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We certify that this is our own work except excerpt and summary that we get and be
treated from the sources that we have stated.
Date: 15 January 2013





I, Miss Rosmurni confirmed that the research carried out by the members of this
group is truly original and there is no element of imitation during the process. I hope
that there are no concerns from anyone.




First and foremost, all praises and thanks are due to Allah the Almighty who
gave us guidance, ability and patience to complete this research work. Here we
would like to take this opportunity to express our gratitude to the following people who
made this research possible.
We would like to express our appreciation to our supervisor Miss Rosmurni.
Without her continuous support and guidance, this research would not be possible.
Her wisdom and valuable comments contribute greatly to the improvements of this
work. We consider ourselves to be very fortunate to be under her supervision.
We also want to thank to Miss Husna binti Azahar ( ), Dr. Mariam binti Mat
Salleh, our beloved principle for giving us the opportunity to conduct this project, Pn
Muhibah (SEM coordinator) for being excellent mentors to us. May Allah give His
blessing to all of them.
We would like to thank our fellow friends at Tun Ghafar Baba MJSC,
Muhammad Zuhair bin Juhari, Muhammad Ifzan bin Abdul Rashid and Muhammad
Syazwan bin Syamsuddin for their friendship and support. Their sense of humour
always makes our journey very enjoyable and can never be forgotten.
We would like to acknowledge and extend a very gracious thank you to our
beloved parents and family for their endless encouragement, inspiration and
persistent help to better our work. Our family has been a tremendous asset to us in
our quest to complete our research and we are incredibly grateful to them.
Last but not least, thank you to all who have been involved directly or
indirectly in the completion of this research. Without all the above mentioned our
project making will not go this far beyond satisfication.


Bamboo material has an extraordinary micro-structure. It has a high absorption ability

after carbonization and becomes even more effective after activation. Bamboo
charcoal can be used to purify water and eliminate organic impurities and smells.
Bamboo charcoal is known to have high porosity. Various impurities or foreign matter
will be absorbed over the wide surface area of the charcoal. So our main idea is to
use the bamboo charcoal inside the air filter and exhaust in vehicles. This is because
the air filter and the exhaust only filter the dust but not the smell and harmful gases.
For this project, we use waste bamboo from lemang to make the bamboo charcoal.
To produce normal bamboo charcoal is very difficult. We found a simple way to
produce bamboo charcoal introduced by Dr. Junji Takano from Japan. Firstly cut the
waste bamboo into small sticks and wrap it with aluminum foil and make sure there is
no hole. Make a small hole at the end of the wrapping to let the accumulated gas to
escape. Place a wire mesh on a stove and put the bamboo sticks on the top of it.
First, put up a small and weak flame. Soon, white steam-like gases will come out.
Increase the flame after a few minutes. If it turns into a whitish smoke, then turn off
the gas stove. Sink the bamboo sticks into a water basin for a few minutes and open
the aluminum foil and hard bamboo charcoals will produces. To know the effeciency
of the bamboo charcoal, we done a pH test. We devide 100g of bamboo charcoal
into two portion. The first portion was put into conical flask labelled A and soaked in
distilled water for 24 hours. The second portion was put in descicator where the
acetic acid is place. It then was overnight for 48 hours. The charcoal was transferred
to a conical flask labeled B with distilled water for 24 hours. The distilled water in both
conical flask A and B were filtered and ready for pH test. Based on the result, the pH
value of the charcoal after placed in the descicator has decreased from 9.54 to 3.86.
It was shown that the charcoal is acidic after placed in the descicator. Hence, there is
a possibility that these charcoals had absorbed the moisture from vapourize acetic
acid which contain strong odour. But, the mechanism of the absorption process need
to be further investigated.



Author Admission
Facilitator Confirmation


1.1 Problem Statement
1.2 Objective


Literature Review
2.1 Bamboo Charcoal
2.1.1 Background
2.1.2 Bamboo Carbonization
2.1.3 Process in Bamboo Charcoal
2.2 Air Filter


