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UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN KIMIA


BIOPROCESS SIMULATION LABORATORY
(CBE655)
NAME

: NURWANI BINTI HUSSIN

STUDENT NUMBER

: 2012862664

GROUP

: EH2226A

EXPERIMENT

: LAB1

DATE PERFORMED

: 27 MARCH 2015

SEMESTER

:6

PROGRAMME / CODE

: EH222

SUBMITTED TO

: DR. JAGANNATHAN KRISHNAN

No.
1
2
3
4
5

Title

Allocated Marks (%)

Marks

Theory/Introduction
Methodology/Procedure
Process Flow Diagram (PFD)
Workbook/Reports
Results
TOTAL MARKS

100

Remarks:

Checked by:

Rechecked by:

------------------------------(DR. JAGANNATHAN KRISHNAN)

----------------------------------(
)

Date:

Date:
1

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Theory/Introduction

1-2

Methodology/Procedure

3-4

Process Flow Diagram (PFD)

Workbook/Reports

Results

Appendices

8-14

THEORY/INTRODUCTION
Monoclonal antibodies or MAB is a bioproduct that produced by an aerobic kinetic fermentation
in a batch fermentation tank. The tank is fed with media and biomass and also another air stream
applied to the fermentation to the fermenter. The table provided by the lecturer, gives the
stoichiometric coefficient of the overall reaction. Information given was extracted from an
experimental data. It is also stated that the Monod Kinetic equation = = 0.2 was
applied.
Reactants

Products

Component

Stoich. Coeff.

Component

Stoich. Coeff.

Media

100.00

Biomass

28.00

Oxygen

70.00

Carbon Dioxide

70.00

Impurity

10.00

MAB

2.00

Water

60.00

The batch fermentation tank can be operated in either Batch or semi-Continuous mode. The tank
equipped with default input, vent and default output. The default input is where the fed comes in
for example in this case, the media and oxygen flows in whereas default outputs is where the
product comes out such as MAB, impurity, biomass and water. There is another stream called
vent that allow the release of air if the pressure in the tank is over pressure and also if the tank is
under vacuum, it results in addition of air into the vessel so that the pressure inside the tank is
stable and equal to the atmospheric pressure. In this case, the carbon dioxide may produce and
release out tank through vent. (SuperPro, 1991)

Batch fermentation can be divided into few types such as kinetic, perfusion and stoichiometric.
During the first lab, it only involve kinetic fermentation which is a set of general equation provided
for the production rate was newly presented applying the kinetic theory on microbial cell growth.
Equations for product concentration in fermentation time courses were derived by developing
mathematically the general equation of production rate, and characteristic properties of
fermentation processes were clarified. Some examples of fermentations were analyzed kinetically
using the new kinetic theory. The calculated values of product, and cell concentrations were in
good agreement with the observed values. (T.Kono & T.Asai, 1969) Kinetic fermentation also
useful and potentially valuable for the improvement of batch process performance and essential
for continuous process design.

