )(l.49Q.5

z/|

soling this quadrati equation, yieds one

vo!)5
voL -'o

using eq. (14.12):

"":

y,)

(a) Referring to Fig.14.12, without loading,

\ L IP

>\

.09(2.65

14.4

'=

Po = .,n,Va6 =

o.o5

sotha,yi _ .356y, _ .189

rrs,,(ffi)

-.,".()

v: _ o.446v'+

Vo.

'51

2
/r_
. J.',1.4',)=.s

lO

o.3vl'2

squaring both sides yieds

V, Vn v,)| /, t_]
L "y J( l trl

M,
.

^lri5

using eq. (14.13) and (14.14):

NM1 =

y,

- v'_ o.3vl "'.5v


vl_ 0'223 = u r.65 _ v,

_ /TJl
t { 4J
'

Since v oH

THE NosE MRGNS wLL NT cNG

l.,,,

he result of part (c)

iD\PL\:

50

in"\t",') =

"(\ ,

\LP

|u"'_ u,.l

'

i()'1

Exercise 14-2

= zo

'l'1(!)|,,'_

2'15

Thus,i.(rP.r)

i|"' _

= 0.24 ns

""o

722.5(

ro

oo

"" : \,:"(l)
=

oo

"v

iD(o) + iDP(o)

4l;v;

J_2

|y,.|

_ 0.613 _ o.svl

lv+o.svr"

Jrs vl
"./ -

|y|-

_ o.g76|v,P| _ l.o242 = o

solvig, \re get |v,r|

8 A

V.\'

8A

(d)

lV,ol

squaring both sides and setting one side equal to


zero, we hae the quadra.tic equation,

V.)'
v)'?

"

t{ _l';oj v

tt

)|"'

1.6

v
ns { 0.19 ns)

1(0'24

0.22 ns

R-_
'"A=

+ 320

+ PHL\ _

14.5

_ v12 :32n"s

zo",\()SV

,c(o):

"||

lv,,l

|v,|'

v_l

l v"l()15

Soling for |V,r|

Fig. l4. 2(b)'

l|'(Yr)

6)A

^v

325

: '

|v'|

7(lo_'5)F(T)

tcl"

(c) Referring to

\here

| 325A' _ 722'5 A

4)
---:---

P'H

',()_ i()']

'

50 + 275A

1lll20A

O, will tum off when

Rc

* Rez
2

4.5

+ 6.5

kf)

= 5.5kf)

e6 : 0'69RC:

= 1120

""t""'1 : *"(l),x

pLH

0.69(5.5ko)(70)(

lo

O.27ns which is close to the value

'5)F

of

0.24ns obained in Exercise 14.l4

l,u''_u,;_i()"]
_,,,()
= so llzv'?(|)[s,

14.6

\L)"=():ls
\Lr

l'''l

i(T)]

Using

= 688A
To fid i/pg)' e firs determine y hen

,, :

}rr1r1"1''"oo"soonoso

:
tv,"t
=r

^,1ffi, - lra,1
o.s v"'[F. oi v -

)zo t

"(),|?'

;k:

v"l(!)| _ l.v]" :

14.1

ic( p ) = i DN(

PH

r.ao

,"

irl-,

'zoro'5lr(})
94(lo

6)A

(14.36) we se tha

l2'5
'" = (v\ k

R--

l2'5
= (l) k

0.19 ns

2.5 k!!

\ L ),

Using Eq.(i4.38),
0.69[(C,,",1 +

cIcl)Rl

(ci"2+ cc2'

+ R2)

= 0.69[(1OfF + 5fF)(i5k)
x ( 5 k + 12.5 k)]
,/, = 0.64 ns

So,

15k

\L)

with

x (Rr

W*:9l4A

,()

l, :

+ i DP1 P!L'

=688+20:708

',.'':

J0
'' = w\ k-lqk_
(2}

R-,

]'
zo

.:

Using.(l3.7l)'

:
^,f.o v]
|v

(4.36),

r,.:ffi": ff:

v,..

Ths, DP(,P,.) =
=

v"o

+ (10fF + 5fF)

xercise 1,_3

]^srt,_s !l'
2

= 4A
i6,(l'1

Y=A+B

OR

_ V,) _

= 175A

i^,l -

NOR

(c)iDI

Y=AE+AB

xoR

XNOR

14.9

(f

so rD(yDD)

is new(f

wirl o

:2(76.1
).,

A):

'"():2(68.9A)
This doubles

/a',

"and

"

152.2

o(

137.8

o)

145

"",

c(v^^ Y2!\

\"")t
-'-:-

30(10

'5)F(l.8v o.gv) _ 0.l9


6)
145(lo

14.10

:1(w)=!x1:r
,,,(')
\L)"q1 2\Lt 2 2
2

(b)i,,(1, =

"'s

\"(l)

i,,,l,.| _

8i

:vl _ l,|)
: - ll'
\L'c|

i^'l : !X50ll]
2
=

lA

(e)

v ''' =

It'

i^'l .l
-:jj.]jj:
Ctt
6X0.56X lo'9
_ _t010
40 l 15
U2

decrease to 3.6

14.11

ol = o
Vo : _0'88 V
sHoULD BE SHFD BY _ .88 v
Vol: 0.88v AFER SFNG
Vo : _ 1.76V FER SFTNG
L4.12
Refer to Fig. E 14.l2 Neglecting he base current
of , he curren through Rt'

is

5,2 Vo,

5.2 - o.75 - 0.75


0.907 + 4.98

_ v,l'

Vo,

R+R2

Vn: V_V"'':

""

l 15 4
6
288 X 0

40

= .56 ns

Thus,Y, = -IRr

",,v

288uA

u1

i,l,,,

D1, D2 and R2

Refer to Fig. E14.10

: lrg):.L,.1:
r)
\Ll,,] 2\L 2

'iJ

the new ,psa is

(d) Follo\ing he hint we assume that

Thus'

to 2('lz.5 A'\

io(})

*lII also ole

oo- V')2'

""u

ae(!)

