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The Art of Partimento

History, Theory and Practice in Naples


The Rules: A Synoptic Compendium
This Synoptic Compendium is devised as a complement to Chapter 9 of the printed book: The
Rules: a Synoptic View. Differently from Chapter 9, which is fairly narrative (in the strict limits
of a theoretical account), the Compendium aims to give a documented description of the theory.
The five classes that compose the theoretical partimento body are further subdivided into 97
rules. For each rule a complete account of its sources is given. Every rule is numbered, and is
designated by a title. The text of the rule is given immediately after the title, in italics. When it
is included in quotations marks, it is a literal translation of some authors rule (and the original
Italian is given in footnote); when not, it is a synthesis of my own. After the text of each rule the
source credits are given. The first credit is to Fenaroli (either from Regole or from Partimenti)
and refers to the paragraph of Fenaroli in which the rule is stated.1 When the rule is not present
in Fenaroli, I indicate the source according to the list below. When several authors agree on a
rule, their names are listed (in alphabetic order) after the rule. When one or more authors have
different points of view on a rule, their opinion is recorded after the main rule. In some cases
(as for the classification of the cadences) the rule is divided in several sections, each referred to
one or more authors.
Almost all of the examples given as illustrations of the rules are drawn from the above
mentioned list: for every example the author is given credit to either in the captions or in the
text of the rule. When no source is given, the example is of the author of the present book, who
has also realized those examples given in the sources as figured bass only (that is, virtually all
except for Fenaroli).
Sources
The basis for the 97 rules are Fenarolis Regole musicali per quelli che vogliono suonare coi numeri
e per i principianti di contrappunto (9th edition), printed in Florence by Giovanni Canti together
with Partimenti, ossia basso numerato (2d edition) and reprinted by Forni, Bologna, in 1978.2 The
Canti edition reproduces carefully the text of the 1775 edition, but integrates the original 117
paragraphs with 14 new ones.3 The original text, along with a line to line translation, is offered
also in the website Monuments of Partimenti:

The collections of rule included in the Synoptic Index are as follows:


Cotumacci: Principi e regole di partimenti (I-Nc Rari 1.9.14/1)
Durante: Partimenti, ossia intero studio di numerati per ben suonare il cembalo del Sig.r Durante,
(I-Bc E.E 171)
Fenaroli: Partimenti ossia basso numerato. /Firenze: Canti n.d.; facsimile edition Bologna: Forni
1978)
Furno: Regole di Partimenti del Maestro Furno (I-Nc Od. 1.6/1)
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the art of partimento


Insanguine: Regole con moti di basso partimenti, e fuge [sic] del M[aes]tro G[iaco]mo Insanguine detto
Monopoli (I-Mc Noseda Th.c.116a)
Istruzioni: [Anonymous] Istruzioni armoniche raccolte dalle opere de pi illustri autori ovvero
metodo facile per apprendere i principj della musica e del contrapunto: e le regole pratiche necessarie a
ben suonare il cembalo, o piano-forte. (Naples: Stamperia della Biblioteca Analitica 1822)
Paisiello (1): Regole Per bene accompagnare il Partimento, o sia il Basso Fondamentale sopra il
Cembalo Del Signor Maestro Giovanni Paisiello. Composte per Sua Altezza Imperiale la Gran
Duchessa di tutte le Russie. (S. Petersburg: Morskago Sljahetnago Kadetskago Korpusa 1782)
Paisiello (2): Regole e partimenti del M Giovanni Paisiello. (I-Nc 3.4.17 bis/2)
Pasquini: Regole del Sig. Bernardo Pasquini per accompagnare con il cembalo [1715]. (I-Bc D. 138)
Sala: Elementi per ben sonare il Cembalo del Sig.r D. Nicola Sala. (I-Nc S.1.94)
Scarlatti: Lezzioni, toccate dintavolatura per sonare il cembalo del sig[no]r cavaliere Alesandro
Scarlatti. (I-Me Campori g - L.9.41; facsimile edition with an introduction by Luigi Ferdinando
Tagliavini, Bologna, Forni 1999).
Tritto (1): Scuola di contrappunto ossia teorica musicale dedicata a Sua Maest Ferdinando I (Milano:
Artaria 1816)
Tritto (2): Partimenti e regole generali per conoscere qual numerica dar si vede a vari movimenti del
basso dedicata a Sua Maest Ferdinando I (Milano: Artaria 1816)
Valente (1): Partimenti principii di cembalo del sig. D. Saverio Valente accademico filarmonico
(I-Mc Noseda Q 1315)
Valente (2): [Scale e partimenti] (I-Mc Noseda Q 1316)
Valente (3): Partimenti di Saverio Valente accademico filarmonico (I-Mc Noseda Q 1317)

class i: basic axioms and procedures


Materials of Music
1. Fundaments of Music
All music is nothing but a chord of first, third, and fifth.4 Fenaroli, Nozioni preliminari, 1.
The universal rules in cembalo playing, and in accompanying the voice, are that the first note in
the bass should be accompanied with a perfect consonance, i.e. third and fifth with the right hand; and
similarly the last note in the bass. Nevertheless, the composer may, according to his ideas, avoid this
rule through artifice, but only for what concern the consonance in the beginning; the way in which this
may be done, vary according every composition.5
Scarlatti, c.1v
2. Hierarchy among triads
Among the triad built on the scale degrees, the most important [fondamentali] are those on the first,
fourth and fifth degrees. Fenaroli, Nozioni preliminari, 1; Istruzioni p. 44.
3. Correspondence among the quality of triads
The third of I bestows its quality (major or minor) to the third of IV; similarly, the third of III
bestows its quality to the third of VI. Fenaroli, Nozioni preliminari, 1; Cotumacci p. 7; Furno p. 3;
Sala c. 2r.
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4. Quality of the third on V
The third of V is always major. Fenaroli, Nozioni preliminari, 1; Cotumacci p. 7; Istruzioni p. 46;
Pasquini p. 9.
5. Function of the leading tone
The major third above scale degree fifths is also the seventh above the main tone of the key, and
without it one cannot move to any key; for this reason, scale degree fifth is called the support to scale
degree first.6 Fenaroli, Nozioni preliminari, 1.
6. Stable tones
In order to preserve the coherence of the key, scale degrees 2, 4, 5, and 7 cannot be altered. Scale degrees
2 and 7 must always be major, 4 and 5 perfect. Any change of one of them, either in major or in minor,
will depart from the key. Insanguine p. 2; Istruzioni p. 44; Paisiello (2) c. 2r.
Under certain circumstances scale degree 7 can be minor. Sala c. 1v.
7. Consonances and dissonances
Music is composed with consonances and dissonances.7 Fenaroli, Regole musicali, 1;
Cotumacci p. 5.
8. Consonances
Consonances are four: third, fifth, sixth, and octave. Fenaroli, Regole musicali, 2; Cotumacci p. 5;
Furno p. 1; Insanguine p. 1; Istruzioni p. 45; Paisiello (1) p. 10; Paisiello (2) c. 1r; Sala c. 1v;
Valente (2), p. 4.
9. Quality of Consonances.
Octave and fifth are perfect; third and sixth are imperfect. Fenaroli, Regole musicali, 4; Cotumacci
p. 5; Furno p. 1; Insanguine pp. 12; Istruzioni p. 45; Paisiello (2) c. 1r; Sala c. 1v.
10. Dissonances
Dissonances are four: second, fourth, seventh, and ninth. Fenaroli, Regole musicali, 3; Cotumacci
p. 20; Furno p. 1; Insanguine p. 2; Istruzioni p. 45; Paisiello (1) p. 10; Paisiello (2) c.1r; Sala c. 1v;
Valente (2) p. 4.
Note. On consonance/dissonance distintion see rule 7; for treatment of dissonances see
Class III.
11. Relative motions
There are three kinds of motion: direct, oblique, and contrary. In direct motion both hands move
in the same direction; in oblique motion one hand stands, and the other moves; in contrary motion
one hand descends, and the other ascends. Insanguine p. 3; Paisiello (1) p. 7; Paisiello (2) c. 2r;
Sala c. 3r.8

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12. Limitation in direct (parallel) motion
a) Two consecutive parallel fifths or octaves are prohibited. Fenaroli, Regole musicali, 5; Istruzioni
p. 46; Pasquini p. 1.
b) Direct motion should be avoided.9 Insanguine p. 3; Paisiello (2) c. 2r.
c) Direct motion is usable only for octave doublings, otherwise parallel fifths or octaves may arise.10
Paisiello (1) p. 7
d) Hands must move in contrary motion only.11 Pasquini p. 1.
13. Leading tone
The major third must proceed to the sixth or to the octave. Durante p. 11. 12
Note. The major third is the leading tone in a dominant chord: it must proceed upwards by step,
and its resolution tone will form an octave or a sixth with the bass. This rule refers to the two
more common possibilities for a V-I succession: either to a root position tonic (Ex. 1a), or to a I6
(Ex. 1b, with passing tone).
14. Chromatic motions
a) Ascending (semitono maggiore)
Any chromatically raised tone must proceed upwards by half step, and the tone upon which it
resolves becomes the first of the new key; this resolution may be postponed, but cannot be avoided.
Cotumacci pp. 78.
b) Descending (semitono minore)
Any chromatically lowered tone must proceed downwards by half step.
Note. Part a) of Rule 14 is explicitly stated by Cotumacci without reference to the bass; part
b) is not found in any of the rules examined, but is implicit in Rule 89.
15. Minor seventh on
a) When moves to the chord of V may contain a minor seventh: it must resolve downwards by
step on the third of . Fenaroli, Assiomi musicali, 1; Istruzioni p. 47; Paisiello (1) p. 9; Scarlatti
c. 2v.
b) The seventh on is a passing tone; the chords with major third and minor seventh must alwayshave the fifth as well.13 Cotumacci pp. 5354.
c) On moving to the minor seventh may be used too. Furno p. 3.
16. Diminished fifth on
When moves to a diminished fifth (quinta falsa) can be given on : it must resolve downwards
by step on the third of . Fenaroli, Assiomi musicali, 2; Furno p. 3.
17. Augmented sixth on lowered
When lowered in the bass moves to , an augmented sixth [sesta superflua] may be given to it;
the augmented sixth must resolve upwards to the octave above . Fenaroli, Assiomi musicali, 3;
Furno p. 12.