METHODOLOGY/PROCEDURE
1. SuperPro software was opened and new process file created.
2. Process model was started by clicking on the Task menu, and sat up the Set Mode of
Operation into the batch operation.
3. Pure components was then registered by using Pure Components item and the Register
Edit/View Properties was selected. The pure components that were registered are Media,
Oxygen, Nitrogen, Water, Biomass, Carbon Dioxide, Impurity, MAB.
4. Then, the Unit Procedures was clicked to find the Batch Vessel Procedure in a fermenter.
5. After the fermenter appeared on screen, the connect mode was switched on to draw the
streams in and out of the tank. The streams that need to be drawn are feed, water, air,
CO2 and broth.
6. Next, Operation Sequence set up opened when the fermenter diagram clicked twice and
then they was chose by referring to the question given by lecturer such as CHARGE-1
(Charge), CHARGE-2 (Charge), HEAT-1 (Batch Heating), FERMENT-1 (Batch Kinetic
Fermentation), COOL-1 (Batch Cooling), and TRANSFER-OUT-1 (Transfer Out).
7. In Operation Data menu, CHARGE-1 profile appeared after one right click on the
fermenter diagram and 10000 kg/batch of water was charged to the fermenter. This charge
operation was required a setup duration of 5 min and the processing time is calculated
based on 100 L/min.
8. In Operation Data menu, CHARGE-2 profile appeared after clicking the next sign and
duration of 20 min was setup and the processing time was calculated based on 10 kg/min.
The Feed stream was selected and the ingredient name or the component of Biomass
and Media was selected into the Composition menu. In the composition menu, a 500
kg/batch of a feed stream was setup at the Total flowrates, Set Mass Flow section. And
from the Flowrate (kg/batch) menu the Biomass was consisted of 50 kg and the rest is
Media was charged in.
9. In Operation Data menu, HEAT-1 profile appeared after clicking the next sign, Heating
Agent was change to steam. Fermenter was then heated to 37C by using steam at a
heating rate of 0.5C/min at a setup time of 5 min.
10. In Operation Data menu, FERMENT-1 profile appeared after clicking the next sign,
duration of fermentation set up for 24 hours. Chilled water was used as heat transfer agent
to maintain the fermenter at a final temperature of 37C. At Reactions Tab, the View/Edit
Kinetic Rate or symbol R was clicked and from the Kinetics for Fermentation menu the

Monod equation was selected and the Biomass was selected as the Rate Reference
Component and the B-Term and Media as the substrate.
11. In Operation Data menu, COOL-1 profile appeared after clicking the next sign, fermenter
was cooled to a final temperature of 5C by using Glycol at the cooling rate of 0.5C/min
at a setup time of 5 min.
12. In Operation Data menu, TRANSFER-OUT-1 profile appeared after clicking the next sign,
a process time of 5 hours was set up for further separation process.
13. Finally, all the Operation Data Menu completed and OK button was clicked.
14. After everything was done, Solve M&E Balance from the Task menu was clicked and the
process was check automatically if there is any errors available. If there is any, it will
appear as list at the bottom of page. Any errors listed need to be corrected until the
Perform M&E balanced ended successfully.

PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM (PFD)

Water

carbon dioxide

37.00 C
1.01 bar
9863.83 kg/batch
8563338.77 L/batch

25.00 C
1.01 bar
10000.00 kg/batch
10053.24 L/batch

25.00 C
1.01 bar
500.00 kg/batch
500.01 L/batch

5.00 C
0.87 bar
10500.00 kg/batch
10476.82 L/batch

Biomass and Media

Broth
25.00 C
1.01 bar
9851.26 kg/batch

P-1 / FR-101
Fermentation
13249.57 L
CD = 33.81 h

Air

The diagram above is the process diagram of the fermentation process. The feed involves biomass, media,
air and water. Temperature inlet of the fed is 25C and pressure of 1.01 bar. Mass flowrate of water is
1000kg/batch while media is 500kg/batch and air has mass flowrate of 9851.26kg/batch. The product of
the kinetic fermentation are vent and broth. Carbon dioxide release out from the vessel with temperature
of 37C and flowrate of 9863.83/batch. Whereas, the broth flow out from fermenter with temperature of
5C and flowrate of 10500kg/batch.

WORKBOOK/REPORTS
Stream summary
Time Ref:
Batch
Type
Total Flow
Temperature
Pressure
Liq/Sol Vol
Flow
Total
Contents
Biomass
Carb. Dioxide
Impurity
MAB
Media
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Water
Time Ref:
Batch
Type
Total Flow

Air

Broth

kg
C
bar
L

Raw Material
9851.2560
25.00
1.013
0.0000

kg

kg

carbon
dioxide
Emission
9863.8279
37.00
1.013
0.0000

Water

10500.0000
5.00
0.867
10476.8198

Biomass and
Media
Raw Material
500.0000
25.00
1.013
500.0148

9851.2560

10500.0000

500.0000

9863.8279

10000.0000

0.0000
394.0502
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
7092.9044
2364.3015
0.0000
Air

50.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
450.0000
0.0000
0.0000
10000.0000
Broth

10500.0000

0.0000
393.9283
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
7102.6920
2367.2075
0.0000
carbon
dioxide
Emission
9863.8279