_ v,lv, _

remains saurat during , '

=AB+AB

aorin

C(Voo- V,)

i/,.,|..
'"'

|""r,,'l(l)

'00 + l75

l,',, -* C11

6, =

""

=50xts
t2J |)t 1,'rl

Y=AB

since iD(y,D)

.(!)
\ L l.qtL|v

o.6285 m

-0.57 V
_ o'57 o.15: l.32

Exercise 14-4

t4.13

oR

Refer o Fig. 4.26

'
'u -

vR_ vB|oR-

_______

o,

v ''

o.7't9

V.Irrrr= 0V

4xo'245 =

'|

(because the cu.rent throgh Rct

",|n,

14.14
Refer to Fig. 14.28

_1.24
l5.2 m

o.orsh()

o.75 +

= 0.818 V

'o.49

0.818

_1-3t V

t4.15

ForV'

: V'r'

'
.=+

_ ..12_Vn+5'2

REFER To FG. 14.32 for

V:V:_1.205

99 1'

0.779

ssume yr|oR

Thus a better estimate fo voi is

on =

is zero)

IR-

: _#-

0.'15 + 5.2

Vc|": 1x 4x Rc1=

'

_ 0'49' 0.15

A better esima for yrr|o2 is

"

- 1.32

o.75

0.99 X 4.018 :

The alue of 1 e found in Execise 4.14 o be

4.l2 m. The vc|aR: _0.22 x 4.l2

'

4.018 m

= -0.906 V

oR-'0906 - 0.75 : _ 1.656 v


_ l'656+ 2
I|^. =
= 6.88m
.5

3.98 mA

Thus a beter estimate of Vru ,^ is


|

= 0.15+ o.or5n()

A beter estimate forysEIca is

= 0.785

,-' _

t.32

"'|n,

and corespondingly,

V' :

For

r 5.2 _

0.785

0.179

_1.32y

r-' _ ' l.32

'

9*

o.'5 + 5.2

0.119

-1.97

9o

mA

6/2'

4.018 mA

Thus a fter estimate for Vrr|r* is

V96|'^

= o.16'

o.15 + o.or5

h()

"'|n'

o.75 +

= 0.798 V
and correspondingly

Va

(b)Fol

_0-906 _ 0.798 = _1.704

: Vor:

= 4.58m

o.75 +

V'": _1.205 v,
q:99'
l'2o5'o''15+5.2 = 4.66mA
-_
'
0.779
bettr estimae for yrE] is

vB|oA
= o.?88 V

o.15 +

oozsl"[}-1J)

1.

'

\1V

l.25 _ .788 + 5.2


0.799

__

0.788 + 5.2
o-7't9

V.lp:

_ 4.l2 A

2:2mA
'
:
x
Thus, Yc]oi
-2 0.245 : -0.49 V

0.788

4.53 mA

: _0'22x4'53: _1 V
Von: - 0.75: _1.75 v
/t-_ : --_l:ji--l : 5 mA
vc|a

05

Ve6lnr:0.75+OOr5h(i)
= 0.79
V

and correSpodingly

0.or5h() :

.88

4.00 m

btter estimae for yrElo is


Vgg|'^

FoV' =

Thus a

_0.88V,

,,-_#

and correspodingly,

o.oh()

"or
(c) The

V
__

_ | _ o.79

_|.'19

input resistance into the base of O3

(B + 1)[r.3 + R.]

= II
Ls

5l =

5.55 k

is

Exercise l ,-5

u_:)r

vi

o_

(5.55 k || o.22 k)
r.|nn + R

Thus, --------

-5.s5ll 0.22 _ _0.269


[25 * uzl)r. I'
\4

5t

5+5f'

c|
15.

J1i
orlo^

+Vr:

ssume ysE

_o.24

o.79v

.7?9 k

2 X 0'75
4.98 + 0.97

"l'
V = _

0.629 m

v
_.75:'1.32v
o.57
0.57

|'32 + 5'2

6.l

-5.2 V
(because he crren \ilI be 4 to 5 m). t the
range ofsauration'

= o.99u

.6]6 mA

Thus he reference circuit draws a cuen of


(0.629 + 0.636) = l.265 m from the 5.2 v
supply' t follo\,s that the o\rer dissipated in the
reference circuit is l.265 5.2 = 6.6 mw. since
he reference circit supplies four gates, the dissi_
Daion alribu|cd o a u.

, : '

6.59

5'2

.|^
- ||

(-0.79{.3)

_0.79

0.99

14.16

o.22 kdt

Refer to Fig. 14.26. For the reference circuit, the


cu.rent hrough Rl, D ' D2' nd R2

is

d) see figue belo.

0.3

0.779

0.9

0269 X .9o9

0.79

o.22

v_o"19+5.2

NoR

i.

l.o5mw

n addition, the gae dm\rr's a cuent

4 m from

the

5.2v spply. Thus he oal

po\re dissipaion / gae is

PD:4

5.2 + 1.65

22.4 mW

Exercise 15-1

Ex 15.1

5+

Refer to Fig. 15.5 (a)

when v

"':
v2_ 9

satumted /^

ur6

' *1l ;n

---

()

|"

""'

- )'
"

""(

vl

"

- ;(1'1

ro*{1)().( _
_

;(ffi[r

,lz,
l-ulf)
.
=
.\
L,/.

l?2

(v),: z=;*ffi
15.2
Bits for row address:

2:

logr( l,024)

,i Iog2(2) :

logr(1,024)

,,=ogr(|'24)
'
og.,(2 )

Bits for column address:

28

32

logl32)
log?(2)

(}l."._,,"[a5,l
Ex 15.5

:voo_"'

" i^u

'

"'c,,'l()voo-

144

v,.-

vu)"

x lo-o

1o

ux l.5 x1l._o.s _o.s1'

A
144

a1

2-8 ns

-J_
s61 lW

th6ss161g.

r: l.7nsx1-5

= 2.8ns

or: 11

'1cR

To find 5, we us

al()": zs
l. : 1* 3r, lo-u x 2.5 x 1t. - o.s - o.s1'
: 24o
l, : 1:-]C1j? : t.z n,

o":Voo(l-""c")

_,,

=(f).= zs

Ex 153
|/

ol']

\'

vDD_v')

l(f).: ls
r. : 1 x:x

Bits for blok address:

Bit"

10-6

2Ao

:!99:!?8):7
10E2(2)
2ttt :

*)'

os{f)-

(_ v^

l..

