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The immediate cause of obesity is the prolonged consumption

of a diet containing more calories than are needed to provide

for the bodys tissue repair, vital functions and physical
activities. In modern society, food has become very plentiful
and attractive, and the physical effort demanded by many
occupations has diminished. Most people in civilized
communities eat more than they require, and it is surprising
that obesity is not more common than it is. It is difficult to
escape the conclusion that there exists some unknown
mechanism by which the body is enabled to get rid of the
surplus calories which would otherwise be stored as fat. If
there were not such a mechanism, obesity would be much
more common.

immediate cause
prolonged consumption
tissue repair
vital functions
physical activities
in modern society
physical effort
in civilized communities
unknown mechanism
surplus calories
development of obesity
vital functions
consumption of foods
meet physical demands
unknown mechanism
carry out tasks and activities
pay a lot of attention
in the long run

According to the passage, it is not clear yet by what

means ----.
A) fat is stored in the body and causes the development
of obesity
B) obesity can be prevented most effectively or treated
C) the vital functions of the body can be maintained
most efficiently
D) the consumption of calorie-rich foods can be
increased in civilized communities
E) the body is able to eliminate its extra calories


One understands from the passage that calories ----.

A) must be sufficient for the body to meet its physical
B) are mainly derived from foods which are rich in fat
C) are for the body to carry out its tasks and activities
D) must be reduced so as to enable the body to repair
E) taken through the consumption of various foods must
always be limited


It is pointed out in the passage that, in most professions, ---.

A) foods with a lot of fat should never be consumed
B) the amount of calories needed has increased
C) people pay a lot of attention to the kind of food they
D) obesity has never been a serious concern
E) the amount of the physical effort previously required
has declined


It is stressed in the passage that, if a diet contains too

many calories, ----.
A) the body becomes far more active and healthy
B) in the long run, it will most likely lead to obesity
C) it usually has a good effect on the bodys vital
D) its consumption should be stopped immediately
E) people in most civilized communities know how to
avoid obesity


Josh Villa was 26 and driving home with a friend when his car
mounted the kerb and flipped over. Villa was thrown through
the windscreen, suffered massive head injuries and fell into a
coma. Almost a year later, there was still little sign of
improvement. He would open his eyes, but he was not
responsive to any external stimuli in his environment. He was
then enrolled in a six-week study in which an electromagnetic
coil was held over the front of his head to stimulate the
underlying brain tissue. Such transcranial magnetic
stimulation (TMS) has been investigated as a way of treating
migraine, stroke, Parkinsons disease and depression, with
some promising results, but this is the first time it has been
used as a potential therapy for someone in a coma-like state.
Certain improvements were observed; for instance, he began
to say single words. The case has been described as
'intriguing, but it has also given rise to a lot of cautionary


A) is interesting but not conclusive

B) can be regarded as a real breakthrough
C) has aroused no interest whatsoever in the medical
D) concludes that this particular patient could not
respond to any treatment
E) confirms the effectiveness of magnetic stimulation in
the treatment of coma

massive head injuries

sign of improvement
underlying brain tissue
a way of treating migraine
promising results
potential therapy
certain improvements
cautionary warning
make a startling recovery
treatment of migraine
unpleasant side-effects
effective treatment
remarkable success
due consideration
brain surgeon
real breakthrough
arouse interest

The case-study is about Josh Villa, who ----.

A) made a startling recovery from a stroke after TMS
B) remained in a coma for nearly a year but recovered
following TMS treatment
C) experienced a comparatively minor car accident
which resulted in a coma
D) was receiving TMS treatment for chronic migraines
E) a year after his car crash was still unable to respond
to any external stimuli


According to the passage, the case-study in question ----.

We learn from the passage that TMS ----.

A) is only used as a last resort
B) has been used with promising results in the treatment
of migraine and Parkinsons disease
C) has, until recently, been employed exclusively in the
treatment of mental disorders
D) is likely to produce unpleasant side-effects
E) has not proved to be as effective a treatment as was
once hoped


It is clear from the passage that TMS was used on this

patient ----.
A) with remarkable success
B) because it was known to have brought people out of
a coma-like state
C) with a view to stimulating brain tissue
D) without due consideration of the risks involved
E) against the advice of a leading brain surgeon


What controls our breathing? We obviously have some

conscious control over it because we can voluntarily hold our
breath for a short while or breathe faster and deeper. Most of
the time, however, automatic control centres in our brain
regulate our breathing movements. Automatic control is
essential, for it ensures coordination between the respiratory
and circulatory systems and the bodys metabolic needs for
gas exchange. Anatomically, our breathing control centres are
located in parts of the brain called' the pons' and 'the medulla.'
Nerves from the medullas control centre signal the diaphragm
and rib muscles to contract, making us inhale. These nerves
send out signals that result in about 10-14 inhalations-per
minute when we are at rest. Between inhalations, the muscles
relax, and we exhale. The control centre in the pons smooths
out the basic rhythm of breathing set by the medulla.

12) The passage explains in a relatively detailed way ----.

A) how breathing is regulated by the automatic control
centres in the brain
B) the functions of the diaphragm and rib muscles
C) the side effects that the conscious control of the
breath causes
D) why the pons and the medulla cannot have a
coordinated function
E) why our breathing movements vary from 10 to 14
inhalations per minute

for a short while

automatic control centres
breathing movements
respiratory system
circulatory system
metabolic needs
send out signals
efficient performance
motor coordination
have effect on
get out of control
meet the needs
sudden fall
vital importance

It is clear from the passage that the pons and the medulla
A) are mainly responsible for the efficient performance
of the circulatory system
B) perform functions that are interrelated and
C) work together to ensure motor coordination
D) hardly have any effect on our breathing rate and
E) have no effect upon the circulatory system

10) According to the passage, when we hold our breath, ----.

A) we show we have some conscious control over our
B) the automatic breathing control centres in the brain
begin to work much faster
C) the rate of gas exchange through the respiratory
system increases rapidly
D) the movements of the diaphragm and rib muscles get
out of control
E) the number of signals from the medulla to the
respiratory system begins to increase
11) One understands from the passage that the automatic
rather than conscious control of the breath ----.
A) limits the bodys ability to meet its metabolic needs
B) causes a sudden fall in the number of inhalations per
C) disrupts the movements of rib muscles and
undermines the rhythm of inhalation
D) is very complicated due to the lack of coordination
between the pons and the medulla
E) is of vital importance for gas exchange to take place
in the body


Nowadays, we all like to think we have got past the racist

nonsense of previous centuries, when even the most eminent
scientists, white ones, of course, declared white people to be
the pinnacle of human progress and other races to be inferior.
We now accept that no race is superior to another. There is
no question that most societies have made enormous
progress in eliminating such overt racial prejudice. But an
unsettling study published by researchers in the United States
suggests that there is still a long way to go. Even today, the
study finds, Americans of various races still unconsciously
dehumanize their black fellow citizens by subtly associating
them with apes. In an experiment in which students were
subliminally flashed a photo of either an African-American or a
European-American face, and then shown a blurry picture of
an ape, those shown the black face were quicker to recognize
the ape. More troubling still, this association is not just
confined to psychologists' tests: It also appears to bias
people's judgements about whether specific instances of
police violence are justified.

16) As it is pointed out in the passage, the experiment ----.

A) produced results contradicting white scientists' beliefs
B) tested whether police violence is justified on certain
C) concluded that psychologists were wrong to carry out
the test
D) involved showing a picture of a human face and of an
E) proved that racism is not as widespread as has been

pinnacle of human progress

make enormous progress
fellow citizens
specific instances
police violence
existence of racism
racial prejudice
carry out test

13) As can be clearly seen in the passage, racial prejudice ---.


still prevails in this century

is the subject of previous centuries
can be eradicated with education
is the most observable in white scientists' attitudes
is triggered by experiments

14) As it is pointed out in the passage, ----.

A) over the centuries, racism has been declining,
especially in the US
B) more and more studies show that the white race is
C) the association of a black face with apes is evidence
enough to show the existence of racism
D) some races are inferior according to AfricanAmericans
E) psychologists do not believe there is racial prejudice
in the US
15) According to the passage, ----.
A) most societies have solved the problem of racism
except the US
B) more and more studies reveal the situation on racial
attitudes is not what we would like to see
C) researchers have made enormous progress in
eliminating racism
D) various studies show that some people justify police
E) Americans have considerably changed their views
regarding other races


Best known for his novels 20, 000 Leagues Under the Sea
and Around the World in 80 Days, Jules Verne, the French
science fiction pioneer, has always been a major cultural
figure in his native land, France. His hometown of Amiens
continues to remember his contributions with parades,
exhibitions and literary conferences. Yet, in the Englishspeaking world, Jules Verne has been pigeonholed as merely
a young boy's adventure writer, even though he was
successfully able to foresee heavier-than-air flying machines
and moon voyages. In addition, twentieth century pioneers
such as the polar explorer Richard Byrd, the rocket scientist
We her von Braun and the astronaut Neil Armstrong have all
said that Jules Verne's writings inspired them. But now, Jules
Verne enthusiasts are pushing for a reconsideration of the
writer as an influential literary figure, whose 64 novels and
stories of admittedly varying literary quality offer not only
startling prophecies but also offer provide a sharp
commentary on the Europe and America of his day.

20) According to the passage, the English-speaking world ----.

A) is reluctant to see Verne as a children's writer
B) has underestimated the works of Verne
C) was more interested in the moon voyages than flying
D) recognized the need to put his ideas to use
E) regarded Verne as a pioneer in scientific

best known
science fiction pioneer
cultural figure
native land
in the world
adventure writer
literary figure
startling prophecies
a sharp commentary
in various parts of the world
a large number of people
science fiction writer
scientific developments

17) It can be inferred from the passage that the importance of

Verne's works ----.
A) has been recognized differently in various parts of the
B) was only appreciated after his death
C) lies in his foreseeing of polar explorations and rocket
D) has been underestimated in his native land France
E) was constantly debated during his lifetime
18) As it is pointed out in the passage, Verne's literary merit ---.
A) needs to be reconsidered by his enthusiasts
B) is based on his boy's adventure stories
C) was revealed through his prophecies about Europe
and America
D) can easily be seen in all his novels and stories
E) is questioned by a large number of people
19) As it is stated in this passage, ----.
A) Amiens is best known for celebrating 20,000 Leagues
Under the Sea and Around the World In 80 Days
B) major cultural figures in France are remembered in
parades, exhibitions and conferences
C) Jules Verne's most famous works are 20,000
Leagues Under the Sea and Around the World In 80
D) Jules Verne became a science fiction writer with the
publication of 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea and
Around the World In 80 Days
E) 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea and Around the
World In 80 Days are remembered in his hometown
of Amiens


A battle between traditional and progressive educators has

raged since the 1930s, when modern approaches to musical
teaching were first proposed. Stephanie Pitts, author and
editor of the British Journal of Music Education, charts the
course of this battle in her book A Century of Change in Music
Education. Both camps argued for music's inclusion in the
school curriculum, but their justifications and proposed
teaching methods conflicted. On the one hand, declared
traditionalists, music was a body of knowledge made up of the
great symphonies and folk songs of Britain's repertoire.
Students could be taught to appreciate and sing this 'national
songbook' as part of a cultural education. This was the
method that dominated the classroom for decades, and is still
part of the primary school approach. On the other hand,
responded the progressives, if music was an expression of
our inner psyche, then children should be encouraged to play
and experiment in order to learn more about themselves.
'Bring something to make noise with', they shouted.

24) It is pointed out in the passage that the two music

approaches ----.
A) have more disagreements than agreements
B) are equally disliked by students in schools across
C) complement each other in more ways than one
D) agree that music is a body of knowledge consisting of
symphonies and folk songs
E) think that music education should be a normal part of
cultural education

modern approaches
the course of this battle
teaching methods
a body of knowledge
cultural education
primary school approach
methods of teaching music
in the last decade
provide opportunity
place emphasis on
personal expression

21) It is clear in the passage that ----.

A) differences between the two schools of music
education are minimal
B) it is likely that disagreement over the methods of
teaching music will be resolved shortly
C) the progressives in the field of music teaching have
the upper hand in application
D) teaching approaches in music are more or less alike
E) both teaching methods believe music should be
taught in schools
22) According to the passage, traditional music ----.

has been challenged for almost a century

is outdated and should be replaced
has found little acceptance in most school curricula
is best suited to the expression of the inner psyche
was finally replaced in the 1930s in schools across

23) It is stated in the passage that the progressive method ---.


is praised by Stephanie Pitts in her book

was first proposed in the last decade
is part of the primary school approach
provides fewer opportunities for children to learn
about themselves
E) places emphasis on personal expression


For centuries, when one country disapproved of another

country's behaviour, political leaders sought ways to
communicate their displeasure short of going to war. That is
the idea behind economic sanctions. Sanctions allow
countries to punish another government without having to
resort to violence. At least, that was the idea. But a recent
study reveals that sanctions actually make it far more likely
that two states will eventually meet on the battlefield. The
researchers examined more than two hundred cases of
sanctions and found that, when sanctions are added to the
mix, military conflict is extremely likely to occur between two
countries than if sanctions had not been imposed at all.
Because countries generally prefer to enact sanctions that are
not especially costly to themselves, target countries often
interpret the action as a lack of resolve. This interpretation
may lead the country being sanctioned to become provocative
in its actions, which may in turn pave the way for a military

28) According the passage, a country that has received

sanctions ----.

can always turn to its neighbours for help

waits for a suitable occasion to get them lifted
tends to believe that the other country lacks resolve
is usually willing to come to terms with its oppressor
soon gets used to them and is undisturbed by them

political leaders
economic sanctions
a recent study
military conflict
lack of resolve
pave the way for
military confrontation
peaceful outcome
economic embargo
economic policies
come up with a guideline
imposition of sanctions
come to terms with

25) The main idea in the passage is that ----.

A) military conflicts can usually be avoided when
sanctions are imposed
B) sanctions allow countries to examine their differences
with a view to finding a peaceful outcome
C) there is hardly any country that has not imposed
sanctions on another
D) two countries are more likely to fight when sanctions
are imposed
E) economic sanctions are more effective than military
26) As it is stated in the passage, for a long time political
leaders ----.
A) rejected the idea that an economic embargo is more
effective than waging a war
B) thought that economic sanctions would work
C) disapproved of other countries' economic policies
D) believed a short war is as effective as economic
E) preferred to punish other governments with violence
27) It is pointed out in the passage that research findings ----.
A) have endorsed earlier beliefs on the effectiveness of
B) reveal that war is inevitable regardless of whether
sanctions are imposed or not
C) are based on the examination of fewer than 200
cases of sanctions
D) have come up with a guideline to impose sanctions
E) show that military conflict is a likely outcome of the
imposition of sanctions


Few operas are as rooted in one place as Benjamin Britten's

Peter Grimes. The title character is a dark souled fisherman
who goes mad after the death of his apprentice. Grimes was
the invention of the poet George Crabbe, who grew up in
Aldeburgh, on the eastern coast of England, in the later part of
the eighteenth century. Crabbe apparently based Grimes on a
detested local character. Montaga Slater, the opera's librettist,
wove his elaboration of the tale into various Aldeburgh
settings. Britten, who was a resident of the same town for
most of his adult life, brilliantly evoked its sights and sounds in
his music the crying of gulls, the creaking of buoys, the
endless booming of the waves. The obvious way to stage
Grimes is to recreate the original setting of Aldeburgh and let
Britten's flawless score do the rest. This was the approach
taken by Tyrone Guthrie, who first directed the opera at
Covent Garden's famous opera house, in 1947.

32) We learn from the passage that the poet Crabbern ----.
A) often wrote poems about the sea and about the men
who risked their lives to go out fishing
B) was fascinated by madness and by what made
people go mad
C) was a lonely person and took very little interest in
what was going on around him
D) was a close friend of Benjamin Britten
E) based his character on a local man

go mad
invention of the poet
adult life
endless booming
opera house
give scope to
truly magnificent
natural world
make certain changes
close connection
go out fishing
take interest in

29) One major point made in this review about the opera
Peter Grimes is that ----.

the sea is the dominating force in the opera

it has not received the acclaim it merits
it is firmly set in a very specific part of England
the strange madness of Grimes gives scope to much
truly magnificent music
E) it is the first opera in which Benjamin Britten has
shown any originality
30) The writer of this review is very clearly ----.
A) rather critical of the stage settings in Tyrone Guthrie's
B) someone who knows very little about the town of
C) shocked by the cruelty of the title character
D) a great admirer of the music of Benjamin Britten
E) less interested in music than in the sounds of the
natural world
31) We understand from the passage that the people who
contributed in an important way to the Peter Grimes opera
A) are planning to make certain changes in the next
B) had close connections with Aldeburgh
C) had grown up together in Aldeburgh
D) were all fascinated by the character of Peter Grimes
E) knew from the beginning that it would be extremely


The book by physicist Lee Smolin, The Trouble with Physics,

is an all out attack on string theory in theoretical physics.
String theory aims to unify the laws governing all physical
forces by combining quantum mechanics with general
relativity. It is not very intuitive as it posits the existence of 10
space time. Smolin points out that, not once in its 30 years of
existence, has string theory been validated by a test result.
Although they acknowledge this weakness, the theory's
advocates claim that it helps to clarify a number of concepts
and, most important of all, it holds the promise of a grand
unification. Smolin's historical account is both brilliant and
lively. The most interesting feature of the book is his
sociological analysis of the way in which string theory has
taken root in academic circles and the mechanisms that
allowed it to gain its present almost total dominance. How can
a community of likeminded scientists have secured such a
powerful position that it is now able to determine the course of
research, to monopolize public funding and to decide careers,
to the point of abolishing all alternative approaches? Indeed,
his analysis is applicable to many other fields and disciplines.

35) According to the passage, what makes Lee Smolin's book

interesting to read ----.
A) is related to the theories a community of likeminded
physicists can develop
B) lies in the examination of how string theory has been
adopted and become dominant
C) is its power in illustrating how science writers can
affect decisions on public funding an careers
D) is that like-minded scholars can agree to approve
public funding for alternative approaches
E) is the historical account it provides for the
development of string theory
36) According to the passage, the writer is of the opinion that
A) examining physical issues from a historical and
sociological viewpoint is popular among physicists
B) Lee Smolin went too far in discrediting string theory,
which is very popular among physicists
C) the sociological analysis done for string theory is also
valid for disciplines other than physics
D) it is the academic circles that decide whether string
theory should be tested or not
E) the way string theory has been endorsed in
theoretical physics is unique to this discipline

33) It is clear from the passage that the book by Lee Smolin ---.
A) questions the value of string theory as well as the
extensive influence of advocating scientists within the
B) sets out to explain string theory in order to show its
superiority over alternative theories in accounting for
physical laws
C) opens a debate as to how string theory can be
validated by a test result
D) advocates the string theory as It helps to clarify a
number of concepts successfully
E) supports the attention string theory has received in
the academic circles who decide the course of
research, funding and future careers

theoretical physics
physical forces
test result
most important of all
historical account
take root
powerful position
the course of research
public funding
alternative approaches
extensive influence
alternative theories
physical laws
suffer from weakness
practical implications
historical and sociological
sociological analysis

34) As it is pointed out in the passage, string theory ----.

A) suffers from quite a number of weaknesses as its
advocates admit
B) has practical implications for both theoretical physics
and sociology
C) is a theory that is capable of finally explaining 10
space time
D) still needs to be confirmed by test results
E) attempts to combine quantum mechanics with
theoretical physics


Lower birth-rates and longer lives lead to population aging,

which matters for many reasons, but first and foremost
because of the costs of retirement. These costs are borne
principally by the government and funded through taxes on
the working-age population. The old-age-dependency ratio
that is, the population aged 65 and over divided by the
population aged 15 to64 is a key indicator of population
aging. Other things being equal, the tax rate for pensions will
be proportional to this ratio. In the developed world, this ratio
rose from .12 in 1950 to .21 today, and is estimated to
increase to .44 in 2050. If, in the developed countries, the
elderly in 2050 are to receive the level of benefits given to the
current elderly, then the level of payroll taxes needed to fund
government pensions will more than double by 2050. Due to
higher fertility and immigration, the US population is projected
to remain younger than those of other OECD countries, and
the pension problem will be less severe. Health costs,
however, pose an even more difficult problem due to the
socialized health-care system for the elderly in the US. As the
population ages and spending per elderly person rises,
government spending on healthcare will likely soar.

39) It is stated in the passage that the US population will

relatively remain younger than those of other OECD
countries ----.
A) as population aging is not such a serious projected
problem in the US
B) because there are not as many elderly people in the
US as in other OECD countries
C) unless the government increases the level of payroll
taxes needed to fund pensions
D) since it has higher birth-rates and gets immigrants
E) if the government takes the necessary measures to
keep the current level of elderly people
40) According to the passage, the US health-care costs ----.
A) have more than doubled over the past decades and
pose a serious problem
B) are compelling the government to delay the current
age of retirement and to reduce the size of benefits
C) will probably go up because of population aging and
more spending on the elderly
D) will still remain stagnant due to the tax rates for the
working-age population
E) could eventually lead to longer working hours and
less fulfilling wage increases

37) It is explicitly stated in the passage that by the year 2050,

developed countries will have to increase wage taxes at
least twice as much ----.
A) even though they estimate a proportional increase of
.44 in 2050
B) because natural resource constraints, particularly of
land, are at the heart of the problem
C) now that the old-age-dependency ratio has become
an important indicator of aging
D) provided population growth and growth of per capita
are positively correlated
E) if they want to maintain the present level of benefits
given to the elderly

low birth-rates
population aging
costs of retirement
working-age population
a key indicator
in the developed world
the level of benefits
government pensions
health costs
pose a difficult problem
health-care system
proportional increase
natural resource constraints
at the heart of
indicator of aging
population growth
present level
infant mortality
a serious problem
takes necessary measures
age of retirement
long working hours
wage increases

38) It is obvious from the passage that population aging is of

great importance, mainly due to ----.

pensions and health care

higher fertility and immigration
higher birth-rates and infant mortality
falling figures in the working-age population
economic indicators of the country



Conservation biologists are applying their understanding of

population, community, ecosystem, and landscape dynamics
in establishing parks, wilderness areas, and other legally
protected nature reserves. Choosing locations for protection
often focuses on biodiversity hot spots. These relatively small
areas have a large number of endangered and threatened
species and an exceptional concentration of endemic species,
those that are found nowhere else. Together, the 'hottest' of
Earths biodiversity hot spots total less than 1.5% of Earths
land but are home to a third of all species of plants and
vertebrates. There are also hot spots in aquatic ecosystems,
such as certain river systems and coral reefs. Because
endemic species are limited to specific areas, they are highly
sensitive to deprivation of their natural environment. At the
current rate of human development, some biologists estimate
that loss of habitat will cause the extinction of about half of the
species in terrestrial biodiversity hotspots in the next 10 to 15
years. Thus, biodiversity hotspots can also be hot spots of
extinction. They rank high on the list of areas demanding
strong global conservation efforts. Concentrations of species
provide an opportunity to protect many species in very limited
areas. However, species endangerment is truly a global
problem, and focusing on hot spots should not detract from
efforts to conserve habitats and species diversity in other

43) It is explicitly stated in the passage that as endemic

species are only found in particular places, ----.
A) they are very susceptible to habitat degradation
B) hot spots have little terrestrial biodiversity
C) housing and beachside efforts at development must
be ended
D) concentrations of these species are to be evenly
distributed on Earth
E) conservation efforts must be guided by critical habitat
44) It is implied in the passage that one way to slow the loss
of biodiversity is to ----.

ensure the even distribution of species

get rid of the hot spots of endangered species
control species population
establish protected areas
train conservation biologists

conservation biologists
landscape dynamics
legally protected
nature reserves
biodiversity hot spots
endangered and
threatened species
endemic species
species of plants and
specific areas
highly sensitive
natural environment
human development
loss of habitat
extinction of species
rank high on the list
conservation efforts
provide an opportunity
species endangerment
conserve habitats
species diversity
give priority
industrial practices
toxic chemicals
endangered species
become extinct
habitat degradation
species population

41) As it can be understood from the passage, while some

measures are taken to protect species habitats, ----.
A) one must really increase human development over
the next 10 or 15 years
B) aquatic systems need to be supported to prevent
C) there have been no effects to protect the hottest of
hot spots
D) the conservation of habitats and species diversity
remains a local problem
E) biodiversity hot spots must be given priority in
conservation efforts
42) According to the passage, biodiversity hot spots ----.
A) are relatively small areas often damaged by industrial
practices such as dumping of toxic chemicals or by
such mishaps as oil spills
B) contain endangered species and unusually high
numbers of species unique to that area
C) would eventually be destroyed by human activity in
the next 10 to 15 years
D) consist merely of such aquatic ecosystems as certain
river systems and coral reefs
E) are places where most species of plants and
vertebrates have become extinct



There have been very few studies comparing the

microbiological safety of organic and conventional food
production. In theory, organic food could be more prone to
microbial contamination due to the lack of preservatives and
the use of animal waste or manure as fertilisers are more
commonly referred to. However, the results of the present
studies have not been conclusive due to a number of factors,
including a small sample size and a failure to take into
account seasonal and regional variations. Clearly, organic and
conventional foods are susceptible to contamination by
pathogenic microorganisms at every point in the food chain. It
can occur during production from manure and water, during
processing from environmental sources and during the final
handling and packing, possibly as a result of poor human
sanitation. One area where organic production systems might
pose a higher risk is through the use of newer untreated
manure as fertiliser. Studies carried out on organic and
conventional produce found that E. coli contamination was 19
times greater on organic farms that used manure or compost
less than 12months old than on farms that used older
materials. Though the risks are reduced as manure matures,
researchers have found that many pathogenic organisms
such as E. coli and salmonella can still survive up to 60 days
or more in compost and in the soil, depending on temperature
and the condition of the soil.

