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CHAPTER I

THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING

Introduction
Nowadays, it is a big deal for private institutions to have a decreased
number of enrollees. To uncover the primary factors that are influencing a
decrease in student enrolment at Notre Dame of Magpet, and to cut the struggles
of this institution, researchers are now making a way to resolve this unending
problem.
This study focused on enrollment trends of Notre Dame of Magpet which
is going to identify the needs of the school especially for todays extremely
competitive world, marketing is a must survival. Think back to the earlier days of
Catholic school education. If you grew up Catholic, you went to a Catholic school.
Thats not the case anymore. Today, people shop for the school for their children,
and often times the child is the decision-maker for which the school the child will
attend.
The school must compete to get more students. The first thing that the
school must consider is to find out what students and parents want and need in
their school, adapt programs and services to meet their expectations.
As we all know, enrolling students is the most important need for the
school. Without students, the school cannot fulfill its mission. With more students,
school has the opportunity for greater impact in the community.

With increased competition among schools, as well as the current


economic impact, it is increasingly important for administrators to focus on
their enrolment and marketing strategies. This not only requires relevant
knowledge, but the practical know-how to generate enrolment revenue through
an effective strategic plan.
The school must provide strategic planning to implement the enrolment
management and marketing systems, strategies and solutions needed to reach
the goal of the school.

Background of the Study


The Notre Dame of Magpet is a catholic school founded in 1968 and
administered by the Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate (OMI) until the
turnover of the administration to the Diocesan Priest in 2000.
The missionary founded the school with the zeal to promote catholic
education to the local communities of the municipality of Magpet, by offering
quality education, by promoting good character and by developing the spiritual
life of its enrolees.
The Notre Dame of Magpet is composed of five offices; these are the
Director/ Principals office, guidance office, cashiers office, prefect of disciplines
office, and the registrars office.

As the team interviewed the staff, the school had difficulties with regards
to the decreasing number of enrollees. As of now, the population reaches only to
173 with 10 personnel.
It has been observed, that all strategies and techniques were used and
applied by the administration in the field to promote the school and yet still
decreasing.
The problems of decreasing enrolment in Notre Dame of Magpet are likely
to continue into the immediate future. Recognizing that communities have an
important stake in their schools, it is felt that community input should be invited
when schools are designated to come under review.
Thus, the researchers had chosen to study on the enrolment trends of
Notre Dame of Magpet as basis of marketing plan.

Statement of the Problem

This study aims to identify the enrollment trends of Notre Dame of Magpet as
Basis of Marketing Plan.
It seeks to answer the following questions:
1. What are the marketing factors affecting the decreasing enrolment of
Notre Dame of Magpet in the following areas:
1.1. Marketing & Recruitment
1.2. Pricing Strategies

1.3. Academic Program


1.4. Retention
1.5. Advising
1.6. Academic Assistance

2. What are the enrollment trends of Notre Dame in terms of:


2.1. Attrition
2.2. Census
2.3. Persistence
2.4. career guidance;
2.5. Prospect
2.6. Enrollment Retention

3. Is there a significant relationship between the marketing fators and the


enrollment trends of Notre Dame of Magpet?

5. What management intervention plan maybe developed based on the result


of the study?

Scope and Limitation


The study focused on determining the effects on the decreasing
enrollment of Notre Dame of Magpet concerning the profile of the school, the
factors affecting the decreasing enrolment, and the existing strategies adapted
by the school. The study covers three school year from 2012-2015.

Significance of the Study

Enrollment has been severely affected by recent economic downturn.


Private educational institutions suffer from decreasing enrolment as a result.
This study sought to discover recent marketing practices. It attempted to
answer the following questions using the marketing techniques:
a. How does education (type, teaching style/method, number of
classrooms, number of illegible teachers) affect the enrolment
trends of Notre Dame of Magpet?
b. How well administrators are addressing the educational needs of
their stakeholders?
The answer to these questions was intended to reveal how the
researchers have dealt with the decline in enrollment. If marketing strategies
were found to be commonly applied in school, this finding would suggest that
marketing was perceived as a useful tool in maintaining enrollment.
This study was also intended to determine what marketing strategies were
commonly used and whether those strategies were perceived as a big effective
means of increasing student enrollment. The result of this study will be useful to
the administrator, faculty and staff of Notre Dame of Magpet.