3.1 Preparation of Simple Bamboo Charcoal
3.2 pH Test


4.1 The Change of pH Value of Bamboo Charcoal











The main purpose of this research is to study whether wasted bamboo can be
use to form new coal energy and become an odour absorber in the air filter in
vehicles. We investigate how far the potential of waste bamboo charcoal to absorb
odour. The benefits of using waste bamboo as the charcoal because it is easy to find
it anywhere. It also eco-friendly as its not contain any harmful and poisonous
chemical substances.
The usage of bamboo plant are already known worldwide such as for construction
and furniture industries, textiles and paper. Beside the plant itself, its waste also could
give benefits to the mankind. One of them is used as raw material for activated
carbon which can be used in wastewater treatment. Bamboo material has an
extraordinary micro-structure, it has a high absorptive capacity after carbonization
and becomes even more effective after activation. It can be used to purify water and
eliminate organic impurities and smells. Bamboo charcoal is known to have high
porosity. Various impurities or foreign matter will be absorbed over the wide surface
area of the charcoal. Based on these properties, this bamboo charcoal (activated
carbon) has potential to be as odour absorber.
The air filter in the vehicles is just filter the dust but it does not filter the
unpleasant smell from the engine. So, we want to make an innovation to include the
bamboo charcoal in the air filter. Besides the air filter, we also want to include the
bamboo charcoal in the exhaust and air conditioner. So, the surrounding air can be
more fresh and save to breath.
The idea of this experiment came when one of us read an article published by
Guanzhou Eastern Dragon Household Factory in China which is a big company that
have market their product to the worldwide. They stated that bamboo charcoal has a
high absorptive capacity. So, it has a potential as an odour absorber. We hope we
had choose good reasons to convince you why we are doing this environmentally


To overuse waste material which is bamboo to reduce waste.

To reduce air pollution and unpleasant smell.
To find another alternative that is more effective and efficient to filter the air in

the vehicles.
To prove the efficiency of the bamboo charcoal to absorb the odour.
To maximize the benefit of bamboo charcoal to reduce the usage of harmful

substances in vehicles.
To preserve the mother Earth by conserving the usage of bamboo plant.
To prove the statement from Guanzhou Eastern Dragon Factory in China.





Bamboo charcoal is made up of pieces of bamboo, which are taken from

plants five years or older and burned inside an oven at temperatures over 1000 C. It
not only provides a new way to utilize bamboo, but also benefits environmental
protection by reducing pollutant residue. Bamboo charcoal is an environmentally
functional material that has excellent absorption properties.
Bamboo charcoal is made of bamboo by means of a pyrolysis process.
According to the types of raw material, bamboo charcoal can be classified as raw
bamboo charcoal and bamboo briquette charcoal. Raw bamboo charcoal is made of
bamboo plant parts such as culms, branches, and roots. Bamboo briquette charcoal
is made of bamboo residue, for example, bamboo dust, saw powder etc., by
compressing the residue into sticks of a certain shape and carbonizing the sticks.
There are two equipment processes used in carbonization, one is a brick
kiln process, and the other is a mechanical process.
Bamboo charcoal is mainly used as fuel for cooking and drying tea in China
and Japan. Most bamboo charcoal for fuel is bamboo briquette charcoal, and the rest
is raw bamboo charcoal . Bamboo material has an extraordinary micro-structure: it
has a high absorptive capacity after carbonization, and becomes even more effective
after activation. Bamboo charcoal can be used to purify water and eliminate organic
impurities and smells. Drinking water sterilized with chlorine can be treated with
bamboo charcoal to remove residual chlorine and chlorides. In addition, a process
involving bamboo charcoal has recently been developed in Taiwan using
nanotechnology in combination with silver to produce a textile fibre Thomas Edison's
original light bulb had a carbonized bamboo filament.

Bamboo charcoal is known to have high porosity. Various impurities or foreign

matter will be absorbed over the wide surface area of the charcoal. When air passes
over, if the humidity is high, the charcoal will absorb the moisture and the air will be
converted to dry air. If the air is too dry, then the charcoal will discharge its own
moisture, thus adjusting the humidity in the air.
Bamboo vinegar or pyroligneous acid is extracted when making charcoal and
is used for hundreds of treatments in almost all fields. This liquid contains 400










including cosmetics, insecticides, deodorants, food processing, and agriculture.

Example of bamboo charcoal


Bamboo carbonization can be divided into four stages according to

temperature and products situation in a kiln.
First stage drying: the temperature is below 120C and the speed of carbonization
is slow. Heat is used to evaporate the water in bamboo, and the chemical
composition of the bamboo is still intact.