47) It can be understood from the passage that inorganic food

production, the risk of contamination by E. coli and other
disease-causing bacteria increases ----.
A) since additives are inadequately used to improve the
nutritional quality of food
B) during the final handling and packing stage
C) if chemical fertilisers are used more than manure or
D) when organic farmers use newer untreated manure
as fertiliser
E) even if farmers wait for the maturation of animal
manure for use in the soil
48) One point made in the passage is that the risk of
contamination by E. coli could be reduced to a certain
extent ----.
A) if organic farmers switch to the use of compost as
B) once further studies are carried out
C) if manure or compost used as fertiliser is 12 months
or older
D) unless E. coli or other disease-causing bacteria are
spotted within 60 days
E) when soil nutrients are replenished with the use of
synthetic fertilisers

45) It is clearly stated in the passage that both organic and

conventional foods ----.

microbiological safety
food production
microbial contamination
lack of preservatives
use of animal waste
seasonal and regional
environmental sources
pose a high risk
condition of the soil
bring benefits
safety measures
fatal outbreak
nutritional quality
chemical fertilisers
disease-causing bacteria
synthetic fertilisers

A) have brought many benefits to farmers, food

producers and consumers around the world
B) have been extensively studied in the food chain for
their microbiological safety
C) depend on animal waste as the best source for
D) are susceptible to contamination only if the safety
measures are not taken by farmers
E) can be contaminated due to environmental sources
and poor human sanitation
46) According to the passage, the research done into the
microbial contamination and safety of organic foods has
not given definite results because of the ----.
A) inadequate size of samples studied and ignoring
seasonal and regional differences
B) organic food industrys efforts to market its products
as a healthier and safer alternative
C) difficulty in regulating each point in the food chain
D) fatal outbreak of E. coli contamination in regions
where the organic food industry is common
E) long survival rates of many pathogenic organisms
such as E. coli and salmonella



The fate of the dinosaurs may have been sealed half a billion
years before life even appeared, by two geological time
bombs that still exist near our planets core. A controversial
new hypothesis links massive eruptions of lava that coincided
with many of the Earths largest extinctions to two unusually
hot sections of mantle 2, 800 kilometres beneath the Earths
crust. These sections formed just after the Earth itself,
4.5billion years ago. If the hypothesis is correct, they have
periodically burst through the planets crust, creating
enormous oceans of lava which poisoned the atmosphere and
wiped out entire branches of the tree of life. Debates still rage
over what caused different mass extinctions, including the one
that wiped out the dinosaurs. An asteroid that smashed into
the Earth 65million years ago is no doubt partially to blame for
the demise of the dinosaurs. But, a less-known school of
thought has it that this and other extinctions occurred when
cracks in the crust let huge amounts of lava pour out from the
centre of the Earth. Each event flooded at least 100, 000
square kilometres, leaving behind distinct geological regions
known as large igneous provinces (LIPs), such as Indias
Deccan traps, which were formed during the time when the
dinosaurs became extinct.

52) According to the passage, the writer is of the opinion that

A) dinosaurs may have become extinct because all the
trees and plants were wiped out
B) it is not possible that the end of dinosaurs could be
accounted for by an asteroid crashing into the Earth
C) this new hypothesis helps us to understand how the
core was formed
D) the Earths crust is more fragile than was originally
E) there is a connection between extinctions and large
igneous provinces (LIPs)

the fate of the dinosaurs

still exist
massive eruptions
beneath the Earths crust
enormous oceans
mass extinctions
wipe out the dinosaurs
no doubt
the demise of the dinosaurs
the centre of the Earth
geological regions
become extinct
formation of the planet
massive flooding
beginning of life
enormous eruptions
demise of all species

49) According to a new hypothesis put forward by scientists,

dinosaurs may have been wiped out ----.
A) after pieces of the mantle burst through the Earths
crust, creating vast oceans of lava
B) half a billion years after the formation of the planet
C) when volcanic rocks from the surface were forced
deep into the mantle
D) when two sections of the planets crust were blown
E) after they were forced out of Indias Deccan traps
50) It can be understood from the passage that ----.
A) massive flooding wiped out the dinosaurs in Indias
Deccan traps
B) two geological time bombs near the Earths crust are
indeed responsible for the beginning of life on the
C) a new hypothesis reveals the process by which the
continents were formed
D) scientists are still debating over the reasons of the
different mass extinctions of life on the Earth
E) enormous eruptions of basaltic lava occurred 4.5
billion years ago
51) As it is pointed out in the passage, large igneous
provinces (LIPs) ----.
A) support only the most primitive of life forms
B) formed after vast amounts of lava came out from the
Earths core
C) only exist in the Asian continent
D) are located on the weakest part of the Earths crust
E) conclusively account for the systematic demise of all
species on the Earth



Saving the planet might be the selfless motive for driving

electric cars, but most owners derive the greatest pleasure
from the silence of their vehicles. However, its a pleasure
soon to disappear as lawmakers in Europe and the US
prepare rules to make them noisier. The argument is that
pedestrians would be safer, especially those with impaired
vision and hearing. Although some figures from the US do
suggest that proportionately there are higher collision rates
with electric vehicles, conclusive data is nevertheless scarce.
Do people really navigate the urban jungle using only their
ears? Or indeed the latest diesel-engined vehicles, which, at
low speeds, are very quiet? In fact, electric cars offer a rare
opportunity to cut both chemical and noise pollution and we
should embrace them. The sound made by internalcombustion engines is just an unwelcome waste product.
Some people may find it useful, but then so did those who
gathered up the dung from all our horse-driven carriages to
use as fertiliser. Insisting that electric cars make a noise
would be like passing a law in the early20th century, obliging
drivers of the new-fangled 'motor vehicle' to deposit a load of
well-rotted compost on the side of the road every 50 miles.

55) It can be understood that the writer of the passage ----.

A) prefers the noise of electric cars to the sound made
by internal-combustion engines
B) insists that electric vehicles make a noise for safety
C) is against making electric vehicles noisy
D) encourages the passing of a law to ban electric cars
E) is irritated by the silent approach of electric vehicles
on the roads
56) According to the passage, we ought to welcome electric
cars, as ----.
A) pedestrians will in the future learn to hear them
B) most people are indifferent to the waste products of
internal-combustion engines
C) they offer an opportunity to reduce petroleum
D) they can go faster than the latest diesel-engined
E) they provide a chance to stop chemical and noise

53) It is clearly stated in the passage that the owners of

electric vehicles might be interested in environmental
conservation, but ----.
A) more research and development initiatives are
required to improve their design
B) most of them prefer to drive internal-combustion
engines for safety reasons
C) electric vehicles put the safety of pedestrians first in
crowded urban areas
D) they find them more expensive than those with
internal-combustion engines
E) they get more pleasure from the silence of their
electric cars

drive pleasure
collision rates
conclusive data
offer an opportunity
chemical and noise pollution
waste product
make a noise
pass a law
development initiatives
safety reasons
in crowded urban areas
promote investment
set up regulation
future sustainability
in densely populated areas
silent approach
provide a chance

54) One point made in the passage is that in order to protect

pedestrians, ----.
A) policymakers in Europe and the US are promoting
investment in hybrid vehicles rather than motor
B) European and US lawmakers are setting up
regulations to make electric vehicles noisier
C) both European and US authorities are encouraging
the purchase of electric vehicles for future
D) electric car owners would probably be restricted to
usage in less densely populated areas
E) European and US lawmakers will not support policies
that encourage investment in manufacturing facilities
for electric cars



59) One can understand from the passage that biological

destruction ----.

Species diversity provides the foundation for individual

ecosystems and thus is the prerequisite for the functioning of
the biosphere. It is an immeasurable source of food and
medicinal products, and an irreplaceable resource as a gene
pool. Due to the increasing destruction and pollution of natural
habitats, over-fishing and hunting, humans are destroying the
biological multitude of life, and with that, the basis of their own
well-being. The public is concerned when a well-known
species like the tiger, whale, or mountain gorilla becomes
endangered; however, the majority of other cases are hardly
ever noticed by the public. Apart from the decline of species
diversity within habitats, loss of genetic diversity within
individual species has also been observed. The destruction of
individual populations leads to a reduction in genetic
regeneration capacity within a species. For instance, selective
deforestation reduces the quality of the genetic material of
affected tree species, since only strong, healthy trees are
logged and the weaker ones are left behind. Humankinds
intentional or unintentional introduction of exotic animal and
plant species to new habitats plays an important role as well.
These so-called neozic species can become a threat to local
species and lead to their complete extinction. For instance,
the flightless Kiwi bird in New Zealand is threatened with
extinction by introduced rats and feral cats.

A) affects those who make the wilderness a basis for

their livelihoods
B) comes about mostly from natural catastrophes rather
than human activity
C) is most common in temperate areas such as New
Zealand, which includes many species
D) helps local species to reproduce and multiply
E) impacts the capacity of a species to produce
genetically healthy offspring
60) As it is clearly stated in the passage, the Kiwi bird ----.
A) was introduced into New Zealand along with animals
such as rats and feral cats
B) has become a symbol for conservation throughout
New Zealand
C) has never been able to adapt to the harsh
environment of New Zealand
D) is under threat because of other animals that were
introduced into its habitat
E) is a prime example of what is called a neozic species

57) It can be inferred from the passage that the destruction of

species ----.

species diversity
provide foundation
functioning of the biosphere
source of food
medicinal products
irreplaceable resource
increasing destruction
natural habitats
the basis of well-being
well-known species
become endangered
decline of species diversity
individual populations
selective deforestation
play an important role
complete extinction
living conditions
cycle of life
biological diversity
environmentally harmful
loss of species
natural catastrophes
healthy offspring
harsh environment
prime example

A) is a process that can lead to disaster for mankinds

future prospects
B) can help man search for better living conditions
C) is a part of the natural cycle of life and death on Earth
D) is a necessity in terms of the well-being of the planet
and mankind
E) has been exaggerated and a more balanced view
needs to be taken
58) It is stated in the passage that ----.
A) biological diversity is a luxury when people are in
need of food and medical products
B) hunting and fishing, unlike other environmentally
harmful activities, are necessary for human survival
C) most cases of biological destruction remain unknown
to the public
D) the public should be more concerned about the
possible loss of species like the tiger
E) biological diversity is more important for some
individual ecosystems than others



Imagine an industry that runs out of raw materials. Companies

go bankrupt, workers are laid off, families suffer and
associated organizations are thrown into turmoil. Eventually,
governments are forced to take drastic action. Welcome to
global banking, recently brought to its knees by the
interruption of its lifeblood the flow of cash. In this case, we
seem to have been fortunate. In the nick of time, governments
released reserves in order to start cash circulating again. But
what if the reserves had not been there? What are we going
to do when our supplies of vital materials such as fish, tropical
hardwoods, metals like indium and fresh water dry up? We
live on a planet with finite resources that is no surprise to
anyone so why do we have an economic system in which all
that matters is growth more growth means using more
resources. When the human population was counted in
millions and resources were sparse, people could simply
move to new pastures. However, with 9 billion people
expected around 2050, moving on is not an option. As
politicians reconstruct the global economy, they should take
head. If we are to leave any kind of planet to our children, we
need an economic system that lets us live within our means.

64) It is pointed out in the passage that in the past ----.


an economic system of growth was easy to establish

resources were more valuable than they are today
it was easy for people to find new resources
industry was far less dependent on raw materials
it was rare for businesses to actually fail

run out of materials

go bankrupt
throw into turmoil
take action
global banking
finite resources
economic system
human population
global economy
consequences of global
find a solution
population explosion

61) The author starts the passage with an example from

industry in order to ----.
A) explain why raw materials are used in industry
B) present the conditions of the workers who are
currently employed
C) indicate the possible consequences of global
D) emphasize the importance of raw materials
E) describe the impact of the banking system on
62) According to the passage, the global banking crisis was
resolved because governments ----.

cooperated closely with the industry

sold off large supplies of cash
involved the necessary organizations
bought new supplies of vital materials
acted quickly to find a solution

63) The main point made in the passage is that ----.

A) industries need to look carefully at the raw materials
B) the economic system currently in place must be
C) population explosion is one of the greatest threats to
mankind as it requires more planning
D) all governments should have a responsibility to help
out in times of crisis
E) the global banking system can throw the world into



67) It is understood from the passage that the placebo effect ---.

Many athletes credit drugs with improving their performance,

but some of them may want to thank their brain instead.
Mounting evidence suggests that the boost from human
growth hormone (HGH), an increasingly popular doping drug,
might be caused by the placebo effect. In a new double-blind
trial funded by the World Anti-Doping Agency, in which neither
researchers nor participants knew who was receiving HGH
and who was taking a placebo, the researchers asked
participants to guess whether or not they were on the real
drug. Then they examined the results of the group who
guessed that they were getting HGH when, in fact, they had
received a placebo. That group improved at four fitness tests
measuring strength, endurance, power and sprint capacity.
The study participants who guessed correctly that they were
taking a placebo did not improve, according to preliminary
results presented at the Society for Endocrinology meeting in
June2011. The finding really shows the power of the mind
said Ken Ho, an endocrinologist at the Garvan Institute in
Sydney, Australia, who led the study. She maintains that
many athletes are reaping the benefits of the placebo effect,
without knowing whether what they are taking is beneficial or

A) is highly esteemed among those who are interested

in athletics
B) can play a significant role in improving the
performances of athletes
C) has been monitored in the participating groups that
consist of people taking doping drugs
D) was also tested in other branches of sports where
competition exists
E) was very high in the studies where participants were
informed in advance
68) It can be inferred from the passage that ----.
A) external interventions may have negative impacts on
ones performance
B) every athlete should be involved in a study to
increase his or her performance
C) success lies in the power of ones mind no matter
which treatment he or she is exposed to
D) the World Anti-Doping Agency should be much more
careful about the use of drugs in sports
E) much more research should be done on the placebo
effect among athletes

65) It is clearly stated in the passage that the support given

by certain drugs ----.
A) is largely accepted for its positive contribution to
B) has been proven by many studies around the world
C) has led authorities to take the necessary measures
against these drugs
D) has been openly disputed by most of the athletes
E) results in the improved performances of all the
athletes who take them

increasingly popular
guess correctly
preliminary results
positive contribution
take necessary measures
increased popularity
play a significant role in
external interventions
negative impact

66) According to the results of the study funded by the World

Anti-Doping Agency, ----.
A) the study participants were all aware they were given
a placebo
B) those who knew that they were given real drugs failed
to show improvement in fitness tests
C) the athletes who did not know they were given a
placebo did well on fitness tests
D) the preliminary findings showed the increased
popularity of drugs
E) the effects of HGH are incompatible with those found
in other studies



Humans are preoccupied with vitality; that is, a concern with

the generation, transmission, continuation and protection of
life itself. The obvious social tie formed around this
preoccupation is the family. However, numerous individual
families of a nation understand themselves to be just that;
thus, the continuation of the nation into the future is regarded
as entailing the continuation of the families into the future.
Anthropological studies reveal that humans have always
formed not only families, but also larger groups of which
families are a part. Parents transmit to their own offspring not
only their flesh and blood genetic properties in a broader
term but also their cultural inheritance; the language,
traditions, customs and so forth of the larger group, of the
nation. This cultural inheritance is usually viewed by the
parents as being quite precious to their existence. This
intergenerational transmission of ones culture may be part of
the reason for the tendency to view the nation as a form of
kinship, because what is being transmitted is a part of ones
self to ones descendants

72) The passage is mainly about the ----.

A) effects of cultural differences in the transmission of
customs and traditions
B) human nature that needs to regenerate continually for
both biological and social reasons
C) superiority of the older generation over the new in
maintaining strong family relationships
D) improvement of the understanding of being a family
and a nation in general
E) historical and cultural aspects of the relation between
family and individuals

protection of life
social tie
continuation of the nation
cultural inheritance
intergenerational transmission
historical background
cultural property
structural changes
in the contemporary world
importance of kinship
form a nation
inseparable part
the role of the family
cultural differences
family relationships

69) It is understood from the passage that ----.

A) cultural inheritance of a nation lies mainly in its
historical background
B) larger groups are more effective than families while
transmitting culture to a new generation
C) a combination of factors compels people to form
groups of families and preserve their principles
D) anthropologists efforts to explore into the formation
of ancient families are worth praising
E) cultural properties of a nation will still be conveyed
despite structural changes in the family
70) It can be inferred from the passage that ----.
A) preoccupation with vitality is no longer a relevant
concept in the contemporary world
B) it is not cultural inheritance, but genetic properties
that make people a nation
C) transmission of genetic properties is considered to be
the most important task of a family
D) the majority of people ignore the importance of
kinship to form a nation
E) the way we think or behave is associated with what
we have inherited from our parents
71) One can conclude from the passage that ----.
A) family is an inseparable part of a nation as it
contributes greatly to its sustainment
B) parents tend to have difficulty in conveying their
cultural characteristics to children
C) anthropological studies ignore the role of the family in
nation formation
D) ones genetic properties hardly have an influence on
developing his or her cultural traits
E) families may not remain as transmitters of physical
traits in the future



History is one of the few school subjects commonly mandated

in education systems throughout the world. Furthermore, the
use of history textbooks to support student learning is an
almost universally accepted practice. However, the
widespread international presence of the humble history
textbook should not disguise its ideological and cultural
potency. Indeed, essential to understanding the power and
importance of history textbooks is to appreciate that in any
given culture they typically exist as the keepers of ideas,
values and knowledge. No matter how neutral history
textbooks may appear, they are ideologically important,
because they often seek to inject the youth with shared set of
values, national ethos and an incontrovertible sense of
political orthodoxy. Textbooks stand as cultural artefacts that
embody a range of issues associated with ideology, politics
and values which in themselves function at a variety of
different levels of power, status and influence. Embedded in
history textbooks are narratives and stories that nation states
choose to tell about themselves and their relations with other
nations. Typically, they represent a core of cultural knowledge
which future generations are expected both to assimilate and

75) According to the passage, regardless of how impartially

they are written, history textbooks ----.

need to teach both the past and the future

serve a purpose other than intended
are the best options for cultural transmission
affect ideologically the youth more than adults
can never be completely objective and neutral

76) It can be inferred from the passage that the author ----.
A) is in favour of using history textbooks to inform
people about international relations
B) sets out to emphasize the use of history textbooks to
instil national values in the young generation
C) is of the opinion that textbooks on history are easy to
D) believes in the necessity of locally produced history
textbooks to bring about world peace
E) is trying to persuade the reader of the importance of
understanding history

73) According to the passage, history textbooks ----.

education system
throughout the world
universally accepted
typically exist
set of values
cultural knowledge
future generations
international and universal
healthy understanding
political conflict
national identity
enhance political literacy
cultural transmission
international relations
young generation
bring about peace

A) are now being rewritten with a more international and

universal outlook to rectify past misunderstandings
between nations
B) are now being rewritten with a more international and
universal outlook to rectify past misunderstandings
between nations
C) should be written in a neutral and unbiased way so
that future generations can have a healthy
understanding of history
D) not only have educational, but also ideological
functions, serving to transmit a nation states values
E) consist of baseless stories and narratives rather than
historical facts that are more important for a nation
states survival
74) It is stated in the passage that ----.
A) some countries have been more successful in
producing more neutral and less ideological history
textbooks than others
B) in many nations, debates over the content and format
of history textbooks continue to generate
considerable political conflict
C) nations attempt to provide future generations with
particular values that will ensure the continuation of
existing structures
D) history textbooks have become more politicized after
the emergence of nation states to preserve national
E) many educational systems throughout the world
include history in their curriculum to enhance political



Farmers in many countries utilize antibiotics in two key ways:

at full strength to treat animals that are sick and in low doses
to fatten meat-producing livestock or to prevent veterinary
illnesses. Although even the proper use of antibiotics can
inadvertently lead to the spread of drug resistant bacteria, the
habit of using a low dose is a formula for disaster: the
treatment provides just enough antibiotic to kill some but not
all bacteria. The germs that survive are typically those that
happen to bear genetic mutations for resisting the antibiotic.
They then reproduce and exchange genes with other
microbial resisters. As bacteria are found literally everywhere,
resistant strains produced in animals eventually find their way
into people as well. You could not design a better system for
guaranteeing the spread of antibiotic resistance. To cease the
spread, Denmark enforced tighter rules on the use of
antibiotics in the raising of poultry and other farm animals. The
lesson is that improving animal husbandry making sure that
pens, stalls and cages are properly cleaned and giving
animals more room or time to mature offsets the initial
negative impact of limiting antibiotic use.

79) According to the passage, ----.

A) the spread of bacterial infections in poultry may not
be avoided by improving physical conditions
B) the weight of the poultry mainly depends upon the
environment they are brought up in
C) strict regulations in Denmark are employed to
minimize the effects of antibiotic use on both poultry
and people
D) the maturation period of poultry in Denmark is
determined by the size of the animal
E) the productivity of poultry can best be analyzed
through the amount of the antibiotic used on the
80) It is stated in the passage that antibiotics ----.
A) are crucial as they change the genetic mutations of
B) form the basis for microbial resistance of genes in
C) are effective in restricting resistant strains of bacteria
in poultry
D) are employed to prevent a possible disease spread
from farm animals to human beings
E) may produce drug resistant bacteria, irrespective of
how carefully they are used

77) It is understood from the passage that ----.

A) farmers mainly prefer using antibiotics as a
preventive measure for diseases
B) antibiotics are merely useful in treating the
contagious diseases of farm animals
C) continuous and heavy doses of antibiotics are crucial
for poultry
D) antibiotics are so far the only effective method to
fatten up meat-producing animals
E) poultry prices are affected by the spread of
contagious diseases

at full strength
prevent illnesses
proper use of antibiotics
genetic mutations
antibiotic resistance
enforce tight rules
negative impact
limit antibiotic use
preventive measure
contagious diseases
continuous and heavy
effective method
widespread use
highly recommend
find alternative solutions
fight off bacteria
strict regulations
productivity of poultry
form the basis

78) It is implied in the passage that ----.

A) widespread use of antibiotics is intended to eliminate
the chances of a possible pandemic
B) using a low dose antibiotic compared to a heavy dose
is highly recommended for farmers
C) human beings should test the efficacy of using
antibiotics on other animals before using them on
D) increased antibiotic resistance in human beings is
due to the consumption of animal products with
antibiotic content
E) antibiotic resistance in poultry animals has led
scientists to find alternative solutions to fight off these



The Marshall Plan was not a simple program for transferring

massive sums of money to struggling countries, but an explicit
and eventually successful attempt to reindustrialize
Europe. say Erik Reinert and Ha-Joon Chang. It follows that if
Africa really wants economic prosperity, it should study and
draw valuable lessons from the Marshall Plans dark twin: the
Morgenthau Plan implemented in Germany in 1945. Reinert
tells the story best: When it was clear that the Allies would win
the Second World War, the question of what to do with
Germany, which in three decades had precipitated two World
Wars, reared its head. Henry Morgenthau Jr, the US secretary
of the treasury, formulated a plan to keep Germany from ever
again threatening world peace. Germany, he argued, had to
be entirely deindustrialized and turned into an agricultural
nation. All industrial equipment was to be destroyed, and the
mines were to be flooded. This program was approved by the
Allies and was immediately implemented when Germany
capitulated in 1945. However, it soon became clear that the
Morgenthau Plan was causing serious economic problems in
Germany: deindustrialization caused agricultural productivity
to plummet. This was indeed an interesting experiment. The
mechanisms of synergy between industry and agriculture
worked in reverse: killing the industry reduced the productivity
of the agricultural sector.

83) It is implied in the passage that ----.

A) Americas vision for post-war Europe was in essence
B) a country has no choice but to prioritize one sector
over another in order to advance
C) todays Africa and post-war Germany have a lot in
D) Erik Reinert and Ha-Joon Chang were right in their
predictions about the Marshall Plan
E) plans made by policy makers may yield unexpected
84) The main concern of the author is to ----.
A) supply a brief summary of imperial nations
domination of others
B) blame Americas programs for Germanys agricultural
C) learn from the failings and achievements of some
economic policies
D) describe ways of industrializing through agriculture in
order to stop wars
E) accuse the African leaders of failing to understand
how Germany prospered

81) It is clearly stated in the passage that the Marshall Plan ---.
A) was redesigned as the Morgenthau Plan to be
applied in Germany
B) was very comprehensive in its scope to develop
C) was a program of investment from which the Allies
expected to benefit directly
D) was ill-formed for its objectives according to Erik
Reinert and Ha-Joon Chang
E) turned out to be a failed attempt to industrialize
various European nations

sum of money
economic prosperity
formulate a plan
industrial equipment
agricultural productivity
industrial development
unexpected outcomes
economic policies

82) According to the passage, Germany ----.

A) had to be stripped of its power to start wars
B) was unable to continue its industrial development
during World War II
C) needed industrial equipment and American finance to
rebuild the country
D) found the Morgenthau Plan problematic as its
economy declined
E) was allowed to industrialize despite its agricultural



87) Kovcs and Mehlers research reveals that both

monolingual and bilingual infants ----.