0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
10000.0000
Water

Raw Material
9851.2560

50.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
450.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
Biomass and
Media
Raw Material
500.0000

Raw Material
10000.0000
25.00
1.013
10053.2387

Raw Material
10000.0000

Gann Chart
day
h

1
8

16

2
24

32

40

day
48

Complete Recipe
P-1 in FR-101
CHARGE-1
CHARGE-2
HEAT -1
FERMENT -1
COOL-1
T RANSFER-OUT -1

CHARGE-1 (1.76 h)
CHARGE-2 (1.17 h)
HEAT-1 (0.48 h)
FERM ENT-1 (24.00 h)
COOL-1 (1.15 h)
TRANSFER-OUT-1 (5.25 h)

RESULTS
1. Amount of air to be supplied for the aerobic fermentation process is 9851.26 kg/batch.
2. The size of the fermenter that is necessary for this batch is 13249.57L.
3. The composition of vent are carbon dioxide, nitrogen and oxygen. CO 2 produced is 3.2440 %
and the flow rate is 9863.83 kg/batch.
4. The composition of broth are 1.6762% Biomass, 0.4286% Impurity, 97.8095% water and
0.0857% MAB and 10500kg MAB produced per batch.
5. The heating operation required is 0.48 hour and the cooling operation required is 1.15 hour.
6. The total time required to complete one batch is 33.81 hour.
7. The graph below shows the biomass attained stationary phase by providing the concentration
profiles for media, biomass and MAB.
Graph
45
40
35

Concentration

30
25

Concentration
Biomass
(g/L)

20

Concentration
MAB
(g/L)

15

Concentration
Media
(g/L)

10
5
0
0
-5

10

15

20

25

30

Time, h

APPENDICES

Materials & Streams Report

April 6, 2015

for lab report 1


1. OVERALL PROCESS DATA
Annual Operating Time

7,911.28h

Recipe Batch Time

33.81h

Recipe Cycle Time

33.81h

Number of Batches per Year

234.00

MP = Undefined

10

2.1 STARTING MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS (per Section)


Amount
Gross
Needed
Section

Starting Material Active Product

Molar

Mass
Mass

(kg Yield Yield


Yield
Sin/kg

(%)

(%)
(%) MP)

Main Section

(none)

(none)

Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown

Sin = Section Starting Material, Aout = Section Active Product

2.2 BULK MATERIALS (Entire Process)


Material

kg/yr

kg/batch

2,340,000

10,000.000

11,700

50.000

105,300

450.000

92,208

394.050

1,659,740

7,092.904

Oxygen

553,247

2,364.301

TOTAL

4,762,194

20,351.256

kg/yr

kg/batch

2,340,000

10,000.000

11,700

50.000

105,300

450.000

92,208

394.050

1,659,740

7,092.904

Oxygen

553,247

2,364.301

TOTAL

4,762,194

20,351.256

Water
Biomass
Media
Carb. Dioxide
Nitrogen

kg/kg MP

2.3 BULK MATERIALS (per Section)


SECTIONS IN: Main Branch
Main Section
Material
Water
Biomass
Media
Carb. Dioxide
Nitrogen

kg/kg MP

11

2.4 BULK MATERIALS (per Material)


Water
Procedure

% Total

kg/yr

kg/batch

P-1

100.00

2,340,000

10,000.000

TOTAL

100.00

2,340,000

10,000.000

% Total

kg/yr

kg/batch

P-1

100.00

11,700

50.000

TOTAL

100.00

11,700

50.000

% Total

kg/yr

kg/batch

P-1

100.00

105,300

450.000

TOTAL

100.00

105,300

450.000

% Total

kg/yr

kg/batch

P-1

100.00

92,208

394.050

TOTAL

100.00

92,208

394.050

% Total

kg/yr

kg/batch

P-1

100.00

1,659,740

7,092.904

TOTAL

100.00

1,659,740

7,092.904

% Total

kg/yr

kg/batch

P-1

100.00

553,247

2,364.301

TOTAL

100.00

553,247

2,364.301

kg/kg MP

Main Section (Main Branch)