',

'o24

logr(2M)

6.9 ns

, :

Et

(fl"1

k; : 4k; : 3 /V2;
lY,l : 0.5; Vaa: 1.8

Ex 15.4

Fom xample 15.l:

}: "

-7:Jz

d: CRln2
:2|o'|2x5x1o3x.69

; ()

)o

tLz"'
,:i

1.1o6"

n*'(): L()'"
\-'

or,.-__<

',

o illbe

then

\)"

'

xercise l5_2

Ex 15.6

y.
)'|
v"'_u.1 ]

()

\)",t"_(\],-=tU}
"L' \'
(),=().,+,,[r

-(, r]

(),=''().*
= ,,

(f),,

"zs-([),=

: Wp:

lV.

0.18m

CB"!
2
V1

.l

o,

: "}.rij' :

P : Vo :

M2M(NMos)

'

CV'oo

1.8

18

l8O

A :

324

Refer to Fig. l .26

From E4s. 15.14 and l5.15' ve have:

, _

our decoder is an extension of ha sho\;


We have M bits is the address (as opposed to 3)
and correspondingly here ill be 2M word lines.
Now' each ofthe 2M word lines is conneced to M
NMos deices and to one Mos transiso Thus
the toal number ofdevices reqired is

Ex 15.7
V111

From Eq. l5.l8:

Ex 15.12
e.zs

Fo minimum area: selec

W'

Ex l5.t I

x lo '' , ! _

0_lr ''

o.

.v

z"1,Ios1

2M(M + 1)

Ex 15.13

_ _3ox lo_''
: _rn v
_" yV
^
C "y29
2
oJ l
"^
"
mV

_9}

= -60

Refer to Fig_ 1 l.28: Our ree decoder will hae 2


bit lies' Thus it wil hae N eels: t the first
leves here will be 2 ransistors' a he second

22,...,

at the Nth lee here

will be

2N transis-

Ex 15.8

tors. Thus he total numbet oftmnsistors. can be


find as

rea of he storage array

Number

64'loA lo24x2

m')

134.2 rnrn2 or equivalently

= ll.6

mm

1.3

134.2

l'14.46 mrn2

13.2

13.2 rnmz

Number

Refer o Examp|e l5.2.

S.
-

by a facor of 2 by decreasing

same facor.

"

can

byhe

G.

Hence' cn has o be doubed.

G. = g.'

+ 8-b

8,, and 9,1, have to be increased by a


iacar of 2. The increase in 8- can be achieved by
and both

'

increasin he corresondn _ hus:

.54
" z^ . 8 6
(\ = z x 2-.J9 : z

(Y\ :
\L

\L)P

: .'_| 2_|
r I
2-l
=2 l

ThS,

since is pfooniona| o

0.t8

:2

^
:tum

Ex 15.9

reduce

!-

Gemetric series .

11.6 mm

Total chip area

134217728

: 2+22 +23 + ''' +2


2 (l+2+2''' 2n')

2(2 |)

Ex l5.l4
l
J" - 2x

'o

I
2 x 5 x

tO

l00 MHz

xercise l5_3

Ex 15.t5
(a\

(c) n one time-constant the volage reached is

." = k; (y)"[,, _ |)2.5 -'2'517


= zo x

4Uo

1.65

.lzs1
'--> r=2.2 <_
+5V

Voo1'e

r
=

11

'"

: o.632V p
: 3.16 V
5

V-->

4.5

+2.5V

t----'

*
:
Ths, ,ch'sins
(b)

tt
: 2x 10 x2 :
r.65 x ro '

6.1 ns

sahrated

":

\"(l)'<.e "
: !xsx9xz.l'

22

0.35

^'

cBv
D

- 2x

-2 x 0.5

0.35

= 2.2

19.8 ns

ro

t'x3xrol

x to

2_9n"

Exercise l6-1

Ex:16.
: 20 og |T| tdB]
Tl : r 0.99 0.9 0.8

: 0 0.l 1

0.7 0.5 .1

1 620

Ex:16.2
.', : 20log l.05 _ 20log 0.95

e-.:

zologl
|0.||

Ex:16.3

T(J)

:
=f

(s +

0.9

dB

os

7(0)

Thus:f(r)

since

i2\ (s-

i2\

t
t-J

J i,r

44

I
----------------

(s+ l) (r'+ r + l)
1

^, .,./

--

=-_
r'+s+l
1! :

s+1)(s2+i+s+1)

J ;1]|

(s2+4)

(,-l",f)(, -\_')

: t

.. T(s)

T(j,r):

, (sl +41

7161 =

1_
2Q2
Q:I

ll = ____j
,=r,,
2
(l + ia
)

: _2lo
-fi l

.4_])

(" *4)
.-rr.t:1
' 4.'+.+!

.' +.' +.' +.'

o..o

-.
Thus:

1:! 4

;T;;l;

:28.6dB

*Y

Ex:16.6

Jlo"' _

Er;16.4

(s) = t

(r

,("' + 4)
j8) (s + 0.1 j8)
j1.2) (s + 0.1- jl.2)
s1s2 + 41

(o.)

(.l'?+ 0.23 + .65) (J'?+ o.23 + L45)

Ex:16.5

l:

o.s

1rU.)1

+ 0.1 +

(., + 0.1 +

lradzs

_20 IogIT(i.)l

_t *.'(9L)'nl
P,/

10 ls I

.]

Thus. I0log[ + 0.58882


l{ : l0 Ls : 29.35 dB
l{ :1 I LHS : 32.87 dB
.