Recent research suggests that not only can children

differentiate between two languages at an early age, but also
show cognitive benefits from being exposed to a second
language starting as early as infancy. In a study in 2009 of
crib bilinguals, cognitive psychologists Agnes Kovcs and
Jacques Mehler used a visual test to measure cognitive
flexibility in preverbal seven-month-olds. Kovcs and Mehler
wanted to see how quickly the infants could adapt to changing
rules. They taught the infants a pattern consisting of speechlike sounds. At the end of the sequence, a visual reward in the
form of a puppet would appear in one part of a computer
screen. The infants were expected to learn that a given sound
pattern predicated the appearance of the puppet in that
location. Both bilingual and monolingual infants showed that
they associated the sound sequence with the puppets
location equally well by looking in the right place for the
puppet to appear. But when Kovcs and Mehler modified the
sequence and moved the puppet the bilingual infants
adjusted, switching their anticipatory gaze to the new location.
The monolingual infants, however, continued to look for the
puppet in the original location.

A) predict how modified sequences of speech-like

sounds match with moved objects
B) fail to associate the sound sequence with the location
of the object on the screen
C) confirm the hypothesis that the brain is preset for only
one language
D) guess the appearance of the puppet in a given
location upon a particular sound pattern
E) have equally sophisticated modes of thinking in the
preverbal stage of language acquisition
88) It is understood from the passage that ----.
A) many scientists make use of visual tests to measure
the cognitive capacity of bilingual children
B) monolinguals were unable to guess where the puppet
would appear when a sound pattern was given for the
first time
C) growing up bilingually led to verbal delays as
psychologists demonstrate today
D) only bilingual infants adapted to the modified sound
sequence and the relocated puppet
E) bilingual childrens adaptation to changing rules was
similar to that of monolinguals

85) One can conclude from the passage that bilingual

children ----.
A) are likely to make more verbal mistakes and delay
the full acquisition process because of interference
between two languages
B) can differentiate between two languages they are
exposed to at an early age, but their cognitive abilities
remain indistinguishable from monolinguals
C) not only develop the same patterns of cognitive
flexibility as monolinguals do, but they also respond
to verbal stimuli equally well
D) innately show more creativity than their monolingual
peers do, indicating a superior ability to grasp
abstract concepts
E) are capable of both distinguishing between two
languages and developing cognitive flexibility at an
early age

at an early age
cognitive benefits
make verbal mistakes
acquisition process
cognitive abilities
abstract concepts
language development
cognitive development
language acquisition
verbal delay

86) It is obvious from the passage that Kovcs and Mehler

wanted to ----.
A) demonstrate the role of visual and non-visual rewards
in childrens language development
B) prove monolingual infants complete their cognitive
development later than bilinguals
C) find out whether bilingual and monolingual infants
differ in their cognitive abilities
D) show the role of computers in the acquisition of
distinct sound patterns in bilinguals
E) explore the sound-learning strategies of the
monolingual infants



A credit rating agency measures credit worthiness of

institutions from companies to governments and assesses
their ability to pay back a loan. The top three credit rating
agencies are Standard and Poors (S&P), Fitch Ratings and
Moodys. Each rating agency has developed its own rating
system. Fitch Ratings developed its system in 1924, which
was later adopted by S&P. Both use a system of letter sliding
from the best rating AAA to the lowest D for borrowers
already defaulting on payments. In detail, AAA represents
the best quality borrowers that are reliable and stable without
any foreseeable risk to future payments, while D means the
institution has defaulted on payment obligations, having failed
to pay back the loans S&P and Fitch Ratings assert it will
keep on doing so. Moodys follows a different rating system. It
argues that their ratings have a superior approach that
considers not only the likelihood of default, but also the
severity of the default. In addition, S&P and Fitch Ratings are
only interested in how likely a borrower is to default, whereas
Moodys cares how long the default is likely to last. Most
importantly, S&P does not care what the recovery value will
be the amount of money that the lender will end up with
after the borrower has defaulted. Moodys, by contrast, tries to
figure out the expected losses, which makes it more

91) It is understood from the passage that ----.

A) the grade of an institution is not lowered if the default
is temporary and will be resolved soon
B) companies are more prone to default when compared
to governments
C) borrowers turn to Moodys if S&P and Fitch Ratings
cannot agree with their credit grades
D) high grades do not guarantee that the institution is
not vulnerable to default on payments
E) an institution is expected to default over the long term
if it has D grade in the rating system of S&P and
Fitch Ratings
92) It is stated in the passage that ----.
A) the amount of money that can be refunded after a
default increases if an institution has a high grade in
S&Ps rating system
B) S&P has been going beyond just rating institutions on
the basis of how likely they are to default
C) payment obligations are considered to be extraneous
when Moodys is trying to estimate the possible
D) Moodys seems to be more advantageous, as it takes
into account how much could be suffered after a
E) how long a default will last can be partially calculated
by detecting the recovery value

89) It is implied in the passage that ----.

A) an institution will not be able to take any more loans if
it has been downgraded by Moodys
B) credit ratings provided by agencies determine the
financial strength of institutions to meet the payments
C) the top three rating agencies have shaped their rating
systems in cooperation with each other
D) S&P was the first rating agency to effectively use the
rating system of letter sliding from AAA to D
E) no rating agencies apart from the top three are able
to provide accurate credit ratings to institutions

pay back a loan

develop a system
foreseeable risk
expected losses
financial strength
meet the payments
put emphasis on
give an opinion

90) One point that differentiates Moodys from other credit

rating agencies is that it ----.
A) puts more emphasis on the probability of default than
what will happen when a default occurs
B) assigns credit ratings to institutions that have already
defaulted on payments
C) gives an opinion about whether an institution has a
reliable credit quality or if it is subject to default
D) measures both how likely it is that there might be a
default and the ability of the borrower to return to
AAA status
E) is concerned with the time the institution is likely to
remain in default



Today, the European Union is home to more than 20 million

immigrants, who represent about 4 percent of the total EU
population and make valuable contributions to European
society. These new arrivals fill gaps in the labour market that
EU workers cannot or do not wish to fill, helping to address
the demographic decline in Europes working age population.
Properly managed, immigration can help contribute to the
EUs long-term economic development and competitiveness.
At the same time, ensuring the security and prosperity of the
EU population remains vital. The key is to streamline and
simplify the legal immigration process, enforce measures
against illegal immigrants, secure the external borders and
support the Member States efforts to promote the integration
of immigrants so they become full participants in EU society.
One of the EUs more remarkable achievements is the
creation of its single market, where people, goods, services
and capital move freely throughout the 27 EU Member States.
The flip side of this free movement, however, is that the
reduced internal border controls necessitate strengthened
external borders. Each border state bears a particular
responsibility for defending its portion of the EUs borders and
with it, the security of the entire EU.

95) One of the key points stated in the passage is that ----.
A) the immigrants should be securely placed in the cities
near the external borders
B) integration of the immigrants is not the concern of
Member States
C) prevention of excessive immigration can best be
practised by changing the immigration rules
D) EU countries should restrict the number of
immigrants to avoid a rapid increase in the population
E) the EU population can be secured by taking
measures against unlawful immigration
96) It is stated in the passage that ----.
A) using the same currency within Member States leads
to a powerful EU economy
B) internal borders should be controlled as extensively
as the external ones
C) sharing a single market among EU countries does not
necessitate a stronger control over the borders
D) decreased control over the internal borders may
require stricter management of external borders
E) Member States should frame their immigration
processes themselves regarding their socioeconomic backgrounds

93) According to the passage, immigrants in the EU are

crucial as they ----.
A) do the jobs that inhabitants are reluctant to perform
B) contribute to the increase of the overall population
C) help to increase the competition among other
D) culturally integrate themselves to the country they are
working in
E) obediently fulfill all the tasks they are required to do

make contributions
fill gaps
demographic decline
working age population
properly managed
economic development
legal immigration
promote the integration
remarkable achievements
internal border
bear responsibility
increase of the population
fulfill tasks
management of financial
working conditions
excessive immigration
a rapid increase
take measure
strict management
socio-economic background

94) According to the passage, ----.

A) local workers in EU countries are better educated and
thus more competent than the immigrants
B) in the long run, immigrants may contribute to the
management of financial problems of the EU
C) the problem of the work gap in EU countries can
never be totally overcome
D) working conditions of the immigrants in the EU are
worse than in their home countries
E) the free movement of people and goods throughout
Member States is hindered by strong internal borders



Outside forces have played a major part in the birth and

development of Middle Eastern states as well as in shaping
the environment in which these states have operated. Since
Napoleons intervention in Egypt in the late 18th century,
European powers have been an important part of the Middle
Easts make-up its politics, socio-economic development
and external orientation. It was the European powers who
took control of significant areas of the region from the 19th
century, and they gave rise to the downfall of the Ottoman
Empire and shared its spoils in the early 20th century. It was
the same set of European powers that formed new states
from territories under their control. But in the second half of
the 20th century, the nature of outside intervention changed
somewhat. As a penetrated regional system, the Middle East,
for all its active internal dynamics (nationalism, the ArabIsraeli War, etc.), was by the 1950s subject to the influence of
strategically-driven calculations made by the worlds two
superpowers: the US and the USSR. The superpowers
calculations not only directly affected politics of the region, but
also the environment where the local forces were taking
shape. For over a generation, the Cold War between
superpowers was the framework of the Middle Easts regional
system, from North Africa in the west to the borders of the
Soviet Caucasus and Central Asia

It can be inferred from the passage that the fate of the
Middle Eastern states ----.
A) was decided first by the European powers and then
the two superpowers
B) depended exclusively on the policies of imperial
European powers of the time
C) was directly linked to the survival of the Ottoman
Empire that controlled the region
D) was similar in many ways to the states in North Africa
and the Central Asia
E) was in the hands of their elected rulers for centuries

play a major part in

take control of
the downfall of the Ottoman
outside intervention
directly affected
take shape
active involvement
completely different
political influence

97) During the second half of the 20th century, ----.

A) the Cold War between superpowers forced the
Middle Eastern countries to rethink their calculations
B) active internal dynamics in the Middle East shaped
the regions prospects
C) the two superpowers began to take active
involvement in the Middle East
D) local forces in the Middle East were against the
dominance of two superpowers
E) the Middle East was a completely different region
from the Soviet Caucasus and Central Asia
98) The authors attitude towards the developments in the
Middle East is ----.


99) One can understand from the passage that the European
powers disintegrated the Ottoman Empire so that they
could ----.
A) accelerate the political and economic developments
in the Middle East
B) continue the conquests of Napoleon in Egypt
C) liberate Egypt from the Ottoman domination
D) benefit economically and extend their political
E) respond to the call of local people for independence



Although Aeschylus is considered to be the first great

innovator of Western drama, it is sometimes difficult to judge
the full extent of the innovations he introduced, since no plays
by his predecessor, Thespis, have been preserved. What we
know about Greek drama before Aeschylus suggests that it
had developed gradually out of choral lyrics, occasionally
interrupted by short dialogues between the chorus and a
single speaker or singer representing an individual character.
Aeschylus took the decisive step of introducing a second
actor, thus enabling for the first time a dialogue or conflict
between two individuals to take place on the stage and in front
of an audience. The innovations made possible by
Aeschyluss introduction of a second character are very
significant. In addition, an actor could leave the stage and
reappear in the guise of another character, thus permitting an
increase in the overall number of persons represented. In his
later plays, Aeschylus used three actors, allowing him to
feature a large number of characters, as in The Libation
Bearers, the second play of the Oresteia trilogy.


It is clearly stated in the passage that ----.

A) Aeschyluss last play, Oresteia, was a trilogy where

numerous kinds of legends were expressed
B) in order to raise the number of characters on stage,
performers in Aeschyluss plays changed costumes
and played other parts
C) a heroic image was depicted throughout the plays by
the actors representing different characters
D) developments in drama brought by Aeschylus had
been controversial for a long time
E) Aeschylus was a man of the stage who even acted in
his own plays in disguise with other actors

develop gradually
take a step
make possible
increase in the overall number
developments in drama

According to the passage, it is difficult to grasp the
importance of Aeschyluss innovations, because ----.
A) he, as his successor, parodied Thespiss elevated
B) they are believed to have come into being rather
C) the plays of his antecedents have not been retained
D) his surviving trilogy was singled out in terms of its
E) his plays expressed the confidence and authority of
an emerging empire
As indicated in the passage, prior to Aeschylus,
drama ----.
A) had choral lyrics in which short dialogues between
chorus and characters intervened
B) primarily focused on the conflicts between different
C) was dominated by long and continuous choral lyrics
D) had been specifically performed for the audience
E) was confined to a single character represented by a
speaker or a singer

It is understood from the passage that ----.

A) Aeschyluss dramatic poetry is hard to comprehend,

as he depicted sophisticated characters
B) the audience of the time objected to the idea that a
second actor caused chaos on stage
C) Aeschylus was inspired by Thespis in his attempts to
introduce a second character into his plays
D) with Aeschyluss initiation, a conversation or a clash
was realized by the acts of two actors on stage
E) most Greek tragedies had at least three actors on
stage or in the chorus



The economic realm of human activity, looked at from the

perspective of the entire human experience, can best be seen
not simply as a progressive development of freedom, but
rather as a series of phases in which new freedoms are made
possible only by determining new limits and new
responsibilities. So long as humankind respects those new
lines of authority, freedom prospers. Without those limits, on
the other hand, freedom dies. Legislative bodies around the
world that fail to pass environmental laws in the name of
freedom have an understanding of freedom that is ultimately
self-destructive. We must learn, before it is too late, that the
gift of freedom does not mean tearing down walls but
relocating them. Just as a line is defined by the empty space
that surrounds it, so is freedom defined by the boundaries
around its edges. If we fail to appreciate this basic law of
nature, if we continue to demand on the level of the nationstate freedom without limits and responsibility, we risk
punishing our children or our childrens children.

economic realm
human experience
progressive development
legislative bodies
environmental laws
understanding of freedom
tear down walls
law of nature
economic growth
strongly criticize
concept of freedom
future generations
natural development

In the passage, the author points out ----.

A) how freedom is supplemented by economic growth

B) the need to change the traditional understanding of
C) the costs of constructive economic pursuits
D) the positive environmental implications of excessive
E) who benefits the most from absolute freedom
The author mentions legislative bodies around the
world in order to ----.


strongly criticize the limitations of freedom

reject the responsibilities that freedom imposes on us
show how the concept of freedom can be abused
strengthen the parliaments perception of freedom
explain how our children can have more freedom
than we do
The author emphasizes that freedom is gained by ----.
understanding that it has to have limits
tearing down any obstacles in its way
educating our childrens children
appreciating that it is hard to achieve
allowing other people to share it

According to the passage, unless we truly understand
the concept of freedom, we will ----.

fail to develop the nation-state in economic terms

cause serious problems for future generations
prevent the natural development of history
realize that freedom is an unrealistic ideal
face the fact that it is against the laws of nature



Studies reveal that even subtle, artificial or seemingly

unimportant exclusion can lead to strong emotional reactions.
A strong reaction makes sense when you are rejected or
ignored by your family or close friends, because they are
important to you. It is more remarkable that intense feelings of
rejection can emerge even when people close to us are not
involved. We can feel awful even after people we have never
met simply look the other way. This reaction serves an
important function. It warns us that something is wrong, that
there exists a serious threat to our social and psychological
well-being. Psychologists argue that belonging, self-esteem, a
sense of control over your life and a belief that existence is
meaningful constitute four fundamental psychological needs
that we must meet to function as social individuals. Exclusion
threatens all these needs. Even in a verbal or physical
dispute, individuals are still connected. Total exclusion,
however, cuts all bonds. Worse than this, the imposed silence
forces us to think about the event in detail, generating selfcritical thoughts in our search for an explanation. This forced
isolation also makes us feel helpless: You can fight back, but
no one will respond. Finally, exclusion makes our very
existence feel less meaningful because this type of rejection
makes us feel isolated and unimportant.


According to the passage, exclusion ----.

A) can be productive if it generates self-reflection and an

improvement in behaviour
B) is a very real threat to our psychological welfare
C) is the result of lack of control over our behaviour in
social situations
D) makes us more physically aggressive, leading to
further isolation
E) is the most effective way for humans to deal with
problems in their lives
According to the passage, having an argument or
physical fight is preferable to exclusion because ----.
A) acting out disagreements is a primary psychological
B) built-up feelings of aggression will only cause greater
future violence
C) the individual is still part of the group and has ties to
D) human beings often find deep meaning in
disagreements and conflicts
E) sometimes using force is the only way to achieve
certain aims

The author of the passage thinks the results of
studies on exclusion are surprising in that ----.
A) negative feelings of exclusion occur only after
rejection by close friends or family members
B) people who have been excluded are usually those
who consider relationships unimportant
C) even people who do not matter to us personally can
hurt us by ignoring us or keeping us out
D) most people experience no negative feelings after
being rejected by social groups
E) a person with a wide network of social connections
will experience less rejection

seemingly unimportant
emotional reaction
make sense
serve a function
serious threat
social individual
function properly
psychological welfare
deal with problems
deep meaning
achieve aims

We can understand from the passage that
humanbeings ----.
A) are social beings who require membership in a group
to function properly
B) exclude individuals for valid reasons that must be
resolved by the individual
C) are essentially sensitive beings who exclude others
only by accident
D) are different from all other living organisms in the
extent of their need for social ties
E) rarely experience very strong feelings of rejection



Typing in passwords could be a thing of the past, thanks to

technology that can read your thoughts. A new discovery
brings cognitive biometrics very close to reality. In cognitive
biometrics, the response of your nervous system to a stimulus
is measured, then used to identify you. A series of letters or
images are flashed up on a screen and your P300 wave a
type of electrical activity in the brain is measured using
electrodes attached to your head. When a pre-defined word,
letter or image is shown, recognition by the user generates
their signature, P300 wave. Until now, users have been
shown different letters or symbols in different parts of a
screen. But tests at the universities of Essex and
Wolverhampton have found that the system identifies
individuals most accurately if all characters appear in the
same location. This also reduces the chances of criminals
spotting the brain word by tracking eye movement. As there is
no keyboard involved, it is much harder for someone intent on
fraud to get access to a password. You still have to keep your
password secure, says Dr. Palani Ramaswamy. Its just that
the way of entering the password is more resistant to fraud.
Accuracy still needs to be improved before cognitive
biometrics can come into mainstream use. Once accuracy is
close to 100 percent, it can be used for high-security military
applications and financial transactions as well, he maintains


A) the field of cognitive biometrics could be improved by

integrating the keyboard into its use
B) research on the applicability of cognitive biometrics
has been exclusively conducted at the universities of
Essex and Wolverhampton
C) cognitive biometrics differs from other related fields in
that, in addition to other procedures, it follows eye
D) cognitive biometrics could benefit other fields if the
level of its precision is increased
E) with cognitive biometrics, people are ensured a safer
yet slower means by which they could enter their

According to the passage, ----.

A) Dr. Ramaswamy does not share the opinions of the

other researchers in the field of cognitive biometrics
B) studies reveal that the way in which letters or
symbols are presented should be changed if more
accuracy is desired
C) criminals will have to generate a signature of their
own first if they want to get access to the passwords
of others
D) people who actively use their mental capabilities
seem to be more easily recognized by the system in
cognitive biometrics
E) one does not have to be attached to electrodes, as
his or her signature readily shows up on different
parts of the screen

It can be understood from the passage that in
cognitive biometrics, ----.
A) the P300 wave refers to the nature of the electrodes
that are attached to ones head
B) the stimuli are determined beforehand to suit
experimental purposes
C) ones nervous system plays a vital role in his or her
identification by a machine
D) ones imaginary world created by the electrical
activity in the brain overlaps with reality
E) there is almost no chance of obtaining a password
through eye tracking

It is clearly stated in the passage that ----.

eye movement
get access to
play a vital role in
call for security
share an opinion
get access
mental capability

It is pointed out in the passage that ----.

A) in cognitive biometrics, it is not the password itself

that is more secure, but the way it is put in to the
B) financial business applications have priority over
military applications, as they call for more security
C) resistance to deceit is measured by how well ones
thoughts could be read by machines
D) symbols are more successful tools of user recognition
than letters
E) the P300 wave is gradually being replaced by other
means of measurement in cognitive biometrics



For decades, nets and sprays have been the only effective
methods for controlling the mosquitoes that cause malaria.
However, Spanish chemist Pilar Mateo thinks she can do
better with her invention of embedding pesticides in
microcapsules stirred into house paints at her Valencia
company. The insecticides are released from the paint slowly,
remaining effective for two to four years, while sprays need to
be reapplied at least every six months. The paint acts like a
vaccine for houses, she says. The amounts of pesticides
released from the paint are harmless to people but are
devastating to insects, according to the tests made by
scientists. The paint has already been approved for use in
fifteen countries, including China and England. Mateo is
seeking approval in the US and a recommendation from the
World Health Organization. She says she has received offers
to buy her patent but refuses to sell out. Instead, her new
venture, another company in Africa, will produce it
commercially at a factory in Ghana and employ a great
number of workers. By taking production outside Spain, we
can reduce the cost and make it more accessible, she says.
Her idea is to sell the paint as an affordable alternative to
sprays. After years of donating paint to poor people in Latin
America, Mateo wants to fund her broader humanitarian
efforts. Its not just the insects that are the problem, she
says, Its the poverty.


A) the paint may not be as common as sprays, since

they have long been in use for pest control
B) Mateo will also contribute to the economy of a less
well-off nation with her new project
C) greater amounts of pesticides are required in Latin
American countries
D) the use of the paint will be restricted to fifteen
countries around the world
E) people in poor countries may not be able to afford to
buy the paint because of its high cost


It can be understood from the passage that Mateo ---.

A) has made important donations to Latin American

countries with the help of the US
B) is thought to be the most successful inventor in the
field of pest control
C) has tried to sell her patent, but could not manage to
do so
D) is the first to make use of microencapsulation
E) ultimately plans to fight against poverty through her
lucrative enterprises

According to the passage, Mateos invention ----.

effective methods
employ workers
affordable alternative
attract much attention
long-lasting effect
high cost
make donations
fight against poverty

A) provides easy application and proves to be more

effective than other methods
B) has been guided by the World Health Organization
and initially applied in the US
C) is supported primarily by the funds from China and
D) has resulted from a collaborative work of scientists
from different countries
E) has attracted much attention especially from
developed countries

It can be inferred from the passage that ----.

According to the passage, the paint ----.

reveals different results in some parts of the world
needs to be stirred well before application
has a long-lasting effect when compared to sprays
releases pesticides every six months
should be used in houses where people have been



Astronomers have a reputation for bringing us stunning

discoveries: new planets and galaxies on the edge of the
known universe. But now they are on the trail of the most
notable finding of all: evidence for a whole new universe
beyond our own. For millennia, philosophers have insisted
everything we see is part of the all-encompassing totality
called the universe. And for centuries, astronomers have been
mapping its immensity, using more and more powerful
telescopes to probe deeper into space. It seemed clear,
however, that there was a limit to what they could see, as they
were examining what was comprehensible for them. Since the
discovery of cosmic expansion, they believed there must be a
final frontier, but today, there is mounting excitement that it
may be possible to probe beyond this far horizon. According
to the latest theories in cosmology, what has been regarded
as the universe might be just one of an infinite number making
up something far grander the Multiverse. But the Multiverse
model is highly problematic; the biggest difficulty is that the
existence of such parallel universes can be neither verified
nor falsified. No less amazing, an orbiting observatory, named
Planck, has revealed many features about our universe such
as its age and size since it was launched in 2009, and
astronomers believe it may be able to travel the Multiverse
and do even more.

According to the passage, the Multiverse model is
thought to be ----.

It can be understood from the passage that Planck ---

A) has been designed especially for determining the age

and size of the universe
B) is the most powerful device that has ever been sent
to space
C) is more appealing to astronomers than the Multiverse
D) has already provided much information about the
E) may be able to reveal the presence of other
universes beyond our own

It can be inferred from the passage that the
Multiverse model ----.

have a reputation for

biggest difficulty
physical laws
scientific methods
provide information

A) contradicts the idea that human life can be

maintained on other planets
B) consists of multiple universes which are completely
similar to each other
C) has been scientifically approved by a great number of
D) is a hypothetical set of possible universes that
together comprise all that exists
E) suggests that each universe affects one another in
terms of physical laws
According to the passage, there had been a limitation
for astronomers, since they ----.
A) did not have sufficient data to improve their studies
on the Multiverse
B) could only study the properties of the universe that
were observable to them
C) were not able to understand the consequences of
cosmic expansion
D) lacked the necessary telescopes to observe the
universe in detail
E) had difficulty in collaborating with each other and
following accurate scientific methods



Forget drilling into the ocean floor to tap into ever-decreasing

supplies of oil, because there could soon be a new fuel source
beneath the waves seaweed. A technique has been
developed to convert sugars in seaweed into a fuel that can
be used to power cars. Biofuels are currently produced from
crops such as corn and sugar cane, but these sources are
also in demand for use as food, and their production requires
large amounts of land, fresh water and fertiliser. Seaweed
requires none of these and has the advantage of not
containing lignin, a strong strand of sugars that stiffens plant
stalks but is difficult to turn into biofuel. Researchers at Bio
Architecture Lab in California have been able to produce
bioethanol from kombu, an edible brown seaweed. Bioethanol
can be blended with petrol and used in engines with little or no
modification. Brown seaweed has high sugar content and also
grows more quickly than the red or green species. The only
potential stumbling block is growing enough of the stuff.
Several thousand tonnes are farmed annually for food, but if it
is going to be used widely as a fuel, billions of tonnes would
be required. But Bio Architecture Lab is still forging ahead,
launching a seaweed biofuel pilot project in 2013. It hopes to
commercialize seaweed-sourced fuels within three to four


One can understand from the passage that ----.