Definition of Terms
the following definitions are provided to ensure uniformity and understanding of
these terms throughout the study.
Career Guidance: refers to the activity/program to help promote the
school.
Existence of public schools: refers to the rapid increase of different
annexes in barrios.
Faculty: refers to the rapid changes of new set of faculty members after
passing the licensure examination.
Financial : refers to the insufficient budget of parents.
Home visitation: refers to the form of survey of how many students will
enroll for the coming school year.
Instruction: refers to the the content of instruction; the processes and
techniques used to help make sense of a given topic; the
learning

materials

produced

by

the

teachers

demonstrate the learning of the students.


Interpersonal relationship of faculty members: is concerned with
developing an understanding of the nature of one community as
workers of the school.
Personal Reason: refers to the lack of students interest; transfer of
residence.

that

Physical plant facilities: include school site, campus, buildings and other
physical infrastructures, equipment and complement
institutional and program effectiveness.
Print and ads: refers to the form of advertisement with the use of
tarpaulin.
Student services: is committed to provide student focused services in
partnership with others in and around the school
campus.
Teachers qualification: gives a teacher authorization to teach (a
graduate of Bachelors degree in Education or a post graduate).

Theoretical Framework
Knowledge of marketing in education and of message campaigns can be
used as theoretical ground guiding this study. Research on marketing in
education is based on the belief that a careful, well-planned, systematic
marketing effort will help increase student enrollment (Cermy, 1992; Golgehn,
1990.
According to Kotler (1975), marketing could be defined as the analysis,
planning, implementation, and control of carefully formulated programs designed
to bring about voluntary exchanges of values with target markets for the purpose
of achieving organization objectives. It relies heavily on designing organizations
offering in terms of target markets needs and desires using effective

pricing,communication, and distribution to inform, motivate, and service the markets.

Conceptual Framework

In this particular study, the independent variables are the marketing factors being
implemented or not by the school administration of the Notre Dame of Magpet.
These include the following:
1. Marketing and Recruitment including an analysis of key market areas,
institutional position and targeted and segmented recruitment strategies.
2. Pricing Strategies including economic analyses of the demands curve at
various rates of discounting and the need-merit-based financial aid
policies.
3. Academic programs articulating niche programs conducting a demand
analysis of current programs and identifying competitors successful
programs
4. Retention understanding where and why your institution retains and
loses students and identifying institutional weaknesses which may be
addressed to improve retention.
5. Advising articulating students are guided through the maze of curricular
and career choices and assessing whether outcomes are consistent with
plan objectives.
6. Academic assistance identifying student needs for tutoring and the
structures to meet demands.

7. Co-curricular programs taking inventory of the planning and support


divided to student organizations to engage them in life of the institution
beyond the classroom and assessing the effectiveness of these programs
in terms of student satisfaction and lifetime affiliation.
8. Data and technology identifying what trends need to be understood at
the institution to better serve students and to meet students expectations
in a timely fashion.
9. Budget specifying the resources you need to accomplish institutional
objectives in each area and identifying funding priorities and sources.
On the other hand, the dependent variables are the enrollment trends or factors
affecting enrollment at Notre Dame of Magpet as perceived by respondents, to
wit;
1. Attrition: the rate of students who leave an institution without returning.
Understanding how to measure this and why an institution loses its
students is key to addressing institutional weaknesses.
2. Census: the reporting of official enrollment data, usually taken six weeks
after the first day of classes in the school year.
3. Persistence: institutions usually measure the number of students who
persist from the beginning towards the completion of the given program
without breaks in enrollment from one school year to another.
4. Prospect: short for prospective student which identifies any person who
shows interest in the institution.

5. Enrollment retention: the rate at which continuing students from previous


school year return for the following school year.
The study focuses on determining if there is a significant difference among
levels of factors affecting enrollment trends in Notre Dame of Magpet and the
marketing factors implemented or not by the school administration of the Notre
Dame of Magpet, as perceived by respondents.
The schematic diagram is shown in figure 1.