the art of partimento


18. Augmented fourth on or
An augmented fourth [quarta maggiore] must be given to descending to (and resolves upwards
on the sixth above ); and to descending to (and resolves upwards on the sixth above ).
Fenaroli, Assiomi musicali, 4; Paisiello (2) c. 5r.
Note. See also Rules 64 and 92.
19. Major and minor sixths
a) When one will play a major sixth, that is every time that [the bass] descends by step, he must be
careful to make the sixth ascend, i.e. to the octave above the next [bass] note; and, on the opposite,
the minor sixth will descend on the fifth.14 Pasquini pp. 2, 12.
b) All notes that end a motion descending by step need a major sixth ... However, when those notes,
to which a major sixth is usually given, skip a fourth up, or a fifth downwards, they need [the chord
of] major third, fifth, and octave.15 Cotumacci pp. 89.
Note. See also Rule 94.
20. Cadences: definition
a) Cadences are motions of the bass from up to , and back to . Fenaroli, Delle cadenze, 1;
Istruzioni p. 52; Paisiello (1), p. 7.
b) At the wish of the composer, other scale degrees may be inserted between and . Istruzioni
p. 52.
21. Classification of cadences
a) Generalities. There are three types of cadences: 1) simple; 2) compound; 3) double. Simple cadences
make use of consonances only (and occasionally of the minor seventh); compound cadences use a
43 suspension on V (the suspension is prepared by the octave on , and resolves on the third of V;
the fourth may be accompanied by the fifth or the sixth); double cadences use the following chords
above V: 5/3; 6/4; 5/4; 5/3. Fenaroli, Delle cadenze, 2, 3, 4; Durante pp. 45; Furno p. 6;
Insanguine pp. 67; Istruzioni p. 52; Paisiello (1) pp. 79; Paisiello (2) cc. 2r-3v; Sala c. 3r;
Tritto (1) p. 19; Tritto (2) p. 3. Valente (2) p. 8.
b) Different classification according to individual authors. Fenaroli : 1) Simple cadence (cadenza
semplice) with triads only (a) and with passing seventh (b); 2) compound cadence (cadenza
composta) 3) double cadence (cadenza doppie).16

Ex. 2: Fenarolis cadenze.


Durante: 1a-d) Simple cadences (cadenze semplici: see also Cadenza lunga); 2) Simple cadence
with passing sixth and augmented fourth (cadenza semplice con la passata di 6a e 4a maggiore); 3)
Double cadence (cadenza doppia: see also Cadenza lunga).

Ex. 3: Durantes cadenze.


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Paisiello (1): 1a) Simple cadence (cadenza semplice); 1b) the same with optional 43 suspension; 2) Double cadence (cadenza doppia); 3a-b) Compound cadence (cadenza composta),
two versions.
Paisiello (2): 4) Essential double cadence (cadenza doppia semplice; 5) Compound double cadence
(cadenza doppia composta)

Ex. 4: Paisiellos cadenze.


Tritto: 1) Simple cadence (Cadenza semplice); 2) Short cadence (Cadenza breve); 3) Compound
cadence (cadenza composta); 4) Double cadence (cadenza doppia).

Ex. 5: Trittos cadenze.


c) Cadenze lunghe (long cadences).
When one finds three notes [in the bass] that ascend stepwise, and the last leaps upwards a fifth, or
downwards a fourth, we shall give to the first note [the chord of] the sixth; to the second, [the chord
of] the fifth and sixth; to the third note, the fourth and third, and with the fourth the fifth is given
too ... To the note [of the bass immediately] before the cadence we shall always give fifth and sixth
together, and to the last [before the close] remember to play the fourth followed by the third.17
Pasquini pp. 45; 11.

Ex. 6: Pasquinis cadenze lunghe.


d) Feigned cadences (Cadenze finte) A cadential progression that delay the arrival on the closing
tonic is called feigned cadence (cadenza finta). Valente (2) p. 8; Valente (3) pp. 810; p. 39;
p. 48.
In Ex. 7: Feigned cadence (1) (Cadenza finta accompagnata con numeri diversi, Valente (2)
p. 8); Feigned cadence (2) (Altra cadenza finta, Valente (3) p. 9; p. 48); Feigned cadence
(3) (Diversamente accompagnata altra cadenza finta, Valente (3) p. 10; p. 48).

Ex. 7: Valentes cadenze finte.


22. Single bass motions by fourth or fifth.
a) All [bass] leaps by fourth, or fifth, both ascending and descending, need [the accompaniment of] the
fifth.18 Tritto (1) p. 14.
b) The third on the bass note that leaps down by fifth must be major.Durante p. 10; Scarlatti c.2r.
c) If a bass leaps down a fourth, and the triad on the first note is in third position, a six-four chord with
augmented fourth can connect it to the following triad.19 Durante p. 9; Pasquini p. 11; Valente (3)
p. 47.
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Note. This technique corresponds to the Sc with passing augmented 4th and 6th (Example
2b; see also Rule 21). Valente recommends this accompaniment only when moves by leap to
instead of ascending to .
23. Ascending by half step (mi-fa progressions)
a) When the bass ascends by half step the first note needs the sixth. Durante p. 11; Pasquini p. 4;
Scarlatti c. 3v.
b) A diminished fifth may be added to the sixth.Cotumacci p. 7; Valente (1), p. 1; Valente (3)
p. 3.
c) A diminished seventh and a diminished fifth may be given instead of the sixth.Valente (3)
p. 3.
24. Descending by half step (fa-mi progressions)
When the bass descends by half step the second note needs the sixth. However, if the first note of the half
step lasts two beats, a 76 suspension is appropriate. Durante p. 11; Valente (1) p. 2.
Note. Example 8a refers to the first sentence of this rule. For the second, longer progressions
(Example 8b) Durante uses the expression terminare di grado. Pasquini suggests the use of a
76 suspension on the next-to-last note of a descending tetrachord.20

Ex. 8: mi-fa progressions (Durante).


25. Positions of the right hand
There are three position: in the First position the octave of the bass in in the top voice; in the Second
position the third of the bass in in the top voice; in the Third position the fifth of the bass in in the top
voice. Fenaroli, Posizione della mano destra, 1; Insanguine p. 3; Istruzioni p. 47; Scarlatti c.2v-3r;
Valente (1) p. 1.
26. Hand positions and keys
The keys of C, D, and E in should be played in first position (with the third below); the keys of F, G and
A in third position (with the third in the middle); the keys of B flat and B natural in second position
(with the third above). Furno c. 4r; Istruzioni p. 51.

Class II: Rule of the Octave


27. Definition of scale
A scale is a motion of the bass from the first of the key up to the octave, and then back to
the first: this motion is called a complete scale (scala compita). Fenaroli, Delle scale, 1; Istruzioni
p. 47.
28. Intervals in the scale [distribuzione del tono
The first (unison) is perfect; the second is major; the third is variable [arbitraria: i.e., major in the
major scale, minor in the minor scale]; the fourth is perfect; the fifth is perfect; the sixth must agree

the art of partimento


with the third, and the seventh is always major, being the pillar of the key.21Fenaroli, Distribuzione
del tono, 1; Istruzioni p. 45.
If the first of the key has a major third, than the sixth and seventh of the key, both in ascending
and in descending motion, must be major; if the first of the key has a minor third, then the sixth and
seventh of the key, in ascending, must be major, but in descending must be minor, though in certain
cases a succession of major seventh and minor sixth may take place. Sala c. 2r.
29. Stable scale degrees.
In order to preserve the integrity of the key, the following scale degrees must be stable: 2 (always
major); 4 (always perfect); 7 (always major). Any alteration of these tones moves out of the key.
Furno c. 2r.
Note. This rule will be further developed in Class V, in connection to the rules concerning
scale mutations (terminazioni di tono).
30. Fundamental tones
The scale is generated by three fundamental tones: the first, fourth, and fifth of the scale. These tones
need the chord of third and fifth. Tritto (1), pp. 10 -11.
The third scale has the same nature ( sinonimo) of the first; the second and seventh scale degrees
partake of the same nature as the fifth.Furno c. 3v.
31. Avoidance of augmented second
In the ascending minor scale the sixth degree is major; in the descending minor scale the seventh scale
degree is minor. The augmented second between the minor sixth and major seventh must be avoided
because of its harshness. Fenaroli, Scala in terza minore, 2
Note. see also rule 32.
32. Shortened minor scale
In order to keep the minor scale in its purest form [i.e. with both minor third and sixth] one can play it
only until the (minor) sixth degree, then descend without touching the seventh. Fenaroli, Scala in
terza minore, 8; ex. 15

Ex. 9: abridged minor scale (Fenaroli)


33. Essential foundations of the key [basi fondamentali che reggono il tono]
The first of the key requires the third, fifth, and octave
The second requires the minor third and major sixth
The third requires the third and sixth
The fourth requires the third and fifth
The fifth requires the major third and fifth
The sixth requires the third and sixth
The seventh requires the third and sixth. Fenaroli, Regole musicali, 5; Insanguine p. 1; Istruzioni
p. 46; Paisiello (2) c.1r; Pasquini p. 8. Sala c. 1v.