Second stage pre-carbonization: the temperature is in the range of 120C to 260C

and there is a distinct chemical reaction in bamboo. The unstable chemical
compounds begin to decompose and carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide are

Third stage carbonization: the temperature is in the range of 260C to 450C, and
the bamboo is decomposed into liquid and gas products. Liquid products contain
much acetic acid, methanol and bamboo tar. Flammable methane and ethylene in
gas products are increasing while carbon dioxide production is reduced.

Fourth stage calcinations (refining stage): the temperature is over 450C. The
bamboo becomes charcoal by providing a mass of heat, emitting the volatile
substances and to enhance nonvolatile carbon. Based on the temperature in this
stage, the bamboo charcoal can be divided into three groups (low-temperature,
middle-temperature and high-temperature charcoal). The quality and properties of
bamboo charcoal differs with different temperatures during the refining stage.
Lastly the bamboo is left to cool down and depending on the weather; this process
may take from five to eight days in big volume.




Pyrolysis is a thermochemical decomposition of organic material at elevated

temperatures without the participation of oxygen. It involves the simultaneous change
of chemical composition and physical phase, and is irreversible. The word is coined
from the Greek-derived elements pyro "fire" and lysis "separating".



of thermolysis,






for organic materials, being, therefore, one of the processes involved in charring. The
pyrolysis of wood, which starts at 200300 C (390570 F),[1] occurs for example in
fires where solid fuels are burning or when vegetation comes into contact with lava
in volcanic eruptions. In general, pyrolysis of organic substances produces gas and
liquid products and leaves a solid residue richer in carbon content, char. Extreme
pyrolysis, which leaves mostly carbon as the residue, is called carbonization.

The process is used heavily in the chemical industry, for example, to

produce charcoal, activated carbon, methanol, and other chemicals from wood, to
convert ethylene

dichloride into vinyl

chloride to

make PVC,


produce coke from coal, to convert biomass into syngas and biochar, to turn waste








weight hydrocarbons from oil into lighter ones like gasoline. These specialized uses
of pyrolysis may be called various names, such as dry distillation, destructive
distillation, or cracking.
Pyrolysis also plays an important role in several cooking procedures, such
as baking, frying, grilling, and caramelizing. In addition, it is a tool ofchemical
analysis, for example, in mass spectrometry and in carbon-14 dating. Indeed, many
important chemical substances, such as phosphorus and sulfuric acid, were first











during catagenesis, the conversion of buried organic matter to fossil fuels. It is also
the basis of pyrography. In their embalming process, the ancient Egyptians used a
mixture of substances, including methanol, which they obtained from the pyrolysis of



like combustion and hydrolysis in









with oxygen, water, or any other reagents. In practice, it is not possible to achieve a
completely oxygen-free atmosphere. Because some oxygen is present in any
pyrolysis system, a small amount of oxidation occurs.
Pyrolysis is usually the first chemical reaction that occurs in the burning of
many solid organic fuels, like wood, cloth, and paper, and also of some kinds
of plastic. In a wood fire, the visible flames are not due to combustion of the wood
itself, but rather of the gases released by its pyrolysis, whereas the flame-less
burning of a solid, called smouldering, is the combustion of the solid residue
(char or charcoal) left behind by pyrolysis. Thus, the pyrolysis of common materials
like wood, plastic, and clothing is extremely important for fire safety and firefighting.
Pyrolysis occurs whenever food is exposed to high enough temperatures in a
dry environment, such as roasting, baking, toasting, or grilling. It is the chemical

process responsible for the formation of the golden-brown crust in foods prepared by
those methods.










are carbohydrates (including sugars, starch, and fibre) and proteins. (See: Maillard
reaction.) Pyrolysis of fats requires a much higher temperature, and, since it
produces toxic and flammable products (such as acrolein), it is, in general, avoided in
normal cooking. It may occur, however, when grilling fatty meats over hot coals.
Even though cooking is normally carried out in air, the temperatures and
environmental conditions are such that there is little or no combustion of the original
substances or their decomposition products. In particular, the pyrolysis of proteins








the ignition

temperature of the solid residue, and the volatile subproducts are too diluted in air to
ignite. (In flamb dishes, the flame is due mostly to combustion of the alcohol, while
the crust is formed by pyrolysis as in baking.)
Pyrolysis of carbohydrates and proteins requires temperatures substantially
higher than 100 C (212 F), so pyrolysis does not occur as long as free water is
present, e.g., in boiling food not even in a pressure cooker. When heated in the
presence of water, carbohydrates and proteins suffer gradual hydrolysis rather than
pyrolysis. Indeed, for most foods, pyrolysis is usually confined to the outer layers of
food, and begins only after those layers have dried out.
point of lipids,









the boiling

in vegetable

oil or suet,

or basting meat in its own fat.