Independent Variables
Marketing Factors

Marketing &
Recruitment

Pricing
Strategies

Academic
Program

Retention

Advising

Academic
Assistance

Dependent Variable
Enrollment Trends

Attrition

Census

Persistence

Prospect

Enrollment
Retention

Figure 1. Schematic Diagram of the Independent and Dependent Variables

CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter presents the literature related to the variables of the study.

Student Recruitment
Student recruitment has become competitive; forcing institutions to find
efficient, fast and effective means of providing prospective students with
information while they are in the process of deciding. The significance of this
study is represented by its attempt to identify the effect of selected marketing
communication tools in terms of enhancing student enrolment in private
universities in Kenya. Independent variables under study are; public relations,
advertising, personal selling and direct marketing; the dependent variable is
student enrolment.
The results reveal that print media; newspapers, brochures and alumni
networks were rated highly as the most effective marketing communication tools
to provide information to prospective students. This is due the wide reach and
reliability of these tools. The study found out that advertising plays a critical role
in enhancing student enrolment in private universities. The study also found out

that most universities have not embraced the use of social networks to use as
student recruitment tools.
Technological advancements are changing how student recruitment is
being conducted in higher learning institutions in targeting the techno-literate
prospective students. The study established that internet use through university
websites had a high usage rate which was equally indicated by student use in
accessing university information. Websites are therefore effective marketing
communication tools in enhancing student enrolment numbers. Traditional
marketing communication tools like billboards, posters, radio, university
newsletters, and alumni magazines were rated as less effective tools to reach
and provide information to prospective students in bid to increase student
enrolment numbers.
The study found out that Public relations influence student enrolment. It is
crucial that higher learning institutions understand the perceptions and
expectations of students and translate them into marketing activities that would
attract and retain students. The need to provide value for money to the students
and to be responsive to their needs has necessitated universities in general and
marketing units in particular to look beyond marketing paradigms and customer
approach in the HE sector. Declaring how their products are positioned against
benchmarks and other ratings has already begun in many HEIs.
Public Relations, a universitys public image and its customer satisfaction
index are important aspects in enhancing student enrolment because satisfied

and happy clientele speak well of the institution and influence others to enroll
with the institution. The study established that apart from an institutions academic
excellence, exhibitions and university image are key tools in increasing student
enrolment. Several aspects that need to be coordinated among quality assurance
departments, academic staff, and the marketing departments in an effort to
accomplish these needs.

The Decline in Private School Enrolment


Private schools represent a significant part of the education sector
and provide an opportunity for children to attend schools, at cost, that may
offer benefits unavailable in the public school system. Parents might
choose to send their children to private schools for a variety of reasons,
including the availability of academic programs and extracurricular
activities, religious reasons, dissatisfaction with the local public schools,
and school characteristics such as class size and student-teacher ratios.
Over the last decade, government statistics seem to show that
private school enrolment has declined. Although the trend has been noted
(Aud et al., 2011), the phenomenon has not been examined in detail. Since
private schools represent a sizable portion of the education sector, a
decline in enrollment would warrant attention. Specifically, is the decline
the result of a particular data collection system associated with a specific
survey, or a real trend? Does the trend hold for various socio-demographic

subgroups? If so, what are potential underlying causes? This paper seeks
to provide relevant background information on the topic by comparing
trends across datasets and subgroups and exploring possible underlying
causes of the decline in private school enrolment. Private School Survey
(PSS) reports released yearly by the Department of Education provide a
detailed look at enrolment by typology of private school; however, these
annual reports do not provide a longitudinal analysis. The Condition of
Education report (Aud et al., 2011) documented that the percentage and
actual number of elementary and secondary school students in private
schools declined from 1995 to 2010, but the report examined only a single
source of data on private 2 school enrolment and did not explore possible
explanations for the decline. Examination of additional data on private
school enrolment from the Current Population Survey (CPS) and the
American Community Survey (ACS) would prove illuminating. While little
attention has been paid to possible declining private school enrolment and
its causes, some attention has focused specifically on the struggling
Catholic school system. The Catholic school system grew rapidly after the
Civil War, particularly in cities and among working class immigrants (Baker
1999). By 1930, Catholic schooling comprised 60 percent of private school
enrolment, and Catholic schools enrolled almost one third of school
children in the largest cities such as New York City and Milwaukee (Baker
1999). However, there have been notable declines in recent decades,
particularly in cities. While 5.2 million students were enrolled in 13,000

