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Jane Musengya Mutua

EE300-0010/2015
PUE 3121: Wireless Communication
Assignment 2
Q1. Directional antennas are a powerful tool to reduce the effects of multipath as well as
interference. In particular, directional antennas along the LOS path for the two-ray model can
reduce the attenuation effect of the ground wave cancellation, as will be illustrated in this
problem. Plot the dB power (10 log10 Pr) versus log distance (log10 d) for the two-ray model
with the parameters f = 900MHz, R=-1, ht = 50m, hr = 2m, Gl = 1, and the following values for
Gr: Gr = 1, .316, .1, and .01 (i.e. Gr = 0,5,10, and 20 dB, respectively). Each of the 4 plots
should range in distance from d = 1m to d = 100, 000m. Also calculate and mark the critical
distance dc = 4hthr/_ on each plot, and normalize the plots to start at approximately 0dB. Finally,
show the piecewise linear model with flat power falloff up to distance ht, falloff 10 log10(d2)
for ht < d < dc, and falloff 10 log10(d4) for d _ dc. (on the power loss versus log distance plot
the piecewise linear curve becomes a set of three straight lines with slope 0, 2, and 4,
respectively). Note that at large distances it becomes increasingly difficult to have Gr << Gl
since it requires extremely precise angular directivity in the antennas.
Two Ray Model

[ ]|
2

Pr=P t
4

Gl + R Gr e j
l

r +r '

r +r ' l= ( ht +h r ) +d 2 ( h th r ) +d 2

l= ( ht h r ) +d 2

x=r +r ' = ( ht +hr ) +d 2

2 (r +r ' l)

A program to plot the figures is shown below.


The power versus distance curves is shown below.
From the plots it can be seen that
i. As Gr (gain of reflected path) is decreased, the asymptotic behavior of Pr tends toward d-2 from
d-4, which makes sense since the effect of reflected path is reduced and it is more like having
only a Line of Sight (LOS) path.
ii. The variation of power before and around dc is reduced because the strength of the reflected path
decreases as Gr decreases.
iii. The received power actually increases with distance up to some point. This is because for very
small distances (i.e. d = 1), the reflected path is approximately two times the LOS path, making
the phase difference very small.

Q2. Find the median path loss under the Hata model assuming fc = 900 MHz, ht = 20m, hr = 5 m
and d = 100m for a large urban city, a small urban city, a suburb, and a rural area. Explain
qualitatively the path loss differences for these 4 environments.
fc = 900 MHz, ht = 20m, hr = 5m, d = 100m
=

c
3 10 8
=
=0.333 m
f c 900 106

a) Large urban city


PL,Urban(d)dB = 69.55 + 26.16log10 (fc) - 13.82log10(ht) - a(hr) + (44.9 - 6.55log10(ht))log10(d)
a large urban city (hr) = 3.2(log10(11.75hr))2 4.97dB
a large urban city (5) = 3.2(log10(11.755))2 4.97dB=5.044dB
8

PL, large urban city(d) = 69.55 + 26.16log10 ( 9 10

) - 13.82log10(20) - 5.044 +

(44.9 - 6.55log10(20))log10(100)
PL, large urban city(d) = 353.53 dB
b) Small urban city
PL,Urban(d)dB = 69.55 + 26.16log10 (fc) - 13.82log10(ht) - a(hr) + (44.9 - 6.55log10(ht))log10(d)
a small urban city (hr) = (1.1 log10 (fc) -0.7)hr (1.56log10 (fc) - 0.8) dB
8

a small urban city (5) = 5(1.1 log10 ( 9 10

) -0.7) (1.56log10 ( 9 10
8

PL, small urban city(d) = 69.55 + 26.16log10 ( 9 10

) - 13.82log10(20) 32.58 +

(44.9 - 6.55log10 (20))log10(100)


PL, small urban city(d) = 325.989 dB
c) Suburban

PL,suburban(d)dB = PL, small urban city(d) 2

[ ( )]
log 10

fc
28

)-0.8) dB=32.58

- 5.4

PL,suburban(d)dB = 325.989 2

[ (
log 10

9 108
28

)]

- 5.4

PL, suburban (d) = 207.88 dB


d) Rural area
PL,rural(d)dB = PL, small urban city(d) - 4.78 [ log 10 ( f c ) ]

+ 18.33 log10 (fc) K

Where K ranges from 35.94 (countryside) to 40.94 (desert),


8
PL,rural(d)dB = 325.989 - 4.78 [ log 10 ( 9 10 ) ]

8
+ 18.33 log10 ( 9 10 ) 35.94

PL, rural (d) = 70.928 dB


The path loss is highest in the Large Urban city and smallest in the Rural areas (Countryside)
implying that the Path loss is higher in the presence of multiple reflectors, difractors and
scatterers

Q3. The following table lists a set of empirical path loss measurements.
Distance from Transmitter

Pr/Pt

5m

-60 dB

25 m

-80 dB

65 m

-105 dB

110 m

-115 dB

400 m

-135 dB

1000 m

-150 dB

(a) Find the parameters of a simplified path loss model plus log normal shadowing that best fit
this data.
Pr
d
dB=10 log 10 +10 log 10 K dB
Pt
d0
where

dB

is a Gauss-distributed random variable with mean zero and variance

The values of Pr/Pt in the above table is the means of Pr/Pt.