A) much more seaweed needs to be produced to

provide enough fuel
B) Bio Architecture Lab may suspend its plans for using
seaweed for biofuel
C) farmers currently producing seaweed will be paid to
produce more
D) researchers need three to four years before they can
obtain biofuel from seaweed
E) growing red or green seaweed rather than the brown
species proves to be more beneficial

have the advantage of

grow quickly
use widely
food resource
commercial purposes
cause pollution
increase efficiency

According to the passage, producing fuel from
seaweed ----.
A) can interrupt drilling for oil under the ocean, as most
types of seaweed grow on the surface
B) is a longer process when compared to producing fuel
from other crops
C) can be more expensive than producing fuel from
crops such as sugar cane
D) is a great resource in view of producing fuel from
other sources
E) remains the only way in which sugars are used as
crops for fuel

It is clearly stated in the passage that seaweed ----.

A) cannot be used alone as a food resource

B) does not call for resources such as fresh water and
C) does not grow quickly in comparison to other crops
D) is not utilized for commercial purposes
E) does not retain a great amount of sugar
According to the passage, the bioethanol from
seaweed ----.
A) is convenient enough to be used alone to fuel cars
B) causes great amounts of pollution when combined
with petrol
C) can be used with little or no change in car engines
D) needs to be blended with other biofuels to increase
its efficiency
E) requires using red and green species together



Scientists have urged national leaders for years to tackle

climate change, based on the assumption that all nations
should take steps in harmony for the success of their
prevention efforts. But as anyone who has watched the past
15 years of international climate negotiations can attest, most
countries are still reluctant to take meaningful steps to lower
their production of greenhouse gases, much less address
issues such as how to help developing countries protect
themselves from the extreme effects of climate change.
Mayors and urban managers are taking over as they have a
keener sense about how changing weather patterns will affect
their cities political and economic futures. Indeed, within
months after Hurricane Katrinas landfall, the C40 Cities
Climate Leadership Group launched in London in October
2005, and the World Mayors Council on Climate Change
(WMCCC) got its start in Kyoto that December. As of June
2011, more than 190 mayors and other local authorities,
representing some 300 million people from around the world,
have also signed a voluntary pact sponsored by the WMCCC
to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. They are tackling
climate change, as their cities are suffering from floods, rising
sea levels and heat waves. They are innovating ways to
reduce carbon dioxide emissions, prevent further changes in
weather patterns and benefit from transportation systems that
protect the environment

It can be understood from the passage that shortly
after the devastation Hurricane Katrina caused in 2005, ---.
A) climate negotiations started to focus more on the
issues of greenhouse gas emissions
B) two major alliances of city mayors were formed in
order to combat climate-related problems
C) national leaders came together to take
unprecedented measures against greenhouse gas
D) both civic leaders and presidents began to take more
effective and coordinated actions
E) a voluntary pact was signed to deal with climate
change more efficiently
One point made in the passage is that there are
evidently extreme effects of climate change, ----.
A) thus the World Mayors Council on Climate Change
prioritized some steps to prevent rising sea levels in
some countries
B) so most countries are increasingly helping developing
nations tackle the climate-related problems
C) yet the C40 mayors know exactly which countries can
help them to deal with catastrophes
D) though mayors and urban managers are not making
any attempts to collaborate with national leaders
E) but most countries seem unwilling to take important
measures to lessen their greenhouse gas emissions

It is obvious from the passage that scientists have
long encouraged national leaders to address the issue of
climate change ----.
A) as they believe that prevention efforts require the
coordinated actions of entire nations to be effective
B) so that developed countries can persistently protect
themselves from the extreme effects of climate
C) with an aim to make developing countries take
significant steps to reduce their greenhouse gas
D) because most cities are suffering from catastrophes
such as floods, rising sea levels and heat waves
E) in order that city leaders and urban managers should
minimize the costs of the measures taken to prevent
climate change

climate change
take steps
prevention efforts
international negotiations
greenhouse gases
extreme effects
sign a pact
carbon dioxide emissions
protect the environment
suffer from catastrophes
minimize the costs
combat problems
take measure
take actions
rising sea levels
make any attempts

It is emphasized in the passage that ----.

A) Hurricane Katrina became the moment of awakening,

especially for national leaders, to reduce greenhouse
gas emissions
B) national leaders have been supporting urban
managers to tackle climate change through
sponsored projects
C) national leaders are better equipped than mayors to
plan the control of climate change more successfully
D) local leaders have often taken better steps than
national leaders to cope with climate change
E) scientists should first encourage mayors and urban
managers, not presidents, to reduce greenhouse gas



We humans long assumed that our visual system stood at the

top of evolutionary success. Our knowledge of colour vision
was primarily based on what humans see: researchers easily
performed experiments on colour perception in humans.
Although scientists obtained supporting information from a
variety of other species by recording the firing of neurons, we
remained unaware until the early 1970s that many
vertebrates, mostly animals other than mammals, see colours
in a part of the spectrum that is invisible to humans: the
ultraviolet. In fact, the discovery of ultraviolet vision began
with studies of insects conducted by Sir John Lubbock, who
discovered sometime before 1882 that in the presence of
ultraviolet light, ants would pick up their young and carry them
to dark areas or to areas illuminated by longer wavelengths of
light. In the mid-1900s, Karl von Frisch and his students
showed that bees and ants not only see ultraviolet light as a
distinct colour but use ultraviolet in skylight as a compass.
The finding that a great number of insects perceive ultraviolet
light misleadingly gave rise to the idea that this spectral region
provides a private sensory channel that avian predators like
eagles and vultures cannot see. Nothing, however, could have
been further from the truth. Subsequent research showed that
birds, lizards, turtles and many fish have ultraviolet receptors
in their retinas.

The misconception caused by Karl von Frisch and his
students findings was that ----.


several insects can make use of ultraviolet light

certain birds cannot perceive ultraviolet light
some animals have ultraviolet receptors
many insects do not need daylight
only bees and ants can see ultraviolet as a distinct
It is stated in the passage that ----.

A) Karl von Frisch pioneered research in ultraviolet

vision of vertebrates
B) scientists were unaware of the methods used to study
animal perception in the past
C) the firing of neurons was an effective way to
experiment on human vision
D) until the late 19th century, ultraviolet vision was
unknown to humans
E) the alleged superiority of animal visual system has
not been accepted by some researchers

The study carried out by Karl von Frisch and his
students revealed that ----.

perform experiments
obtain information
conduct studies
evolutionary process
an effective way

A) Sir John Lubbocks findings about ants vision were

B) only certain insects could perceive ultraviolet in the
form of a colour spectrum
C) bees and ants could see ultraviolet as a colour on its
D) many vertebrates had ultraviolet receptors in their
E) some animals had difficulty with vision in the
presence of ultraviolet light
It can be understood from the passage that humans
used to consider their visual system superior to that of
animals because ----.
A) the evolutionary process was not taken into account
in previous studies
B) experiments on colour vision did not include any
species besides humans
C) the studies conducted on other species only focused
on the firing of neurons
D) other mammals were unable to perceive ultraviolet
E) research on colour vision was insufficient to
demonstrate the complexity of animal perception



There are several factors that increase the risk of cancer.

Mutations that affect genes are believed to contribute to the
development of cancer. These genes produce proteins that
regulate growth and alter cell division and other basic cell
properties. Cancer-causing genetic mutations may result from
the damaging effects of drugs and viruses. Additionally,
environmental factors such as air pollution and radiation
increase the risk of cancer. Some chemicals like pesticides
are known to cause cancer, and many others are suspected
of doing so, but more study is needed to identify those
chemicals that increase the risk. The threat of cancer may
also vary according to geographical features. This geographic
variation in cancer risk is multifactorial: a combination of
genetics, diet and environment. For example, the Japanese,
who follow a diet that mainly includes smoked foods, have
high rates of colorectal cancer. When they immigrate to the
US and eat a Western diet, the risk level declines to that of
the US. Age is another risk factor. While some cancers like
Vilms tumor occur almost exclusively in children, cancers of
the lungs and kidneys are more common in older people,
probably due to constant exposure to carcinogens and
weakening of the bodys immune system. However, not all
people who are exposed to carcinogens or who have other
risk factors develop cancer.


A) a patients age must be taken into account while

following a treatment process for some cancer types
B) the immune system can be strengthened in older
people in order to avoid the risk of developing cancer
C) children can also suffer from cancer resulting from
the weakening of the bodys immune system
D) some types of cancer are more likely to progress in
people whose immune systems have become less
efficient through the years
E) age is thought to increase the risk of developing
cancer, but most cancer types are seen in young

It can be inferred from the passage that ----.

A) if a person is frequently subjected to carcinogens, he

or she will certainly suffer from cancer
B) where people live and what they eat may determine
whether they will develop any type of cancer
C) even when the immune system functions normally,
cancer can escape its successful protection
D) some environmental factors leading to cancer can be
handled to decrease the risk while others have no
way to be prevented
E) the risk of developing any type of cancer in the US is
less than Japan since Americans are more careful
about carcinogens

One can understand from the passage that ----.

A) once cells become cancerous, they lose their control

mechanisms and divide continuously
B) the final step in cancer development is the change in
which the cells genetic properties are negatively
C) mutations make cells more susceptible to
carcinogens, thus increasing the risk of developing
D) cells can be more resistant to cancer after they have
undergone some mutations caused by viruses
E) when genes are mutated, they may malfunction and
experience unusual growth, which can cause cancer

It is clearly stated in the passage that ----.

increase the risk of cancer

damaging effects
the threat of cancer
follow a diet
undergo mutations
harmful effects
fight against cancer
treatment process

It is understood from the passage that ----.

A) a persons diet may also cause genetic mutations that

can change the properties of cells
B) the effects of environmental factors cannot be
separated from those of age and genetics
C) pesticides are claimed to contribute to cancer more
than any other kind of chemicals
D) there are still a number of chemicals whose harmful
effects have not been proved
E) drugs are widely used to fight against cancer
although they can sometimes destroy ones health



Just a few decades ago, doctors would dispense sleeping pills

as if they were sweets. Today, sleeping pills are no longer
considered to be an appropriate solution to chronic
sleeplessness. As they treat only the symptoms of insomnia,
any improvement in sleep can only be temporary, thereby
perpetuating the cycle of insomnia and drug-induced sleep.
Ironically, many people initially turn to sleeping pills, as
insomnia has left them helpless and out of control. However,
pills can become a trap that escalates feelings of dependency,
lowered self-esteem and guilt. Then insomniacs end up
having to cope with two stressful problems: insomnia and
dependency on sleeping pills. Most patients prefer non-drug
approaches like avoiding caffeine and nicotine, but they do
not know how best to escape the sleeplessness. However,
some doctors guide their patients by prescribing the smallest
possible dose, to be used only after two consecutive nights of
bad sleep. As an alternative to supplement the pills,
professionals provide such sleep aids as antihistamines which
produce drowsiness as a side effect. Also, synthetic melatonin
has recently been marketed and publicized as a natural
sleeping pill. Although several studies found that melatonin
was effective for promoting sleep, the studies focused on
normal sleepers, not insomniacs. All in all, it seems that
careful implementation of new behavioural patterns provides
the most promising results to sufferers

It is clearly stated in the passage that success in
treating the problem of insomnia ----.
A) is associated with using synthetic melatonin
B) centres around following non-drug approaches
C) lies primarily in changing the way that patients
D) depends on extensive use of the sleeping pills
E) can be reached by substituting the sleeping pills with

sleeping pills
appropriate solution
symptoms of insomnia
cope with problems
side effect
behavioural patterns
promising results
short-term solution
inconsistent results

According to the passage, initially professionals
assisted patients with sleep deprivation by ----.

prohibiting the use of alternative drugs

increasing the amount of sugar in their diet
monitoring their sleep patterns
prescribing them medicine
observing their allergic reactions

According to the passage, doctors now approach
sleeping pills as ----.
A) a short-term solution to the problem of insomnia
B) an essential way to help insomniacs to become
normal sleepers
C) a useful method to reduce sleeplessness on its own
D) a suitable means to cope with the disturbances of
E) an effective measure to prevent insomnia to a great
According to the passage, the primary drawback of
sleeping pills is that they ----.

produce inconsistent results in some people

affect the personality of the user adversely
have many side effects like allergic reactions
fail to show promising results in people with low selfesteem
E) lose all their effectiveness when taken irregularly



Vitamin C boosts the immune system by strengthening the

action of white blood cells that destroy harmful bacteria and
viruses, such as cold and flu viruses. It is also an important
antioxidant, protecting the watery internal parts of cells from
the damaging effects of excess free radicals, and it works in
partnership with vitamin E which protects the fatty outer part
of the cells. Moreover, vitamin C can help to prevent
cholesterol from becoming oxidised, a phenomenon now
thought to be the precursor to the furring of arteries the
reduction of blood flow through arteries. High intakes of
vitamin C are also linked with lower levels of stomach cancer.
In addition, vitamin C improves the absorption of iron from
non-meat sources, so ensuring a regular intake is useful if you
are a vegetarian. Also, it has mild antihistamine properties,
thus allergy sufferers may find it helpful. Furthermore, when
we are under physical or mental stress, vitamin C is depleted
from our adrenal glands; it plays a regulatory role in the
production of the hormone cortisone that helps us cope with
the pressures of life.


A) inadequate amounts of vitamin C can cause adrenal

glands to produce cortisone
B) vitamin C often needs to be in contact with other
vitamins to be of any use to the human body
C) vitamin C consumption inhibits cholesterol oxidation
D) vitamin C is beneficial in mild amounts, but is harmful
when abundant
E) it is better to get our daily supply of vitamin C from
meat rather than any other kind of food

damaging effects
high intakes
absorption of iron
play a regulatory role
the pressures of life
allergic reactions
cure many diseases
vitamin deficiency
daily supply

According to the passage, vitamin C helps to ----

A) prevent the external parts of cells from being invaded

by bacteria and viruses
B) defend the inner parts of cells against certain harmful
C) overcome all the symptoms of allergic reactions
D) control the absorption of the iron available in meat
E) cure many diseases by increasing the number of
white blood cells

It can be understood from the passage that ----.

It is implied in the passage that ----.

A) even moderate amounts of vitamin C can help to fight

against stomach cancer
B) we need to take regular doses of vitamin C, as our
body cannot store it
C) any kind of vitamin deficiency in vegetarians can be
compensated with high intakes of vitamin C
D) vitamin C is the most important vitamin because of its
many beneficial properties
E) vitamin C helps us deal with stress by regulating the
production of cortisone

The passage is mainly about ----.

A) different ways in which the human body makes use of

vitamin C
B) why we should begin taking vitamin C supplements
C) how vitamin C is absorbed into the human body
D) the benefits of vitamin C as compared to other
E) how much vitamin C we should obtain from food



Digestible microchips embedded in drugs may soon tell

doctors whether a patient is taking their medications as
prescribed. These sensors are the first ingestible devices
approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). To
some, they signify the beginning of an era in digital medicine.
The sand particle sized sensor consists of a minute silicon
chip containing trace amounts of magnesium and copper.
When swallowed, it generates a slight voltage in response to
digestive juices, which conveys a signal to the surface of a
persons skin where a patch then relays the information to a
mobile phone belonging to a health care provider. Currently,
the FDA and the analogous regulatory agency in Europe have
only approved the device based on studies showing its safety
and efficacy when implanted in placebo pills. But scientists
hope to have the device approved within other drugs in the
near future. Medicines that must be taken for years, such as
those for drug-resistant diabetes, and for the elderly with
chronic diseases, are top candidates. Proponents of digital
medical devices predict they will provide alternatives to blood
tests, MRIs and CAT scans. Other gadgets in the pipeline
include implantable devices that wirelessly inject drug at prespecified times and sensors that deliver a persons
electrocardiogram to their smartphone.

It can be inferred from the passage that digital
medicine ----.
A) will probably not need the advantages of wireless
technology to implement further changes
B) may not be as beneficial as they are thought since
the devices are still in the trial period
C) will be prevalent in the US before it is tested safely in
D) will enable medical professionals to carry out certain
screening methods without being physically present
with their patients
E) may not help patients with their digestive problems,
even with the pre-arranged guidance of health care

take medication
the beginning of an era
health care provider
provide alternatives
increase its efficacy
permanent health problems
implement further changes
carry out methods

It can be understood from the passage that
microchips ----.
A) are composed of sand-particle sized copper
B) directly send a signal to the patients mobile phone
C) should sometimes be separated from the drug to
increase its efficacy
D) are almost invisible to the naked eye
E) were initially designed to observe the digestive
system of patients
It is clear from the passage that microchips placed in
drugs ----.
A) prompts a high-level voltage when merged with
digestive juices
B) have produced prolific results on people with drug
resistant diabetes
C) need to be taken with juicy substances to be effective
D) have been tested exclusively in European countries
E) aim to inform the health care provider about the
patients use of their medication
According to the passage, microchips could be
beneficial to people ----.

who are particularly resistant to magnesium

facing permanent health problems
coming from all age groups
who cannot benefit from placebo pills
who have problems with the surface of their skin



Environmental health has biologic, chemical, physical and

sociological components, including the immediate and future
conditions in which people live. In colonial America, little
attention was paid to community hygiene and sanitation, and
there was almost a complete lack of community organisation
for better health services. During this time, epidemics of
cholera, smallpox and dysentery continually occurred.
Although such epidemics were attributed to environmental
health hazards such as overcrowding, inadequate housing
and impure water, little was done to improve these conditions.
Early attempts to ensure environmental health included a law
in 1610 that prohibited the throwing out of water from dirty
clothes into the street, and required people to do the
necessities of nature outside the town. Those who violated the
law were often subjected to strict penalties. Such measures
were more concerned with the aesthetics of the environment
than with related health consequences, and environmental
practices were frequently directed at keeping the environment

It can be understood from the passage that with the
introduction of the law in 1610, people ----.
A) could be severely punished for contaminating the
B) began to consult to the opinions of other people
regarding sanitation
C) found it hard to keep the environment appealing
D) were obliged to wash their clothes in public places
E) realized that hygiene included biologic, chemical and
physical components

environmental health
pay little attention
inadequate housing
strict penalties
health standards
importance of health care
historical overview
provide information
punish severely
contaminate the environment

According to the passage, the term environmental
health ----.

describes the emergence of epidemics

has been around for a very long time
refers to basic health standards
still means little to American people
includes many different factors
The main purpose of the passage is to ----.

A) give the reader an understanding of the importance of

health care
B) present a historical overview of the development of
environmental health
C) provide background information regarding American
health practices
D) show the lack of understanding of environmental
health in the past
E) define what is meant by the term environmental

It is clearly stated in the passage that in the past, ----.

A) dirty water was the biggest threat to health

B) epidemics like cholera were not very deadly
C) people were not acting collectively to provide
improved health care
D) serious steps were taken to prevent epidemics
E) preventive health care was directed at both men and



Alzheimers disease is a chronic, degenerative condition of

the brain cells. Some risk factors can be avoided, but others,
such as increasing age and genetic properties, are inevitable.
It is now the third most common cause of death in the
developed world, with more women than men affected. The
first symptom is often an impaired memory for recent events,
which can be difficult to distinguish from the normal agerelated decline in memory. As the disease progresses,
forgetfulness may hinder routine activities such as cooking
and household chores. Those affected may be aware of their
memory difficulties, so they can deal with the problem by, for
example, writing notes or letting someone else manage
decisions for them. In the late stages of the disease, the
changes in memory and behaviour are marked. Sufferers
cannot compensate for their memory lapses and become
confused. They may develop paranoid behaviour like jealousy
or accusations of theft, and may experience visual
hallucinations. People in advanced stages cease to recognize
even their family members and close friends. They may also
refuse to eat, develop unsteadiness and increasingly lose

As it is pointed out in the passage, during the early
stages of Alzheimers disease, ----.
A) psychological symptoms such as jealousy might
B) behavioural differences between men and women
become very apparent
C) people will not be able to remember events that
happened a long time ago
D) the symptoms of the disease may be similar to
normal age-related symptoms
E) people are affected physically more than mentally

the most common cause

in the developed world
routine activities
experience hallucinations
lose weight
the first indicator
early symptoms of
Alzheimers disease
critical factor
genetic inheritance
behavioural differences

It is clearly stated in the passage that ----.

A) females are more susceptible to developing

Alzheimers disease compared to males
B) weight loss is among the first indicators of
Alzheimers disease
C) Alzheimers disease is not deadly to people living in
crowded families
D) Alzheimers disease is more common in countries
that are currently developing
E) Alzheimers disease cannot be distinguished from the
symptoms of normal aging even in its later stages

It is understood from the passage that ----.

A) sufferers of Alzheimers disease have only a few

mental symptoms
B) some household chores remain unaffected even if
Alzheimers disease progresses
C) people can cope with some of the early symptoms of
Alzheimers disease with the help of others
D) people can usually control the physical drawbacks of
Alzheimers disease
E) symptoms of Alzheimers disease can be best
handled by means of psychiatric assistance

It can be inferred from the passage that ----.

A) age is the most critical factor in all stages of

Alzheimers disease
B) Alzheimers disease can be frustrating and painful for
both the patient and his or her family members
C) Alzheimers disease is less common among
individuals who are mentally active
D) people in developed countries are more likely to go
through the advanced stages of Alzheimers disease
E) sufferers can have a genetic inheritance that makes
them less susceptible to Alzheimers disease



Spain's third-largest bank, Banco Popular, raised some

eyebrows recently when it agreed to buy Portugal's Banco
Nacional for $638 million. Shareholders voted overwhelmingly
in approval of the acquisition. Normally, however, Popular's
approach is far more conservative: a single-minded devotion
to organic retail growth in its home market as opposed to
takeovers. Over the past decade, the bank has worked hard
to build its base, cultivating the market for mortgages,
consumer loans, and, recently, loans to small and midsize
businesses. As rivals looked to the New World and bought up
smaller banks at home. Popular expanded its retail network to
2, 200 branches throughout Spain, it also added Internet and
telephone banking operations that are based in the branches.
The effort has paid off. In each of the past three years, the
bank has gained 300, 000 customers.

It is clear from the passage that Popular has worked
hard to ----.
A) increase its operations and has succeeded
B) beat its rivals in taking over foreign banks
C) earn the approval of its shareholders but without
much success
D) limit its operations to two or three major ones
E) limit the number of new customers

work hard
consumer loan
overwhelming majority
profitable investment
full support
make impression
remain unchanged
criticize severely
radical changes
show interest
invest heavily
long-term relationship

It is pointed out in the passage that the takeover of
the Portuguese bank by Banco Popular ----.
A) was originally proposed by an overwhelming majority
of shareholders
B) came as a great surprise to the bank's shareholders
C) was not regarded by the shareholders as a profitable
D) received the full support of the shareholders
E) made no impression on the banking community in
According to the passage, the banking policy of
Banco Popular ----.
A) has remained unchanged over the past decade and
caused no surprises
B) has been severely criticized by its shareholders
C) is in need of some radical changes if it is to remain in
the forefront
D) has in need of some radical changes if it is to remain
in the forefront
E) is usually traditional and unassertive
We learn from the passage that, unlike other major
Spanish banks, Popular ----.
A) shows no interest whatsoever in expanding
B) usually prefers to operate through its own numerous
C) has been investing heavily in New World businesses
D) has had a long-term relationship with Portuguese
E) has always followed an aggressive banking policy



To some people, branding is about the art of lying

successfully and creating value out of nothing. A good brand
inspires trust, but the relationship between the brand and the
reality of the product offered is frequently elastic. Branding is
therefore an art and the people who do it best are in great
demand. In many business segments entry is easy as barriers
are low and there is scarcely any means of differentiating your
product from that of the competitor. Branding is all there is left
to make a difference. Mobile phone companies are a classic
lease, in which one company can copy the competitor's
contracts. Each company offers virtually the same handsets.
Apart from network coverage, brand is everything. Another
classic example is airlines. Anyone can charter the same
Boeing 737and run an airline as long as it can secure slots.
The difference is finally down to service and marketing.

It is emphasized in the passage that those involved in
the successful design and promotion of brands ----.
A) frequently confine their activities to very few
B) are not aware of the fact that they are misleading the
C) usually undergo a long period of rigorous professional
D) are very highly valued in the business world
E) are clearly indifferent to the requirements of service
and marketing

inspire trust
in great demand
make a difference
give much importance
hide the truth
competitive spirit
short-term profitability
highly valued
undergo a training

The main point made in the passage is that ----.