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34. Scale degrees one and five
Scale degrees and require third, fifth and octave; the third above is always major, both in the
major and in the minor scale Fenaroli, Scala in prima posizione, 1; Scala in seconda posizione, 1;
Scala in terza posizione, 1.Cotumacci p. 7; Insanguine p. 1; Paisiello (2) c. 1.
Note. when not stated otherwise, this rule and the following apply to both major and minor
scales. The quality of the intervals is stipulated by Rule 28 (see also Rule 3 and Rule 4).
35. Scale degree two
a) needs the minor third and the major sixth; if it takes part in a scale (ascending or descending) a
fourth may be added, otherwise the sixth and the third will be sufficient. Fenaroli, Scala in prima
posizione, 1; Scala in seconda posizione, 1; Scala in terza posizione, 1; Scala in terza minore,
3; Insanguine p. 1; Istruzioni p. 51; Paisiello (2) c. 1r; Scarlatti c. 2v. Tritto (1) p. 9.
b) If moves to or , and its duration is at least two beats, the major sixth may be preceded by a
suspended seventh. Cotumacci p. 54; Istruzioni p. 55.
Note. see Rule 19.
c) When moves by leap by fourth or fifth upwards, or by third downwards, it needs fifth and third.
Tritto (1), pp. 1314.
Note. Tritto adds the following explanation: It is necessary that I warn you that, in bass
motion like this, one should never give a major sixth to the second of the key that leaps
upwards by fourth or fifth, or downwards by third. This would be a mistake, because in doing
so one would anticipate that chord, which should never be anticipated, and the proportion
would suffer too.22
36. Scale degree three
Scale degree needs the third and the sixth Fenaroli, Scala in prima posizione, 1; Scala in seconda
posizione, 1; Scala in terza posizione, 1.Insanguine p. 1; Paisiello (2) c. 1r.
37. Scale degree four
a) ascending:
When moves to it needs the third, the fifth and the sixth Fenaroli, Scala in prima posizione,
1; Scala in seconda posizione, 1; Scala in terza posizione, 1; Cotumacci p. 7; Furno c. 2v;
Insanguine p. 1; Istruzioni p. 46, Paisiello (2) c. 1r; Sala c. 1v.
b) descending:
When it moves to , acts like a passing tone, and requires the second, the augmented fourth, and
the sixth. Fenaroli, Scala in prima posizione, 1; Scala in seconda posizione, 1; Scala in terza
posizione, 1, 2; Furno c. 3r; Insanguine p. 1; Istruzioni p. 46; Paisiello (2) c. 1r; Sala c. 1v.
c) moving by leap:
When it does not descend, nor ascend by step, but moves by leap, has the third and the fifth.
Fenaroli, Scala in prima posizione, 1; Scala in seconda posizione, 1; Scala in terza posizione, 1,
2Cotumacci p. 7; Furno c. 3r; Insanguine p. 5; Istruzioni p. 46; Paisiello (2) c. 1r; Sala c. 1v.
38. Scale degree six
a) ascending by step:
When it moves to , requires the third and the sixth. Fenaroli, Scala in prima posizione, 1;
Scala in seconda posizione, 1; Scala in terza posizione, 1; Paisiello (2) c. 1r.

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b) descending by step:
When it moves to , behaves like descending to , and accordingly it needs the third, the
fourth, and the major sixth; in minor, the sixth is augmented. Fenaroli, Scala in prima posizione,
1; Scala in seconda posizione, 1; Scala in terza posizione, 1, 3; Scala in terza minore, 4;
Insanguine p. 1; Istruzioni p. 50; Sala c. 1v.
c) If its duration is sufficient, the major sixth may be preceded by a suspended seventh. Cotumacci p. 54.
d) moving by leap:
If does not ascend to , or descend to (5), it takes the third and the fifth. Cotumacci p. 8; Furno
c.2v; Insanguine p. 1; Paisiello (1) pp. 56.
e) doublings:
In the descending minor scale, should never be doubled. Fenaroli, Scala in terza minore, 1.
39. Scale degree seven
a) ascending
When moving to , in addition to third and sixth may have the diminished fifth. Fenaroli,
Regole musicali, 6; Paisiello (1), p. 6; Paisiello (2) c. 1r; Sala c. 2r.
b) descending
When moving to , requires the third and the sixth. Furno c. 3v; Insanguine p. 1; Paisiello
(1), p. 6; Paisiello (2) c. 1r; Sala c. 2r.
c) as goal of a motion:
If a motion from upwards to ends on the latter degree, requires the sixth and the fifth, and
requires the fifth and the third (see Rule 96).
40. Models of accompaniments
a) Ascending scales

Ex. 11: Scarlattis scale realized

Ex. 13: Durantes scale realized in three and four voices

Ex. 15: Fenarolis ascending major scale realized in the three positions
b) Descending scales

Ex. 17: Fenarolis descending major scale realized in the three positions
c) Minor scale

Ex. 18: ascending and descending minor scale in the three positions (Fenaroli)
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41. Incomplete progressions
a) descending from to
Three descending bass notes whose first note is figured with a major third are accompanied with
major third and fifth on ; sixth, augmented fourth and second on , sixth and third on ; in
the minor mode, the chord on may have minor third, augmented fourth and major sixth.
Fenaroli, Del partimento che scende legato, 25; ex. n. 6, A.f, A.g Scarlatti c.3v.
Note. In Example 19 Fenaroli shows the complete descending line from to , whereas
Scarlatti considers only the progression. Differently from the standard Rule of the
Octave, in minor the minor third takes the place of the second over .

Ex. 19: abridged major and minor scale (Fenaroli)


b) ascending from to with consonances only
A bass rising from to can be accompanied with only consonances, namely: perfect fifth on and
, and major sixth on the other degrees. In particular, the sixth on must be major. Scarlatti c.3v.
c) from to using suspensions
A bass rising from (1) to (5) may be accompanied by suspensions moving in contrary motion with
the bass. Valente (3) p. 36.

Ex. 21: Valente, abridged ascending scale accompanied with suspensions.


d) stepwise motion from to
Note. Valente (3) offers two accompaniments for a partimento ascending by step, both derived
from the feigned cadence. Example 20a) derives from his first cadenza finta (see Rule 21 d);
Example 20b, called a ascending partimento with the same accompaniment but more
extended23 corresponds to the second version of the feigned cadence.

Ex. 22: Valente, stepwise motion based on the cadenza finta.


d) Other non-sequential accompaniments
Two simmetrical scale by Tritto: Second scale ascending to the fourth, then to the octave;
Second scale descending by third. Three descending scales by Valente: Partimento descending stepwise; partimento descending stepwise by contrary motion; partimento descending
stepwise with diminutions in the bass. Porpora, Scale invented by D. Nicola Porpora (from
I-Mc Ms. Nc. 176).

Ex. 23: Tritto, two symmetrical scales (scale II)

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Ex. 24: Valente, partimento descending stepwise

Ex. 25: Valente, partimento descending stepwise by contrary motion

Ex. 26: Valente, partimento descending stepwise with diminution in the bass

Ex. 27: Scale invented by D. Nicola Porpora

Class III: Suspensions


Generalities
43. Dissonances
There are four dissonances: second, fourth, seventh, and ninth (see Rule 10): they are generated by a
delay (suspension) of a consonance, and their purpose is to make consonances more agreeable. Seventh
and ninth suspensions occur in the upper voice only; fourth suspension may occur in the upper as
well in the bass voice; second suspension occur in the bass only. Fenaroli, Delle dissonanze, 1; Delle
legature del basso, 1. Istruzioni p. 54.
44. Metrical position of suspensions
Suspensions occur on the downbeat; their resolution occurs on the following upbeat. Furno c.11v;
Istruzioni p. 57.
45. Preparation
a) All dissonances (with the exception of the second) must be prepared by, and resolved to, one of the
four consonances. Fenaroli, Delle dissonanze, 1 Furno c.1v; Insanguine p. 2; Istruzioni p. 54;
Paisiello (1) p. 10, 12; Paisiello (2) c.1r; Pasquini p. 2; Sala c. 1v; Scarlatti c. 1v.
b) When accompanied by the second, the fourth can be given without preparation; otherwise preparation is needed. Cotumacci p. 32.
c) Second and ninth are distinct dissonances, because ninth requires preparation, and second does not.
Fenaroli, Delle dissonanze, 2 Tritto (1) p. 18.
46. Resolution
All dissonances must resolve downwards by step.
47. Minor seventh and diminished fifth
a) Minor seventh and diminished fifth are consonances, because they do not need preparation (but
must resolve descending by step). Fenaroli, Assiomi musicali, 1 n
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the art of partimento


b) The diminished fifth (quinta falsa) is a dissonance like the fourth, the seventh and the ninth, and
needs preparation. Pasquini p. 8.
48. Six-five chord
a) The diminished fifth must always be accompanied with the sixth. Pasquini p. 9.
b) In the six-five chord one of the two intervals needs preparation. Tritto (1) p. 16.
Suspensions in the upper voice
49. The fourth: preparation.
a) All four consonances may prepare the fourth. Fenaroli, Della dissonanza o sia legatura di
quarta, 1 Durante p. 2; Paisiello (1) p. 10; Paisiello (2) c. 2r-v; Sala c. 3v; Valente (2) p. 9
(Ex 28a).
b) In addition, the fourth can be prepared by the minor seventh; [Della dissonanza o sia legatura di
quarta, 6]. Insanguine p. 7; Paisiello (2) c. 5v; Sala c. 6r. (Example 28b).
c) and by the diminished fifth. Fenaroli, Della dissonanza o sia legatura di quarta, 6. Paisiello (2)
c.5v; Sala c. 6r (Example 28c).

Ex. 28: preparations of the fourth suspension


50. The fourth: resolution.
a) The fourth must resolve to a third. In addition, a resolution to a diminished fifth is also possible.
Paisiello (2) c. 2r-v; c. 5v; Sala c. 6r (Example 29a).
b) The fourth may resolve to a sixth if the bass leaps down a fourth.Valente (2) p. 9 (Example 29b).