Biomass
Procedure

kg/kg MP

Main Section (Main Branch)

Media
Procedure

kg/kg MP

Main Section (Main Branch)

Carb. Dioxide
Procedure

kg/kg MP

Main Section (Main Branch)

Nitrogen
Procedure

kg/kg MP

Main Section (Main Branch)

Oxygen
Procedure

kg/kg MP

Main Section (Main Branch)

12

2.5 BULK MATERIALS: SECTION TOTALS (kg/batch)


Raw Material
Water
Biomass

Main Section
10,000.000
50.000

Media

450.000

Carb. Dioxide

394.050

Nitrogen

7,092.904

Oxygen

2,364.301

TOTAL

20,351.256

2.6 BULK MATERIALS: SECTION TOTALS (kg/yr)


Raw Material
Water
Biomass
Media
Carb. Dioxide
Nitrogen

Main Section
2,340,000
11,700
105,300
92,208
1,659,740

Oxygen

553,247

TOTAL

4,762,194

3. STREAM DETAILS
Stream Name

Water

Biomass and
Media

Air

carbon dioxide

Source

INPUT

INPUT

INPUT

P-1

P-1

P-1

P-1

OUTPUT

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

25.00

25.00

25.00

37.00

1.01

1.01

1.01

1.01

994.70

999.97

1.20

1.15

Total Enthalpy (kW-h)

0.00

0.00

13.06

46.08

Specific Enthalpy (kcal/kg)

0.00

0.00

1.14

4.02

Heat Capacity (kcal/kg-C)

1.00

1.00

0.24

0.24

Biomass

0.000

50.000

0.000

0.000

Carb. Dioxide

0.000

0.000

394.050

393.928

Media

0.000

450.000

0.000

0.000

Destination
Stream Properties
Activity (U/ml)
Temperature (C)
Pressure (bar)
Density (g/L)

Component Flowrates (kg/batch)

13

Nitrogen

0.000

0.000

7,092.904

7,102.692

Oxygen

0.000

0.000

2,364.301

2,367.208

Water

10,000.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

TOTAL (kg/batch)

10,000.000

500.000

9,851.256

9,863.828

TOTAL (L/batch)

10,053.239

500.015

8,221,312.821

8,563,338.766

Stream Name
Source
Destination

Broth
P-1
OUTPUT

Stream Properties
Activity (U/ml)

0.00

Temperature (C)

5.00

Pressure (bar)

0.87

Density (g/L)

1,002.21

Total Enthalpy (kW-h)

- 243.63

Specific Enthalpy (kcal/kg)

- 19.96

Heat Capacity (kcal/kg-C)

1.00

Component Flowrates (kg/batch)


Biomass

50.000

Media

450.000

Water

10,000.000

TOTAL (kg/batch)

10,500.000

TOTAL (L/batch)

10,476.820

14

4. OVERALL COMPONENT BALANCE (kg/batch)


COMPONENT

INITIAL

INPUT

OUTPUT

FINAL

IN-OUT

Biomass

0.000

50.000

50.000

0.000

0.000

Carb. Dioxide

0.000

394.050

393.928

0.122

0.000

Media

0.000

450.000

450.000

0.000

0.000

Nitrogen

11.986

7,092.904

7,102.692

2.198

0.000

Oxygen

3.639

2,364.301

2,367.208

0.733

0.000

Water

0.000

10,000.000

10,000.000

0.000

0.000

TOTAL

15.624

20,351.256

20,363.828

3.052

0.000

15

5. EQUIPMENT CONTENTS
FR-101
Procedure

Operation

P-1

START

0.000

0.000

P-1

CHARGE-1 (Charge)

1.759

10,053.239

P-1

CHARGE-2 (Charge)

2.926

10,553.253

P-1

HEAT-1 (Batch Heating)

3.409

10,599.654

P-1

FERMENT-1 (Batch Kinetic Fermentation)

27.409

10,599.654

P-1

COOL-1 (Batch Cooling)

28.559

10,476.820

P-1

TRANSFER-OUT-1 (Transfer Out)

33.809

0.000

Time (in h)

Volume (in L)

16