A) mobile phone companies are more enterprising than

B) charter airlines are not to be trusted
C) branding is often more important than the product
D) service and marketing are given far too much
importance in business
E) businesses need not be honest about the quality of
their products
It is pointed out in the passage that some people
regard ----.
A) mobile phone companies as possessing identical
network coverage
B) charter airlines as failing miserably in the provision of
C) branding as just another production expense
D) branding as an ingenious way of hiding the truth
about a product
E) the relationship between the brand and the product
as rigid
We understand from the passage that what counts
most in business ----.
A) is very often the brand name, products generally
being indistinguishable
B) is the spirit of the people responsible for marketing
the brands
C) is a company's competitive spirit to outdo its rivals
D) is short-term profitability
E) is not customer-confidence but business expansion



In an agreement made outside the courts in Basle,

Switzerland, Nigerian state representatives, Swiss federal
officers and executives from a dozen European banks have
agreed on the return of around 1.1 billion euros of the late
dictator Sani Abacha's investments, to Nigeria. The
conclusion of what has been one of the world's largest
investigations into money laundering comes as a huge relief
to regulators and bankers in Switzerland, the UK,
Liechtenstein, Luxembourg and Jersey, the destinations that
provided safe havens for Abacha's stolen millions. In exposing
just how easily Abacha was able to make deposits of tens or
hundreds of millions of dollars in European banks that pride
themselves on watchfulness and integrity, the Nigerian
investigators highlighted major failings in both the legislative
and executive competencies of the European banking
community. Reform has already taken place. Undoubtedly
more will follow, but the sorry tale of how Europe's banks
aided the dictator's outrageous years of theft cannot be

It is understood from the passage that the Abacha
case ----.
A) has revealed several significant shortcomings in the
European banking system
B) was first investigated and legally settled in Nigeria
C) has given rise to much friction among the European
countries involved
D) was the most scandalous court-case, of the year in
E) was opened at the suggestion of a dozen European

It is clear from the passage that the decision taken at
Basle ----.
A) concerned the recovery, by Nigeria, of the huge
amount of money appropriated by Abacha
B) involved a complete restructuring, of banking
throughout Europe
C) was not welcomed by the Nigerians themselves
D) finally brought the practice of money laundering to an
E) sent shock waves through the banking community in
Europe and caused the close down of several banks
According to the passage, banks in Switzerland and
Britain, among other countries, ----.
A) had clearly always been very strongly opposed to
B) allowed Abacha to deposit extremely large amounts
of money without, apparently, asking any questions
C) had invested widely in Abacha's Nigeria
D) were particularly, anxious to settle the Abacha case
as quickly as possible
E) introduced a series of radical reforms all of a similar
nature, at the request of their governments
We understand from the passage that the banks
involved in the Abacha money scandal ----.
A) rejected offhand the demands of the Nigerian
B) resisted the reforms the court suggested
C) did not take the matter at all seriously
D) will be remembered for illegal dealings for many
years to come
E) were unwilling to change their banking practices



As for the lifestyle in the Netherlands, the Dutch have a

deserved reputation for being easy going. But as with any
country, there are some surprises for newcomers to get used
to. For instance, the amount of bureaucracy strikes them as
remarkable when they first move to the Netherlands. Want to
light a small fire in your garden? You'll need permission from
the local government. Fancy painting your house? Better
check with the government first. A major problem is the
tightening up of immigration laws on a large scale. The
problem is that the Netherlands is a small country that is
facing a lot of immigration, so they are making it tougher and
tougher. But, actually, racism is foreign to the Dutch culture.
They are very accepting; they take you as you are.

have a deserved reputation

light a fire
local government
immigration laws
on a large scale
ordinary activities
plays a small role in
feel obliged to
serious concern
take a downward turn

We understand from the passage that the Dutch
people ----.
A) frequently discriminate against foreigners
B) wish to keep foreigners out of the country
C) constantly complain about the inefficiency of local
D) represent a number of contrasting features
E) resent having to live in such a small county
It is clear from the passage that, in the Netherlands, ---.
A) certain ordinary activities are subject to regulation
B) a large proportion of the people are racists
C) immigrants invariably have a very tough time to start
D) local governments have very little authority
E) bureaucracy plays a very small role in daily life
We understand from the passage that newcomers to
the Netherlands ----.

feel obliged to conform to the Dutch way of life

are never absorbed into the community
usually feel themselves at home from the beginning
soon adapt themselves to the Dutch culture
may be surprised at the many and various regulations
It is obvious from the passage that immigration ----.

A) has increased the amount of racism in the

B) into the Netherlands upsets no one
C) is a very serious concern for the Dutch
D) laws in the Netherlands have been relaxed in recent
E) into the Netherlands has taken a downward turn



Patent laws do little or nothing to help poor countries dig their

way out of poverty, and could even make matters worse.
That's the controversial conclusion of an independent
commission on intellectual property rights appointed by the
British government. Its report, launched recently in Geneva,
contains 50 radical recommendations to help make these
rights work to the advantage of poor countries. Britain's
Department for International Development has already
promised to look hard at the suggestions, but it's unclear
whether the rest of the international community will listen. The
World Trade Organization has persuaded most countries to
sign an intellectual property rights (IPR) agreement that
obliges them to impose Western style laws on everything from
patents to copyrights by 2006. But the new report argues that
these laws only benefit rich countries with strong traditions of
invention, and do little to aid the transfer of technology to poor
countries. The report argues that poor countries should be
given a lot more flexibility So as to customize those laws, and
up to a decade longer to do so. At present, many poor
countries don't have intellectual property laws at all. That
means local inventors can't get protection for their ideas, but it
also means people can buy cheap versions of medicine or
software that have been patented elsewhere. Since poor
countries often have little to patent in the first place, the
benefits of having no laws can outweigh the disadvantages.

One point made in the passage is that it is to the
advantage of poor countries ----.

not to have patent laws

to sign the intellectual property rights agreement
to accept western style laws regarding patents
to encourage the work of local inventors
to combat their poverty by accepting cheap goods
from abroad

poor countries
controversial conclusion
independent commission
radical recommendations
international community
impose a law
give a lot flexibility
widely accepted
arouse controversy
sign an agreement
combat the poverty

According to the passage, the findings of a special
commission set up to examine the proposed new patent
laws ----.
A) have been widely accepted by the international
B) suggest that poor countries will not benefit from them
C) have been submitted to the World Trade Organization
for approval
D) recommend that they be introduced over a very long
period of time
E) has aroused much controversy with the British
We understand from the passage that the absence of
patent laws in a number of poor countries ----.

has angered the rest of the international community

is bound to end by the year 2006
is of no importance and should be ignored
has caused the drain of their scientific potential
is to the disadvantage of native inventors

According to the passage, it is not yet certain that the
recommendations made by the British government
appointed commission ----.

actually aim to benefit poor countries

will be ratified by the World Trade Organization
will be finally rejected by the international community
will gain the approval of a majority of countries
will aid the transfer of technology to poor counties



The hygiene hypothesis was first described in 1989 by David

P. Strachan, a British epidemiologist, who noticed that the
more children in a family, the lower the rates of allergies and
eczema. Children in large families tend to exchange colds and
other infections more often than children with fewer siblings,
and this increased exposure to pathogens perhaps protected
these children from allergies. That same year, Erika von
Mutius, an epidemiologist at Munich University, was looking
into the effect of hygiene on asthma. Children from dirtier East
Germany, she was shocked to find, had dramatically less
asthma than their West German counterparts living in cleaner,
more modern circumstances. The East German children had
likely been exposed to many more viruses and bacteria.
According to the hygiene hypothesis, exposure in early
childhood to infectious agents programs the immune system
to mount defences against disease-causing viruses, bacteria
and parasites. Better sanitary conditions deprive the immune
system of this training, so the body fights against harmless
particles as if they were deadly threats. The resulting allergic
reaction leads to the classic signs of asthma. However,
although much data supports the hygiene hypothesis for
allergies, the same cannot be said for asthma. Contrary to
expectations, asthma rates have increased drastically in
urban areas in the US that are not particularly clean.

Regarding the hygiene hypothesis, it can be inferred
that ----.
A) the human immune system has evolved to become
weaker and less effective at fighting illnesses
B) it is only applicable to the problem of asthma in
children and has no bearing on health problems of
C) bacteria and viruses multiply more quickly in clean
D) more research is necessary to determine to what
extent it explains the development of asthma
E) it is a useful model for describing the transmission of
all illnesses
According to the passage, Strachans and von
Mutiuss studies ----.
A) seemed to support the same hypothesis despite
being conducted with quite different populations
B) are similar in that they both involve populations of
children suffering from the same illness
C) were incomplete in their assessments as they both
focused on children living in poor conditions
D) cannot be compared since they were carried out in
different countries with different people
E) were both intended to disprove the hygiene
hypothesis but ended up doing the opposite

It can be understood from the passage that allergies ---.
A) are a recent health concern among children
B) often affect whole families and therefore may have a
genetic component
C) are often the result of frequent infections
D) may be more common among children living in
European countries
E) may occur less frequently in those who have had
early exposure to viruses and bacteria

increased exposure
protect from allergies
early childhood
sanitary conditions
deadly threats
increase drastically
health concern
respiratory problems
have no effect on
receive treatment
in clean environments
transmission of all illnesses
suffer from an illness

The surprising aspect of von Mutiuss study was that ---.
A) West German children were not as well-cared for as
previously thought
B) East German children were living in such unsanitary
conditions that they had more problems related to
C) unsanitary conditions seemed to result in fewer
respiratory problems
D) differences in the standard of living had no effect on
the development of diseases
E) East German children had received better medical
treatment for their respiratory problems than the West
German children



A key strategy in keeping the body free from infection is to

prevent the entry of harmful organisms in the first place.
Barrier, or passive immunity, acts as a first line of defence
against pathogens, providing protection via the physical and
chemical barriers presented by the various surfaces of the
body. These include both external surfaces such as the skin
and mucus-lined internal surfaces like the airways and the
gut. Each body surface forms an initial physical barrier to
infection, and this is then supplemented by a variety of
secreted substances that exhibit antimicrobial properties such
as enzymes, which break down bacteria. Additional vital
mechanisms function to expel or flush out microbes from the
body like coughing, sweating and urination. If barrier immunity
is breached, for instance by a skin wound, and pathogens
enter the body, the innate immune system then becomes
actively involved. Key to this is the activation of an
inflammatory response and the deployment of immune cells.
Tissue damage results from inflammation, which helps to
prevent microbes from spreading. The capillary walls in the
affected area become more penetrable, enabling immune
cells to access the infected tissue. Damaged cells release
chemicals that attract immune cells once they have migrated
from the bloodstream.


According to the passage, ----.

A) the physical barriers against infection are more

effective than chemical barriers
B) the physical and chemical mechanisms work together
to protect the body against infections
C) chemical barriers present a more effective response
against infection than physical ones
D) neither the chemical nor the physical barriers are very
effective against bacterial infections
E) both physical and chemical barriers need to be
strengthened by artificial drugs to be effective

harmful organisms
provide protection
physical barrier
skin wound
actively involved
tissue damage
infected tissue
effectiveness of medicines
play a minor role in
prevent further infection

According to the passage, the body uses a defence
system which acts to ----.
A) keep itself from getting infected as a first precaution
B) weaken its various surfaces
C) balance the physical and chemical barriers present in
D) break down its external and internal surfaces
E) improve the effectiveness of medicines prescribed by

According to the passage, coughing and sweating ---.

A) function superior to the way antimicrobial enzymes do

B) play a minor role in helping to remove microbes from
the body
C) act to remove microbes before they penetrate the
immunity barrier
D) are a common reaction to mild bacterial skin
E) help to break down bacteria that enter the body
through skin wounds

Once microbes enter the body through the skin, ----.

A) they are immediately removed from the body through

B) it becomes more difficult for immune cells to access
the infected area
C) damaged cells prevent the release of immune cells
D) barrier or passive immunity is activated to stop the
infection from spreading
E) the area becomes inflamed as a bodily response to
prevent further infection



Immigrants have long complained about US employers who

cheat or abuse them and threaten to have them deported if
they protest. Generally, the problem has been confined to the
lowest rungs of the workforce, such as Mexican farm hands
who enter the country illegally. But nowadays, the weak US
economy has sparked an outbreak of abusive treatment
among the legions of professional immigrant employees who
flocked to the US on perfectly valid visas during the late1990s boom. Usually, theirs are the cases of employers who
do not pay full salary or benefits.

enter illegally
abusive treatment
immigrant employees
valid visa
pay full salary
noticeable improvement
strict measures
stop immigration
working conditions
receive publicity
have an adverse effect on
pay cuts
immigration laws

According to the passage, the abuse of immigrant
workers in the US ----.

has largely been a matter of deportation

has only applied to those who did not hold valid visas
is restricted to people of Mexican origin
has, until recently, mostly affected the unskilled
had mostly stopped by the 1990s

According to the passage, towards the end of the
1990s ----.
A) there was an influx of Mexican farm workers into the
B) there was a noticeable improvement in the US
C) the US government introduced strict visa measures to
stop immigration
D) US employers began to discriminate against the
E) more and more immigrants began to protest against
their working conditions
We learn from the passage that immigrant abuse by
US employers ----.
A) has been going on for quite some time
B) is very much related to nationality
C) has centered around working conditions rather than
D) has received far too much publicity
E) has had an adverse effect on the US economy
It is pointed out in the passage that due to the current
decline of the US economy, ----.
A) many immigrants who entered the US illegally have
been deported
B) employers have Introduced pay cuts for everyone
C) immigrant abuse has been on the increase,
especially with regard to professionals
D) immigration laws have been tightened
E) immigrants in the lowest rungs of the workforce have
been particularly badly hit



Across the technologically developed world, scientists are

building progressively more human-like machines.' Social
robots' are now entering human culture, most frequently as
entertainers for the very young and as care takers for the very
old. In Japan, consumers buy' therapeutic robots' like the
humanoid Wakamaru, which is designed to provide
companionship for the elderly and disabled, and is capable of
basic social interactions with its owners. In the US, recent
holiday seasons have seen parents fighting to buy robotic toys
for their children to 'nurture' and play with. It is this drive to
build robots that appear to understand us and engage with us
and perhaps one day think like us that is providing
scientists with some unsettling and unique insights. And it is
driving the emerging field of roboethics, which asks questions
about how these machines affect us and how best to integrate
them into our culture.


A) it is the disabled that can benefit the most from robots

B) people have a need to build machines that they can
interact with
C) the US is leading the development of robotics
D) the field of roboethics led to the creation of social
E) robots full integration into human society will never
be possible

technologically developed
human culture
provide companionship
social interactions
holiday seasons
provide insights
effective childcare
social disturbances
become a reality
deal with the social problems
raise awareness
social issues
technological needs
have a need

It is pointed out in the passage that social robots ----.

A) are providing effective childcare for parents who work

B) have caused social disturbances in the countries
where they are used
C) are definitely unsuitable for both children and the
D) are a concept that might become a reality in the near
E) are already providing a useful service in some

It can be understood from the passage that ----.

The passage tries to ----.

A) provide a guide for dealing with the social problems

caused by robots
B) warn the reader of the dangers involved in creating
human-like machines
C) raise the readers awareness of our evolving
relationship with social machines
D) persuade readers to buy more electronic toys and
E) encourage the reader to do more research on how
robots could help society

The writer feels that present day robots ----.

A) provide researchers with perspectives into potential

social issues
B) understand peoples feelings as well as technological
C) can actually think like real children or very old people
D) can replace people in many important areas at work
E) are no more than mere toys that are designed by
enthusiastic scientists



It can be understood from the passage that the author

Innovation is not a synonym for invention an invention has

to be taken to the market to be regarded as innovation.
Innovation must change the way people do something. In an
essay on creativity, Teresa Amabile and others describe
innovation as the successful implementation of creative ideas
within an organization. Creativity, which includes invention, is
only the starting point for innovation, which is a necessary but
not sufficient condition for it. As Amabile implies, the business
of innovation needs to be managed all the way from the
creative inspiration through to a launchable product or service.
Innovation is not restricted to products and services. It might
be internal to the business, in the form of new and more
effective organizational structures or processes. It could be a
new way of marketing or distribution, like online grocery
deliveries. By todays thinking, innovation can also be in the
form of a significant improvement to an existing commodity.
When you build a better product, not necessarily a
revolutionary one, the whole world will want to buy it. A lot of
small types of innovation like this are more akin to continuous
improvement, which makes up 85-90% of the average
corporate development portfolio.

A) informs the reader of the consequences when a

corporate suffers from a lack of activity, invention and
B) sets out to clear up the misunderstanding between
some terms and to point out the importance of small
C) successfully explains why commercial organizations
have to come to a correct interpretation of
manufacturing terminology
D) warns that if the current state of production processes
prevails, the desire to innovate may be lost
E) criticizes the existing management practices, which
will eventually disregard lots of small innovations

A) terms like invention, innovation and creativity need to

be clearly defined and described before they can be
applied productively
B) so long as companies and inventors interpret the
concept of innovation rightly, they would eventually
make huge profits
C) innovation not only eases the practical difficulties of
life but also comprises a considerable amount of
D) the idea of innovation is so complex that it can hardly
be applied to simple procedures like online shopping
E) for many a person, for a new product to be
innovative, it does not have to involve a creative input

It is clearly stated in the passage that for Amabile, ---.

A) for a company to be managed successfully, it

requires new ways of organizing the workforce and
B) innovation has to be carefully monitored from the
starting point to the end product for a company to be
C) the scope of innovation is so broad that its application
can involve a wide range of goods and processes
D) placing restrictions on the range of the uses of
innovation for certain products and services may
damage the inventive spirit
E) a creative inspiration that is adequately turned into a
marketable product or service is a sign of the
companys future prospects

One can conclude from the passage that ----.

successful implementation
creative ideas
starting point
creative inspiration
significant improvement
continuous improvement
manage successfully
place restrictions
marketable product
revolutionary products
completely new
closely tied
small advances
commercial organizations
make huge profits

According to the passage, ----.

A) small innovations fail to account for a great portion of

a companys turnover
B) corporate development portfolios owe their
improvement to creating only revolutionary products
C) a new marketing or distribution strategy like online
shopping can hardly be an example of innovation
D) an innovation can both be an improvement in a
product and a completely new product
E) the survival of a business is closely tied to its
flexibility to adjust to online marketing



While playing computer games is sometimes seen as a

solitary pursuit, a study at Brigham Young University shows
that it actually enhances social connections. Studying the
effect of multiplayer online games on marriages, researchers
found that in the 76% of the cases where the couple played
together, games actually aided the relationship. In other
words, couples that gamed together stayed together. Games
may have other effects on us too. The famous psychologist,
Philip Zimbardo, recently spoke out on the subject. In his 1971
Stanford Prison Experiment, in which volunteers were
randomly assigned the roles of prisoner or guard, he showed
that human behaviour is heavily influenced by environmental
and social pressures. More recently, Zimbardo even
suggested that exposing children to morally ambiguous
situations in games could be useful in helping them develop
their own moral compass. One possibility is to explore virtual
worlds through computer games that could enable people to
experience and understand concepts that they would
otherwise find difficult to imagine. Games about society,
populated by real people and open to all, could help test how
different cultural backgrounds could be brought together in


One can infer from the passage that ----.

A) computer games are destructive to the relationships

of younger people
B) the risks associated with playing computer games
outweigh the benefits
C) we have reached the limits of what can be achieved
with computer games
D) computer games are capable of bringing in several
unexpected benefits
E) social pressures force people to avoid playing
computer games

social connections
assign a role
human behaviour
heavily influence
moral compass
cultural backgrounds
provide opportunities
strengthen the relationship
make decision
unexpected benefits

The authors attitude towards computer games is ----.

It is stated in the passage that computer games ----.

A) enhance the feeling of loneliness if they involve more

than one player all the time
B) provide opportunities for people to meet
unaccustomed ideas and worlds
C) lead to role conflicts among those who come from
different cultural backgrounds
D) contributes little to strengthening the relationships of
married couples
E) may include harmful features that trigger aggressive
behaviour among children

According to the passage, Zimbardo believes that ----.

A) computer games may actually help young people

make more conscious decisions on moral issues
B) his experiment refutes the findings of the study
conducted at Brigham Young University
C) having children face ambiguous situations in
computer games can cause psychological problems
D) computer games populated by real people may not
present the actual state of a society
E) environmental pressures are greater on those who
play computer games



British scientists have begun studying a rare meteorite to

reveal more about the history of Mars. The rock, named
Tissint after the Moroccan area where it crashed in July
2011, was recovered from the ground just five months later
not enough time to be too contaminated. The Tissint sample
is probably the most important meteorite to have landed on
the Earth in the last 100 years, says Dr. Caroline Smith,
curator of meteorites at the Natural History Museum in
London. An analysis of the rock revealed its Martian origin. It
would have been removed from Mars when an asteroid struck
the planet, staying in space as debris before being attracted
by the Earths gravity. Of the 41,000 officially recognized
meteorites, 61 come from Mars and the Tissint rock is only the
fifth that was witnessed falling. Dr. Tony Irving of Washington
University, who performed some initial analysis on the
sample, does not think there is much chance of finding
fossilized life within it. But the British team could reveal
whether minerals have been affected by water or contain
elements such as carbon. Smith says Were not looking for
microbes, but were looking for the chemical and
environmental signatures to indicate whether Mars, at some
point in its past, may have provided a suitable environment for
life to exist.


A) believe there may well be fossils in the rock

B) are examining the meteorite to reveal whether
microbes could survive in it
C) are investigating the rock to find out whether Mars
was once able to support life
D) claim that Tissint gives clues about the meteorites
expected to hit the Earth
E) have unfortunately failed to identify the origin of
For scientists to come up with accurate findings, a
meteorite ----.
A) is to be one of the 41,000 known meteorites
B) has to be made sure that it come from a specific
C) should contain plenty of living organisms
D) needs to remain intact for a sufficient amount of time
E) is required to have basic minerals in its internal

It is understood from the passage that the meteorite
found in Morocco ----.

officially recognize
at some point
suitable environment
take possession of
give clues
make sure
living organisms
internal structure

A) was part of a larger meteorite that crashed into the

B) is the first meteorite from Mars to be seen on the
C) was recovered after remaining buried for almost 100
D) was too contaminated to be of any real use to
E) is a very rare kind, which can be valuable to scientists

According to the passage, scientists ----.

It is pointed out in the passage that ----.

A) Tissint was one of the meteorites that were actually

seen while falling
B) the Natural History Museum took possession of the
meteorite as soon as it landed on the Earth
C) other meteorites that preceded Tissint were quite
similar to it in size
D) there is some doubt as to where the meteorite came
E) the meteorite is one of the 41,000 that originated from



For hundreds of thousands of years, human civilizations

tended to barter for goods, trading shells and precious stones
for food and other important commodities. For the first
evidence of money as currency, we need to go back 5,000
years to where modern-day Iraq now sits, to find the shekel.
Though this was the first form of currency, it was not money
as we know and understand it today. It actually represented a
certain weight of barley, a kind of plant, equivalent to gold or
silver. Eventually, the shekel became a coin currency in its
own right. In much the same way, Britains currency is called
the pound, because it was originally equivalent to a pound of
silver. The ancient Greeks and Romans used gold and silver
coins as currency, with the Latin denarius ultimately giving
birth to dinar in various countries including Jordan and
Algeria, and providing the d that served as an abbreviation
for the British penny before decimalization in 1971. It also
gives us the word for money in Spanish and Portuguese
dinero and dinhero. The first ever banknotes were issued in
7th-century China, though it took another 1,000 years before
the idea of paper money was adopted in Europe, by Swedens
Stockholms Banco in 1661.


A) the amount of time needed to develop currencies was

a lot longer than anticipated
B) the development of currency as a means of
exchanging goods and services owes a lot to many
nations of the world
C) were it not for the European countries, todays
exchange methods could not have developed
D) the Iraqi and Chinese contribution to the currency
development is relatively less important
E) every nation today conceptualizes currency matters
differently and thus uses different terms to name

human civilizations
precious stone
important commodities
in various countries
pave the way for
goods and services

According to the passage, the earliest form of
exchanging goods ----.

One can understand from the passage that ----.

did not involve any form of currency

was confined to trading precious shells and stones
led to the development of commodities
first appeared in some parts of the Middle East
paved the way for people to become civilized
As it is clearly stated in the passage, the shekel ----.

A) was transformed into Britains contemporary pound

B) was equivalent to the idea of money as we accept it
C) was invented 5,000 years ago in what is now Iraq
D) first came to be used in place of silver coins
E) precedes the use of shells and stones for bartering
According to the passage, the introduction of
banknotes ----.
A) immediately stopped the use of gold as currency
B) in China was welcomed by Europeans
C) came long before the circulation of gold and silver
D) into Europe took about a thousand years
E) gave rise to the development of the banking system
in Europe



In London's theatres, tastes seem to be changing. Though

audiences are not falling, that's mostly thanks to the allure of
musicals, not plays. The commercial London Theatres ran at
65% capacity in 2003, the most recent year for which figures
are available. But this disguises a big difference between
musicals and plays. For the musicals, attendance averages
68% of capacity; for plays, attendance is somewhat lower, at
56%. So if a show doesn't contain some singing and plenty of
dancing, half the chairs are likely to remain empty. And In a
business in which the costs are all fixed, a few more tickets
sold can make all the difference. However, London's
subsidized theatres are doing unusually well. For example, at
the National Theatre, which receives around 14 million in
public money every year, attendance has been running at
over 90% of capacity for the past 20 months. That's partly
thanks to sponsorship and partly to aggressive programming.

One point made in the passage is that aggressive
programming ----.
A) is what has made musicals so popular
B) should be practiced by all commercial theatres in
order to make them profitable
C) was originally devised and introduced by the National
D) is contributing greatly to the sale of tickets in the
subsidized London theatres
E) has been extremely cost-effective for commercial

a big difference
remain empty
make difference
do well
steadily increase
waste public money
make a profit
production costs
contribute greatly
extremely cost-effective

According to the passage, public interest in London's
theatres ----.

reflects the quality of each production

has steadily increased over recent years
has shifted away from straight plays
is a good indication of the decline in aesthetic taste
largely focuses on the activities of the National

We understand from the passage that the subsidized
theatres In London ----.
A) are often criticized for wasting public money
B) manage to make a profit though their audiences are
C) have been specializing in musicals for quite some
D) have been drawing large audiences for nearly two
E) are more concerned about attendance than about the
quality of performance
It is clear from the passage that the musicals in
London theatres ----.
A) depend largely on private sponsorship for production
B) can only run for a limited period of time
C) are not appreciated by serious theatre audiences
D) cost less than straight plays do
E) are popular on account of the singing and dancing in



Since 1993, China has invested in more than fifty oil and gas
projects in some thirty nations. In particular, China has
focused on acquisitions and partnership sin Sudan and Iran.
In Sudan alone, China has reportedly spent $15 billion
developing oil fields. In the meantime, China has also begun
to use its military to protect its oil investments abroad.
Reportedly, troops disguised as oil workers patrol Chinese oil
infrastructure in Sudan. Moreover, in recent years, China has
strengthened its military presence in the oil-and gas-rich parts
of the South China Sea, over which sovereignty is still
disputed. Perhaps most significant in the short term is Chinas
relationship with Iran. With Saudi Arabia and Iraq clearly
within the American sphere of influence, China has been
steadily courting Tehran and aims to become the biggest
buyer of Iranian oil. In return for oil, China has supplied Iran
not only with conventional weapons but also with technology
and materials that can be used for the manufacturing of
nuclear weapons.

