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Table of Contents

Formation

2

Cross-section of Double line BG track (In Embankment)

2

Cross-section of Double line BG track (In Cutting)

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Signaling

3

Introduction

3

Objects of Signaling

3

Classification of Signaling

4

Interlocking

5

Introduction

5

Necessity

5

Methods

5

Docks and Harbors

6

Requirements of an Ideal Harbor

6

Factors to be considered for the selection of harbor

6

References

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Formation

The top width of a track in embankment or bottom width in cutting is known as Formation

Width. Table gives minimum

formation

width of BG track as recommended.

Formation (Table)

SI.

Par1ic11lars of

Particulars of Track in meters single

Double

Remarks

No.

Formation

1.

In Embankment

6.1

10.82

In track land outside station the distance between two tracks should be 4.27m and 4.73m within station limits and over bridge and tunnels

2.

In Cutting

5.50

10.1

and over bridge and tunnels 2. In Cutting 5.50 10.1 Cross-section of Double line BG track

Cross-section of Double line BG track (In Embankment)

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Cross-section of Double line BG track (In Cutting) Signaling INTRODUCTION Just as the movements of

Cross-section of Double line BG track (In Cutting)

Signaling

INTRODUCTION Just as the movements of trains from one track to another are carried out with the help of Points and crossings and turnouts the driver of the train is informed with the help of signals. In the initial stages, the use of signals had not started at the critical points along the route. Policemen and security guards with red and green flags were employed to inform the driver whether track was clear and if he could proceed ahead. These policemen and security guards were replaced by smartly dressed policemen, and the station masters employed candles in the track visible to the driver. In due course colored light signals were introduced.

OBJECTS OF SIGNALLING

To provide direction and indication to the driver regarding proper setting of the switches

so that the train could automatically proceed to the selected track To provide safety and efficiency to shunting operation when 01e train in the railway yard

is to be shifted from one track to another. To facilitate flow of traffic and to increase the capacity of the track by ensuring safe Distances between trains running on the same lines in the same direction.

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To provide safety to passengers, staff and rolling stock by preventing the running train

from coming in contact with another train. To give directional indication at diverting joint.

Classification OF SIGNALS Signals may be divided into the following categories:

1. According to function: Stop, Warner, Disc, Colored light,

2. According to location: Outer, Home. Starter, Advance starter,

3. Special: Routing, Repeater. Co-acting, Calling-on indicators.

The above signals are briefly described below:

1. Signals according to Functions: These are of the following types: Stop or Semaphore. Warner, Disc or ground, Colored light.

i. Stop or Semaphore: The name stop signal derives its name from the fact that the signal mechanism is such that if anything goes wrong with the apparatus, the signal shows 'Stop' position.

ii. Warning signals: They provide a pre-hand warning to the driver about the controlling signals ahead. These only enhance the efficiency and provide a further safety caution.

iii. DISC SIGNAL: These are shunting signals which are used for low speed movements during shunting operations. They consist of circular discs with red bands on white background.

iv. COLORED LIGHT: These are automatic signals & give indications by electric lights both during the day as well as in night.

2. Signals according to Location: These are of the following types Outer, Home. Starter, Advance starter.

i. OUTER SIGNAL: This is Warner signal for the driver which gives the indication of the position ahead whether the platform is clear or not. Thus the first signal is provided at this distance beyond the station limit, that is why it is known as outer signal

ii. HOME SIGNAL: After the outer signal towards station is a stop signal and exactly placed at the station limit is called home or stop signal. Its main function is to protect the stations. The permission to enter the platform is given by the operation of this signal. The maximum unprotected distance between the signal and the point, it is intended to protect is specified as 180 m due to its location at the door of station, it is called home signal.

iii. STARTER SIGNAL: This signal is provided at the forward end of platform and controls the movement of the train as they leave the station. It gives permission to the train to leave the platform for next station. No train can leave the platform unless this signal is lowered, that is why it is called starter signal. A separate signal is provided for each line.

iv. ADVANCE STARTER SIGNAL: The limit of a station section lies between the home signal and the advance starter signal. The signal which allows the train to enter in block section is called advance starter signal. It is always placed beyond the outer most set of the point connections.

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3.