Pyrolysis also plays an essential role in the production of barley tea, coffee,
and roasted nuts such as peanuts and almonds. As these consist mostly of dry
materials, the process of pyrolysis is not limited to the outermost layers but extends
throughout the materials. In all these cases, pyrolysis creates or releases many of the
substances that contribute to the flavor, color, and biological properties of the final
product. It may also destroy some substances that are toxic, unpleasant in taste, or
those that may contribute to spoilage.

Controlled pyrolysis of sugars starting at 170 C (338 F) produces caramel, a

beige to brown water-soluble product widely used in confectionery and (in the form
of caramel coloring) as a coloring agent for soft drinks and other industrialized food
Solid residue from the pyrolysis of spilled and splattered food creates the
brown-black encrustation often seen on cooking vessels, stove tops, and the interior
surfaces of ovens.
Pyrolysis has been used since ancient times for turning wood into charcoal on
an industrial scale. Besides wood, the process can also use sawdust and other wood
waste products.
Charcoal is obtained by heating wood until its complete pyrolysis
(carbonization) occurs, leaving only carbon and inorganic ash. In many parts of the
world, charcoal is still produced semi-industrially, by burning a pile of wood that has
been mostly covered with mud or bricks. The heat generated by burning part of the
wood and the volatile byproducts pyrolyzes the rest of the pile. The limited supply of
oxygen prevents the charcoal from burning. A more modern alternative is to heat the
wood in an airtight metal vessel, which is much less polluting and allows the volatile
products to be condensed.
The original vascular structure of the wood and the pores created by escaping
gases combine to produce a light and porous material. By starting with a dense
wood-like material, such asnutshells or peach stones, one obtains a form of charcoal
with particularly fine pores (and hence a much larger pore surface area),
called activated carbon, which is used as an adsorbent for a wide range of chemical


Thermochemistry is




the energy and heat associated

with chemical reactions and/or physical transformations. A reaction may release or

absorb energy, and a phase change may do the same, such as in melting and boiling.
Thermochemistry focuses on these energy changes, particularly on the system's
energy exchange with its surroundings. Thermochemistry is useful in predicting
reactant and product quantities throughout the course of a given reaction. In
combination with entropy determinations, it is also used to predict whether a reaction
is spontaneous or non-spontaneous, favorable or unfavorable.
Endothermic reactions absorb heat. Exothermic reactions release heat.
Thermochemistry coalesces the concepts of thermodynamics with the concept of
energy in the form of chemical bonds. The subject commonly includes calculations of


as heat

capacity, heat

formation, enthalpy, entropy, free energy, and calories.


combustion, heat


The worlds first ice-calorimeter, used in the winter of 1782-83, by Antoine

Lavoisier andPierre-Simon Laplace, to determine the heatevolved in various chemical
changes; calculations which were based on Joseph Blacks prior discovery of latent
heat. These experiments mark the foundation of thermochemistry.


Thermal decomposition, or thermolysis, is a chemical decomposition caused

by heat. The decomposition temperature of a substance is the temperature at
which the substance chemically decomposes.
The reaction is usually endothermic as heat is required to break chemical
bonds in the compound undergoing decomposition. If decomposition is
sufficiently exothermic, a positive feedback loopis created producing thermal
runaway and possibly an explosion.
Example :


carbonate (Limestone or chalk)


into calcium

oxide and carbon dioxide when heated:

CaCO3 CaO + CO2





make quick


when hydrated becomes slaked lime and is used as a building material.


Equipment used by Priestley in his experiments on gases

Many oxides decompose at high enough temperatures, an example

being the decomposition of mercuric oxide to
give oxygen and mercury. The reaction was used by Joseph
Priestley to make the gas for the first time.

Some foods will decompose exothermically at cooking temperatures;

anyone who has overheated sugar or syrupy foods will know how
long they take to cool. Mild versions of the process will
produce caramelised dishes that are pleasant, but cannot be tasted
safely before they have cooled to a comfortable temperature. Once
they start to char, such dishes commonly will continue in a positive
feedback loop; they become dangerously hot and continue to blacken
from the inside out, and smoke even well after being removed from
the heat. In films, where stuntmen have to jump through breaking
windows, the window panes are often made of sugar, which is safer
than glass. Melting the sugar is a tricky business, however; an error
of just a few degrees will start a caramelisation process that will ruin
the product.