One understands from the passage that, just as the
United States maintains its dominant position in Saudi
Arabia and Iraq, so China ----.
A) has made efforts to develop its partnership with
Iranian oil companies
B) is resolved to increase its military presence in some
thirty countries
C) has sought to establish closer economic relations
with Iran
D) has decided to invest heavily in Irans various oil and
gas projects
E) tries hard to persuade Iran to become an ally in the
It is clear from the passage that Irans nuclear
technology ----.

has been aided by China through its logistical support

is not so advanced and efficient as that of China
has been strongly criticized by the United States
has been financed through its oil exports to a number
of countries
E) can develop fully even though China is not willing to

It is claimed in the passage that the Chinese oil
workers in Sudan ----.
A) have increased steadily because China has acquired
many oil and gas fields in this country
B) are, in fact, military personnel in disguise, employed
to protect the Chinese oil investments in this country
C) have been employed in over fifty oil and gas projects,
for which China has already spent billions of dollars
D) have been extremely efficient and built the extensive
oil infrastructure that this country has
E) mostly prefer to work for the companies that China
has set up in this country for partnership in oil and
gas projects

oil investments
military presence
in the short term
conventional weapons
increase steadily
extremely efficient
economic issues
make effort
establish a relation
invest heavily
strongly criticize
oil exports
develop fully

One learns from the passage that there are ----.

A) many Chinese workers already employed in nearly

thirty nations
B) several Chinese companies involved in oil projects in
the South China Sea
C) a number of economic issues that China faces in the
South China Sea
D) many oil fields in Iran that have been developed by
E) areas in the South China Sea which are rich in oil and



The term 'imperialism' means the process of extending one

nations control over another; it is a process that takes many
forms. Historians distinguish between 'formal imperialism' and
'informal imperialism.' Formal imperialism is colonialism, and it
was exercised by the Europeans in the past mainly by direct
rule: the colonizing nations annexed territories outright and
established their own governments to subjugate and
administer the peoples of these territories. Sometimes formal
imperialism was exercised through indirect rule: the
conquering nations reached agreements with native leaders
and governed them. There was no single practice of colonial
management, and resistance from the natives forced colonial
powers to shift strategies frequently. As for 'informal
imperialism, it refers to a more subtle and less visible exercise
of power, in which the stronger nation allows the weaker one
to maintain its independence while reducing its sovereignty.
For the Europeans in the past, informal imperialism took the
form of carving out zones of European sovereignty and
privilege, such as treaty ports, within other countries.
Essentially it meant using European economic, political, and
cultural power to get advantageous treaties or terms of trade.
Informal imperialism was not only common, it played an even
more fundamental role in shaping global power relations in the
18th and 19th centuries.

As one understands from the passage, in informal
imperialism, ----.
A) the colonizing nations sign treaties with native
governments to help them solve economic problems
B) the independence of the weaker nation is respected
by the colonizing nation
C) the sovereignty of the colonized nation is totally
disregarded by the colonizing power
D) the management of the ports in a country is
undertaken by economically stronger nations
E) native governments are granted certain privileges
and political powers by stronger

It is clear that the passage ----.

A) gives an account of the historical reasons why formal

imperialism in the past was more widely practised
than informal imperialism
B) is a detailed account of how the Europeans colonized
other peoples in the 18th and 19th centuries
C) is mainly concerned with the process of resistance
that colonial peoples put up against the European
D) is a full description of the economic and cultural
privileges which, in the past, the Europeans got from
native governments
E) theoretically explains imperialism and refers to the
European practice of it in the past

It is asserted in the passage that, in the past, informal
imperialism ----.
A) enabled the Europeans to conquer the lands of other
peoples and face no resistance
B) was preferred by the natives who were involved in
free trade with the European nations
C) was far more effective than formal imperialism in the
development of power relations in the world
D) was commonly practised by the Europeans because
it allowed them to make use of various strategies
E) provided the European nations with an economic
power which enabled them to rule the rest of the

take many forms

establish a government
reach an agreement
maintain its independence
advantageous treaties
power relations
free trade
economic power
follow a common strategy
set up colony
sign a treaty
solve economic problems
economically strong
grant privileges

According to the passage, although the practice of
imperialism may be varied, ----.
A) native peoples in the European colonies were always
in favour of formal imperialism
B) it was formal imperialism in the past which most
suited the Europeans for their trade overseas
C) the European nations followed a common strategy in
the past in order to set up colonies in other parts of
the world
D) for historians, it is mainly divided into formal and
informal imperialism
E) in the 18th and 19th centuries the European nations
gave up formal imperialism because of native



The greatest feat of civil engineering since Roman times was

the French achievement between 1666 and 1681 of the
Langue doc canal to link the Mediterranean Sea with the
Atlantic Ocean. It was conceived of by King Francis I and
discussed by him with Leonardo da Vinci. It was first surveyed
in 1539.As a result of the civil and religious disorders in
France, however, nothing happened until 1661 when Pierre
Riquet worked out a scheme for supplying enough water to
the summit of the canal. Jean Colbert secured the interest of
the young King Louis XIV, and in 1666 the work started. The
whole canal was 150 miles long with 102 locks, a tunnel, and
3 aqueducts. It evoked world admiration, and was the
prototype of all future European grand canal design seven
though its usefulness to France was quickly nullified by the
rapidly increasing size of ocean-going ships.


A) Louis XlV himself contributed usefully to the design of

the canal
B) it would not have been possible to have constructed
the Languedoc canal in the time of Leonardo da Vinci
C) the building of the Languedoc canal posed a great
many challenges
D) the design of the Languedoc canal was not as
original as has often been suggested
E) it was the interest that Leonardo da Vinci showed in
the project that made possible the construction of the
Languedoc canal

civil and religious disorders

work out a scheme
rapidly increasing
pose a challenge
show interest
make possible

It can be understood from the passage that ----.

A) the construction of the canal was first started by

Leonardo da Vinci
B) the Languedoc canal was, for more than a century,
no more than a project
C) the earliest proposal for the Languedoc canal dates
back to at least Roman times
D) King Francis I was opposed to Leonardo da Vincis
plans for the Languedoc canal
E) by the time the canal was finished, there was nothing
very remarkable about it

The passage makes it obvious that ----.

It is clear from the passage that ----.

A) the upkeep of the canal would be expensive

B) the Languedoc canal would not make those who build
it rich
C) as ocean-going ships increased in size, the
usefulness of the Languedoc canal declined
D) the site of the Languedoc canal was ill-chosen
E) many supported the building of the canal as there
was such a great need for it
According to the passage, once the Languedoc canal
was finished ----.

the scope of civil engineering was re-assessed

better systems of construction were put forward
problems connected with the locks began to emerge
plans to build canals in other parts of the world were
soon changed
E) the whole world was filled with admiration for it



Pottery was one of mans first artefacts. It is the presence of

pottery, rather than of the polished stone, that marks the
passage from the Mesolithic to the Neolithic Ages, when
agricultural peoples settled both in the Mediterranean area
and in the Middle East. It is commonly believed that the
earliest pottery receptacles copied those of other materials,
such as gourds or baskets. From the fingerprints on them, it is
possible to deduce that they were made principally by women.
Originally, any decoration was indented; that is, patterns were
pressed into the soft clay, and it remained so for a long period
until new situations, at different times in different parts of the
world, produced painted decoration. As a widespread form of
culture, permanently bearing in its shapes and decoration the
character of individual periods and peoples, the finding of
pottery has been of supreme importance to the archaeologist.

As is pointed out in the passage, pottery is of great
importance to archaeologists largely because ----.

it has considerable artistic beauty

the fingerprints of the makers are preserved in them
it preserves the character of individual periods
it is more durable than other artefacts
it is the very first artefact ever to be made by man

at different times
in different parts of the world
supreme importance
agricultural development
early human civilizations
serve a practical purpose
artistic beauty

One can understand from the passage that ----.

A) pottery production gave rise to agricultural

development in the Middle East
B) pottery production achieved technical perfection in
the Mesolithic age
C) the pottery of the Mesolithic Age is indistinguishable
from that of the Neolithic Age
D) pottery can be used to trace development in early
human civilizations
E) the Neolithic Ages in the Mediterranean area are
largely characterized by the use of polished stone
According to the passage, it was during the Neolithic
Age that ----.
A) agricultural peoples began to settle in the Middle East
and along the Mediterranean
B) coloured stones were frequently collected and
C) people first recognized the need for containers and
began to make baskets and use gourds to carry
D) painted decoration of pottery gave way to decoration
by indentation
E) pottery making spread from the Middle East to other
parts of the world
It is made clear in the passage that early examples of
pottery ----.
A) were probably intended for holding water and other
B) were almost invariably made by men
C) served no practical purpose at all
D) were made in known shapes like those of baskets
E) tell us nothing at all about the people who made them



Charlie Chaplin, who was born in Britain but spent most of his
life in the United States, is one of the pivotal figures in film
history. He is especially remembered for his work in the silent
movies. Chaplin knew that a successful scene was not simply
about the starring actor, but about everything else. The only
way to achieve that unity was to get personally involved in
every stage of the film; from starring in his films to producing,
directing, editing them, and even to composing the music for
them. It was not uncommon for him to decide half-way
through a film that an actor wasnt suitable for a certain role,
and start over with someone new. This constant attention to
detail ran many features overtime and over-budget, but the
public reaction assured him and the studios that what he was
doing worked. Chaplin typically improvised his story in front of
the camera with only a basic framework of a script. But on
consideration, his art turned out to be firmly rooted, and could
be seen, for example, to draw much of its strength from his
successful fusion of English and American cultures and


A) why Charlie Chaplin was so successful in the film

B) the background factors contributing to Charlie
Chaplins success
C) how Charlie Chaplin contributed to the development
of the film industry
D) the differences between the film industry then and
E) what goes into the making of a star

pivotal figure
get involved in
public reaction
basic framework
firmly rooted
a remarkable ability
play a leading role in
tight budget
film industry

As is pointed out in the passage the success of
Chaplins films was largely due to ----.

The passage as a whole explains ----.

his own remarkable acting abilities

the control he exercised on every aspect of a film
the detailed scripts prepared for each film
the professional skills of the studios that made them
the fact that Chaplin liked to improvise new scenes in
front of the cameras

The passage makes it quite clear that Charlie Chaplin
A) began his career as an actor but soon turned to
directing films instead
B) much preferred America and American culture to
Britain and British culture
C) is a major figure in the history of film-making
D) was eager to please those he worked with
E) appealed more to American audiences than to British

It is clear from the passage that the film studios ----.

A) were taken in by Chaplins charm and let him have

his own way all the time
B) played a leading role in the making of Chaplins films
C) liked to work with Chaplin because he never
interfered with what they were doing
D) they felt success was guaranteed
E) had to work on a very tight budget
F) were content to work with Chaplin as



The most important influence on the style of English furniture

was that of the Chippendale family. Chippendale furniture is
the creation of Thomas Chippendale, a London-based
cabinet-maker. His Gentleman and Cabinet-Makers Director,
a folio of furniture designs, was published in 1754 and had a
wide circulation. Chippendale himself never marked his
creations, making it harder today for collectors to locate
original pieces. One of the best ways to find original
Chippendale furniture is to look for uneven joints and tool
marks, as the furniture was made entirely by hand and does
not have the perfect angles of a mass-produced product.
Though an article of furniture made in Chippendales manner
may bear his name, it is by no means an indication that it was
actually made in his workshop. The 18th century was a time
when artisans were beginning to exploit various styles,
leading to widespread adoption of his name in revivals of his
style, so much so that dealers spoke of 'Chinese
Chippendale', 'Gothic Chippendale', and even 'Irish
Chippendale'. Many of these later designs that attach his
name bear little relationship to his original concepts.


In this passage, ----.

A) the role of the Chippendale family in shaping 18thcentury taste is discussed

B) the Chippendale style of furniture is described in
C) we learn something about genuine Chippendale
furniture and copies of it
D) the change in furniture styles from the mid-18th
century to the present day is outlined
E) advantages of hand-made furniture over mass
produced furniture are discussed

important influence
a wide circulation
mass-produced product
gain popularity
enormous influence
hand-made furniture

It is clear from the passage that all genuine
Chippendale furniture ----.
A) is catalogued in the Gentleman and Cabinet- Makers
B) has a special Chippendale mark on it
C) has been bought up by collectors
D) was made by hand, and this is especially apparent in
the joints
E) has been reproduced by mass-production techniques
According to the passage, the Chippendale style of
furniture was widely copied ----.
A) but only the Irish Chippendale gained much
B) but many of the later designs that carry his name
bear little resemblance to the original Chippendale
C) especially by London-based cabinet makers
D) but the copies can easily be distinguished from the
original pieces
E) but only by second-rate cabinet makers
It is pointed out in the passage that the Chippendale
family ----.
A) exerted an enormous influence on the style of English
B) worked as cabinet makers for very many generations
C) influenced furniture and design for over a century
D) was more interested in furniture design than in the
making of it
E) made a name for themselves with the publication of a
folio of furniture designs



Although most cities seem to form by accident, for thousands

of years some of them have been designed. Whether for
defence, beauty, or practicality, urban designers have
imposed their ideas of what a city should be about. But ideas
are subject to changing needs and fashions. Centuries ago, a
moat or a castellated wall would have been essential. Now,
greenery is in vogue. While existing cities look for ways of
becoming more environmentally friendly, a number of new
ones are planned that intend to be totally green. One of these
is Masdar. Masdars advertising states that 'one day, all cities
will be built like this.' This is not the case. For one thing,
Masdar is experimental and a work in progress. What
emerges will not necessarily translate well elsewhere. Each
green city is unique, and getting it to work depends on its
location and economy.


A) follows a design suitable to all locations

B) will be the prototype of all green cities
C) will be constructed strictly in accordance with the
D) has been designed and is being built to be a green
E) will not turn out to be totally environmentally friendly

impose an idea
look for a way
environmentally friendly
a primary consideration
undergo a change
grow slowly
take into consideration
urban development

One point emphasized in this passage by the writer is
that ----.
A) cities that look attractive are not always well designed
B) each green city must be individually designed
C) a primary consideration throughout the ages has
been to design cities that can withstand attack
D) an established city cannot easily or economically, be
E) all our cities must be turned into green cities

It is clear from the passage that the city of Masdar ---.

According to the passage, cities, until recently ----.

A) have usually come into being quite naturally and of

their own accord
B) have only undergone carefully-designed change
when large parts have been destroyed
C) have boasted beautiful buildings, but poor
D) grew very slowly, if at all
E) were built to house workers, and their comfort was
scarcely taken into consideration

It is pointed out in the passage that fashion ----.

A) and necessity have fought for the control of urban

B) has often had a role to play in urban development
C) may have encouraged the building of beautiful cities,
but not of practical ones
D) will soon dictate that all cities will be built in the style
of Masdar
E) is always changing so the style of Masdar will
inevitably give way to other styles



Humes belief was that poverty was mainly caused by

Scottish philosopher and historian David Hume emerged as

an economist also with the publication of his Political
Discourses. The famous Adam Smith was a friend of his and
may have been influenced by Hume: they had similar
principles, and both were very good at illustrating and
supporting these from history. Although Hume did not
formulate a complete system of economic theory, as did Smith
in his Wealth of Nations, he introduced several of the new
ideas around which the 'classical economics' of the 18th
century was built. His economic philosophy can be
understood from his main arguments: that wealth consists not
of money but of commodities; that the amount of money in
circulation should be kept related to the amount of goods in
the market; and that poor nations impoverish the rest because
they do not produce enough to be able to take much part in
trade. Beyond this, he urged society to welcome the shift from
an agricultural to an industrial economy, without which
civilization could not be achieved.


the amount of money in circulation

the scarcity of produced goods
the abuse of poor nations by rich ones
the lack of a complete economic theory
Adam Smiths poor grasp of economics

economic philosophy
main arguments
poor nations
provide financial help
have a negative effect on
production capacity
international trade
agricultural and industrial

According to Hume, ----.

A) rich nations should produce more to be able to feed

their citizens
B) rich nations should provide financial help to poorer
C) poor nations have a negative effect on richer nations
D) poverty can be overcome by increasing the
production capacity of rich nations
E) poor nations can take part in international trade only
when rich nations are impoverished

According to the text, Adam Smith ----.

was very much under the influence of Hume
formulated a complete system of economic theory
had ideas that conflicted with Humes
was uncertain about Humes principles
had a great effect on Hume
According to the text, Hume ----.

A) was against the ideas on which the classical

economics of the 18th century was based
B) misunderstood the principles that his friend Adam
Smith believed in
C) was not the only one who excelled at illustrating and
supporting his principles from the past
D) argued that money in circulation had to be barely
related to the amount of goods in the market
E) stated that civilization required advances in both
agricultural and industrial production



The passage points out that Hong Kongers identity
crisis ----.

The people of Hong Kong have been experiencing an identity

crisis ever since the British returned the colony to China in
1997 and it became a Special Administrative Region with
special privileges (for 50 years). Although they are proud of
their Chinese ethnicity, culturally they have always felt
overwhelmingly Western and therefore much different from
their cousins on the mainland. Now they have anew worry: a
growing threat to Hong Kongs economic success. The
Chinese government recently announced its plan to turn the
city of Shanghai into a global financial and shipping centre by
2020, a move that is seen as weakening Hong Kongs
traditional and profitable position as international gateway to
mainland China. Even worse, Chinas friendlier relationship
with former enemy Taiwan is already reducing transit
commerce through Hong Kong. After an economic contraction
of almost 8% earlier this year, Hong Kong is feeling real pain,
and the jobless rate could approach record levels. So the
normally hands-off local government has sprung into action: it
has announced two rounds of tax cuts and various handouts
to the poor and to businesses. In addition, the citys long-term
planners have recommended that Hong Kongs government
focus on developing six fields including education,
environmental-related industries, and medical technology in
which Hong Kong already has an edge.

A) arises from their having lived under British

colonialism in the past
B) is related to their communications with their families
on the mainland
C) is closely linked with their citys economic downturn
D) has been made worse with the emergence of
Shanghai as a future competitor
E) did not exist before 1997
We learn from the passage that Hong Kongs longterm planners ----.
A) hope to give the city a natural advantage in
education, environmental-related industries, and
medical technology
B) identified six economic areas deserving of
government support
C) advised the government to carry out two rounds of
tax cuts
D) are concerned about how to meet the challenge
represented by Taiwan
E) are planning to boost the citys economy by 2020 in
order to be equal to Shanghai

According to the passage, the Hong Kong
government ----.
A) has been investing heavily in medical-technology
B) views the government of Taiwan as its enemy
C) supports the plan to make Shanghai a global financial
and shipping centre
D) is planning to bring about a rise in the jobless rate in
the city
E) usually does not interfere in the local economy

experience a crisis
special privileges
a growing threat
economic success
announce a plan
friendly relationship
feel pain
tax cuts
medical technology
invest heavily
bring about a rise
severe economic contraction
closely linked
economic downturn
give an advantage
meet the challenge

We can infer from the passage that for many years --.

A) Hong Kong has made a lot of money from others

trading with China
B) Hong Kong has been suffering from severe economic
C) the Chinese government has pressured the people of
Hong Kong to give up their Western ways
D) China and Taiwan have enjoyed friendly relations
E) the Hong Kong government has given out money to
the poor people of the city



On July 1, 2009, the US state of California began enforcing a

new menu-labelling law that requires chain restaurants to post
on their menus the calories contained in their food items.
Three other states Oregon, Maine, and Massachusetts
have already passed similar regulations, as have 11 city and
county governments. The trend has gathered strength quickly,
mostly because of concern about the nations expanding
waistlines. The next step is to deploy the practice nationally,
and the Congress is about to debate such a law. Pressure for
this type of move is coming from the obese, who represent
more than a third of American adults, and their defenders.
Overweight people often struggle to estimate the number of
calories they consume when eating out and make mistakes
when calculating how much food they should order.
Proponents of menu labelling hope that knowing what is in
their food may direct people to healthier items. In Los
Angeles, for example, officials optimistically predict that menu
labelling could prevent nearly 40% of the annual weight gain
there. However, the effect of menu labelling on dietary
choices remains unclear, and the regulations are too new to
produce much evidence. Furthermore, some critics of the
trend believe the public-health benefits of the new legislation
are irrelevant. For them, the new regulations are welcome as
part of a consumers wide-ranging right to know.


The passage informs us that menu-labelling laws ----.

A) were passed in the other US states after California

enforced its version of the law
B) will all be cancelled when the US Congress passes a
national requirement
C) are a sign of the reaction to Americans getting fatter
and fatter
D) will result in the disappearance of obese Americans
in the future
E) forbid fat people to eat too much in chain restaurants
The passage points out that the proponents of menu
labelling ----.
A) dont really know if it will be successful
B) often have to defend the lifestyle choices of obese
C) are themselves regular customers of chain
D) oppose the tendency of Los Angeles residents to gain
weight every year
E) believe much of the new law is irrelevant

The passage indicates that the new menu labelling
law in California has the potential to ----.

enforce a law
gather strength
next step
make mistakes
weight gain
produce much evidence
make calculation
national requirement
lifestyle choices
regular customer

A) force chain restaurants there to offer less food to the

B) encourage the habit of overeating in the population at
C) persuade other states to consider passing similar
laws affecting chain restaurants
D) help people become more health-conscious
E) reduce the population in that state by nearly half
We can infer from the passage that obese people in
the US ----.
A) want to control the number of calories they are
ingesting in chain restaurants
B) are under attack by other Americans
C) eat most of their meals at chain restaurants
D) have difficulty making mathematical calculations
E) have their own special representatives in the US



Although an extension of the worldwide ban on ivory exports

to discourage the illegal killing of African elephants has been
greeted enthusiastically in many places, the rhinoceroses
(rhinos) of southern and eastern Africa are still paying with
their lives for their horns, which remain prized by the Chinese
for their medicinal and aphrodisiac qualities, and by the
Yemenis for making dagger handles. According to a group,
called Traffic, that monitors the wildlife trade throughout the
world, this illegal business is on the rise. Last month, the
group called for stronger international cooperation along
smuggling routes and for more secure management of legal
horn stocks.For its part, Zimbabwe, where there are a lot of
illegal killings, has taken a very radical decision: it says it will
start dehorning its rhinos. Today only five species of rhino
survive in Africa and Asia. In the past, especially in the 19th
and 20th centuries, they were slaughtered on a large scale by
white hunters. By the 1960s, fewer than 70, 000 black rhinos
were left in Africa, and, over the next two decades, illegal
hunter swiped out 96% of them. But since 1995, thanks to
vigorous conservation efforts, the number of black rhinos has
gone up again, to around 3, 700. The number of white rhinos
has nearly doubled over the same period, to over 14, 500.

It is clear from the passage that the international
prohibition of ivory exports ----.
A) has been strongly opposed by the government of
B) has been totally ignored by the governments of China
and Yemen
C) has been in force throughout Africa since the early
D) has completely prevented the illegal hunting of
elephants in Africa and Asia
E) will be continued, and this has been widely welcomed
According to the passage, in view of the growth of the
illegal wildlife trade, the group Traffic ----.
A) is concentrating on shutting down the Chinese and
Yemeni wildlife markets
B) has put a great deal of pressure on African countries,
especially Zimbabwe, to begin dehorning their rhino
C) has increased its involvement in the campaign to
save African elephants from extinction
D) is urging the international community to step up its
efforts to stop the smuggling
E) aims to have governments legalize what is now the
illegal business of wildlife trade

As one learns from the passage, black rhinos in
Africa ---A) are preferred by the Yemenis over white rhinos for
making dagger handles
B) are so much in demand for medical uses that the
government of Zimbabwe is devoting more resources
to conserving them
C) were hunted almost to extinction in the past by
Chinese doctors
D) were almost completely exterminated during the
1970s and 1980s as a result of illegal hunting
E) and white rhinos in Asia are the only surviving
species of rhinoceros in the world

worldwide ban
illegal killing
wildlife trade
international cooperation
take a radical decision
conservation efforts
illegal hunting
wide support
strongly oppose
put a great deal of pressure
step up its efforts

As is pointed out in the passage, there is ----.