Special: These are of the following types:

Routing, Repeater. Co-acting, Calling-on indicators.

i. ROUTING SIGNAL: When many branch lines diverge in different directions from the main line, it is very difficult to provide individual signal for each line at the divergent point. In such situations various signals for main line and branch lines are fixed on the same vertical post. These signals are called routing signal. Generally signal for main line is kept higher than those for branch lines

ii. REPEATING SIGNAL:

When the view of the main signal is obstructed due

to some structures or on curves etc. some signals are used to repeat the information of the main signal. Such signal are known as repeating signal.

iii. CALLING ON SIGNAL: These signal are similar to semaphore signal, but they are smaller in size and are fixed on the same post below the main signals. A calling on signal permits a train to proceed with caution after the train has been brought to a halt by the main signal. These are helpful when repair works are going on.

iv. CO-ACTING SIGNALS: Co-acting signals were provided to make it easier for the driver to see the signal. It was thought that a standard height post would not afford the driver enough "sight distance" so this Co-acting signal was provided. From a long distance the top arm was clearly visible. As the train got closer the top arm was so high that easy viewing was difficult by which time the bottom arm was in good view.

Interlocking

Introduction: Arrangement of of signals, points and other appliances, so interconnected by mechanical or electrical locking that their operation takes place in a predetermined sequence to ensure that conflicting movement of signals and points do not take place and train runs safely. Necessity:

increase in the number of points and signals

Increase in speeds

Points and signals arranged in fool proof manner. Conflicting movements are

avoided Helps in proper and safe working of the system

Methods of Interlocking:

Key Interlocking:

Point can be set either for main line or branch line

A, B are the keys for main and branch lines. At any point only one of the keys can

be taken out. Lever frame operating the signals is provided with 2 signals and will be operated

by keys A and B only. If the train is to be received on main line, the key is locked for point on main line,

and A is taken out and inserted in the lever for signal of main line. Thus lowering the signal of main line.

This type of signal is called indirect interlocking.

If there are multiple lines succession interlocking will be used.

Mechanical Interlocking:

Improved form of interlocking compared to key interlocking

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Greater safety and less manpower

Done using plungers and tie bars

Plungers are of size 30cm x 1.6cm and have notches in them

Tie bars are placed at right angles to plungers and are provided with suitable

shaped riveted cast iron pieces (tappets) that exactly fit in notches. Main components are

o

Locking frame

o

Point frame

o

Signal fittings

o

And connecting devices

Levers are arranged in a row in the frame

Pulling a point lever operates the point to which it is connected through a steel

rod. Pulling a signal lever changes the signal by pulling the wire connecting the lever

and signal. This entire arrangement is provided in a locking trough where tappets are

provided, which move at right angles to the plungers. When lever is pulled, it causes the plunger which it is connected to move.

Due to wedge action, the tappet accommodated in the notch of the plunger is

pushed out at right angles to the movement of plunger. The motion gets transferred to the other tappets which are connected to the other

tappets by means of tie rod. Some tappets gets pushed in, some pushed out as a result.

In case a tappet is free and pushed into the notch, it locks the lever connected to

that plunger. Else if it is already locked, it will come out of notch, and the lever becomes free to be operated.

HARBOR AND DOCKS:

Requirements of an ideal Harbor:

The depth of a harbor should be sufficient for every type of visiting ships.

The bottom of harbor should provide secured anchorage to hold the ships against

high winds. To prevent destructive wave action, break water are provided.

The entrance of a harbor should be wide enough to provide the easy passage of ships.

Factors to be considered for the site selection of Harbor Following factors play a great role in the choice of site of a harbor.

1. Availability of cheap land & construction material.

2. .Natural protection from waves & winds

3. Transport & communication facilities

4. Industrial development of the locality

5. Sea bed, sub soil & foundation conditions

6. Availability of electrical energy

7. Defense & strategic aspects

8. Traffic potentiality of harbor.

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References

http://www.slideshare.net/thanhluance/habour-and-dock-engineering?qid=3378445e-

T.B.On Transportation Engineering By S. P. Chandola

0d3e-45e3-83cb-dc3e0fb366d2&v=default&b=&from_search=9

http://www.slideshare.net/srinivas2036/signalling-by-srinivas?qid=58c3e046-f561-42fe-

afee-8fee6882e072&v=qf1&b=&from_search=1

http://www.victorianrailways.net/signaling/coact/coact.html

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