Ex. 29: resolution of the fourth suspension (Sala, Valente)


51. The fourth: accompanying consonances
a) The fourth suspension must always be accompanied by the consonance of the fifth; therefore, it
cannot take place on a bass where the fifth is not allowed. Fenaroli, Della dissonanza o sia legatura
di quarta, 9.
b) The fourth suspension may be accompanied by the fifth or the sixth.Cotumacci p. 32; Insanguine
p. 7; Pasquini p. 9; Valente (1) p. 8.
52. The fourth: preparation from different consonances and bass motions involved
a) Preparation from the octave
In order to prepare the fourth from the octave, the bass must leap upwards a fifth, or a fourth
downwards: i.e., from the first to the fifth of the key. Fenaroli, Della dissonanza o sia legatura
di quarta, 2; ex. ADurante p. 2; Paisiello (2) c.2r; Sala c. 3v; Tritto (1) p. 18; Valente (1) p. 8.
(Ex. 30a).
b) Preparation from the third

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the art of partimento


In order to prepare the fourth from the third, the bass must move stepwise downward from the sixth
to the fifth, or from the second to the first of the key. Fenaroli, Della dissonanza o sia legatura di
quarta, 3. (Ex. 30b).
Note. There are no instances of - bass motion in Fenaroli (shown in Example 27b) or in
any other source. Durante p. 2; Paisiello (2) c. 2r-v; Tritto (1) p. 18.
The third of the resolution is usually major, even if sometimes it may be minor. Sala c. 3v.
c) Preparation from the fifth
In order to prepare the fourth from the fifth, the bass moves upwards by step, from the fourth to the
fifth, or from the first to the second of the key. Fenaroli, Della dissonanza o sia legatura di quarta,
4; ex. C Durante p. 2; Paisiello (2) c. 2r-v; Sala c. 3v; Tritto (1) p. 18. Valente (1) p. 9. (Ex. 30c).
Note. All examples (included those by Fenaroli: see Ex. 30c) show only instances of motion
in a cadential progression - - .
d) Preparation from (minor) sixth
In order to prepare the fourth from the sixth, the bass moves a third upwards, from the third to the
fifth of the key. Fenaroli, Della dissonanza o sia legatura di quarta, 5; ex. D Durante p. 2;
Paisiello (2) c. 2r-v; Sala c. 3v; Tritto (1) p. 18; Valente (1) p. 11 (Ex. 30d).
e) Preparation from minor seventh
In order to prepare the fourth from the seventh, the bass must moves a fourth upwards, from the
fifth to the first of the key. Fenaroli, Della dissonanza o sia legatura di quarta, 7; ex. E Tritto (1)
p. 18 (Ex. 30e).
f) Preparation from the diminished fifth
In order to prepare the fourth from the diminished fifth, the bass moves a semitone upwards.
Fenaroli, Della dissonanza o sia legatura di quarta, 8; ex. F Paisiello (2) c.5v (Ex. 30f).

Ex. 30: the fourth: preparations and consonances (Fenaroli)


53. The seventh: preparation
All four consonances may prepare the seventh. Fenaroli, Della dissonanza o sia legatura di settima,
1; Durante p. 3; Insanguine p. 8; Paisiello (1) p. 11; Paisiello (2) c. 2v; Sala c. 3v; Valente (1) p. 4;
Valente (2) p. 10.

Ex. 31: the seventh prepared by all four consonances (Durante)


54. The seventh: resolution
a) The seventh may resolve to a sixth or to a third; in order to resolve to a third, the bass leaps upwards
a fourth, or downwards a fifth. Fenaroli, Della dissonanza o sia legatura di settima, 67; ex. M;
Valente (1) pp. 45; Valente (2) pp. 1011.
b) The seventh resolves on major sixth only. Insanguine p. 8, Paisiello (2) c. 2v.
c) If a seventh is prepared by a third, with a bass leaping a fourth upwards or a fifth downwards, then
it resolves on major sixth. Sala c. 3v.

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the art of partimento


55. The seventh: accompanying consonance
The seventh is always accompanied by the third. Fenaroli, Della dissonanza o sia legatura di settima,
6 Insanguine p. 8.
56. The seventh: preparation from different consonances, and bass motions involved
a) preparation from the octave
In order to prepare the seventh from the octave, the bass moves upwards by step (such as, from the
first to the second of the key. Fenaroli, Della dissonanza o sia legatura di settima, 2 (ex. G)
Durante p. 3; Paisiello (2) c. 2v; Sala c. 3v; Tritto (1) p. 17 (Ex. 32a).
b) Preparation from the third
In order to prepare the seventh from the third, the bass must leap up a fourth, or down a fifth (i.e.,
from the first to the fourth of the key, or from the sixth to the second). Fenaroli, Della dissonanza o
sia legatura di settima, 3 (ex. H); Durante, p. 3; Paisiello (2) c. 2v. Sala c. 3v Tritto (1) p. 17;
Valente (1) p. 5 (Ex. 32b).
c) Preparation from the fifth
In order to prepare the seventh from the fifth, the bass must leap a sixth up or a third down (i.e.,
from the first to the sixth, or from the fourth to the second of the key. Fenaroli, Della dissonanza o
sia legatura di settima, 4 (ex. I); Durante, p. 3; Paisiello (2) c. 2v; Sala c. 3v; Tritto (1) p. 17;
Valente (1) p. 6 (Ex. 32c).
d) Preparation from the sixth
In order to prepare the seventh from the sixth, the bass must move one step down (i.e., from the third
to the second of the key. Fenaroli, Della dissonanza o sia legatura di settima, 5 (ex. L); Durante
p. 3; Paisiello (2) c. 2v; Sala c. 3v; Tritto (1) p. 17; Valente (1) p. 7. (Ex.32d)
Note. Only Fenaroli mentions specific scale degree where sospensions may take place. The
other authors, however, in their examples show the same scale degrees as Fenaroli (but Durante
shows the preparation from the octave on scale degrees 5-b65: see Ex. 31, bb. 34).
e) two consecutive seventh
A seventh prepared by the third may resolve to a diminished seventh before resolving to a fifth. Tritto
(1) p. 17 (Ex. 32e).

Ex. 32: bass motions, preparations and resolutions of the seventh suspension (Fenaroli, Tritto)
57. The ninth: preparation
The ninth can be prepared by the third and the fifth only; preparation from the octave is forbidden.
Fenaroli, Della legatura di nona, 1;Durante p. 12; Insanguine p. 10; Paisiello (1) p. 11; Paisiello
(2) c.4v, Sala c. 5v; Tritto (1) p. 18; Valente (2) p. 11.
Note. Paisiello (1) and Tritto remark that preparation of the ninth from the octave leads to parallel
octaves. Example 30 shows the ninth prepared from the fifth (Ex. 33a) and from the third (Ex. 33b).

Ex. 33: preparations of the ninth suspension (Durante)

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the art of partimento


58. The ninth: resolution
a) The ninth can resolve to the octave, the sixth, and the third, according to the different motions of the
bass. Fenaroli, Della legatura di nona, 4; Insanguine p. 10; Paisiello (2) c.4v; Sala c. 5v.
See Ex. 34a), b) and c).
b) The ninth can resolve only to the octave. Cotumacci p. 65.
c) In order to resolve the ninth to an octave, the bass must be stationary. Fenaroli, Della legatura di
nona, 5; Cotumacci p. 65; Tritto (1) p. 18.
d) In order to resolve the ninth to a third, the bass must leap down a third, or up a sixth. Fenaroli, Della
legatura di nona, 6 (ex. P); Paisiello (2) c.4v; Sala c. 5v; Tritto (1) p. 18; Valente (2) p. 10 (Ex. 34c).
e) In order to resolve the ninth to a sixth, the bass must leap up a third, or down a sixth Fenaroli,
Della legatura di nona, 7 (ex. Q); (Ex. 34d). Tritto (1) p. 18.
f) The ninth can resolve on a fifth if the bass leaps down a fifth, or up a fourth. Sala c. 5v; Valente (2)
p. 11 (Ex. 34e).
59. The ninth: accompanying consonances
a) The ninth must always be accompanied by a tenth (or third). Fenaroli, Della legatura di nona, 4;
Insanguine p. 10; Paisiello (1) p. 12; Sala c. 5v.
b) A single ninth suspension may be accompanied with third and fifth. Fenaroli, Della legatura di
nona, 4; Cotumacci p. 65 Tritto (1) p. 18.
c) It is sometimes possible to accompany the ninth with fourth and five. Tritto (1) p. 18.
d) A series of stepwise ninth suspensions may be accompanied by the fifth too, but only if the fifth
moves to a sixth prior to the new suspension.Cotumacci p. 65.
60. The ninth: preparation from different consonances and bass motions involved
a) Preparation from the third
In order to prepare the ninth from the third, the bass moves upwards by step (such as, from the
first to the second, or from third to the fourth, or from the seventh to the first of the tone). Fenaroli,
Della legatura di nona, 2 (ex. N); Durante p. 12; Tritto (1) p. 18; Valente (2) p. 11.
b) Preparation from the fifth
In order to prepare the ninth from the fifth, the bass moves a fourth up, or a fifth downwards
(i.e., from the first to the fourth, or from the fifth to the first of the tone). Fenaroli, Della legatura
di nona, 3 (ex. O); Durante p. 12; Tritto (1) p. 18.

Ex. 34: ninth suspensions: preparations, resolutions, bass motions (Fenaroli, Valente)
Suspensions in the bass: The second
61. Second and fourth
a) When the bass is tied, or syncopated, a suspension occurs in the bass; the suspended note must
resolve downwards by step, and is accompanied by a second and fourth in the upper voices; a sixth
may or may not be added. Fenaroli, Delle legature del basso, 16; Cotumacci p. 20; Durante
p. 10; Furno c. 10 v; Insanguine p.10; Istruzioni p. 56; Paisiello (1) p. 12; Paisiello (2) c. 3v;
Sala c. 4v.
b) The second and fourth are given without any preparation. Cotumacci p. 20; Furno c. 10 v;
Istruzioni p. 56; Paisiello (1) p. 12.