Use

N : 1l

I.52N]

30

and obtain

A^''':

32.87 d
Fo..," o be exactly 30
1o

]ol2Q = 1cos60:12

logtl +.' x 1.5"1 =

o..t654

0.54

.,' -

,,: 1andQ:1

6/zQ:1cos:

log.[ , _,l

The real pole is a J


-l
The complex conjugate poles are a

J:2cos'a

36

dB

Ex:16.7
s sho\n, he pai ofcomputex poles has

dB

0.s

jJi
6

jsin60"

Exercise 6_2

valleys are obtained hen

co.'co.''f9)l
L

oh(+)'o

\or,/J

scos'9):k'k=o'1'2
'.;

T(r.)

:
(s + 1)(s + o.5

-rf)

for

(s+l)(s'+J+)

DC,-

o., _

;f)

k: o'l'2

= .","",(}

dr1

"Cos0

Cos

0.81oe

: orCosf :

r:

16.9

O.3l e

_L

(,) = oon t .'cosh'(,cosh

Ex:16.8

:
:

lo ogIl

+ 0.34932cosh

'''\l
J]

-'2)]

2(7cosh

64.9 dB

1og,. =
'dL1:
(3) = 10 logIl + .5o882cosh

For.,,=

o.so
2(7cosh-|2)]

68.2 dB

This is an increase of3.3 dB

lr(j)1

Exr 16.10

+.'cos'[cos '(9)]

r
for o

["""

"..'s [s"*
scos
...

Jroto

1=

0.5088

(a) For the Chebyshev Filter:

eaks ae olrtained ryhen

*"s

.:

''(-e)]

''(:)] :

'(J) :

Qk +

N :

;,:,"co'(fi,,) :o.so',

:o

log[1 + 0.50882cosh21/vcosh -ll.511

7.4... choose

Excess Attenuation =

;,:."co,(ff) :o.ss."

;,:",,co,(rt",)

10

50dB

'),k

.,cos[QtJ_Dz],

.A(3)

1O

o,|,2
o,

'z

_'l.5) _

log[1 + O.5O88'cosh2(8cosh

:55-50:5dB

50

(b) For a Butteronh Filter

0.5088

(.)

lo [t

lo log[1

N: 5.9

+;(:)'t

+ o.5o88'(l.s)'?N]

.'. choose N :

50

l6

Excess atenuation =

l0 log(l t 0.588'( l.5)"] _ 50) =

.5 dB

Exercise I 6-3

Ex: 6.1l
Rx

"..-*:p-.

9 :

l0rradzs

selected to yeid a centre. Fency gai of 10.

Ex:16.15
(a)

lo =

_L '

cR
= 0.0l F

.p 6u1n =
R2

10o

l0 k

:& :

- l0

Rl

r(sl

Ex:16.12
Refer to Fig. 16.14

'' : lcR :

,.

t'+ ta
sz + s / Q +

: .__:!__
l'

lr(l.)l

t0'radzs

' ','

lok()c:

___: .
I

l0'

l"

:0.l

di

For R arbitrarily selected o be

\''2\n

The two resistors laled R, can also be selected


to

be l0 kC) each.

for any two frequencies , and )' at whih

EE:16.13
111 =

-------J9n

(fordc gain =

s+s'/2r,,+<']"

lr(j)] :

ll

.?-b - .1 .b
'i)' @b -7)'

(.3 -

: 2@?6 :
,,
$ (l)

',1.}

.=>

+ 1z|

')

j1

l 1

-b.,lQ
Olo

,,,

||= ]

J2

vaue at de(unity)

which is 3 dB he|ow he

Q.E.D.

Ex: ll-14

''i|;':Q'J]=l

1}

> ^,

u,

|-"//ll,-

1- "o4'l|1-

',

This 7(s)
o

1Oas

.2+|]"+ll

l05 rad / s

_ l s;g
1

1,l, f Q
.,, 1>
l_l o ^//l,,

9(b)

vn _
oR

-9 l

BW.^tlol
For = 3dB

BvJd'

BW':

JQ

BW,, Q

,|)

Now to obtain aenuaion > dB at , and :


wh9re ( _ , : B\r,

tolo_ l

At o =

|r| is

the same

q...

no

B|'
Q.E.D.

tl

Exercise

Ex:16.16
From Fig 12.16 (e)

1
From Exercis 16.l6 above 3dB bandlridth

= <n/Q

2rrlQQ = 6
:
Q "CR
6 2 c |o4c _
210 =

j''' /.'l2+1
2QI radls, ,'tn

dc gain

= lo

1.2

radis Q

a:+

.6F

R : |oa : .42H
.Q 2 x 6

)
'[;)
,2
2

Ex: 16.19

1.44

f" : lo k{z /1u, : 5


J :|oo:20
:
_ "/',,n
500

l.all_l)_l
2m/

Using the data at the top of Table l6.:

= 0.986 rad/s

lr(j,-)l
= 3.17

lr(j-,

r)1r}"

o,

l. 7
2 -l
a2|( l _ mu)l

: ,L*:

fla 0:

Q: "CR+C
= ll25 pF

J1

10

Ex:16.20

rtx2105x|o!

(16.25)

s|:+x

**

n"L

lot
z",l5 x

tu

Ex; 16.18

265

(s'

k thenrz =

8.l8(J

90

2loa
^

--------------_

l0

+ 0.2895)

+ o-42g3e2)

+ s0.1789n + .9883,,')

The circuit consists of 3 sctions in cascade:


(a) First order section

_&

R:
..r: oQ

r| =

selecting

*.
:

20

centre-fruency gain =

(s2 + so.4684P

13.26

2104 1.2 x 10
the data in Table l6.l for the bandpass

'+12/r|=

*---

1;.o

.. :

Q/

Now sing

R : lk

l.2 'o-9

'

o:2XlX1or
rbitrarily selecting

2104

Ro:

o.eo

x:16.17
Maximaly

c:c6=1.2nF
R=R:=Rt=f:_l

= 2.25mH

*-

th

number cofficient

11.1'

was set so tha the dc gain =1.