A) absolute indifference in the world towards

Zimbabwes decision to dehorn its rhinos
B) a full international consensus on the ending of the
wildlife trade in Zimbabwe
C) widespread illegal killing of wild animals in Zimbabwe
D) now wide support for a new policy of limited legal
killing of African elephants
E) today an ongoing fall in the number of African rhinos,
especially in Zimbabwe



One of the greatest natural catastrophes the world will ever

see could be little more than a decade away. The film Super
volcano traces the evolution of an enormous volcanic eruption
- one that not only wipes out several states of America but
that threatens the entire planet. But is such an eruption really
possible? Well, super volcanoes certainly aren't fiction.
They're a normal part of the way the Earth works and occur
perhaps every 50, 000 years. Every statistic associated with a
super-eruption is always wildly over-exaggerated. Molten
magma is blasted out at a rate 140 times greater than the flow
of water over the Victoria-Falls. Ash and gas are thrown more
than 50km upwards to the edge of space before falling over
one percent of the Earth's surface. Enough ash would pile up
on the ground to bury Britain under a blanket 4m thick.
Further, devastating winds carrying burning gas and red hot
ash would scour the land surface over an area of 10, 000
square kilometers. Worst of all, a super-eruption is followed by
a dramatic fall in global temperatures, leading to years and
years of bitter cold known as a volcanic winter.


The writer seems convinced that ----.

A) super-eruptions really do occur at long but fairly

regular intervals
B) no part of the US could possibly survive a supereruption
C) Britain would be the first region of the planet to be
buried under the ashes of a super-eruption
D) A volcanic winter, following a super-eruption, would
wipe out life on earth
E) there is no likelihood of a super-eruption happening in
the near future
According to the passage, the destruction caused by
a volcanic super-eruption ----.

We understand from the passage that the film Super
volcano ----.
A) gives a convincing and credible account of an
imminent super-eruption
B) has attracted a great deal of attention in the scientific
C) has aroused little interest among the general public
D) focuses on the horrors of a volcanic winter
E) presents a futuristic account of the effects of a
volcanic super-eruption

could lead to the break-up of the entire planet

could be contained, if not prevented
would be on an unimaginably huge scale
would result largely from the flow of molten magma
can only be guessed at as one has never occurred

natural catastrophes
volcanic eruption
wipe out several states
entire planet
devastating winds
dramatic fall
global temperatures
give an account of
attract attention
arouse little interest
specific details
complete destruction
dramatic increase
at regular intervals
on an huge scale

In this dramatic account of the film Super volcano, the
writer ----.
A) urges the general public to go and see the film
B) is primarily concerned with the measures needed to
contain a super-eruption
C) essentially deals with the causes of a super-eruption
D) also includes certain specific details
E) is obsessed with the idea that the end of the world is
very near
According to the passage, one of the devastating
consequences following a super-eruption would be ----.
A) the complete destruction of America and Britain
B) a very long period of excessive cold on earth
C) that deep layers of volcanic ash would cover the
whole surface of the planet
D) the drying-up of all water sources on earth
E) a dramatic increase of heat on earth, the result of
burning gas



We can only guess when Shakespeare wrote his plays. He

may have had his own writing season perhaps in the quieter
winter months, but he never stopped acting, probably taking
two or three minor parts instead of a major one. He seems to
have chosen for himself the more static and undemanding
roles in his plays, such as old Adam in As You Like It and the
Ghost in Hamlet. His audiences included many habitual
playgoers and many must have known Shakespeare and he
must have known them. We can imagine, as a recent
biographer has said, that there might have been a complex,
subtle communicative exchange when he appeared in one of
his own plays. In spring 1613, he purchased his first property
in London. He was renting it out by 1616, but may originally
have entertained other intentions for the property. It would
certainly have been a handy place to stay, being near the
Globe, which was his theatre. Perhaps the destruction of the
Globe in 1613, which probably prompted him to sell his share
in the theatre company, altered his plans for it He may not
have given up acting, but his writing career was over by the
end of that year. In 1614, he returned to his hometown,
Stratford-upon-Avon, and died there in 1616.


A) as a playwright, preferred tragedies to comedies

B) as a property owner, got a good income from his
C) as an actor, was often in close contact with his
D) returned to Stratford-upon-Avon almost as soon as
the Globe was destroyed
E) though he returned to Stratford, very soon regretted
leaving London

he was always assigned the most crucial parts

the audiences were thrilled by his acting
the Globe Theatre was always crowded
he could spare very little time for his writing
the parts he played were mostly easy, unimportant

writing career
spare little time
keep sth intact
put pressure on
have a serious impact on
property owner
in close contact with

It is pointed out in the passage that, although
Shakespeare had stopped writing plays by the end of
1813, ----.

It is clear from the passage that the Globe Theatre ---

A) was partly owned by Shakespeare himself

B) was built on land that Shakespeare had bought
C) was particularly spacious so as to accommodate
large audiences
D) was the most popular of the London theatres in
Shakespeare's time
E) was designed and built especially for the staging of
Shakespeare's plays

It is suggested in the passage that, when
Shakespeare acted, ----.

It is suggested in the passage that Shakespeare, ----.

it seems likely that he continued to act a little longer

he sometimes revised some of his earlier plays
he wanted to keep his company intact
his company put pressure on him to continue writing
he started again on his return to Stratford-upon-Avon

We understand from the passage that we have no
evidence ----.
A) as to what sort of parts Shakespeare played
B) to suggest that Shakespeare was popular in his day
C) as to whether or not Shakespeare actually did rent
out his property
D) about when Shakespeare was writing his plays
E) that the destruction of the Globe had any serious
impact on Shakespeare's life



We should care about dying languages for the same reason

that we care when a species of animal or plant dies. It
reduces the diversity of our planet. In the case of language,
we are talking about intellectual and cultural diversity, not
biological diversity, but the issues are the same. As a result of
decades of environmental publicity and activism, most people
have come to accept that biodiversity is a good thing. But
linguistic diversity has not enjoyed the same publicity.
Diversity occupies a central place in evolutionary theory
because it enables a species to survive in different
environments. Increasing uniformity holds dangers for the
long-term survival of a species. The strongest ecosystems are
those which are most diverse. It has often been said that our
success in colonizing the planet can be accounted for by our
ability to develop diverse cultures which suit different


According to the writer, diversity on earth ----.

A) is rapidly becoming reduced owing to a lack of public

interest in it
B) consists not only of the diversity of species and plants
but also of languages and cultures
C) has only recently become a research concern among
D) has encouraged man to exploit his environment
E) can best be maintained through the preservation of
different languages

intellectual and cultural

environmental publicity
occupy a place
evolutionary theory
hold a danger
long-term survival
diverse cultures
receive attention
animal species
continuous efforts
cultural uniformity
public interest

It is stressed in the passage that biological diversity ---.
A) is not in any way related to eco-systems
B) has received far more attention than linguistic
C) is fast being reduced
D) contributes very little to the survival of plant and
animal species
E) is richer in northern regions than in southern ones
The point is made in the passage that the survival of
species in different environments ----.
A) is of no real importance except to biologists
B) has been made possible by the continuous efforts of
C) has aroused very little interest in the general public
D) has been made possible by diversity
E) bears no relation to the survival of languages and

The author draws a strong parallel between ----.

cultural and linguistic diversity
plant and animal species
linguistic and biological diversity
environmental and cultural publicity
the uniformity of ecosystems and that of cultures
It is pointed out in the passage that man ----.

A) has developed diverse cultures which are appropriate

for the environment he lives in
B) has always been very much aware of the benefits of
C) has always valued cultural diversity well above
D) has always found it very hard to adapt himself to any
new environment
E) has always felt that cultural uniformity is desirable



The discovery of an ancient tomb in modern China is so

commonplace that it often annoys as much as excites,
because it can delay construction for months or even years.
So when archeologists were called in fast May to check
structures discovered during the expansion of a bone meal
factory in a southern suburb of Beijing, they weren't expecting
to find anything of great interest. To the archeologists'
surprise, the structures were the remains of two traditional
domed tombs, each over a thousand years old. One was
flooded and badly damaged, but the other contained
beautifully-preserved wall frescoes from the 10th century. It's
only recently that the Chinese have been publishing artifacts
from ancient tombs, and it's unusual to see them in the
Western press, says Dr Jessica Rawson, Professor of
Oriental Art and Archeology at Oxford University.

The passage points out that the archeologists who
were called in ----.
A) were not impressed by the frescoes on the walls of
one of the tombs
B) weren't expecting to discover tombs of such great
value in a suburb of Beijing
C) made ancient tombs their specialty
D) had published extensively in the western press
E) were annoyed by the discovery of two ancient tombs
in Beijing

great interest
show respect
archeological heritage
unexpected discovery
weather conditions
run parallel
archeological excavations
attract attention
in excellent condition
publish extensively

We learn from the passage that the Chinese ----.


show archeologists a great deal of respect

are very proud of their ancient archeological heritage
are very skilled in the art of frescoes
often have mixed feelings when an ancient tomb is
E) used to prefer tombs without domes to those with
It is clear from the passage that in China today the
progress of a construction work ----.
A) is very often hindered by the unexpected discovery of
ancient tombs
B) is frequently supervised by archeologists
C) is liable to be delayed for a variety of reasons
D) depends, to a certain extent, on weather conditions
E) often runs parallel with archeological excavations
According to Professor Rawson in the passage,
China ---A) has only recently emerged as an area of interest for
B) has only just started to publish art objects for the
C) is noted for its ancient domed tombs with frescoes
D) continues to be very secretive about its archeological
E) has the finest frescoes anywhere in the world
We understand from the passage that only one of the
tombs unearthed during extension work at a factory in
Beijing ----.

attracted the attention of Dr Rawson

had a domed roof which was undamaged
could be dated back to the 10th century
revealed frescoes in excellent condition
caused a delay in the project



For two decades after World War II, mass production reigned
supreme. Mass-production techniques pushed companies into
standardized products, long product life cycles, and rigid
manufacturing, emphasizing efficiency and low cost over
flexibility. Special orders cost more. But todays consumers
are very choosy. They want quality, value and products
specially tailored to their needs, but always at the lowest
possible price. For now mass customization has come to the
fore. Mass customization uses information technology to
produce and deliver products and services designed to fit the
specifications of individual customers. Companies can
customize products in quantities as small as one with the
same speed and low cost as mass-production methods.
Mass-customization systems use information taken from the
customer to control the flow of goods


According to the passage, present-day customers ----

A) are encouraged to buy ready-made goods available

in the shops
B) are pleased far more easily than customers were in
the past
C) do not attach much importance to production
D) specify what they want and insist on getting it
E) rarely distinguish between standardized and nonstandardized goods
The point is made in the passage that mass
customization ----.

We learn from the passage that mass production ----.

A) is no more costly and no more time-consuming than

mass production
B) is a system that dates back to the end of World War
C) has actually never been as popular as mass
D) is primarily concerned with efficiency but overlooks
E) does not attach much importance to flexibility

A) has now regained its previous popularity

B) was the leading method of production in the twenty
years or so that followed World War II
C) can easily be adapted to meet the needs of individual
D) can be very profitable because of the wide appeal of
its goods
E) gives priority to quality and longevity in the goods
produced but ignores aesthetic qualities
We learn from the passage that one of the
characteristics of mass production is ----.

mass production
life cycles
low cost
mass customization
come to the fore
information technology
regain its popularity
meet the needs
give priority to
in large quantities
at high speed
ready-made goods
attach importance to


the need to please every customer

a disregard for flexibility
a disregard for cost-effectiveness
to take into consideration the specifications given by
individual customers
E) the rescheduling of production as the need arises
By the phrase 'mass customization', as it is used in
the passage, is meant the production of goods ----.
A) in very large quantities and for general use
B) to meet standardized specifications which will please
C) at high speed regardless of cost
D) designed to have a long life
E) designed to meet the specific needs of individual



Why are people prejudiced? Not surprisingly, theories of

prejudice have tended to focus on the more extreme forms of
prejudice, in particular when there is aggression and violence.
At the turn of the last century, it was popular to consider
prejudice to be an innate and instinctive reaction to certain
categories of person (e.g certain races) much as animals
would react in instinctive ways to one another. This sport of
approach is no longer popular, as it doesn't stand up well to
scientific scrutiny. However there may be an innate
component to prejudice. There is some evidence that higher
animals, including humans, have an inherent fear of the
unfamiliar and unusual, which might set the' mould for
negative attitudes towards groups that are considered
different in certain ways. There is also evidence for a mere
exposure effect, in which, people's attitudes towards various
stimuli (e.g. other people) improve as a direct function of
repeated. Exposure or familiarity with the stimulus, provided
that initial reactions to the stimuli are not negative. Another
perspective rests on the belief that prejudices are learned.
Indeed, it has been argued that hatred and suspicion of
certain groups are learned early in life, before the child even
knows anything about the target group and that this provides
an emotional framework that colours all subsequent
information about, and experience with, the group.

We learn from the passage that the 'mere exposure
effect' occurs when ----.
A) opposing groups agree to meet each other halfway
B) individuals start to copy the behaviour patterns of the
people they are with
C) people learn to face the fact that their prejudices are
without foundation
D) repeated contact with a particular group leads to a
better understanding of that group
E) people can admit that their first reactions were too
According to the passage, certain studies suggest
that prejudice against various groups of society ----.
A) is on the increase simply because it is receiving too
much attention
B) develops early in life, even before any real contact
has been made with them
C) could best be overcome by keeping children unaware
of it
D) is largely racial in character
E) has only resulted in violence on very rare occasions

According to the passage, at the beginning of the
20th century, Prejudice was generally regarded----.

at the turn of the last century

innate and instinctive
scientific scrutiny
negative attitudes
emotional framework
social possibilities
behaviour patterns
on the increase
receive much attention

in very much the same way as it is now

as a natural and intuitive response
as something that had to be corrected
as inevitable and therefore acceptable
as an outcome of parental conditioning

It is clear from the passage that studies on prejudice ---.
A) often spring from animal behaviour
B) suggest that most children adopt the prejudices of
their parents
C) have finally established that it is innate
D) aim to discover how they can be overcome
E) have usually concentrated on the more destructive
expressions of it
One theory referred to in the passage suggests that
man's innate fear of what is rarely encountered or little
known ----.
A) may play a role in creating prejudices
B) prevents him from developing his social possibilities
C) is an aspect of his character that relates him very
closely to the rest of the animal world
D) is far less strong now than formerly
E) has helped to make society more uniform



By the early 19th century the eminent French zoologist

Georges Cuvier believed he had found rock-solid evidence for
the biblical great flood. While studying the geological strata
around Paris, Cuvier found that fossils of sea creatures in one
ancient layer of chalk were overlaid by those of land
creatures. Then, just as abruptly, the layer above contained
sea creatures again, with the top layer showing evidence of a
vast and rapid inundation around present-day Paris. Cuvier
regarded these sudden changes in the fossil record as
evidence for sudden catastrophes which devastated life on
Earth, of which the great flood was just the most recent
example. Cuvier's discoveries, published in 1812, won support
from a large number of eminent scientists such as the
geologist Sir James Hall. However, there were a few who
were deeply sceptical, pointing out that the evidence of a
global flood was far from conclusive. Most sceptical of all were
the followers of the Scottish geologist James Hutton. In 1795,
he had published a two-volume text based on the view that
the slow, steady processes that shape our planet today, such
as erosion, were also crucially important in the distant past.


It is clear from the passage that Cuvier ----.

A) adopted an indifferent attitude towards the attacks of

his critics
B) was greatly influenced by Hutton's theory concerning
the Earth's formation
C) was particularly interested in marine fossils and
concentrated on them for research purposes
D) interpreted his fossil discoveries as indications of
major catastrophes similar to the great flood
E) had devoted years of research to establishing that the
biblical great flood had actually occurred

According to the passage, Cuvier's critics ----.

A) were extremely jealous of his discoveries near Paris

B) felt that there was insufficient geological evidence to
confirm that the biblical great flood ever had occurred
C) regarded erosion as only a minor geological process
D) were also equally opposed to the views expressed by
E) certainly believed there had been a global flood but
did not regard his discoveries as scientifically

We learn from the passage that many scientists----.

A) gave full support to Cuvier's view that the great flood

had actually taken place
B) were not at all impressed by Cuvier's discoveries in
the Paris area
C) followed up Cuvier's excavations of marine fossils
D) were, like Cuvier, engaged in a search for evidence
of the great flood
E) ceased to be sceptical of the great flood once Sir
James Hall had given his support to Cuvier

As we learn from the passage, Hutton's theory was
that ----.
A) long-term geological change, such as erosion, had
been of paramount importance in the Earth's history
B) erosion was the single most important cause of
geological change on Earth
C) some geological processes, such as erosion, were
relatively recent in the history of the Earth
D) our planet had been subjected to countless
catastrophes in the distant past
E) the formation of our planet was the outcome of
different processes in different places

It is pointed out in the passage that in the course of
excavations near Paris Cuvier ----.
A) slowly came to recognize the geological significance
of the biblical great flood
B) was particularly surprised that there were chalk
formations in the area
C) was slow to recognize the geological importance of
marine fossils
D) grew interested in the fossils of sea creatures only
after he came across a second layer
E) discovered alternating layers of fossils relating to sea
and land creatures

sea creatures
show evidence
sudden changes
win support
eminent scientists
deeply sceptical
a slow, steady process
crucially important
give full support
geological significance
adopt an attitude
greatly influence
major catastrophes
paramount importance



No child is too young to play and therefore to engage in

engineering, even though it is of a primitive kind. We all did so
as children ourselves when we devised our own toys and
games and sometimes even imaginary friends to enjoy them
with us. The idea of playfulness is embedded in engineering
through the concepts of invention and design. Not that
engineering is trivial; rather, the heart of the activity is to give
imagination its freedom to dream and turn those dreams into
reality. Children do experience the essence of engineering in
their earliest activities, yet there is seldom any recognition that
this is the case. They may hear the word 'engineer' only in
connection with railroad locomotives and have no idea that
their playful activity could become a lifelong profession.
Engineers themselves are understandably reluctant to equate
their professional activity with mere child's play. After all, they
studied long and hard to master complicated knowledge of
atoms and molecules, stresses and strains, heat and power,
current and voltages, bits and bytes. They manipulate
equations, not blocks. They use computers for serious
modelling and calculation, not for fun and games. They design
and build real towers and bridges that test the limits of
reliability and safety, not toy ones that totter and fall down with
little consequence.


It is suggested in the passage that children ----.

A) are not aware of the fact that in their games they are
involved in some kind of engineering activity
B) should be constantly encouraged to play games that
involve engineering techniques
C) love to imitate the activities that go on around them
D) are incapable of imaginative thinking
E) have a primitive perception of life
According to the passage, what children and
engineers have in common are ----.

reliability and safety

experience and knowledge
invention and design
modelling and calculation
recognition and reality

give freedom
understandably reluctant
have the capacity
minor details
serious consequences
technical knowledge
give priority to
exaggerate the importance
imaginative thinking

The main point the writer is making in this passage is
that ----.
A) man has practised engineering ever since primitive
B) some children are born to be engineers
C) children and engineers both have the capacity to
imagine and create
D) reliability and safety are minor details for the
professional engineer
E) any engineering fault in design or calculation does
have serious consequences
One point stressed in the passage is that professional
engineering ----.
A) is very different from all other scientific activities
B) requires more imagination than technical knowledge
and calculation
C) makes little use of theoretical knowledge
D) gives priority to design rather than to invention
E) covers a vast field of involved or intricate subjects of
wide scope
As we can see from the passage, the writer is careful
A) not to exaggerate the importance of creative play to a
B) to list all areas that are of concern to an engineer
C) to show how slowly a child's mental capacity
D) not to offend engineers by his comparison
E) to avoid using technical terminology in the passage



Europe and Japan do not use fuel economy standards to any

significant degree, but instead rely principally on high taxes to
reduce gas consumption. Their average tax is more than $2
per gallon, while in the US federal gas taxes are only 18 Euro
per gallon and average state taxes 22 Euro per gallon. Higher
prices at the pump resulting from higher taxes increase
consumer demand for cars with better fuel economy. They
also encourage consumers to reduce their driving. Research
shows that federal taxes on gasoline would have to increase
by a bit less than 50 euro per gallon to cut gasoline
consumption in the US. Although a 50 Euro increase is a lot
compared with the present average total tax of 40 Euro, it
would raise retail gas prices to only a little more than $2 per
gallon, tax included. This is far below prices in Europe and
Japan. Even if federal taxes on gas were doubled, US retail
gas prices would still be much below those in other developed

We learn from the passage that one effect of higher
taxes on fuel ----.
A) has been a great deal of uneasiness and even anger
among consumers
B) has been a noticeable drop in car sales everywhere
C) has been to draw attention to a much wider range of
energy sources
D) is an increased demand for vehicles which consume
less fuel
E) is that Europe's production of fuel-economy vehicles
has increased remarkably
One point stressed in the passage is that fuel prices
in the US, ----.
A) which include both federal and state taxes, are
expected to rise considerably
B) which have been increasing steadily for quite some
time now, have almost equaled those in Japan and
even Europe
C) even if the taxes were to be increased considerably,
would still be much lower than in other industrialized
D) which have not risen for a long time, seem likely to
remain stable
E) where consumers go for cars with better fuel
economy, have caused no change in driving habits

According to the passage, efforts have been made ---

A) to compare the levels of fuel consumption as well as

fuel prices in Europe
B) to assess what price increases would lead to a
significant reduction in fuel consumption in the US
C) to give more appeal to public transport
D) to establish what vehicle types consume less fuel
E) to develop fuel-efficient vehicles for sale in the US
It is clear from the passage that Japan's strategy to
keep fuel consumption down ----.

reduce gas consumption

increase the demand
raise gas prices
a significant reduction
greatly criticize
major public concern
rise sharply
noticeable drop
increase remarkably
in industrialized countries
remain stable
cause a change

depends largely on the high taxation of fuel

has been greatly criticized by the public
has not been as effective as was originally envisaged
has set an example that Europe is now adopting
has had no effect upon the country's car production

According to the passage, the combined federal and
state taxes on gas in the US ----.
A) have exceeded those currently in use in Europe
B) are so high that they have forced Japanese car
manufacturers to change their production strategies
C) have become a major public concern
D) have suddenly caused fuel prices to rise sharply
E) amount to much less than the tax paid in Japan



Throughout his working life, Shakespeare worked as an actor

in the midst of a troupe. We know little about his first years in
London, For a few years between 1585 and 1592 his name
disappears altogether from the public records, and the most
likely reason for this is that, for at least some of this time, he
was working for one of the city's acting companies; as a junior
member he would not be listed among the troupe's principal
players. In the late 1580s theatrical activity in London was
largely concentrated in Shoreditch and Southwark, districts of
London. Shakespeare could have lived anywhere, but
Shoreditch, which would have been cheap and convenient, is
a likely candidate for a young actor. In his early career
Shakespeare may have moved from troupe to troupe in order
to survive. Whatever the case, working conditions must have
been similar. Sundays, religious holidays and disasters aside,
a company would perform a different play each afternoon of
the week, though some plays would be repeated in the weeks
ahead. An actor usually had to keep at least 30 parts in his
memory and a leading player such as Alleyn or Burbage must
have kept in mind nearly 5, 000 lines a week.

We understand from the passage that in the late 16th
century ----.
A) it was illegal to hold theatrical performances on
religious days
B) Shoreditch and Southwark were heavily populated
commercial districts
C) there was apparently a great deal of public interest in
the theatres
D) the popularity of Alleyn and Burbage was already on
the decline
E) working conditions in the theatres varied enormously
It was clear from the passage that, for Shakespeare,
they years in London up to 1592 ----.

According to the passage, in Shakespeare's time, ----.

A) it was not unusual for actors to appear in a great

many roles each week
B) there was no theatrical activity anywhere in England
except for London
C) leading actors would only agree to appear in certain
D) an acting company usually staged a new play each
E) acting was regarded as an immoral occupation

were times of hardship and uncertainty

were a period of widespread public recognition
marked a turning point in his life
brought many great changes and opportunities
were the period during which he established a lifelong
friendship with Alleyn and Burbage

early career
working conditions
perform a play
stage a new play
immoral occupation
gain experience
heavily populated
public interest
public recognition
a turning point

We learn from the passage that, in Shakespeare's
London, theatres ----.
A) competed with each other to get Alleyn or Burbage in
their troupe
B) were normally open to the public six afternoons a
C) provided actors with a comfortable and profitable way
of life
D) were rather like drama schools and they trained
E) all had their own leading players
It is clear from the passage that Shakespeare, during
his early years in London, ----.
A) gained experience as an actor by appearing in a
huge variety of parts
B) was encouraged to write plays by Alleyn and Burbage
C) devoted himself primarily to the writing of plays
D) preferred living in Southwark to Shoreditch
E) was little known as an actor though he was probably



Behavioural biologist Jane Atkinson and her colleagues have

been studying the subtleties of how crows steal food from one
another. Atkinson had been watching the birds at the beach
as they fed on fish, clams and other small animals in the
intertidal zone. She noticed that if a crow had found a
particularly large meal that couldn't be eaten in a single gulp,
another crow would often come by and try to steal the food
away. Food theft is fairly common in the bird world, so the
crows' thievery wasn't unexpected. What really intrigued
Atkinson was that the birds employed two different tactics to
take the food. In some instances, the thieving bird would take
an aggressive approach - typically involving some chasing or
physical contact, such as pecking in other exchanges,
however, the thief would use a more passive method: merely
approaching the other bird secretively and stealing the food
without any commotion at all. What the team wanted to know
was: how did these tactics fit into the group foraging practices
of the crows?