Catholic schools in 1960, only 2.3 million students were enrolled in 7,500
such schools by 2006 (Meyer 2007). While overall Catholic school
enrolment declined by 1.6 percent annually from 2000 to 2008, the rate was
a particularly high 5.6 percent in highly urban areas (Buddin 2012). The
research literature suggests several factors have likely contributed to
declining Catholic school enrolment and school closures. Underlying
factors that specifically affect catholic schools rather than all private
schools are the changing demographics of the Catholic population and sex
abuse scandals (Buddin 2012). Although the Catholic population continues
to grow, many Catholic working- and middle-class families have moved
from urban areas to the suburbs where there are better public schools and
fewer Catholic schools; furthermore, urban Catholics are increasingly
Hispanic, a group which tends not to send their children to Catholic
schools (Buddin 2012). Other suggested causes for declining Catholic
school enrolment could also affect enrolment in other religious and nonsectarian private schools as well. Leading explanations include rising
tuition costs and growth in the number of charter schools (Buddin 2012;
Meyer 2007).
Enrolment in private schools in general may have declined for a
number of reasons. The economic downturn of the most recent recession
may have made it difficult for families to afford private school tuition,
students may have transferred to charter schools as parents now have
more options in the public school sector, or parents may have decided to

home school their children. Affordability of private school since private


schools can be expensive, financial difficulties may cause some families
who previously sent their children to private schools to transfer their
children to public schools.
Studies have shown that financial considerations can be a
determinant of enrolling children in private schools (Ferreyra 2007). For
example, Ferreyra (2007) found that the availability of school vouchers, and
the subsequent alleviation of some of the financial burden, results in
increased private school enrolment. If the recession that began in
December of 2007 financially hurt families with children in private schools,
some may have decided to transfer their children to public schools to
relieve financial strain. Consequently, the recession may be associated
with the decline in private school enrolment.
Homeschooling
An additional explanation for the decline in private school enrollment
is an association with growth in homeschooling. Homeschooling is notable
because it represents a form of schooling dramatically different from what
is offered by public schools. If families who enrol children in private
schools also seek schooling that radically differs from public schooling,
then there might be underlying similarities between households that home
school and those that send children to private schools. Analysis of data
from the National Household Education Survey shows that families of

homeschooled children often home school because they feel it is a better


education than regular public schools (Bauman 2002). The same may be
true for why many families send their children to private school. If both
home school and private school families seek alternatives to public
schools, then as homeschooling grows as a sector, it might draw from the
population that had previously sent children to private schools. Bauman
(2002) documented differences in characteristics between homeschooled
children and public school children, noting that homeschooled children
were more likely to be from two parent families with one adult not in the
labor force. If the economic downturn led to more families with nonworking adults, families that previously sent children to private schools
might now fall into the group most likely to home school their children.
Bauman (2002) showed that homeschooling grew during the second half of
the 1990s and appeared on track to continue growing. If home school
enrolment is negatively associated with private school enrolment, then
growth in the home school sector may help to partially explain the decline
in the private school sector.
Charter schools
Another possible reason for the decline in private school enrolment
is the growth of charter schools, which began in the 1990s. Charter schools
are publicly funded schools that are exempt from some of the regulations
of regular public schools, and many focus on particular curriculum or
target specific groups such as special education students and at-risk

students (Chakrabarti and Roy 2010). If parents perceive charter schools as


an improvement over regular public schools, then some households that
previously enrolled their children in private schools will change from
private to charter schools.
Strategic Marketing for Educational Institutions
Kotler and Fox (1995:28) view marketing as a tool that many educational
institutions are utilizing to enhance their effectiveness in attracting and servicing
students. To do so effectively, educational institutions need to provide value and
quality as perceived by the students (customers). This means that schools need
to deliver not only what is deemed academically appropriate, but also what is
economically relevant and needed.
Smith (1986) stressed the importance of having a systematic marketing
plan. In developing a successful marketing plan, one must utilize a more
systematic approach in academic marketing focus, which builds image and
sense of direction.
In a study by Goldgehn (1988), the most competitive institutions were
found to utilize the following marketing techniques: (a) market segmentation, (b)
target marketing, (c) publicity, (d) marketing position, (e) market research.