-0',2895""

s + 0.2895,

kf)

Execisc 16_5

Let

n, =

dcgain=
as

19

RrlR, :

x: |6.21

1 = R, : lok

C=lnF

j '+ ..

lr( n,rl

'_
^t

2985t,

: -_L
CR'

: l5.9k

2lo4 X Io_9

Rt = 10k

Usig Eq. (16.62) and selecting

Rr: , :

--------

Using

(b) second_order secion wih t.ansfer fucion:

R1

0.42951

s'+

l :
nC

0.28952.104X1o4

r(r):

l6. choosing

Refer to the KHN cifcuit in Fig.

coefficient was selected to


yield a dc gain of unity
\rr'here the numerator

: t0 k!l
R2QQ -l):
0(2X2'1):30kfl
freuenc ain= K _ 2 1
l.svr
'0

ish

0.4684,, + o.42%o?"

16

(16.63) and seting

R2

The ransfer function to the output ofthe firs ine_


gator is

v^.
v"'
l
y,scRv.'^2

s / CR)
r_ + s--_'+ -

Ths the cenre-frequency gain

=Q-o_l'5\2=.l/v
CR.'
\| l'6.22

Select Rr

C =

Cc

R: =

".zN

: C

R:: l?5:

10k
2.43 nF

x 2'r l04 X l04

= 2.43nF

Q :

a ='9:!:-"
0.4684,

,,C

(c) second_order secion with Transfer-fcion:

r(s):

0.9883'
s2 + so.1789 + 0.9883o2,

The circui is similar o that in (b) aboe but ih

Rl : Rz:

R1

1 ,:
u
' l0"

cr=c6=
=

1.6

: R: Iok

nF

J.98&r .

gien

2r, too

, lo'

,=ffi=r.ro
_

1789

Thus R6

Q /

''C =

55.6

v.
V,

Placig he three secions in cascade, i.e. connecin8 he ouput ofhe firs-orde. section to the
inpu of the second-order secion in (b) and the
oput of of section (b) to he input of(c) resuls
in the oerall transfer function in . (l6.25).

*K(RF/

R)S2 +

(RF/ R)n2n

,' *co,,/o}o2n
C : lnF R. = 10 k

I
_,.il.83 k
. l'l l0 "
R: l0 kRF : iokf)
R, = l0k+Rl: R28-1)
= 10(10_ l) = k
: 25.6 k
._

I
.c

25

*&t,,'=','-',:to( )'

DC ain
.R, =

& :

l'10:
R.:
' 2 t/5

?-

RF
b) R,

l6.7 k

Exercise

x' 16.23
Refer to Fig. 16.25 (b)

l.59nF

,'+

r13

, : -:

104)

+ ro8

x t',t,',6 x

|
l

to* _ 4

ld

= _0.382 X 10a and _2.618 X o4

:
Q20
R":R/:20R:2k
..r( =

2
I
_)*
+,(
+
\l-'xzx l5 t 95X fl

,t

1
:
C:!+C
o - 2104 x 104
Rr:QR=20xl0:200k

centre frequency gain =

lffi

@
s

Ex:.16.27

\| |6.A

Refer Fig 6.26 nd'lbl'e 16.2

C = 10nF

{*'*"*^, }'l_"

1
:
: l6k)
"c 104 X 10 l0-9
QR:5x l0: 50k
C1 : C flagain= l0 1 : 10 nF
n:1

Rr:+=
galn
r:

Vo
v,:
' o- scrRl

1at()

R.zl = lok

* sc,1vo-

lOk

galn

x l0 =

50

From eq (16.76)

cR:29: ?JJ:2y1sos

l4

ForC: C : C2: lnF


=2xlo-a :2k
Thus

R]

vi

_/Ra

sc,+t,/R,+

This is a bandpas function whose poles are idenica| o he zefos of (s) in Fig. ( 16.28 a).
Fo c1 =
10 'oF,&:2 X l05&R.:5 X

The tansfe. fnctin of the feedback network


gien in Fig. (16.28a). The poles ae the roots

is

of

|),
_o
t I
.'+.l._L
\cIR] CrRjnc|R4l cc2R!R4
ForCt: C2: l0 eF,R3: 2X lO5(t,
5X,o4,

scrRlR4

\CrRr+-J-).
C2RJ CtCtRtR4

.s)+.sf

x |6.i26
the denominator polynomia,

c,+

cR]

_S.z (C1Ra)

269 111

m:4Q2:4
Thus. R. : E:1:
'M4

scrRlR4

vo

From eq. (6.75)

R4 =

Rr/

Rhl

Vo
,, , sc|yo - (l lV ,

- ' J". yo ' scrR, ]F| ' o

x 16.25

l0

vt- vo :

v,4) +

c,:
l
Vo: SX2XlOax
yi s2+sx104+tos

For uniqi centre-fruency gain

2XlOaX = lOa+:0.5

r*

&:
rl

m k.

-4'i :

t r)

t8

|ln

Exercise 16-7

|-.o

Ji

tJro

_'

_ 1=4Qs9
"42Q2
vn

'r:_1_1:

9!
(vn-

scavo

y.,)

C3

'Q

= ' ' =

: ,(l
,

: ''c, + s::AQ
"c,
a sl:44

4Q:

R,)

at (.4)

sc'vn
''" !,},}sc,'
R R' R,

!R, _ y^.s,c.c.n'.
"t
vo _

sC.'R, ,

R,

ysc4{sc\f2)

,,ns(+&)*
" "c"R,' RJ

, = ":

as ln Eq.

^!c{4R1R2

D.C.gain:

asinq(l6.7El

R,:R,=R:l0k

C'2Q
R'

214

2/rt
X

|01) lOa

5.6_

nF

m=42=(!\=z
\2.,,
C.

From Eq (16.l 0)

Co

Ex

16.32

5',

Ro

Ex:

I 6--1-1

(b) R'

l R':

.j14

,p

: 21o6 x3.2 l0 6X l5o :


R: R.|] r ll Rr: 2kR.: l5k

Bw

o'Qo

(R, 1l R,")

.,r^O/O
2%

=!2 2

1%

: flQ

+Cr":

Cr

+2o/

:
R\2 -l

c5

oL

: _l /2 .a-o : _ lx 2:
s'"
R']
.So

ll

|t

(2,x 455 X l01)X5 X

Refe to he results in Example l6.3

(16.99)

6.:Co=9!i:.;lan
'420

0=

Ex: 16.30
^R'lR'

x2o

6.283 pF

2.81 nF

()

10r

Cenre-freoenc ain = ]-9

Q..D.