Thus, assuming d0 = 1 and we have the following:

Distance from
Transmitter
5
25
65
110
400
1000

10 log 10
-6.9897
-13.979
-18.129
-20.414
-26.021
-30.000

d
d0

Pr/Pt
-60
-80
-105
-115
-135
-150

Using the Linear Best fit Trending line (Code Attached), the equation is:

10 log 10 K =29.72
6

F ( )= [ M measured ( d i )M model ( d i ) ]
i=1

2 .

F ( )=(60+29.72+ 6.9897 )2 +(80+29.72+13.979 )2+(105+ 29.72+ 18.129 )2+(115+29.72+20.414 )2

F ( )=(30.28+ 6.9897 )2 +(50.28+13.979 )2 +(75.28+18.129 )2+(85.28+20.414 )2+(105.28+ 26.02

F ( )=( 916.8784423.296232 + 48.85590609 2 ) + ( 2528.07841405.72824 +195.412441 2) + ( 5667.07842

F ( )=41935.870420736.120312 +2566.75282509 2

F ( )
=20736.120312+5133.50565018

=4.0 39

(b) Find the path loss at 2 Km based on this model.

Pr
d
dB=10 log 10 +10 log 10 K
Pt
d0
Pr
dB=10 4.0 log 10 2000+10 log 10 29.72
Pt
Pr
dB=1163.08 dB
Pt
(c) Find the outage probability at a distance d assuming the received power at d due to path loss
alone is 10 dB above the required power for no outage.
2 =
dB

=
dB

2
1
M measured ( d i )M model ( d i ) ]

[
6 i=1

1
{(30.28+6.9897 )2 +(50.28+13.979 )2+(75.28+ 18.129 )2+(85.28+20.414 )2+(105.28+26.0
6

1
1
2 = { 4.1968+38.2070+4.2311+7.9968+ 0.0328+0.7921 }= {55.4566 }=9.2428
6
6
dB

=3.0402
dB

The Outage Probability is

POut =P [ Pr < Pmin ]

and for pathloss we know the received power to be;

Prpl =10 log 10 d +10 log 10 K + P t ,dB =10+ Pmin ,dB


dB

Which can be written as;

POut =P [ Pr ,dBPrpl < Pmin ,dB Prpl


dB

POut =P [ dB<10 ]=P

,dB

dB 10
<

POut P

dB
<3.289 =Q (3.289)

1
z
Q ( z )= erfc
2
2

( )

POut Q ( 3.289 )=5.019 104

Q4. An Empirically Based Path Loss Model for Wireless Channels


in Suburban Environments
a) Summarize data collection, campaign methods and size
The experimental data were taken in several suburban areas in New Jersey and around Seattle,
Chicago, Atlanta, and Dallas with leaves present on the trees for most (but not all) locations and
the base antenna heights were in the range from 12 to 79 m.
Antennas

The base antenna transmitted continuous wave (CW) signals with an omnidirectional

azimuth pattern and gain of 8.14 dBi.


The mobile antenna (mounted at 2-m height on a test van) had an omnidirectional
azimuth pattern and gain of 2.5 dBi.

The data were collected using a Grayson receiver, set for 1-s averaging as the van moved through
the environment. Thus, the fast local fading due to multipath was averaged, yielding estimates of
local mean power.
No. of Base Stations
95 cellular base stations were involved in the measurements.
For each of these, the CW test signal was transmitted close to 1.9 GHz, and the mobile receive
van drove around the cellular coverage area measuring and recording local mean power.
In addition, global positioning system (GPS) data were recorded which made it easy to determine
the radial distance from the base associated with each power measurement. The experimental
data were taken at distances ranging from tens of meters to 8 km.
Terrain Categories
The developed model contained three terrain categories:
i.

Category A- The maximum path loss category which is hilly terrain with moderate-

ii.

to-heavy tree densities;


Category B- The middle category which can be characterized as either mostly flat

iii.

terrain with moderate-to-heavy tree densities, or hilly terrain with light tree densities;
Category C- The minimum path loss category which is mostly flat terrain with light
tree densities;

b) Summarize key findings


1. Most A-values are close to the free space path loss at 100 m. At 1.9 GHz, this path loss is
approximately 78 dB, and most of the least-squares Avalues were within a few decibels of this
number. What this suggests is that might be modeled by the formula

20 log 10 4 d 0 /

for all

cases, where is wavelength in meters.


2. The Path Loss Exponent is strongly dependent on the base antenna height h0 and the terrain
category. The higher base antennas lead to smaller , since less blockage and better ground
clearance produce closer to a line-of-sight condition.

3. The deviation of the Path Loss Exponent about its regression fit ( ) has a near-Gaussian
distribution over the population of macro cells for each terrain category. For example, the
cumulative distribution function (CDF) of

for Category A was straight line denoting a

Gaussian distribution.
4. The random variate in (1) does indeed tend to be Gaussian within a given macro cell,
confirming the notion that shadow fading is log-normal.
5. The standard deviation like is random from one macro-cell to another, and that it can be
described, within each terrain category, by another Gaussian distribution! There is no strong
influence of base station antenna height on as seen for .

c) A key finding is that path loss exponent variations are Gaussian, how is that proven in the
paper?
The path loss exponent was proven to be a Gaussian random variable over the population of
macro-cells within each terrain category. From a plot of Pr (Path Loss Exponent Deviation <

) vs. , i.e. The Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) of for Category A was

straight line denoting a Gaussian distribution.