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the art of partimento


c) When descends to and then to , however, a second dissonance occurs as a passing tone: the
dissonance is prepared by the octave and the fourth is augmented.24Paisiello (1) p. 12 (Ex. 35a).
d) The second dissonance is prepared by the octave also when moves to and then to ; in such
a case, the fourth is perfect, and the chord on will be 5/3. 25Paisiello (1) p. 13 (Ex. 35b).

Ex. 35: Second dissonance as passing tone (adapted from Paisiello)


62. The second: resolution and bass motions
a) The suspended bass may proceed in two ways: it may resolve down a semitone, and return to the
first note of the figure; or it may resolve down a semitone or a tone, and proceed further in the same
direction. Fenaroli, Delle legature del basso, 1, 3
b) suspension with bass returning to the previous note
If the suspended bass descends a semitone, and then comes back to the first tone, the suspension
must be accompanied by a major second and a perfect fourth (quarta minore). On the second note
of the bass, the second and the fourth in the accompaniment a) remains stationary and become a
third and a diminished fifth (quinta falsa), or b) the second remains stationary and becomes a
third, and the fourth resolves upwards to a sixth; c) the second note is given a 6/5 chord Fenaroli,
Delle legature del basso, 1, 3 (ex. R) (Example 36a).
c) suspension with bass descending a semitone or a tone, and proceeding further
downwards.
If the suspended bass does not return to the first tone of the figure, the suspension must be accompanied by a major second, and an augmented fourth (quarta maggiore). A major sixth may be
added; the second remains stationary and becomes a thirth, the augmented fourth must resolve
upwards to a sixth Fenaroli, Delle legature del basso, 34; ex. S]; Cotumacci p. 21; Furno c. 11r;
Insanguine p.10; Istruzioni p. 57; Paisiello (2) c. 3v; Sala c. 4v; Tritto (1) p. 15; Valente (1) p. 2;
Valente (2) p. 9; Valente (3) p. 40 (Example 36b).
d) The second and fourth may resolve to an augmented fourth. Furno, c. 12 r.

Ex. 36: Bass motions with second suspensions (Fenaroli)


63. Suspensions in series
a) In a series of suspensions in the bass, the key determines the quality of the fourths in the accompaniment, except for the penultimate note (the last suspension): if it descends by half tone, it will have a
perfect fourth; if descends by a tone, it will have an augmented fourth, major second and major
sixth. The note on which the augmented fourth resolves becomes the new tonic.
Cotumacci p. 21; Istruzioni p. 57; Paisiello (1) p. 14; Paisiello (2) c.4r; Valente (2) p. 9; Valente
(3) p. 40 (Ex. 37a).
b) For the sake of melody (per modo cantabile) all fourths may be augmented.Valente (1) p. 3;
Valente (2) p. 10; examples in Fenaroli, ex. N. 5, A.e (2) (Ex. 34b).
c) A sixth can be added to the fourth and second.Valente (3), p. 41.
d) The 6/4/2 chord resolves to a 6/5/3 instead of to a 6/3 chord. Tritto (1) p. 16.

Ex. 37: second suspensions in series (Paisiello, Valente)


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the art of partimento


64. Tonal effects of bass suspension
a) with augmented fourth:
A suspended bass note accompanied with augmented fourth becomes of a new key; the note after
the suspension becomes the third of the new key. Fenaroli, Delle legature del basso, 6] Insanguine
p. 12; Istruzioni p. 58; Furno c.11v; Paisiello (1) p. 15; Paisiello (2) c. 4r.
See Rule 92 (on scale mutations produced by the augmented fourth).
b) with minor second:
A suspended bass note accompanied with minor second becomes of a (minor) key.Insanguine
p. 12; Paisiello (1) p. 21; Paisiello (2) p. 21.
See Rule 93 (on scale mutations produced by minor and major seconds).
c) with augmented second and augmented fourth
A suspended bass note accompanied with augmented fourth and augmented second becomes of
a new key. Furno c. 12r; Insanguine p. 12; Paisiello (2) c. 5r.
65. Quality of the sixth
The quality of the sixth follows the mode of the key. In the minor mode, however, if the fourth is augmented, the sixth must be major, because it becomes the second of the new key. Istruzioni p. 57;
Insanguine p.10.

Class IV: Bass motions


66. Ascending 56
a) The first note of the bass is accompanied by a third and a fifth that moves to a sixth; on the following
note of the bass the sixth becomes fifth again, and the pattern repeats itself until the end of the scalar
motion. Every note of the bass is accompanied by thirds (or tenths). In major, the pattern may cover
the entire octave; in minor, it stops on . Fenaroli, De movimenti del partimento, 23 (ex. T;
ex.15); Cotumacci p. 43; Durante p. 9; Furno c.9; Insanguine p. 4; Istruzioni pp. 5455;
Paisiello (1) p. 6; Paisiello (2) c. 1v; Pasquini p. 3; Sala c. 6v; Tritto (1) p. 12; Tritto (2) p. 3;
Valente (3), p. 5, p. 24, p. 43 (Ex. 35a, b).
Variants:
b) alternating 56 and triads
The bass line is subdivided into two notes segments: - ; - ; - ando so on. The first
note of each segment has 56, the second 5. Pasquini p. 3 (Ex. 35c).
c) chromatic
All chromatic ascending motion are based on the alternation of fifth and sixth.
For other possibilities of chromatic ascending motion see Rules 7376.
c) with bass leaping down a third
When the bass leaps down a third after a slur the chord on the tied note is 6/5, and not 4/2.
Durante p. 10.

Ex. 38: ascending 56 (Fenaroli, a, b; Pasquini, c; Durante, d)


67. Ascending 876
The first note of the bass is accompanied by a third and an octave; on the subsequent note of the bass
the octave becomes a seventh, resolves on the sixth, then leaps a third up to the octave of the bass; the
18

the art of partimento


pattern repeats itself until the end of the scalar motion. Every note of the bass is accompanied by thirds
(or tenths). In major, the scheme may continue for the whole octave; in minor, it must stop on .
Fenaroli, De movimenti del partimento, 4 (ex. T, 2; ex. 15, 3) Valente (1) p. 4; Valente (3) p. 6;
p. 25; p. 44.

Ex. 39: ascending 876, major (a) and minor (b) (Fenaroli)
68. Ascending 1098
a) The first bass note is accompanied by a third and a tenth; on the next bass note the tenth becomes a
ninth, resolves on the octave, then moves a third up to the tenth; the pattern repeats itself until the
end of the scalar motion. The bass motion is accompanied by parallel thirds (or tenths), in a three
voice texture. In both major and minor versions this scheme cannot proceed beyond Fenaroli,
De movimenti del partimento, 56 (ex. X) (Ex.40a,b).
Variants:
b) with 35 in the middle voice. Valente (3), p. 4; p. 26; p. 44 (Example 40c).
c) the alto voice accompanies the 109-8 in the upper voice with by thirds, resulting in a 87-6 parallel motion.Tritto (1) p. 12; Tritto (2) p. 3; Valente (3) p. 7; p. 20; p. 45 (Example 40d).
d) the two upper voices move in contrary motion with the bass, thus exchanging the 98 suspensions.
Valente (3), p. 17; p. 27 (Example 40e).
e) with 56 in the middle voice. Fenaroli ex. 15; Cotumacci p. 65; Valente (3), p. 45
(Example 40f).

Ex. 40: Ascending 1098


69. Descending 56
a) The first note of the two-note pattern has a third and fifth, the second a third and sixth. The scheme
alternates fifths and sixths until is attained. Fenaroli, Del partimento che scende di grado, 23
(ex. 4; ex. 16); Valente (3) p. 47; p. 55.
Note. An early version of this scheme is found in Pasquini, and is called Regola per caminar di
grado.26
Variants:
b) with inserted sixth, augmented fourth and second
The first note of each segment has two chords:5/3 and 5/#4/2 that resolves to 6/3 above the following
bass note Fenaroli, Del partimento che scende di grado, 45 (ex. 4, A.c); Tritto (2) p. 3; Valente
(3), p. 56.

Ex. 41: Descending 56 (Fenaroli)


70. Descending 66
a) The first bass note is considered scale degree 1, and is accompanied with 5/3; all following bass notes
have 6/3. The quality of the sixths is determined by the key, except for the next- to last sixth that
19

the art of partimento


must be major; the last sixth acts as a leading tone and resolves upwards to the octave of the bass.
Fenaroli, Del partimento che scende di grado, 6 (ex. 4 A.c (2); ex. 16): Ex. 42a.
Variants:
b) The 56 pattern is anticipated on the first bass note, which lasts twice the duration of the following notes (the extra beat is often realized as an octave leap). Valente (3) p. 29; p. 42; p. 54
(Ex. 42b).
c) The tenor moves in parallel sixths with the bass, and the upper voices move in parallel thirds: as a
result, on each bass note a five-six and a second chord alternate.Tritto (1) p. 13 (Ex. 42c)

Ex. 42: Descending 66 (Fenaroli)


71. Descending 76
a) On the first bass note the fifth moves to the sixth; on the next note the sixth becomes a seventh and
resolves to a sixth; the 76 pattern is repeated on every note of the bass until the seventh resolves on
the major sixth on the next-to last note (see Rule 73); the third voice moves in parallel thirds with
the bass Fenaroli, Del partimento che scende di grado, 7 (ex. A.d; ex. 16). Cotumacci p. 53;
Durante p. 9, p. 16; Furno p. 9; Insanguine p. 4; Istruzioni p. 55; Paisiello (1) p. 6; Sala c. 6v;
Tritto (1) p. 12; Tritto (2) p. 3; Valente (1) p. 7; Valente (3) p. 30; p. 52; p. 42 (Ex. 43a).
b) The last sixth will be major if the bass descends one whole step, and minor if the bass descends one
half step; the upper voice of this minor sixth will be the fifth of the key.Cotumacci p. 53.
Variants:
c) with four voices: each bass note (except the first) supports three chords: seven-five, six-three, and
second. Tritto (1) p. 13, Scala II (Ex. 43b).
d) with four voices: on the first bar the fifth change to sixth; on each of the remaining bass notes (except
the last two) the soprano has a 76 suspension; the alto accompanies the bass in tenth, but in the
last beat anticipates the next note; the tenor accompanies the bass in sixth, and leaps on the fourth
in the last beat. Tritto (1) p. 13, Scala III (Ex. 43c).