When water is heated to well over 2000 C, a small percentage of it

will decompose into its constituent elements:
2 H2O 2 H2 + O2

The compound with the highest known decomposition

temperature is carbon monoxide at 3870 C (7000 F).

Decomposition of nitrates, nitrites and ammonium compounds

Ammonium dichromate on heating yields nitrogen, water and

chromium(III) oxide.

Ammonium nitrate on strong heating yields dinitrogen oxide

("laughing gas") and water.

Ammonium nitrite on heating yields nitrogen gas and water.

Barium azide on heating yields Barium metal and nitrogen gas.

Sodium nitrate on heating yields Sodium nitrite and oxygen gas.


Carbonization or carbonisation is the term for the conversion of an organic

substance into carbon or


through pyrolysis or destructive







chemistry with reference to the generation of coal gas and coal tar from
raw coal. Fossil fuels in general are the products of the carbonization of

vegetable matter.
Carbonization is often exothermic, which means that it could in principle be
made self-sustaining and be used as a source of energy that does not
produce carbon dioxide. In the case of glucose, the reaction releases about

237 calories per gram.

When biomaterial is exposed to sudden searing heat (as in the case of
an atomic bomb explosion or pyroclastic flow from a volcano, for instance), it
can be carbonized extremely quickly, turning it into solid carbon. In the
destruction of Herculaneum by a volcano, many organic objects such as

furniture were carbonized by the intense heat.

In one study, carbonization was used to create a new catalyst for the
generation of biodiesel from ethanol and fatty acids. The catalyst was created
by carbonization of simple sugars such asglucose and sucrose. The sugars
were processed for 15 hours at 400 C under a nitrogen flow to a black
carbon residue consisting of a complex mixture of polycyclic aromatic carbon
sheets. This material was then treated with sulfuric acid, which functionalized
the sheets with sulfonite, carboxyl, and hydroxyl catalytic sites.


Vehicle air filters are comprised mainly of a woven fibrous material similar to
paper or fabric, and they're typically enclosed by a metal or plastic frame. There really
isn't much to vehicle air filters, and they aren't typically expensive components, but
they are a vital part of the intake system. The air filter provides the intake system with
the clean air it requires in order to run well. It filters out potentially harmful particles of
dirt and other elements that could damage the engine. With the proper amount of
clean air and fuel, an engine can function properly.

If vehicle air filters aren't changed as necessary, a host of costly problems can
occur, and affected components can cause a vehicle to run inefficiently. Vehicles with
dirty air filters will use more fuel, and they can adversely affect the emission control
system. Too much fuel without the proper amount of air in the system can produce
dirty sparkplugs, and dirty sparkplugs won't effectively start a vehicle or keep it
running properly. Problems such as these are easily avoidable.
Air filters should be checked each time the oil is changed. They require
changing approximately once a year, but the expense of a new air filter is minimal
compared to the problems that can occur if you forget about it or ignore it altogether.
Keep in mind; it will require changing more often if you regularly drive on dirt or gravel
roads where the air is generally dusty and dirty.
There's no need to hire a professional to perform this simple routine
maintenance job. Although the location varies from vehicle to vehicle, air filters
usually aren't difficult to locate or replace. Just look for a plastic tube leading from the

top of the engine to the air filter housing. Remove the top of the housing, and if a
hose is in the way, temporarily disconnect it for removal.
If the filter is merely dusty, it shouldn't require changing. Gently tap it against a
hard surface to knock off any loose particles. Hold it up to a light. If light shows
through, and it isn't damaged or coated with grime, it won't require immediate
replacement. Check it again in the same manner the next time you change the oil,
and if necessary, replace it with a filter especially designed for the specific make and
model of your vehicle.