2Ql.

2 X

From

From Fig 16.34 (c)

s9,99+s9^C,+

From(l6.96)&(l6.97)
C1 = Ca = 6TC

xl. 16.29

cR

0%

:2,l0a

lo. / /)

|\
'-cr [l
1Rr* Rr)

''C
"C,
Q
:o(-2)+(o)(-2\+o:osa

'
C'qR&

C''

a- _ +''

_! _2l _

Ex:16.31

.sc,. f,I

I / C 1C 4R1R2

''

_.1 _2\ +

1)
:2-2 =

+ SC,V" R.
+

oq.

49s
:

V,,

2qo

(d) using he reslts in (c) for boh resisors being


2o high we hae:

u-'o
Rr

V^:

|o

Combining the results in (a) & (b)

(c)

R1

]rz_

= 455/35

13

l0

Kiz

ttbL

_t
:
c1

(2x455;19:12x5x0

24.4'1 nF

: 24.47

0.2

24.21 nF

:15

3k

Exercise 16-8

163

Ex:
To

^l

jus meet specifi cations

: fo :1 :
6'wl
. Rrll n']R," =
oL

R,ll r2R,"
=

45.5

45.5

2R', :

!:
2A.36

10

= z.'l

:to.

aol?'6s = ro.rf,

13''7

.'.

lo.1x

106)2

X 3 X 10

x lo

|2

X 2 x 310.8

1O3

=6.9s kf)

Ex:16.36

B|

= fo+

l0.7 MHz
Bl

Jn,=
=

{2

|0.77 MHz

{2 :'!4|.4z
|6.|16}

MHz _ 22f,2

n.:2
'J1 :
For stage I

(!6.l15)

, 2 . 111

1O.7

(16.110)

CR

CBt

74.7

x lo

12

x !4l.4 x

lo3

2z lo3

15.l kf)

: !xts.sx15.l:117

l,
(2

(210.63on)2X3Xo6

zL

rl
+R.,,,.I x +R","",

g- Rln
'here

_1

Jo,

x 2

tional to

13; F

141.4

Gain of synchronous-uned amplifier at to

c: ,nbL
-L:
o

ro_

"

lo

Gain of stagge.-tuned amplifier atlo is propor-

o, = R/n &

2:t/alt'''
o

Ex:16.37

Ex: 16J5

&:

15.5

the olage deeloped across R

t^"^:

106)2X3 X

For stage 2

r.-,o

Ic: g.Vo,:

12.8 pF

= 14.1 pF

1(R, || n'Ri") . Thus,

nF

resonance,

-^l

1
..*9r:
-' n2 ,nb L

x 103x

1.36

/|

C:

455

(21 lo.''

n: CBI :

650

,:

as.s

|4|.4Hz

10.63

Mz

R.,,a"1

: 6.95
:48.3
Ratio

R,,uu"2

6.95

: 7 :
48.3

2.42

xercise 17_l

Ex:17.1
ole freqencyi = 1kHz

cenre frequency gain

+.s

AMLFER GAN

lv;v

:5+0.93 =

L:

,fr

v"

30

:_2 /

Rr

R.

60

(}1
+
_'"-"

ll

vb+15

3'

!(o.t

=9o

nx

sope in he imiting regions

R,.ll

)-

.l

-o-95

30

l.

a) for oscillains to sart, R, /R'


2 ths the
potentioneter should be set so tha is resistance

o ground is 2

z'
lal ,-{Jl' : ( * !1
\ RttzP+zs

:i

:('-ft)('-)

-+{

k(!

16

kz

Vo
Vo ,
,-Vo,
' scRrR- sCRlR scR
(vo, vo I
I

.--.1;-l
andc:

l+516x10s+

16nF

,,
|

16

x lo

The closed loop poles are found by seting


a(J) = ' that is, they are he alues ofs, saifiying

]+S/l6y l0 t , ____
.s

16

X l

&

''

Thus

(J):

x lor x

Jy'orking from he output back to the inpt and


coninuing he equaions \e get

3156'1_!
.scR
:

27'l

Ex:17.5

\here R

t0.68v

Ex:17.3

s)

from symmetry' \rr'e see ha he negatie peak is


equal to the posiie pak. Thus the ouput peakto-peak age is 2l.36 v

'! 2.9'l

3 . Now if we neglect he cur-

l?6

o_vb
13

Thus limiin occurs a

\hich is about l/3 of %; thus

hus.

,,(,-ft)

?lo /

+5.93V

V/V
Llmltergaln : -R.

o.7 +

(
io vu-vo
_

. j)

-5.93

he positine pak to ' the


will be one diode drop (0-7 v)

rent through D, in compaison wih he currents


throgh R' and R" we find hat

=_ts,]_.?(l+;)
=

j)

(b) The fruency of oscillaion is (105/16) rad/s


or I kHz

volage at node b
above the oltage

L' =yR]Rs+v"(l-ft)
rs(l)+ o.u(,

i_:_(0.015 :t

(c) Refer to fig. l7.5.

x: l7.2

= l.or

_
=

.scRiR,

vo

.scRJ-

l(Vo'

Vo \

s scRl /

ff(,.*,*)

_Vo, |
, l

l(I*

scR, scR scR scR\


:-vo(+ -l- + |
scR,\ SCR 16]2./
')

sc

scR/l

Exercise l7-2

t( ;*&._ *

(#

."l_"^J

].-*

Ei:17.8

.' v"l+
L= v"(l
,l l
"\ r s'c''
s, sc

Thus:

vo

-.scR

Node qatio

^4t
'r+rar+r1:*:

:
v'",-,

jC

9,

)
*;(l-cn
'\
CR)

The circuit il oscillate at the alue of4, tha

9a

i-t

"

Thus.

/.