Ex. 43: Descending 76


72. Syncopated bass
A chord of the sixth, fourth and second takes place on the second half of each bass note resolving on the
first half of the next note with a six-three chord. The quality of the fourth may be perfect or augmented,
according to the wish of the composer. The pattern ends on ; the last chord of the sixth, fourth and
second on must have augmented fourth. Fenaroli, Del partimento che scende legato, 1, ex. 5, A.e]
Cotumacci p. 21; Durante p. 10; Furno c. 11 r; Insanguine p. 12; Paisiello (1) p. 14; Paisiello (2)
c. 4r; Sala c. 7r; Tritto (1) p. 16; Valente (2) p. 9; Valente (3) p. 41. (see Ex. 34).
Chromatic motions

Ascending
73. Possibilities of ascending chromatic motion
A chromatic ascent in the bass may take place only in two ways: in major, from to ; in minor,
from to . Fenaroli, Del partimento che sale di semitono, 13]
20

the art of partimento


74. From to in major
a) is considered to be a leading tone and therefore is accompanied with the sixth and third; the next
note is considered as a tonic and receives the fifth and third; the model is repeated until is
attained Fenaroli, Del partimento in terza maggiore che sale semitonando, e comincia detta salita
dalla terza del tono, 1; ex. 2, Y (1, 2)]; Valente (3) p. 22 (Ex. 44a).
Variants:
b) The same as above, with the addition of a diminished fifth (quinta falsa) to the six-three chord
Fenaroli, Del partimento in terza maggiore che sale semitonando, e comincia detta salita dalla
terza del tono, 1; ex. 2, Y (3, 4)] Valente (3) p. 23 (Ex. 44b).
c) The same as above (variant a); the tenth on is suspended to a ninth on , and resolves on the
octave in the second beat of Fenaroli, Del partimento in terza maggiore che sale semitonando, e
comincia detta salita dalla terza del tono, 3, ex.n. 2, Z] (Ex. 44c).
d) The same as (version a); the diminished fifth on is suspended, becames a fourth on , and
resolves on the third in the second beat of Fenaroli, Del partimento in terza maggiore che sale
semitonando, e comincia detta salita dalla terza del tono, 2, not shown in the examples]

Ex. 44: Chromatic ascent from to in major


75. From to in minor
a) The accompaniment alternates the chord of sixth and third on the diatonic, and the chord of sixth,
fifth and third (with diminished fifth) on the chromatic notes. Fenaroli, ex. 3, A.b. 1 (Ex. 45a).
Variants:
b) has octave, fifth and major third; the octave is tied on b and becomes a seventh resolving to a
sixth on natural ; the third on is tied to a ninth on natural , resolving on the same bass note;
finally, the leading tone is accompanied with sixth and diminished fifth, concluding on with
third and fifth. Fenaroli, Del partimento in terza maggiore che sale semitonando, e comincia detta
salita dalla terza del tono, 45; ex. 3, A.b. 2 (Ex. 45b).
c) has octave, fifth and major third; b has sixth and third; natural has sixth and diminished
fifth; the diminished fifth is tied to a fourth on natural , resolving on the same bass note; finally,
the leading tone is accompanied with sixth and diminished fifth; the diminished fifth becomes a
fourth on and resolves on the same bass note with major third. Fenaroli, Del partimento in terza
maggiore che sale semitonando, e comincia detta salita dalla terza del tono, 6; ex. 3, A.b. 3
(Ex. 45c).

Ex. 45: Chromatic ascent from to in minor


76. From to (complete octave ascent)
The bass ascends chromatically from 1 to 6, then proceeds diatonically up to 8; the accompaniment is
a chromatic variant of the 56 motion, with the suspension in the fourth, and requires five chords to
complete each figure. Fenaroli, ex. 2, A.a (Ex. 46a)
Variants: three chromatic ascents by Saverio Valente (3) p. 50 (Ex. 46b-d).
21

the art of partimento

Ex. 46: complete chromatic ascent


Descending
77. From to
a) Of the two voices of the accompaniment, one moves in quarters and the other in half notes. On scale
degree 8 (two beats) the faster voice moves from the fifth to the sixth, then from the seventh to the
sixth on the chromatic bass. The 76 is repeated and ends on an augmented sixth on b that
resolves on the major triad on . The slower voice moves diatonically in parallel thirds (or tenths)
with the bass. Two positions are possible. Fenaroli, Del partimento che scende legato, 710, ex. 7
A.h. 1. Valente (3) p. 2 (Ex. 47a)
b) Of the two voices of the accompaniment, one moves in quarters and the other in half notes. The
faster voice moves chromatically in contrary motion with the bass: from a minor third (tenth) on
# to an augmented sixth on b that resolves on the major triad on ; the slower voice completes
the chords. Fenaroli, 11, ex. A.i)] Valente (3) p. 22 (Ex. 47b).
c) Diatonic and the chromatic bass tones are accompanied by the sixth and third.Valente (3), p. 2.
(Ex. 47c).

Ex. 47: descending chromatic motion from to


78. From to (complete octave descent)
a) All degrees, both diatonic and chromatic, are accompanied with sixth and third; the last sixth is
major (Ex. 48a)
b) The second bass note of each bar is a chromatic anticipation of the first diatonic note of the following
bar; the 76 patterns is thus metrically reversed, from strong-weak to weak-strong; besides, in order
to keep the motion steady is repeated. (Ex. 48b)
c) A further elaboration of the previous pattern, without repetitions; it does not stop at the tonic, but
may proceed indefinitely.Valente (3), p. 49. (Ex. 48c)

Ex. 48: complete octave descent


Sequential bass motions
By seconds
79. Rising by seconds and falling by thirds.
The following accompaniments are possible:
With three voices
a) alternating six-three chords and triads
The sixth and third accompanies the first; the fifth and third the second note of the model. Fenaroli,
ex. n.n p. 5, Book 3. (Ex. 49a).
b) alternating seventh chords and triads

22

the art of partimento


The seventh and fifth accompanies the first; the fifth and third the second note of the model (the
seventh is prepared by the fifth of the triad before the beginning of the sequence).Valente (3) p. 28
(Ex. 49b).
c) alternating triads and ninth suspensions
The fifth and third accompanies the first note; the ninth suspension with third (or tenth) the second.
Fenaroli, ex. n.n p. 6, Book 3] Furno c. 8v; Valente (3) p.12 (Ex. 49c).
d) alternating six-three chords and ninth suspensions
The sixth and third accompanies the first note; the ninth suspension with third (or tenth) the
second. Fenaroli, ex. n.n p. 6, Book 3] (Ex. 49d).
with four voices:
e) alternating 6/5/3 chords and triads
The sixth, diminished fifth and third accompanies the first; the fifth and third the second note.
Fenaroli, ex. n.n p. 5, Book 3]; Paisiello (1), p. 16 (Ex. 49e).
f) alternating ninths and seventh chords
The ninth, fifth and third accompanies the second note (the ninth prepared by the tenth and resolved
on tenth); the seventh, fifth and third (the seventh prepared by the fifth and resolved on fifth) accompanies the following note (the first note of the sequence has sixth and three). Fenaroli, ex. n.n p. 5,
Book 3 (Ex. 49f).
g) alternating 6/5 and ninth chords
The sixth and fifth accompanies the first; the ninth, fifth and third the second note. Istruzioni p.
54; Paisiello (1) p. 17 (Example 49g).
Note. In variant g) the parallel fifths between alto and tenor are unavoidable.

Ex. 49: rising by second and falling by third


80. Rising by thirds and falling by step
The following accompaniments are possible:
a) The bass line follows a binary metrical basis; the accented degrees delineate a stepwise ascent 15
followed by an authentic cadence on 1. The accented bass notes follow the Rule of the Octave (except
for that has the chord of the base fondamentale ). The weak notes are treated as inversions of
the RO chords (with a passata della quinta falsa on the inversion of Fenaroli, Del partimento, che sale di terza e scende di grado, 12; ex. 3, A.l; ex. 17; Insanguine p. 14; Paisiello (2)
c. 1v; Sala c. 2v (Ex. 50a).
b) All accented bass notes (except and cadential ) have a perfect fifth and a 43 suspension. All
weak bass notes have sixth; the sixth on (moving down to ) and (moving down to )
ascends chromatically to the octave on the next bass note; on all other instances ( - and ) the accompaniment is a chord of the sixth and third (with minor sixth) lasting two-beats.
Fenaroli, Del partimento, che sale di terza e scende di grado, 34: ex. 8, A.m. (Ex. 50b).
c) The bass line follows a binary metrical basis. All weak bass notes have the sixth and third; the
sixth is tied to a seventh on the next, accented bass note, and resolves on a sixth on the second beat.
Fenaroli, Del partimento, che sale di terza e scende di grado, 56, ex. 8 A.n; ex. 17 (in minor).
Insanguine, p. 14 (Example 50c).