A number of older vehicles also have a positive crankcase PCV filter directly
in front of the opening of the crankcase breather hose. If your vehicle is equipped
with this filter, it's a good idea to check it as well. Simply remove it from the holder,
and briskly shake it. A rattling sound indicates the PCV filter isn't clogged. It should be
checked each time the air intake filter is checked, and changed if necessary for
optimal engine performance and efficiency.
By the name itself air filter is the one that cleans the air before it enters our
vehicle engine to prevent damage, accelerate internal engine wear, cause by
contaminants that is present on the air.
During filtering of air the particulates are stocked inside filter which then causes
clogging of air filter, that's why we need to replace our vehicle air filter.
If we have a clog air filter, the amount of air that reaches the engine will be
restricted, if this happen, the air/fuel ratio mixture that reaches the engine will become
too rich, which means that so much fuel is present on the mixture.
Now what happens if the air/fuel ratio that reaches our engine is too rich?
If the air/fuel ratio is too rich, so much gas is burned inside your vehicle
combustion chamber which then may cause a black smoke that comes out from your
vehicle exhaust.

So replace the air filter as often depending on your vehicle driving conditions,
usually air filter are replaced ones a year, but if you drive on the dusty condition
replace it more often, you can buy it at any auto parts at a very inexpensive price also
it is very easy to replace.

Simple air filter

Air filter in car

Structure in air filter



3.1 Preparation of simple bamboo charcoal

1. An aluminum foil and a few bamboo parts was prepared.
2. The bamboo parts were wrapped with aluminum foil.
3. A small hole was perforated at the end of the wrapping to letthe accumulated gas
to escape.
4. A wire mesh was placed on the gas stove and the bamboo parts were placed on
top of it.
5. First,a small and weak flame was put up and increased the flame after a few
minutes a white steam-like gases came out. The gas stove was turned off when
bluish steam turned into whitish smoke.
6. The aluminum foils were sinked into a water basin for a few minutes.
7. The aluminum foils were opened and hard bamboo charcoals were produced.

Wrap the bamboo stick with aluminium foil

Wrapped bamboo sticks

A small hole is make at the end of the wrapping

White steam-like gases come out

Simple bamboo charcoal produces

3.2 pH test


Charcoal bamboo is divided into 2 portion

One portion was put in desciccator

One portion was put in conical flask

where the acetic acid is placed. It

and soaked in distilled water for

then was overnight for 48 hours.

24 hours.

The charcoal was transferred to

conical flask and soaked with
distilled water for 24 hours.

The distilled water was filtered and ready

for pH test.

Portion of bamboo charcoal

First portion of bamboo charcoal soaked with distilled water

Second portion of bamboo charcoal soaked with distilled water after put in the

Acetic acid is placed at the middle of the desciccator surrounded with bamboo

Taking the reading of the pH value of the bamboo charcoal before put in the

Taking the reading of the pH value of the bamboo charcoal after put in the



4.1 The change of pH value of bamboo charcoal

pH value of the charcoal
Before placed in desciccator

After placed in desciccator


After the experiment is conducted, we found that the pH value change from
odour from the acetic acid. 9.54(alkaline) to 3.86(acidic). It is proven that the bamboo
charcoal had absorb the



Acetic acid is a vapour organic compound which has strong smell. When the acetic acid and the bamboo charcoal placed in a desiccator, there is no air circulation.
Acetic acid release the smells in state of vapour. Based on the table, the pH value of
the charcoal after placed in desiccator has decreased from 9.54 to 3.86. It is shown
that the charcoal change from alkaline to acidic. Hence, there is a possibility of these
charcoal had absorbed the moisture from vaporize acetic acid which contain strong
odour and has acidic properties. But, the mechanism of absorption process need to
be further investigate.



The result showed there is a significant changes in pH value of bamboo charcoal.

So, it can be concluded the bamboo charcoal had absorb the odour moisture. Hence,
it can be one of a potential odour absorber.
Since the bamboo charcoal could be as a potential odour absorber, it can be
applied in air filter of vehicles. It also can be place in air conditioner filter system.
However, further research need to be carried out on how to make this charcoal in
nano-size particles to be placed in air filter and work efficiently.



Ahmad, A.A & Hameed, B.H. 2010. Effect of preparation conditions of activated
carbon from bamboo waste for real textile wastewater. Journal of Hazardous Materials 173:487-493

Ganzhou Eastern Dragon Household Articles Factory. 2009. Activated Carbon.

http://www.chemkind.com/chemicals-ca_2572_ganzhou-eastern-dragonhousehold.htm [1/12/12]

Takano, J. How to make Bamboo Charcoal in a simple way.

http://www.pyroenergen.com/articles/how-to-make-bamboo-charcoal.htm [4/12/12]