Enrollment Management Strategies


In order to address the research questions, a quantitative survey research
design was employed for this study in accordance with similar research done by
Chaffee (1984), Buffington (1990), and Muston (1985). The purpose of this

survey was to evaluate the effectiveness of enrollment strategies and the


collective effects on enrollment changes between 2005 and 2009. A survey was a
good fit for this study due to the ease of data collection from participants who
were spread across North America. The survey was crosssectional, as data were
collected at a single point in time (Creswell, 2003).
The survey was administered online to give participants convenient
access to the instrument. This also provided the researcher with inexpensive and
efficient data collection tools. The survey used was the CCCU Enrollment
Strategy Survey, which can be found in Appendix A. The methods section
contains a description the population and sample, the data collection, the survey
instrument, the pilot test and survey validity, and the survey administration, the
data analysis, and ethics.

Characteristics of Successful Enrolment Management


It is critical to understand the basic purposes of enrollment management
before defining what makes it successful.

Enrollment management is

concerned with the number and quality of the student body, the net revenue to
the institution, student experiences that lead to graduation and outcomes, and
the image and position of the institution in the minds of various publics,
including prospective students and parents, high school teachers and
administrators, current students and parents, alumni and the media.

It is

influenced by institutional mission, the type and quality of academic programs,


the student life environment, the ways in which students are recruited, how the

institution is priced and how financial aid is used and, even for independent
colleges, the impact of public policies.
In order to be successful, enrollment management must be linked with
strategic planning. It must be data driven and analytical, though the policies and
practices that emerge from enrollment management must always be consistent
with institutional mission and vision. Massa (2001) states that institutions must
plan early and frequently in order to prosper and that, as a part of the planning
process, they must constantly assess their progress. For that assessment to
work, colleges must be nimble enough to move quickly when the environment
changes or when goals have not been met.
Strategic enrollment planning requires strong leadership. Sevier (1998)
tells us that plan leaders must be committed to listening carefully, thinking
critically and acting boldly. They must earn the trust of those who can effect
change by articulating a clear institutional direction and by achieving consensus,
based on institutional mission, of long- and short-term goals. Beckwith (2000)
adds that plan leaders must communicate a compelling reason for being. It is
this compelling reason or the attitude that we have no choice but to excel that
motivates staff to achieve.
Marketing Strategies Enrolment Management
Marketing is the process of putting the right product before the right
audience at the right price by including the following four elements: place,

product, price, promotion (Sevier, 1998). Curriculum is the product in education; it


includes academic programmes and services. When a product appeals to a welldefined segment of the prospect base that segment is called a "niche." Current
niches at the UWC's prospect base include specific program offerings in all
faculties.
In addition, the development of UWC as a premier University offering
traditional medicine training is an emerging niche (Answers.com, 2002). Finding
prospect groupings with common interests and characteristics is known as
"market segmentation." Identifying market segments and describing their
characteristics is a function of market research. Market research can identify the
types of students that are attending particular parts of the UWC programmes
(Grove, 1992).
Market research can also help UWC uncover new opportunities. It can
also help identify other market niches and populations and could provide insights
into price sensitivity, especially for specialized training programmes (Sevier,
1998). Market research is an integral part of enrollment management. Market
research needs to be sensitive to UWC demographics, including lifestyles,
purchasing power, and buying behavior.
Marketing strategies are also an integral part to retention. Students
recruited by the University are those that should also be retained (Fretwell,
2011).

Enrolment management is the process of defining enrolment goals


and establishing procedures to reach these goals, thereby providing an institution
with the mechanisms to control its size, shape, and character.
Enrolment management is a holistic approach which consists of a number
of interdependent activities. The activities of enrollment management include
clarification of institutional mission, long-range planning, academic program
development, marketing and recruitment, retention, and career planning and
placement (Fretwell, 2011). Responsibility for enrollment management begins
with the campus president and extends throughout the institution, with the
involvement of faculty being of critical importance. Deans and chairpersons of
academic units are also in a key position to participate in and influence
enrollment management. In addition to encouraging the central office
administrators and others to clarify the mission of the institution, deans and
chairpersons can work with the faculty in re-examining the mission, function and
vitality of their own academic units (Hossler, 1985).
Enrolment Management
Enrolment management is a term used frequently in higher education to
describe well-planned strategies and tactics to shape the enrollment of an
institution and meet established goals. Enrollment management refers to the
traditional task of setting and meeting the goal of assembling a student body that
comprises a predetermined and advantageous mix of students in terms of quality,
number, and diversity in all its forms (Levitz, 2011). Plainly stated, enrolment