Ex. 50: rising by thirds and falling by step


23

the art of partimento


81. Falling by thirds and rising by step
The following accompaniments are possible:
a) alternating triads and six-three chords
The first note of this model is considered as (prima di tono) and gets the fifth and third; the
second is considered as (sesta di tono) and gets the sixth and third. Fenaroli, Del partimento
che scende di terza, e sale di grado 12; ex. 9; other ex. n.n, p. 5; ex. 18]; Sala c. 6r (Ex. 51a)
b) alternating triads and six-five chords
The first note of this model is considered as and gets a fifth and third; the second is considered as
and gets a sixth, fifth, and third. Fenaroli, Del partimento che scende di terza, e sale di grado
3; ex. 9, A.o]; Furno c. 8v; Insanguine p. 15; Istruzioni p. 54; Paisiello (1), p. 16; Tritto (1), pp.
1516; Valente (3) p. 21; p. 38. (Ex. 51b)
c) with added seventh
The octave on the bass of the second chord of the model prepares a seventh on the following chord:
the patterns thus alternates six-five and seventh chords Fenaroli, ex.18 (ii)]; Tritto (1) p. 17; Valente
(3) p. 28; p. 38 (Ex. 51c).
d) With suspended seventh and passing fifth
The fifth on the first bass note prepares a seventh on the second bass note; the seventh resolves to a
sixth and moves to the third of the first note of the following model through a passing fifth Fenaroli,
ex. 18 (iii)] (Ex. 51d).
e) alternating 65 and 98
The second note of each model presents a 65 motion; the first (except in the beginning) presents a
ninth prepared by the third and resolved to an octave Fenaroli, ex. 18 (iv)] (Example 51e).
f) alternating 6/5 and 9/5/3 chords
The third of 6/5/3 prepares the ninth on the following bass, and resolves on a third on the next bass.
Paisiello (1) p. 17 (Example 51f).
g) alternating 98 and 76 suspensions.
The first bass note, as (prima di tono), is accompanied with fifth and third; the fifth prepares
the 76 suspension in the second bass note. The third above the second bass note, in turn, prepares
the 98 suspension above the next bass note. Fenaroli, Del partimento che scende di terza, e sale di
grado 4; ex. 9, A.p] (Example 51g).

Ex. 51: falling by third and rising by step


82. Rising by fourth and falling by third
This scheme represents an essential motion because the notes of the model are the first and the fourth
of the key. The following schemes cannot proceed beyond . Fenaroli, Del partimento che sale di
quarta e scende di terza, 5.
a) with triads
The two bass note of the model should be considered as first and fourth of the key, and are accompanied by triads; three occurrences of this model are possible, until the sixth of the tone is attained. The
model can also be considered as composed by fifth and first of the key Fenaroli, Del partimento che
sale di quarta e scende di terza, 1, 5; ex. 10, A.q.] Insanguine p. 14; Paisiello (1) p. 18; Paisiello
(2) c. 1v; Sala c. 2v; Tritto (1) pp. 1415; Valente (3) p.11, p. 33. (Ex. 52a)
b) with 98 suspensions
The same as above, but the fifth on the first bass note of the model prepares the suspension of the
ninth on the second bass note; the ninth resolves on the octave on the same note. Fenaroli, Del partimento che sale di quarta e scende di terza, 2; ex. 10, A.r.; ex. 19 (Ex. 52b)
24

the art of partimento


In a variant proposed by Paisiello the ninth resolves on the third on the next note (Paisiello
1, c. 7v).
c) with 43 prepared by the seventh.
The same as (a), but: 1) the fifth above the first bass note moves by skip to the seventh; 2) the seventh
is tied to a suspended fourth on the second bass note, that resolves to a third in the fourth beat; 3)
the third above the first bass note of the model is major. This pattern applies to major keys only.
Fenaroli, Del partimento che sale di quarta e scende di terza, 34; ex. 10, A.s.) Insanguine p.
14. (Ex. 52c).
d) with chromatic fifth
The same as (a), but: 1) the octave above the first note of the model descends to a minor seventh; 2)
on the second note ot the model, the fifth ascends chromatically to an augmented fifth and moves to
the octave of the next note of the bass.27 Paisiello (1) p. 19 (Ex. 52d)
Note. Paisiello does not offer any example for this scheme. Ex. 52d is entirely by the present author.

Ex. 52: rising by fourth and falling by thirds


83. Rising by fourth and falling by fifth
This bass motion represents an essential motion because the notes of the model are the first and the
fourth of the key. Fenaroli, Del partimento, che sale di quarta, e scende di quinta, 4.
a) with triads only
All bass notes are accompanied by triads. Fenaroli, Del partimento, che sale di quarta, e scende di
quinta, 1; ex. 13; ex. 20; Insanguine p. 15; Sala c. 7r (Ex. 53a).
alla quinta e risoluta alla sesta)
b) with seventh suspensions
In three voices: in each upper voice alternate a seventh and a tenth [Del partimento, che sale di
quarta, e scende di quinta, 3; ex. A.v.]; Cotumacci p. 53; Furno p. 10; Insanguine p. 9;
Istruzioni p. 55; Paisiello (1) p. 19; Sala c. 4r; Scarlatti c.2r; Tritto (1) p. 17; Valente (3) p. 15, p.
36; p. 37 (Ex. 53b).
c) the same as above, with a a descending third progression embellishing all sevenths.Valente
(3), p. 15 and 37 (Ex. 53c).
d) with 98 suspension
The fifth on each chord becomes a ninth in the next chord, and resolves to an octave on the
same bass note. Fenaroli, Del partimento, che sale di quarta, e scende di quinta, 2; ex. 14 A.x.
(Ex. 53d).
e) The same as above, but the ninth suspension is decorated by a descending third progression before
resolving to 8. Valente (3) p. 37 (Ex. 53e).
f) The ninth resolves on the new bass note, producing an alternation of ninth and seventh
chords . Valente (3) p.13.

Ex. 53: rising by fourth and falling by fifth


84. Falling by fourth and rising by step
This bass motion represents an essential motion because the notes of the model are the first and the fifth
of the key. Fenaroli, Del partimento, che scende di quarta, e sale di grado, 3]
25

the art of partimento


a) with triads
All notes of the model are accompanied with triads Fenaroli, Del partimento, che scende di quarta,
e sale di grado, 1; ex. 11, aa; ex. 20] Insanguine p. 15; Sala c. 3r (Ex. 54a).
b) alternating 98 and 43 in the same voice
The same as above; but the octave on the first note of the model becomes a fourth that resolves to a
third on the second beat of this bass note; in turn, the third becomes a ninth on the first bass note of
the subsequent occurrence of the model, and resolves on the octave on the second beat. All suspension
will appear in a single voice Fenaroli, Del partimento, che scende di quarta, e sale di grado,2;
ex. 11, A.t.; ex. 20]; Valente (3), p. 16 (Ex. 54b).
c) with simultaneous 98 and 43
98 and 43 suspension occour simultaneously in two voices. Valente (3) p.14 (Ex. 54c).
d) alternating 5/4 and 6/4 chords
The first bar is accompanied with triads only; the third of the second triad becomes a fourth and
resolves in the second beat of the next bass note; the third and octave on this bass note become a 6/4
chord on the fourth bass note, and resolves in the second beat; the pattern repeats itself until is
reached; a cadence follows.Insanguine, p. 15 Altro modo (Ex. 54d).

Ex. 54: falling by fourth and rising by step


85. Rising by fifth and falling by fourth
This bass motion represents an essential motion because the notes of the model are the first and the
fourth of the key. This motion is possible in major mode only, and it must stop on the third of the key.
Fenaroli, Del partimento, che sale di quinta. e scende di quarta, 3]
a) with triads
All bass notes are accompanied by triads (the last triad has perfect fifth and major third) Fenaroli,
Del partimento, che sale di quinta. e scende di quarta, 1; ex. 12] Insanguine p. 14; Paisiello (2)
c. 1v; Sala c. 2v (Ex. 55a).
b) alternating 43 suspensions
The two upper voices produce alternatively a chain of 843 suspensions; the last suspension must
resolve on a major third. Fenaroli, Del partimento, che sale di quinta, e scende di quarta,2; ex. 12,
A.u.]28 Istruzioni p. 56 (Ex. 55b).
c) with inserted 6/4/2
A chord of the sixth, augmented fourth and second is inserted between the triads (only in the first
occurrence the chord has third instead of second). Insanguine p. 14. (Ex. 55c).

Ex. 55: rising by fifth and falling by fourth


86. Rising by sixth and falling by fifth
The following accompaniments are possible:
(a) with triads only
All bass notes involved in this scheme are accompanied with triads. Fenaroli, Del partimento, che
sale di sesta, e scende di quinta, 12; ex. A.z.; ex. 21; Paisiello (2) c. 1v; Sala c. 2v (Ex. 56a).
(b) alternating triads and sixth chords

26

the art of partimento


The first bass note represents the fifth of the key, and is accompanied with the fifth and major third;
the second bass note is the third of the key, and is accompanied with the sixth and third Fenaroli,
Del partimento, che sale di sesta, e scende di quinta, 3; ex. B.a. (Ex. 56b).
(c) with seventh suspensions
The same as the above, but the voice keeping the fifth on the bass performs a chain of 5 76 suspensions. Fenaroli, Del partimento, che sale di sesta, e scende di quinta, 4; ex. B.b. (Ex. 56c).

Ex. 56: rising by sixth and falling by fifth


87. Rising by seventh and falling by octave
The rising seventh motion is filled-in with passing notes, the falling motion is by leap; the first note is
accompanied by a triad that is sustained throughout the model. Insanguine p. 14; Paisiello (2) c. 1v;
Sala c. 3r.

Ex. 57: rising by seventh and falling by octave (Insanguine)


Non-sequential disjunct bass motions
88. Bass falling by thirds
a) When a bass descends by thirds each note is accompanied by the fifth and third. Tritto (1) p. 15; Sala
c. 2v (Ex. 58a)
b) On the last note of the falling series, preferably if raised, another new chord of third, fifth,
sixth and seventh may be given: but we should warn that the sixth be under the other
voices, as the following figures show: in other words, there is a ninth suspension between
the tenor and the soprano (Example 58b).29 Tritto (1) p. 17 (Ex. 58b).

Ex. 58: bass falling by thirds (Tritto)

Class V: Scale mutations


89. Classification of scale mutations.
There are four types of scale mutation: two ascending and two descending. When the bass moves a
semitone up, the two notes a minor second apart become and of the new key. When the bass moves
a whole tone up, the two notes a major second apart become and of the new key. When the bass
moves a semitone down, the two notes a minor second apart become and of the new key. When
the bass moves a whole tone down, the two notes a major second apart become and of the new
key. Furno c.7v; Istruzioni p. 53; Sala c. 6v (with exclusion of the bass moving a whole tone up)
90. Ascending semitone
All ascending chromatic alterations end on the first of the key.Cotumacci p. 7; Paisiello (2) c.5r.

