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Navier-Stokes

Equations {
2d case
NSE (A)
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Laminar ow
between plates
(A)
Flow down
inclined plane
(A)
Tips (A)

Navier-Stokes Equations { 2d case


SOE3211/2 Fluid Mechanics lecture 3

Navier-Stokes
Equations {
2d case

NSE (A)

NSE (A)
Equation
analysis

Equation
analysis

Equation
analysis

Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis

Continuity equation :

Laminar ow
between plates
(A)
Flow down
inclined plane
(A)
Tips (A)

conservation of mass, momentum.


often written as set of pde's
di erential form { uid ow at a point
2d case, incompressible ow :

@ ux @ uy
+
=0
@x
@y



conservation of mass
seen before { potential ow

Navier-Stokes
Equations {
2d case

Momentum equations :

@ ux
@u
@u
+ ux x + uy x =
@t
@x
@y

NSE (A)
Equation
analysis

+ 

Equation
analysis

@ uy
@u
@u
+ ux y + uy y
@t
@x
@y

Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Laminar ow
between plates
(A)
Flow down
inclined plane
(A)
Tips (A)

 (x




1 @p

 @x

 2
@ ux

@2u
+ 2x + fx
@y

@x 2
1 @p
=
 @y
 2

@ uy @ 2 uy
+ 2 + fy
+ 
@x 2
@y

and y cmpts)
3 variables, ux , uy , p
linked equations
need to simplfy by considering details of problem

Navier-Stokes
Equations {
2d case
NSE (A)
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Laminar ow
between plates
(A)
Flow down
inclined plane
(A)
Tips (A)

The NSE are


 Non-linear { terms involving ux @@uxx
 Partial di erential equations { ux , p
functions of x , y , t
2
 2nd order { highest order derivatives @@ xu2x
 Coupled { momentum equation involves p , ux , uy

Navier-Stokes
Equations {
2d case
NSE (A)
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Laminar ow
between plates
(A)
Flow down
inclined plane
(A)
Tips (A)

The NSE are


 Non-linear { terms involving ux @@uxx
 Partial di erential equations { ux , p
functions of x , y , t
2
 2nd order { highest order derivatives @@ xu2x
 Coupled { momentum equation involves p , ux , uy
Two ways to solve these equations
1 Apply to simple cases { simple geometry, simple conditions
{ and reduce equations until we can solve them
2 Use computational methods { CFD
(SOE3212/3)

Navier-Stokes
Equations {
2d case
NSE (A)
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis

Equation analysis (A)


Consider the various terms :

@u
@u
@ ux
+ ux x + uy x =
@t
@x
@y

1 @p

 @x

+ 

Equation
analysis

 2
@ ux

@x 2

@2u
+ 2x + fx
@y

Equation
analysis
Laminar ow
between plates
(A)
Flow down
inclined plane
(A)
Tips (A)

@ ux
@t

change of ux at a point

Navier-Stokes
Equations {
2d case
NSE (A)
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis

Equation analysis (A)


Consider the various terms :

@u
@u
@ ux
+ ux x + uy x =
@t
@x
@y

1 @p

 @x

+ 

Equation
analysis

 2
@ ux

@x 2

@2u
+ 2x + fx
@y

Equation
analysis
Laminar ow
between plates
(A)
Flow down
inclined plane
(A)
Tips (A)

ux

@ ux
@u
+ uy x
@x
@y

term
how does ow (ux ; uy )
move ux ?
non-linear

 transport/advection



Navier-Stokes
Equations {
2d case
NSE (A)
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis

Equation analysis (A)


Consider the various terms :

@u
@u
@ ux
+ ux x + uy x =
@t
@x
@y

1 @p

 @x

+ 

Equation
analysis

 2
@ ux

@x 2

@2u
+ 2x + fx
@y

Equation
analysis
Laminar ow
between plates
(A)
Flow down
inclined plane
(A)
Tips (A)

1 @p

 @x

pressure gradient {
usually drives ow

Navier-Stokes
Equations {
2d case
NSE (A)
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis

Equation analysis (A)


Consider the various terms :

@u
@u
@ ux
+ ux x + uy x =
@t
@x
@y

Equation
analysis

Flow down
inclined plane
(A)
Tips (A)

 @x

+ 

Equation
analysis

Laminar ow
between plates
(A)