management is an organizational concept and a systematic set of activities


designed to enable educational institutions to exert more influence over their
student enrollments. Such practices often include marketing, admission policies,
retention programs, and financial aid awarding. Strategies and tactics are
informed by collection, analysis, and use of data to project successful outcomes
(Jantzen, 1991). Activities that produce measurable improvements in yields are
continued and/or expanded, while those activities that do not are discontinued or
restructured. Competitive efforts to recruit students are a common emphasis of
enrollment managers. The numbers of universities and colleges instituting offices
of enrollment management have increased in recent years. These offices serve
to provide direction and coordination of efforts of multiple offices such as
admissions, financial aid, registration, and other student services. Often these
offices are part of an enrollment management division (Wikipedia, 2011).
Enrollment Management is a term coined by Dr. Jack Maguire that is used
frequently in higher education to describe well-planned strategies and tactics to
shape the enrollment of an institution and meet established goals. Plainly stated,
enrollment management is an organizational concept and a systematic set of
activities designed to enable educational institutions to exert more influence over
their student enrollments.
Such practices often include marketing, admission policies, retention
programs, and financial aid awarding. Strategies and tactics are informed by
collection, analysis, and use of data to project successful outcomes. Activities
that produce measurable improvements in yields are continued and/or expanded,

while those activities that do not are discontinued or restructured. A competitive


effort to recruit students is a common emphasis of enrollment managers.

ENROLLMENT TRENDS OF NOTRE DAME OF MAGPET


AS BASIS OF MARKETING PLAN

____________

A Thesis Presented to
the Graduate School Faculty
Central Mindanao Colleges
Kidapawan City

____________

In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
of Masters in Education

____________
ALVAREZ, MARY JOY C.
OLAVEJA, LIEZLE T.
RUBIO, SARAH JANE F.

October 2014
Chapter III
Methodology
This study was designed to explore the marketing concepts and practices
used in Notre Dame of Magpet.
This chapter discusses the methodology of this study. It describes research
design, locale of the study, research instrument, data gathering, research
procedure and statistical treatment.

Research Design

This study utilized the descriptive-correlation method of research. The


descriptive-correlation method was used to determine data and information on
the enrollment trends of Notre Dame of Magpet as basis of Marketing plan is
designed to help the institution to more effectively market potential students in
order to increase program enrollment.

Locale of the Study


This study was conducted at Notre Dame of Magpet. The only catholic
school in the Municipality of Magpet. There are problems encountered by the
institution encountered due to the decrease of enrollment is the number of
school annexes of every remote barangays, strategies being made by the school
to attract more students during the recruitment period.

Research Instrument
The researchers used the school profile, number of enrollees from S.Y.
2012-2015, and demographic profile of students enrolled for the past three years.
The data came from the Records-in-charge of Notre Dame of Magpet.

Data Gathering
The researchers did the following procedures in conducting the study:
1. The researchers formulated the questionnaire. This was validated and
tested for validity and reliability.

2. The researchers made a letter of request addressed to the school head of


the chosen respondents to allow the researchers to conduct a study.
3. The questionnaire was administered to the respondents.
4. Data were collated and submitted for statistical treatment.
5. Results were analyzed and interpreted.

Research Procedure
For systematic conduct of the study, the following procedures were done.
A letter was given to ask permission to conduct the study on the
enrollment trends of Notre Dame of Magpet as basis of marketing plan. With
permission granted, the survey was conducted.
Questionnaires were distributed by the researchers and the data were
tabulated and treated statistically. Results were analyzed, and interpreted.
Statistical Treatment
Descriptive statistics was used to determine the effects of the decrease
enrollment.
A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to determine if
there were statistically significant differences among institutional enrolment
clusters of declining, maintaining, and increasing enrolment from 2012-2015 in
regard to individual strategies and grouped strategies in use.