: --l_=-^ :
nCR

"/__1CR

Hz

For oscillations to begin, the magnitude of

v^

;:(j)
that

shou|d

ua| to (or

geatef than) uniy.

is

4
This the minimum alue ofR/is

12 k

1+Cn:
.,^:
" CR
) lo3
:
ForC:16nFi l0kf)
I

as large as the oltage

across the resonato he peak{o_peak amplitude

is

4V

4(2\1.4\
--:'.o

D,

(oscillations have stated) it ca'

s'rrc(^+ 1)
+.sL+
R

l:

s'1'c

rc1

Substituting S = j@

l-n2c(L1 +L)!+j

[?

"

R:

!r)x.,,'c]:

a.E.D.
+
lc(Lt + L2\

o=r:

Lt+

L2

L2

+B.R :

Lt/

L2

for oscillations to start

g-R > L'

l7.7

.'. he output is wice

y.

'|'L7C

4
4R
4R
^ = -i_-;--fil
' oiC'R= _-;---;--:
iC'R' l
:12 R or

Since

s2c Lr)

/-:O+3.R+:_J-

-lct
" nn.'

x|.

*__L):

2Jax|6Xl-9XoXl]
= 574.1

be eliminated resuling in

a reat ntrmher

follows that " is obtained from


-1.u^6'

-!
#,* '.u-.+('. #")
*L( l
so \

Ex:17.6

.rk".

t^u.* rL *

#,t

R'

at collector:

L7 Q..D'

xz |7.9

R:

q|l R.||

11 2X lrll lX
X | 3'
:l0|l 2|l 1: .64k

l6

='.r:x1.64:65.6

lo1

Exercise l7-3

cr:65.6.0l :

.t

E:17.13

0.66 F

1 .l .
;
'' c2
''cr +
I

o.o1 0.66 10
1012 X
0.01 + 0.66

l A

Ex:17.10

from

''

from

(l7.24)

_
;;,

_
zn

Ji.sz

2.0I5 Mz

"

on

''

lo "

(17.25)

JP: ---!-C'C
z.n

l'CD+

"CP
Time delay =

o.0l2x4xl

---!-

ms = 0.125 ms

Ex:17.14

2.018 MHz

' '

O:

-i

'l" t'

-!-

_r"r.oir"ro""o.r,
120

^= 55,0
Ex: 17,11

V=V:itl
5= R' x13
R,+R,

&:l.
R
R:

17.12

16

comparato \ith

:t 12

E:17,15

lyJ

R,,

V vL=;|Ll
,2

s:

of

eels

R2

Possible choice

R :

]!9
2

hreshold of 3

s mv

50X1]:10&R2

&xro

R2 = 2Rl

l0 k

Rl = 20k

Rz:
R
R2 :

to
0.06
200 R,

forR' = 1k

, :

2L

and otput

Exrcise

7-4

Ex:17.16

R,
y
too
=
' R,+Rr: + l0 :0.091 v
7 : 2,r1!!-P
l_
6
l'09l )
2 / o.o| / lo 06 X lnr
:0.365

\t -

! :
T

0.09t,,

274,

k----t<-----+1

T'

During

xz 11.17

T,

v(t): 2_(|2+V)e-/5
vR : vD att: T2
vD: 12-{t2+vo)" t'"

+v

o\
z,n(|2
\12_D)

xo.r x

10-6

x rox ro' x

h(]]+)

"T

^(ry._)

Tt: T2: T/2


vA(v\

'"(i#)

:428l z
A 0"c , yD

_":

0.7 + .05

i, =
l,rJ2)
\ 25 .'

.fl-.

50'c. VD

\l .]5./

: 0.7
5 :

t l00"c' yD

.lnt-t
/t255\

0.65

= 4.6|l z

l,(1?)

fl._^-^

0.75

],995Hz

0.7 _ 0.05

= 5

rl

0.15

.55

5.451 Hz.

!.45-'

Ex:17.18
To obain a riagula aveform with
to-peak ampifute we should have

vE:_v:5

BuV-,
''
Thus

,5

: _t+&

R,

= ,ro x

Rr: 20k

!!
R2

peak-

Exercise l7-5

For l kz fruency, T = lms

To obtain

Ths.
T

/2 : o'5" rn l _ rV-V

:0.0l X l0 6XiX,/lo
R:50k

Rz =

lX lo
R]

_ nI X

10

"XR, |"(i#)

+ R, =

0.6q,/

l'\ |0

''(Rn + 2Rr)

Now. subsifuting into (2)

Use 7.2

v'

1.25
the

circui provides

5-

l
-Rr l2Rs 69X l "' l4.4q k(l)
Using (13.45)
A+Ru
o15 =
R + 2RB
(2)
Re * Rs : o.15 x |4. : 10.88 k
(1) (2)+R, : 3.61 kf)
'1.2"

8ywe must have

i _ 0.l' 9 _ o.gmA.Thusheeoris

o.69C(R+ 2RB)

R :

; = 3 = .rnn hileideallv

Exz 17,21

l''

1,

8.8-.1 . 8.7
5 .25 Rl

T : l.lcRR : /1.1C : 9.l k

t X

(i.e. to obtain

o select l?, so tha i = 6.4 mA,

x |7.2o

'

4V

To obain a perfect match a

6171

T:

1.25

y:

z__] _7
Rt R.2 R]

'

(17.37)

perfect match at

for >_'7v

Ex:17.19
Using

i : 1.6 mA)
t.6:!+4-3
5R,

k
and 3.6 k

standard 5% resistors.

Ex 17.22

-0.3 mA.

v:

54 he circuit proides

, =:_=
5 125 - 2.6 m.whieideally
i - o'l / 25 _ 2.5 m Thus he eor is
.

+.] mA

*t

: 7

the

circui rovides

i - !5 *1.1.25
^:\ he error
x

, :

4.6 m. hi|e ideally. Thus

is _0.3 mA
104 the circuit povides,

+19-3+19..7:
6 1.25 t.25

ideal|y i

_ l0

lomA'hile

mA. Thus he error is 0 A.

i (mA)

R3

i =o'l,1

Tru
Slope = 17,

i:o.l;
At : 2' i = o.4 mA
Ths

f,, = -1
'
0.4

:5k

For3yy=7V

'

-3
l?t R2

Exercise 17-6

Bxj \7.