1 @p

 2
@ ux

@x 2

@2u
+ 2x
@y





 2
@ ux

@x 2

@2u
+ 2x + fx
@y

viscous term { e ect of


viscosity  on ow
has a di usive e ect

Navier-Stokes
Equations {
2d case
NSE (A)
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis

Equation analysis (A)


Consider the various terms :

@u
@u
@ ux
+ ux x + uy x =
@t
@x
@y

1 @p

 @x

+ 

Equation
analysis

 2
@ ux

@x 2

@2u
+ 2x + fx
@y

Equation
analysis
Laminar ow
between plates
(A)
Flow down
inclined plane
(A)
Tips (A)

fx

external body forces { eg.


gravity

Navier-Stokes
Equations {
2d case

Laminar ow between plates (A)

NSE (A)
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Laminar ow
between plates
(A)
Flow down
inclined plane
(A)
Tips (A)

Fully developed laminar ow


between in nite plates at
y = a
What do we expect from the
ow?
= 0 at walls
Flow symmetric around y = 0
Flow parallel to walls

 u



y
+a

x
-a

Navier-Stokes
Equations {
2d case
NSE (A)

@u
@ ux
@u
+ ux x + uy x =
@t
@x
@y
+ 

Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Laminar ow
between plates
(A)
Flow down
inclined plane
(A)
Tips (A)

@u
@u
@ uy
+ ux y + uy y
@t
@x
@y

1 @p

 @x

 2
@ ux

@2u
+ 2x
@y

@x 2
1 @p
=
 @y

 2
@ uy @ 2 uy
+ 2
+ 
@x 2
@y

Navier-Stokes
Equations {
2d case
NSE (A)

@u
@ ux
@u
+ ux x + uy x =
@t
@x
@y
+ 

Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis

@u
@u
@ uy
+ ux y + uy y
@t
@x
@y

Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Laminar ow
between plates
(A)
Flow down
inclined plane
(A)
Tips (A)

1 @p

 @x

 2
@ ux

@2u
+ 2x
@y

@x 2
1 @p
=
 @y

 2
@ uy @ 2 uy
+ 2
+ 
@x 2
@y

Flow parallel to walls { we expect


uy = 0;

dp
=0
dy

and

ux = ux (y )

Navier-Stokes
Equations {
2d case
NSE (A)

@u
@ ux
+ ux x
@t
@x

=
+ 

Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis

1 @p

 @x

 2 
@ ux

@y 2

Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Laminar ow
between plates
(A)
Flow down
inclined plane
(A)
Tips (A)

Flow parallel to walls { we expect


uy = 0;

dp
=0
dy

and

ux = ux (y )

Navier-Stokes
Equations {
2d case
NSE (A)

@u
@ ux
+ ux x
@t
@x

1 @p

 @x

+ 

Equation
analysis

 2 
@ ux

Equation
analysis

@y 2

Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Laminar ow
between plates
(A)
Flow down
inclined plane
(A)
Tips (A)

Flow fully developed { no change in pro le in streamwise direction


@
@
i.e.
= 0;
=0

@t

@x

Navier-Stokes
Equations {
2d case

1 @p

NSE (A)

 @x

+ 

Equation
analysis

 2 
@ ux

Equation
analysis

@y 2

Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Laminar ow
between plates
(A)
Flow down
inclined plane
(A)
Tips (A)

Flow fully developed { no change in pro le in streamwise direction


@
@
i.e.
= 0;
=0

@t

@x

Navier-Stokes
Equations {
2d case
NSE (A)
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Laminar ow
between plates
(A)
Flow down
inclined plane
(A)
Tips (A)

So momentum equation becomes


0=

1 dp

 dx

+

d 2 ux
dy 2

Navier-Stokes
Equations {
2d case

So momentum equation becomes


0=

NSE (A)
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Laminar ow
between plates
(A)
Flow down
inclined plane
(A)
Tips (A)

Integrate once :
y

1 dp

 dx

+

d 2 ux
dy 2

dp
du
=  x + C1
dx
dy

Navier-Stokes
Equations {
2d case

So momentum equation becomes


0=

NSE (A)
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis

Integrate once :
y

Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Laminar ow
between plates
(A)
Flow down
inclined plane
(A)
Tips (A)

But at y = 0,

dux
dy

1 dp

 dx

+

d 2 ux
dy 2

dp
du
=  x + C1
dx
dy

= 0 (symmetry), so C1 = 0.