27

the art of partimento


91. Intervals producing scale mutations
The following accompaniments produce scale mutations: minor second, major second, minor third,
major third, augmented fourth, major sixth, minor seventh. Insanguine, p. 13.
92. Augmented fourth
The interval of the augmented fourth makes the scale change: when given to a first, or to any other
degree of a scale, the augmented fourth makes this change immediately into a fourth of a new scale; the
major sixth added to the fourth becomes the second of the new scale. Augmented fourths and major
sixths are independent from the mode. Furno 11v; Paisiello (1) p. 15; Valente (2), 9.
93. Minor and major second
a) A bass note to which is given the accompaniment of a minor second becomes the fifth of a new
[minor] scale. Paisiello (1) p. 21; Insanguine p. 12.
a) A bass note to which is given the accompaniment of a major second becomes the fourth of a new
scale.30 Paisiello (2) c. 5r.
Since major second is always added to the augmented fourth, this rule is complementary to
Rule 92.

Ex. 59: scale mutation using minor second (Paisiello).


94. Major sixth and minor third
A bass tone to which is given the accompaniment of a major sixth becomes the second of a new scale,
and descends on the first of this scale. The major sixth comes together with minor third, and perfect
fourth. Cotumacci p. 7; Insanguine p. 9.
95. Sixth and fifth
When the sixth of the key rises to the seventh of the key, i.e. ends on the said seventh, requires
fifth, and sixth; and you will give minor sixth to the sixth of the key rising by half tone. You will
give [the sixth] major when rising by tone; the seventh of the key requires third and fifth.
31
Cotumacci p. 8.
96. Modal anticipation
The quality of degrees characteristic of the mode of the new key must be anticipated during the scale
mutation. These degrees are the third and the sixth of the new key. Cotumacci p. 8; Istruzioni p. 53.
97. Anticipation of the sixth in a minor scale mutation
When we find a succession of two fourth and second [chords], and afterwards we enter in a minor key,
then the first second will be minor, because it becomes the sixth of the key; moreover, the fourth and
second [chord] may resolve to another augmented fourth32Furno c. 12r; Istruzioni p. 58.

28

the art of partimento

notes
1. In the original, the paragraphs are not numbered, but are organized in chapters; in order to fine them
more easlily, I have numbered the paragraphs according to the chapters. Thus, for example, [Assiomi
musicali, 3] means the third paragraph of the chapter titled Assiomi musicali.
2. The date of the Canti edition is unknown (probably mid-nineteenth century): the plate numbers are
10104 (Regole) and 3103 (regole and parimenti).
3. Unfortunately, the foliation of this edition is erroneous: the correct order of the leaves is: c. 1r/v; c.
3r/v; c. 2r/v; c. 4r/v.
4. Tutta la musica altro non se non un accordo di prima, terza, e quinta.
5. Primo. Sono regole universali nel sonare il cembalo, ed accompagnare chi canta il toccare la prima
nota del basso continuo con consonanza perfetta, la quale di 3a, e 5a con la mano destra, e cossi si
deve toccare la nota ultima finale, riserbate per loccassioni dellidee del compositore, il q[ua]le
volendo uscire con artificio da questa regola nel principio, cio di cominciare con consonanza, ch
chi intenda, che sia trovata a seconda della sua compositione. Scarlatti, Lezzioni, c. 1v.
6. ...la terza maggiore della quinta del tono viene ad essere la settima maggiore del tono principale, e
senza questa settima non si pu andare in nessun tono, e per questo la quinta del tono si chiama il
sostegno del primo tono. Fenaroli, 1
7. La musica composta di consonanze, e dissonanze.
8. In the printed version as well as in the alleged autograph (I-Nc rari 34-17 12 bis) of Paisiello (1) the
terms obliquo and retto are interchanged. This error has been corrected in the manuscript copy in the
Bologna conservatory library (I-Bc II 73).
9. Il moto retto quando le due mani sagliano, e calano insieme, e questo si deve evitare per non fare
due 5.e, o due 8.e che queste sono proibite. Insanguine, p. 3.

Il moto retto quando le due mani salgono, o scendono unite. E questo lo dobbiamo fuggire, per
non incontrare in due quinte, o due ottave. Paisiello (2), c. 2r.
10. Bisogna per sapere, che del moto obliquo se ne f uso solamente per lunisono, e non bisogna farne
uso per altra cagione, perch si potrebbe cascare per fare due quinte, due ottave, e questo sarebbe
errore, perch fanno un cattivissimo effetto. Paisiello (1), p. 7. Here oblique is clearly a slip of pen
for retto.
11. Si deve haver riguardo di portar le mani sempre con moto contrario. Pasquini, p. 1.
12. La terza maggiore deve andare alla sesta o pure allottava.
13. Lultima nota the termina, oltre della settima, si pone terza maggiore, e quinta; ed ancora in tutti
quei tuoni, che vi settima, e terza maggiore, sempre vi si pone quinta: di pi, in tutti quei tuoni, che
ritrovi in posizione, e vorrai calare di quinta, salire di quarta, nella medesima nota passerai la settima minore. Cotumacci, p. 53.
14. Quando si far la sesta magiore, che sar ogni volta che scende di grado, devesi avvertire di far s, che
la 6: debba salire, cio vada allottava della nota susseguente; e per contrario la sesta minore si f
andare alla 5: (regola 6) Pasquini p. 2; Quando le note scendono di grado, e sono due pi note
alla penultima di descendenza si d 6: magiore. Pasquini, p. 12.
15. Tutte quelle note che calano di grado, e terminano, vonno sesta maggiore... Di pi questi toni
quali se li d la 6.a maggiore, se sbalzassero di quarta salendo, di quinta calando, li detti toni vonno
3.a Maggiore, quinta, ed ottava. Cotumacci, pp. 89.
16. When the source gives the examples in all three position only the first is given here.
17. Quando si trovano tre note che ascendono di grado e lultima salta di 5. in gi 4. in s si far
alla prima 6. alla 2., 5., e 6. alla 3. nota, 4. e 3., e con la 4. ci si intende la 5. come in esempio

29

the art of partimento

18.
19.

20.
21.

22.

23.
24.

25.

26.
27.
28.
29.

30.
31.

32.

30

[example follows]. Alla nota sotto cadenza si d sempre 5. e 6. assieme, et allultima si procuri di fare
la 4; e poi la 3.
Tutti gli sbalzi di quarta, o quinta, tanto in ascendere quanto in discendere vogliono la quinta.
Quando le note saltano di 5.a in s o di 4.a in gi faria bel sentire se alla nota, che salta doppo la sua
nota [?] ordinaria, si faccia 4.a, e 6.a magiore (Pasquini p. 11); La quarta del tono quando non sale alla
quinta, invece della 3.a e 5.a che se gli d, pu avere ancora, per eccezione, la 2.a e #4.a mag.re, e 6.a
Valente (3), p. 47.
Quando si troveranno quattro note, che scendono di grado alla seconda vi si far la 6., alla terza nota
76, et allultima terza magiore. Pasquini, p. 4.
La prima del tono giusta; la seconda maggiore; la terza arbitraria; la quarta minore; la quinta
giusta; la sesta deve corrispondere alla terza, e la settima sempre maggiore, essendo il sostegno
del tono.
E necessario che io vavverta, che in simili movimenti del Basso, non si deve dar mai sesta maggiore
alla seconda del tuono, che sale di quarta o di quinta o cala di terza, che ci sarebbe errore; mentre si
anticiperebbe quellaccordo, che non si deve anticipare e mancherebbe nelle proporzioni. Tritto (1),
pp. 1314.
Partimento che ascende di grado pi disteso con lo stesso accompagnamento. Valente (3), p. 19.
Bisogna per sapere che alle volte detta seconda vien preparata dallottava allora quando la quinta del
tono passa alla quarta e poi alla terza del tono, ma la quarta che va unita con detta seconda devesser
maggiore.
Accada ancora che detta seconda venga preparata dallottava quando la prima del tono cala alla settima e alla sesta del tono, ma la quarta che v unita con detta seconda devesser minore, e la sesta del
tono si accompagna con terza, e quinta.
Quando le note scendono di grado vi si f alla prima la 5., e poi la 6. magiore non essendovi segnato
altro come per esempio [example follows]. Pasquini, p. 2.
Di pi, al sud[det]to esempio alla Nota che sale di quarta si puol dare in ultimo laccordo di b7. e alla
Nota che cala di terza si puol dare laccordo inultimo di #5 che sarebbe quinta superflua.
In the Canti edition (reprinted by Forni) the figure A.u contains an error in the first bar: an F instead
of a D in the inner voice.
Altro nuovo accordo di terza, quinta, sesta, e settima; ma bisogna avvertire, che questo si
permette quando la sesta resta sutto allaltre parti come dinota la seguente numerazione.
Tritto (1) p. 17.
Paisiello writes that Quando il partimento ha la 2a minore, allora detto partimento 5a di tono,
e quando ha la 2a maggiore, 6a di tono. Here 6a it is clearly a mistake for 4a.
Quando la sesta di tono sale settima di tono, cio che termina a detta settima, vuole quinta, e sesta;
per ponerai la sesta minore, nella sesta di tono quando sale di mezzo tono. La ponerai maggiore
quando sale di tono; la settima di tono vuole terza, e quinta.
Quando si trovano due passi di seconda, e quarta, e poi si entra in terza minore; la prima seconda si
fa minore, perch diventa sesta di Tono. E finalmente la seconda, e quarta, si pu risolvere ad un altra
quarta maggiore. Istruzioni , p. 58. Dippi quando si trovano 2 passi di 2, e 4, e poi si entra in 3
minore, allora la prima 2 si fa minore perch diventa 6 di tono. Furno, p. 12.