Thus,

, :

0.5

so

1ra : 1to + vp : 0.51 V


,, = 1V=9/o: 1V
ip:1m, p: o.1 1 : |.1
Ur : '1V - The negatie feedback loop is no

operative.

": o

A =

_l2

-1V

"r:
=

+(2.42V7)/R

*2-:f
lLrRl

2'42 v
2.5

-'1

vJ

l\

/,l

/
1 ''\
/l
+2J-J

+24\
25.'

Exr 17.25

.2= l'2-4\
\
15
o=

(V,'"_ ,R,)_ (y.._r"R")

: ("1_ ,)R,

:1'272-!
'
2.5
_ o.25x |o x zx?-! _ '
2.5
:

lt

For the diode to conduct and cose the negatie


feedback loop, Uo must be negatie, in \hich

F'x 17.A
A

|"

case, the negative feback cases a irtua short


cicui to appear between the inpu terminals of

rr

the op amp and thus U, =

For positie ,r, the

op amp saturaes in he posiiie saturatio levei.


The diode will be cut off and vD

R= lk

.'. The opamp is

ideal o

1 : lOmV :

i, :

!.9Y

Given

=+

16

, for

>o'

l0 mV

i, : 1 m 0-1 m
n:0.7V 0.6V

10

o.5

0.

n summary

,:0 for 1>0


o: fol 1]=o

x 17.26
Refer o Fig(17.34)

For

,a

U/

+ v:

D, ill conduct and close the negative feedback


loop arund the op amp. U_ : 0, the curren
through R| and D, q,ill be
at the op amp output' v,

mA. Ths the voltage


0.7

V hich ill set

Exercise 17-7

I0-D,on
- ] goes the & forms D| off

D, off and no crren il flo hrough R,. Thus

For

, :

0 mV

D \il conduct

Rr: v1 :0V
-v^:0"

R,& R,to vr. The negaie feedback oop ofthe op amp will hus be
th.ogh

closed and a virtual ground ill appear a the


inerting input rminal. D,will be cofi The
cuent through R,, R,and D, wi be

l9,' _,o
Ik

will be 0.5

A.

Thus lhediode. D,.olage

,,: o l0AX10k:
1]A

D. + z,,

0.5 a

o.

+0.l

Forvr=_1
This is similar o the case hen
The current thrgh R|. R?' D,

7: -L = 1.a
1k
.'. lr, : 0.7 V
1,o : 0 + 1mA X l0 k :
v

no curren flo',s hrough

= 10+a1 :1o.7

vl

0.6

v
v
l0 mv

ill be

10

17.28

Ex 17'27

V/> 0 - Equialant Circuit

-D,on,D! off

-J

}o
current flos from U, through R,, R,, D, into he
outp erminal of the opamp. v goes negativ
and is thus

ofi The following circuit resuls:

+!!
3R R

s ,,
hat

goes negaie, the aboe circuit holds so

= 0.

This occurs as the

15

spply

sources he cuen l een for smal negaive U,

This situation remains the case until

....!+1:o
3RR
'o:
vr

Rz
Rr

5v

D, offD|

-on

Exercise 7_8

b)

z,

-similartothecicuiin(a)bu

with all of the ndergronded opamp input term

, : l v

nas at

: l/lo k:

0.l mA

A: l+D2
=l
uo

0-1R

(QJ)

l0 V - similar

to ()

"\ l/

:1.6v
(c)

=_]l+1)
]R Rl
=45

l:

& (b)

- all inpu( erminals (no gound) of opamps is


equal o l0 v'

: __4'3>o
:. D2=o'Vn<o D' off\

note

.l

+ .? +

= 7]0+o.7

_l
, _ l0
1

m - diode oltaes = o.7

^: o+Uor=

lo

+0.7: l0.7V

d)vr:0.1 V
Vs: Vr*V^
= o.l + 0.7 +
= 0.63

o.

t ton f0

02)

-\ 1

./

v
vA=_12

lmA

+ 12=

=0.1V

{o.or.ne

Up

Vs=Vo+

>D
o

0.1v

0.lV

{o.r...

(e) 1

/:0.1

+ 0-7 +

for all circuits, cuents ae given in mA, resis_


oltages in

/ \

0.l g-\,
/ o'o2 \

=0.63V

: -1

use circuit in (d)

: 0.1 mA
: + ,:

NB

k &

0.l

1,

a)vr:6.1
tance in

Vo:_r:1

vB _l2

o.02 nA

o.2

mA

= 1+o.7+o.loc()

xercise l 7_9

r : _ 10 V
/:.0m
(0

,() :

use

circit (d)

10V

^=2r^

lo+0.' +o.l loc(?)

is a sinusoid of

^D

be

vB = v0+ vD|
10.73

l,
5

= 1.0mA

Ex:17J1
)

The average curen hrough he meter

:'t ' <ll


aJ-'
R

cuenl m5
1

peak' i.e.

1
lo I mA. Thus \,srt
'1R
-

be equal

obain

maximum

zo

will

To ohlain fuI.sca|e leading. This

4.5

: 5^Dv.thisvalueofvA,we

vD| + yM + yD1 + yR

Vo = Vo = 0.7v

r'here

and

: J-!: x005 : 008 V


V,,
4.5

For

v2

=-

|1| and
|z,]

For
2

i.e. v1

'2

Thus
|vr|

x _|,|

< 0, i.e.

|'

y.l.," =

v, = |r,1
_|, _
:
vn
lll

: 0'

+ ],|

Thus, he block diagram implemens he absolute


value operation.
Using the circuits of Fig(l7.34 a), wih the dies
reersed, to implement he half'wae fecifier' and
a \eighed summe results in he cifcuit sho\n
below.

UseR =

Rr:

l0 k

.7 + 0.8 + 0.7 +

Similarly we can calcuate

8.55

k
y
when
is at is posiive

m' which Ieads o R

V. willbe

Ex:17J0

5-v rms (peak voltage of

5J2

8.55