Navier-Stokes
Equations {
2d case

So momentum equation becomes


0=

NSE (A)
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis

Integrate once :
y

Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis

But at y = 0,

Equation
analysis

Integrate again

Laminar ow
between plates
(A)
Flow down
inclined plane
(A)
Tips (A)

dux
dy

1 dp

 dx

+

d 2 ux
dy 2

dp
du
=  x + C1
dx
dy

= 0 (symmetry), so C1 = 0.
1 2 dp
y
=  ux + C2
2 dx

Navier-Stokes
Equations {
2d case

So momentum equation becomes


0=

NSE (A)
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis

Integrate once :
y

Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis

But at y = 0,

Equation
analysis

Integrate again

Laminar ow
between plates
(A)
Flow down
inclined plane
(A)
Tips (A)

dux
dy

1 dp

 dx

+

d 2 ux
dy 2

dp
du
=  x + C1
dx
dy

= 0 (symmetry), so C1 = 0.

1 2 dp
y
=  ux + C2
2 dx
But at y = a, ux = 0, so
1 dp
2 dx

C2 = a 2

Navier-Stokes
Equations {
2d case
NSE (A)
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Laminar ow
between plates
(A)
Flow down
inclined plane
(A)
Tips (A)

Final solution

ux (y ) =

y2

2

{ equation of a parabola
Also, remember that

 =

@ ux
@y

So from this we see that in this case

 =y

dp
dx

a2

 dp

dx

Navier-Stokes
Equations {
2d case
NSE (A)
Equation
analysis

Flow down inclined plane (A)


{ Flow of liquid down inclined plane
y

Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis

ux
h

Equation
analysis
Laminar ow
between plates
(A)
Flow down
inclined plane
(A)
Tips (A)

Take x -component momentum equation

@ ux
@u
@u
+ ux x + uy x =
@t
@x
@y
+ 

1 @p

 @x

 2
@ ux

@x 2

@2u
+ 2x + fx
@y

Navier-Stokes
Equations {
2d case
NSE (A)
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis

Note :
1 Steady ow
2 ux (y ) only

Equation
analysis

Equation
analysis

Equation
analysis
Laminar ow
between plates
(A)
Flow down
inclined plane
(A)
Tips (A)

No pressure gradient
fx = g sin

Navier-Stokes
Equations {
2d case
NSE (A)
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis

Note :
1 Steady ow
2 ux (y ) only

Equation
analysis

Equation
analysis

Equation
analysis
Laminar ow
between plates
(A)
Flow down
inclined plane
(A)
Tips (A)

No pressure gradient
fx = g sin

Equation becomes

d 2 ux
=
dy 2

which we can integrate easilly.

sin

Navier-Stokes
Equations {
2d case
NSE (A)
Equation
analysis

Boundary conditions :

Equation
analysis

Equation
analysis

Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Laminar ow
between plates
(A)
Flow down
inclined plane
(A)
Tips (A)

lower surface { ux (0) = 0


x
upper surface { du
dy = 0

Navier-Stokes
Equations {
2d case
NSE (A)
Equation
analysis

Boundary conditions :

Equation
analysis

Equation
analysis

Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Laminar ow
between plates
(A)
Flow down
inclined plane
(A)
Tips (A)

lower surface { ux (0) = 0


x
upper surface { du
dy = 0

Solution
ux =

sin hy

y2

Navier-Stokes
Equations {
2d case
NSE (A)
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Equation
analysis
Laminar ow
between plates
(A)
Flow down
inclined plane
(A)
Tips (A)

Tips (A)

Most NSE problems will be time-independent. They will


probably only involve one direction of ow, and one coordinate
direction. They will probably be either pressure driven (so no
viscous term) or shear driven (ie. viscous related, so no
pressure term).
Thus, most NSE problems will lead to a 2nd order ODE for a
velocity component (ux or uy ) as a function of one coordinate
(x or y ).
Thus we would expect to integrate twice, and to impose two
boundary conditions.



A wall boundary condition produces a xed value : eg.


ux = 0.
A free surface produces a zero gradient condition, eg.
dux
dy = 0.