We understand from the passage that so long as a
crow ----.
A) can swallow its food at one gulp, it will encounter no
B) can find food easily, it will not steal from another crow
C) can get food by stealing, it won't look elsewhere for it
D) has eaten well, it is unlikely to try to steal food
E) is able to steal food without fighting, this is the
method it will favour
It is clear from the passage that Jane Atkinson and
her colleagues ----.
A) knew much more about crows than about any other
type of bird.
B) are specialist in bird behaviour
C) are only interested in the eating habits of birds
D) are particularly interested in the different types of
food that crows like to eat
E) are impressed by the similarity between stealing
practices of ail bird species

According to the passage, the question that
interested the research team was ----.
A) whether the crows' stealing practices were instinctive
or acquired
B) wry the crows chose to steal
C) related to the crows' foraging practices
D) whether the nature of the food affected the degree of
attempted theft
E) whether the stealing practices of crows differed from
those of other birds

particularly large
fairly common
take an aggressive approach
scarcity of food
come as a surprise
establish its superiority
particularly interested

It is clear from the passage that the research team
was not surprised that the crows were trying to steal from
each other common ----.
A) because this is a practice among birds
B) since there was a scarcity of food at the time
C) though crows don't steal food as often as other birds
D) but it was surprised at their rate of success
E) but the bitterness of the fight came as a surprise
According to the passage, when one crow plans to
steal food from another one, ---A) this is really a means of establishing its superiority
B) it will invariably try to do so in the first place without
being seen
C) there will inevitably be a fight between the two
D) this is a sure sign that both crows are really hungry
E) it will sometimes approach quite openly and boldly



In many ways, Hollywood seems to exemplify the most joyless

aspects of capitalism. The 'industry', as it insists upon calling
itself, packages artistic ideas and images as commodities and
then values those commodities according to how they
'penetrate' markets. The system's worrying inefficiency, of
course, is that studios never know what the public at large will
want to buy. So films are tested in front of preview audiences,
revised according to the audience's suggestions, tested again,
and then marketed with a vigour directly proportionate to the
test scores. There are two problems with this approach. The
first is that the test-sample size is minimal but can determine a
film's fate. The second is that by the time the test audience
sees a film it's too late to change it very much anyway,
particularly when twenty, fifty or a hundred million dollars has
already been spent.

It is clear from the passage that Hollywood regards its
films as ----.
A) commodities to be selectively marketed to suitable
B) artistic creations designed for sophisticated
C) goods to be dynamically marketed
D) the most creative products of capitalism
E) financial investments which are sure to make a profit
We understand from the passage that the making of a
film ----.

One point made in the passage about test audiences
is that they ----.

seldom have any real understanding of artistic values

add to the expenses of film-making
rarely have any constructive criticism to make
are ignorant of the Hollywood techniques of
E) are too small to be truly representative of the general

worrying inefficiency
have an understanding of
constructive criticism
carry out a research
raise the money
meet the expectations
attach great importance to
financial investment
make a profit

According to the passage, film-makers find it difficult
to ----.
A) carry out any market research to find out about the
wishes of film-goers
B) find volunteers for their preview audiences
C) raise the money needed for film- making
D) guess what sort of films will be popular and so
E) revise scripts to meet the expectations of their

is far more important than the marketing of it

usually involves a very large financial investment
is a strictly secret process until it finally goes on show
usually follows the norms established by Hollywood
is guided by a whole series a representative preview

As we understand from the passage, the writer ----.

A) is a great admirer of Hollywood's film-making

B) seems reluctant to call film-making an industry
C) is sympathetic towards the film-industry and wants it
to be more successful
D) attaches great importance to the suggestions of
preview audiences
E) thinks that the amount spent on a film is usually in
proportion to its success



Reading presents a real paradox to neurobiologists. It was

only invented a few thousand years ago, so there really has
not been enough time for our brain to evolve specialized ways
to do it. How do brain circuits produced by millions of years of
evolution in a world without written words adapt to the specific
challenges of reading? We know we have to learn the skill but
how does our brain learn to read? in the social sciences, the
majority of researchers do not see a problem. There is a
widespread view that the brain is a completely adaptable
organ, capable of absorbing any form of culture. Yet recent
findings from brain imaging studies and neurophysiology
throw new light on the organization of the reading circuits in
the brain. The findings contradict this simplistic model of a
brain that merely absorbs everything from its cultural
environment. And they suggest that the architecture of our
brain is limited by strong genetic constraints though it seems
that it has still some degree of flexibility.

According to the passage, although people have had
the skill of reading for several thousand years, ----.
A) the actual process of learning how to read has only
just been discovered by neurophysiologists
B) there has been no improvement in the speed at when
people can read
C) the brain remains inflexible and cannot cope with
different cultures
D) from the angle of evolution, this has been insufficient
for the brain to develop particularized reading skills
E) it is only in the social sciences that this skill has been
seriously studied

A) explain how the brain has evolved towards creativity

over thousands of years
B) raise questions about, rather than explain, the
reading abilities of the brain
C) highlight recent developments and controversies in
the field of neurophysiology
D) emphasize the adverse effects of different cultural
environments on the human brain way from
E) draw attention to the neurobiology differs

The passage makes the point that, until recently, ----.

A) it was only the abnormal brain that attracted any

B) researchers in social sciences ignored the views of
neurophysiologists concerning the brain
C) the brain was generally thought to adapt itself easily
to new cultural environments
D) the structure of the brain did not attract much
attention except from neurobiologists
E) neurophysiologists were not aware of the structural
complexity of the brain

present a paradox
specific challenges
widespread view
recent findings
throw light on
cultural environment
attract attention
extremely flexible
remain constant
develop reading skills
raise questions
adverse effects
draw attention to

The writer is intrigued by the fact that the brain, which
evolved long before the written word came into use, ----.

had already had the genetic capacity to form words

had been able to communicate through images
had already developed certain reading circuits
managed to adapt itself to the very distinct skill of
E) had already achieved full flexibility to adapt itself to
new forms of culture

The purpose of the passage is to ----.

A recent view neurophysiologists, the brain, is that ----

A) it is extremely flexible as it is not affected by genetic

B) its structure is largely shaped by genetic traits
C) it has developed various specialized skills over the
last thousand years or so
D) its circuits have remained constant for millions of
E) its creative powers are more apparent in some fields
of learning



Throughout history, eyewitnesses have reported orange

glows, fireballs or flashes in the days before and during an
earthquake. It was in 1968, however, that the first
photographs of 'earthquake lights' were taken during a series
of earthquakes in Japan. Some showed red streaks across
the sky. Others looked like a low blue dawn from a distance in
1999, floating bails of light in the sky were broadcast on
Turkish television, reportedly filmed the night before the
devastating earthquake of 7.4 on the Richter scale that killed
many thousand people in the Marmara region of Turkey.
Mysterious or not, repeated sightings of earthquake lights
confirm their existence. It has to be said that earthquake lights
are a fairly well-known phenomenon, but we don't know what
they mean, or what causes them. Seismologists have
struggled for years to find a reliable earthquake predictor.
Could the lights hold the key?

The writer of the passage seems to be confident that
A) seismology is advancing rapidly through the study of
earthquakes lights
B) future earthquakes will be reliably predicted by
means of earthquake lights
C) earthquake lights have frequently been observed and
even filmed
D) the mystery of earthquake lights can never be
E) the appearance of fireballs and flashes in the sky are
a sure sign of an approaching earthquake
The passage emphasizes the fact that the Marmara
earthquake ----.

In the passage, the writer wonders whether ----.


A) earthquakes lights might help in the prediction of

B) the orange glows supposedly sighted before an
earthquake were actually seen
C) the photographs taken of earthquake lights in Japan
are of any scientific use
D) earthquakes cause the lights, or whether the lights
cause the earthquakes
E) the devastation caused by the Marmara earthquake
could have been prevented

was televised as it was happening

was followed by strange lights in the sky
was indeed a catastrophic one
greatly puzzled seismologists
took everyone, seismologists included, by surprise

throughout history
devastating earthquake
well-known phenomenon
hold the key
fairly recent
great success
a major concern
advance rapidly
resolve a mystery
take by surprise

We understand from the passage that the sighting of
earthquake lights ----.
A) has led to a great deal of confused and contradictory
reporting among seismologists
B) first occurred in Japan
C) is a fairly recent phenomenon in Japan
D) has attracted virtually no scientific attention from
E) goes back a very long way in time
It is pointed out in the passage that the photographic
recording of earthquake lights ----.
A) was made for the first time less than half a century
B) was only done with great success during the
Marmara earthquake
C) is what finally convinced people of their existence
D) is widely regarded as a visual deception
E) has always been a major concern for seismologists



During the past few decades four East Asian economies South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Hong Kong - have
achieved the fastest rates of economic growth the world has
ever seen. In 1962 Taiwan stood between Zaire and the
Congo on the global ranking of income per head: by 1986 its
neighbours were Greece and Malta. In 1962 South Korea was
poorer than Sudan: by 1986 it was richer than Argentina.
Today the four 'dragons' account for 10 per cent of
manufactured exports worldwide, not far short of America's 12
per cent. Understanding this miracle is the most urgent task in
development economics. But most economists are content to
cite the dragons as proof of their favourite theories - whatever
those theories may be. Free marketers point to the dragons'
reliance on private enterprise, markets and relatively
undistorted trade regimes. Interventionists point with equal
assurance to clever bureaucracies, non-market allocation of
resources and highly distorted trade regimes.

We learn from the passage that, in just over two
decades, Taiwan ----.
A) became the economic model for the other 'dragons'
on account of its economic success
B) achieved the fastest rate of economic growth among
the four East Asian 'dragons'
C) rose from a low-level per capita income similar to that
of Zaire, to a relatively high one
D) attached far more importance to private enterprise
than any other Asian country
E) was the only one among the 'dragons' to exploit its
resources to the full
According to the passage, there is no unanimous
agreement among economists as to ----.
A) how far distorted trade regimes contributed to the
economic success of the four 'dragons'
B) why Taiwan and Hong Kong got ahead of Singapore
and South Korea in economic efficiency
C) whether the growth rate of the four 'dragons' will
continue steadily
D) when the four East Asian 'dragons' will catch up with
the US regarding manufactured exports
E) how the four East Asian 'dragons' achieved their
miraculous growth rate

According to the passage, the so-called four 'dragons'
of East Asia ----.
A) are hoping shortly to outpace Greece and Malta in
economic growth
B) have definitely benefited greatly from a free trade
C) are presently developing their own free market
D) have experienced a staggering and unprecedented
economic growth rate over recent decades
E) have finally managed to throw off bureaucratic
obstacles and disprove the theories of many

It is clear from the passage that the factors leading to
the amazing economic growth of the East Asian 'dragons'
A) have not yet been determined by economists
B) are closely related to distorted trade regimes
C) are in line with the theories of development
D) should have contributed to the rise of Sudan
E) have confirmed the importance of political stability

It is pointed out in the passage that South Korea,
Taiwan, Singapore and Hong Kong ----.
A) export more to the US than to any other country in
the world
B) have been in fierce competition with each other in the
export of manufactured goods
C) have developed their economies in accordance with
the theory of development economics
D) admit openly that they have made use of various
distorted trade regimes
E) export almost as many manufactured goods between
them, as does the US

economic growth
manufactured exports
urgent task
private enterprise
benefit greatly
develop a strategy
admit openly
economic success
per capita income
attach importance
economic efficiency
growth rate
continue steadily
political stability



Although women have made huge strides in catching up with

men in the workplace, a gender gap still persists both in
wages and levels of advancement. Commonly cited
explanations for this gap range from charges of sex
discrimination to claims that women are more sensitive than
men to work versus family conflicts and thus less inclined to
make sacrifices for their careers. Now, however, two new
studies suggest that another factor may be at work: a deeply
ingrained difference in the way men and women react to
competition that manifests itself even at an early age.
Apparently, females tend to be far less responsive to
competition than males - a tendency with important
implications for women and business. It may hurt women in
highly competitive labor markets, for example, and hamper
efficient job placement - especially for positions in which
competitiveness is not a useful trait.


According to the passage, in working life today, ----.

A) women are preferred for certain jobs that require

B) there still exists considerable discrimination against
C) men feel they have a right to higher wages and
quicker advancement
D) family concerns are what drive men to work harder
and earn more
E) fair competition is to be encouraged while sex
discrimination is to be banned
It is clearly pointed out in the passage that the
reluctance of women to be competitive ----.
A) is regarded by men as a desirable trait
B) is the major factor contributing to the persistence of
sex discrimination in the workplace
C) is clearly seen in the way they care for their families
D) only becomes apparent when they reach maturity
E) may prevent them from being appointed to the
positions they deserve

On the whole, according to the passage, women in
the workplace ----.
A) are content to let the men compete among
B) inspire a competitive spirit in men
C) receive the treatment they naturally deserve
D) have rapidly attained a position approaching that of
E) keep themselves up-to-date with developments in the
labor market

make huge strides

gender gap
sex discrimination
make sacrifice
at an early age
highly competitive
job placement
receive the treatment
attain a position
become seriously concerned
get the promotion
give precedence to
major factor
reach maturity

As we learn from the passage, it seems likely that
women ----.
A) are about to rally against the gender gap in the
B) become seriously concerned, at a very early age,
about their future careers
C) will fight determinedly for their rights in the workplace
D) will, due to their passive nature, find it hard to get the
promotion they deserve
E) have less of the competitive spirit than men do
We understand from the passage that, when a choice
has to be made between work and family, ----.
A) men are less likely, than women to risk their careers
B) most career women naturally give precedence to
C) women expect men to give the priority to the family
D) it is the women, rather than the men, who find making
that choice hard
E) neither the men nor the women can readily make up
their minds



We can conclude from the passage that the New
Valley project, which has been underway for roughly two
decades, ----.

The Sahara desert takes up most of Egypt's land, so

overcrowding is a huge problem. Sixty-two million people live
squeezed together into the six million fertile acres along the
Nile delta and narrow river valley - just five per cent of the
total area of Egypt. Between 12 and 15 million people live in
Cairo alone. Until recently, it was impractical and dangerous
to even consider moving into the southern desert, where
temperatures regularly rise above 50 C and water is scarce
and can only be reached using carefully placed irrigation
wells. But in the last 20 years a 'New Valley' has slowly been
taking shape. Towns with industrial centres, tourist areas and
spacious apartment blocks are being constructed, factories
are springing up. The main development making this possible
is the construction of the vast Sheikh Zayed canal, also known
as the Toshka canal. Named for Sheikh Zayed al Nahya,
president of the United Arab Emirates, which is financially
backing the project, the canal is part of the irrigation scheme
dreamed up by the Egyptian government to make it possible
for people to move away from the traffic, pollution and bustle
of Cairo. If a 'second Nile' cuts through the desert and water is
distributed to surrounding land, people and crops can thrive
there as they do around the existing Nile. The area is
becoming known as the New Valley.

A) was originally proposed by Sheikh Zayed al Nahya of

the United Arab Emirates
B) has already started to transform the economic
potential of Egypt
C) is primarily an agricultural one, and industrial activity
is not provided for
D) is very near to completion and large numbers of
people have already moved in
E) is proving far more problematic than was originally
It is clearly stated in the passage that almost the
whole of Egypt's population ----,
A) lives along the Nile Valley and its delta
B) wants to move into the New Valley
C) is engaged in agricultural activities rather than in
industrial ones
D) holds Sheikh Zayed al Nahya in great esteem
E) is dubious about the outcome of the New Valley

We understand from the passage that the canal
under construction ----.

It is pointed out in the passage that the irrigation
project for the New Valley ----.

A) is designed to meet the water needs of Cairo and

other cities
B) constitutes just a portion of a massive irrigation
C) will bring fertility to the whole of the Sahara
D) will irrigate only 5% of the total area of Egypt
E) passes through an overcrowded part of the country

A) has received a mixed reaction from the general public

B) is going to cost the Egyptian government vast sums
of money
C) has primarily been designed to case the
overcrowding in Cairo
D) will enable Egypt to recover from its chronic
economic recession
E) will make the inhospitable desert far more easily

As it is pointed out in the passage, one of the benefits
of the New Valley will be that ----.
A) Egypt will change from an agricultural country into a
fully industrial one
B) Egypt can at last start a tourist industry
C) the overcrowding in Cairo and the Nile delta area will
be reduced
D) the hot, dry desert climate of Egypt will be rapidly
E) it will set an example for the developed world to
invest in desert projects

huge problem
regularly rise
take shape
construct apartment blocks
irrigation scheme
agricultural country
great esteem
received a reaction
economic recession



When Lyndon Johnson assumed the presidency, after the

assassination of John F. Kennedy, in November of 1963, he
knew that in order to accrue political capital he would initially
need to champion goals and policies that Kennedy had
already been pursuing. Not long before his death Kennedy
had scrawled the word 'poverty' on a piece of paper and
circled it multiple times; this note fell into the hands of his
brother Robert and became a symbolic justification for
Johnson's declaration of the War on Poverty, early in 1964.
Similarly, many of the things that Johnson pushed through
Congress in his first two years as President, can readily be
seen as extensions of the avowed policies of the Kennedy
Administration. The details might have been different, but
historians generally agree that if Kennedy had lived out his
first term and won a second, America would have witnessed
something similar to the early years of Johnson's Great
Society. On foreign policy, too, Johnson at first strove
consciously to follow his predecessor. And some historians
have argued that in this realm as well, Johnson indeed
pursued a course that Kennedy had already introduced. If
Kennedy had lived, according to this line of thinking, he would
have continued a policy of antagonism towards Cuba and
steady escalation of US involvement in Vietnam. Johnson
certainly believed that this was what Kennedy intended to do.

It is clear from the passage that initially Johnson
intended to continue the Kennedy policies ----.
A) as far as they were in keeping with the national ideal
of a 'Great Society'
B) although in essence they clashed with his own
C) since he hadn't formulated any of his own
D) because he sensed this would make him politically
E) but he soon found that they were inapplicable
According to the passage, Johnson's pursuit of the
Kennedy goals and policies ----.
A) has been condemned by several recent historians
B) largely occurred during the first two years of his
C) actually undermined his image as president
D) brought him into conflict with Congress
E) hindered his own desire to wage a War on Poverty
The passage makes the point that Johnson became
the president of the US ----.
A) because Kennedy was assassinated
B) since his policy as regards the War on Poverty was
extremely popular
C) because he supported the war in Vietnam
D) even though he disagreed with Kennedy on many
national and international issues
E) as he had the support of the Kennedy brothers

It's clear from the passage that, on assuming the
presidency, Johnson ----.
A) maintained amiable relations with the Kennedys
B) was determined to put his own policies into effect,
and leave his own mark
C) took great care not to antagonize Congress
D) was careful not to deviate from Kennedy's policies in
international relations
E) chose to concentrate on foreign policy and ignore
domestic issues

assume the presidency

generally agree
pursue a course
amiable relation
international relations
foreign policy
extremely popular
national and international

As we understand from the passage, one of the
issues Kennedy was planning to tackle ----.
A) concerned the improvement of relations between his
administration and Congress
B) concerned bringing to an end the antagonism
towards Cuba
C) related to the ending of the war in Vietnam
D) was the redefinition of the aims of US foreign policy
E) was the elimination of poverty in the US



The space shuttle and its rockets are huge - some 4.5 million
pounds at lift-off. About 85 per cent of that weight is fuel.
Since it is designed to work in a vacuum, the shuttle must
carry not only fuel but the oxygen to burn it. Because this is an
inefficient way to go, NASA engineers have recently tested an
engine that gets some of its oxygen on the run. This should
reduce take off weights by half. A spacecraft equipped with
this engine would take off like a rocket. But within minutes,
incoming air would begin to supplement liquid oxygen. Once
the spacecraft reaches a speed of 1, 500 miles per hour twice the speed of sound - the liquid oxygen would shut off
completely and the engine would burn fuel mixed with air.
Consequently the craft would accelerate to about ten times
the speed of sound. When the air got too thin for the engine to
breathe, the ship would shift back to rocket mode to punch its
way into space.

It is clear from the passage that, once there is not
sufficient air to burn the fuel, then ----.
A) the speed of the shuttle increases to over ten times
the speed of sound
B) the engine reverts back to using the liquid oxygen
aboard the shuttle
C) the engine starts to increase the speed of the shuttle
D) it is impossible for the shuttle to accelerate any
E) the rocket can no longer function efficiently

space shuttle
reach a speed
space travel
physical effects
pose a serious problem
increase the speed
function efficiently

According to the passage, a new rocket engine is
presently being developed to ----.

reach previously unimagined speeds

make space travel more comfortable and feasible
halve the weight of a space shuttle at lift-off
enable NASA to remain in the forefront of space
E) reduce the physical effects of the atmosphere on the
We learn from the passage that in the usual space
shuttle, the weight ----.

makes high speeds impossible

consists very largely of fuel
does not pose any serious problem
of the liquid oxygen is enormous
of the rockets is insignificant

As the passage points out, a space shuttle requires
oxygen ----.

only when it is travelling within the atmosphere

if it is to attain very high speeds
but only in its liquid form
in order to burn the fuel
in quite small quantities except at lift-off

The point is made in the passage that the reason for
developing the new engine is to ----.
A) reduce the time it takes the shuttle to exceed the
speed of sound
B) double the speed at which the shuttle travels
C) economize on the use of liquid oxygen
D) eliminate the need for liquid oxygen and thus cut
down on the shuttle's weight
E) allow the shuttle to function in a vacuum



The chief triumph of this book is its depiction of Wellington. He

is not simply the famous British general who defeated
Napoleon at Waterloo. He remains a great general but he is
also shown to have had feet of clay inside his splendid boots.
For example, the writer dwells on Wellington's vanity and his
unattractive lack of generosity in sharing the credit for his
victories. This is a splendid book. Never less than interesting,
but always trenchant. It redefines Wellington without
diminishing his achievements and ends by reminding us that it
was Napoleon who so forcefully articulated a wish that there
should be 'a European code of laws, a European judiciary ...
one people in Europe'. The ogre's dream is coming true.


From this passage, we get the impression that the
book being reviewed ----.

In line 5, 'feet of clay' stands for ----.

disgraceful impulses
unmilitary feelings
desires that have to be suppressed
basic human weakness or faults
an overwhelming desire to deceive

chief triumph
articulate a wish
code of laws
come true
pay attention to
give a picture
underestimate strength
put the emphasis on
receive acclaim
suppress a desire
human weakness
overwhelming desire

makes fun of both Napoleon and Wellington

overlooks the fact that Wellington was a great general
pays more attention to Napoleon than to Wellington
is unnecessarily critical of Wellington
is well-written and gives a balanced picture of

In the book under review, Wellington is criticized for ---.
A) not recognizing the role played by others in his
B) his plan of campaign at Waterloo
C) trying to buy people's affection and support
D) underestimating Napoleon's strength
E) failing to consult his subordinates
It is clear from the passage that the book under
review differs from traditional biographies of Wellington ---.
A) as his great enemy Napoleon receives more than his
share of praise
B) as it questions his skills as a leader
C) because it shows up his human weaknesses
D) in attitude, but not in content
E) by putting the emphasis on his vices, not on his
We understand from the passage that in the book
under review, Napoleon ----.
A) is simply presented as the big enemy
B) receives acclaim for envisaging a united Europe
C) is shown to have had greater military skills than
D) and Wellington each admired the military skills of the
E) knew from the beginning that he would never conquer



Some people believe that meat consumption contributes to

famine and depletes the Earth's natural resources. Indeed, it
is often argued that cows and sheep require pasturage that
could be better used to grow grain for starving millions in poor
countries. Additionally, claims are made that raising livestock
requires more water than raising plant foods. But both these
arguments are illogical. As for the pasturage argument, this
ignores the fact that a large portion of the Earth's dry land is
unsuited to cultivation. For instance, desert and mountainous
areas are not suitable for cultivation, but are suitable for
animal grazing. However, modern commercial farming
methods prefer to raise animals in an enclosed space feeding
them on grains and soybeans. Unfortunately the bulk of
commercial livestock is not range-fed but stall-fed. Stall-fed
animals do not ingest grasses and shrubs (like they should),
but are fed an unnatural array of grains and soybeans - which
could be eaten by humans. The argument here, then, is not
that eating meat depletes the Earth's resources, but that
commercial farming methods do. Such methods subject
livestock to deplorable living conditions where infections,
antibiotics, and synthetic hormones are common. These all
lead to an unhealthy animal and, by extension, to an
unhealthy food product.

Contrary to what is often argued, the passage points
out that ----.
A) synthetic hormones can be used to improve the
quality of meat
B) underdeveloped countries need to adopt modern
farming methods in order to overcome famine
C) grazing for sheep and cows needs to be upgraded so
as to increase meat production
D) the famine in the world is not directly related to the
consumption of meat
E) a very extensive part of the earth's surface is ideally
suitable for the cultivation of crops
The writer attacks present day commercial farming
methods ----.
A) but admits that there is a higher production rate than
there was with earlier methods
B) though the end product is extremely healthy
C) and claims that they are responsible for depleting the
natural resources of the world
D) though it ensures that there is sufficient food for
E) because, among other things, it makes no effort to
cultivate dry, mountainous regions

One important point made in this passage is that ----

A) desert and mountainous regions should be developed

as arable land for cultivation
B) the way livestock is raised on modern farms involves
various health hazards
C) more encouragement should be given to the
application of modern farming technologies
D) meat production in the developed world needs to be
increased to combat famine
E) every measure must be taken to conserve the Earth's
natural resources

By the 'pasturage argument' (line 9) is meant the
argument that ----.
A) the land used for animal grazing ought to be
cultivated and used to grow grain
B) livestock should be stall-fed on grains and not
allowed to graze freely
C) cultivated land ought to be turned into pasturage
D) only cattle that are allowed to graze freely produce
good meat
E) dry mountainous areas could be watered and turned
into good pasturage

One argument that is clearly opposed in the passage
A) concerns the value of antibiotics in the raising of
healthy livestock
B) concerns the introduction of soybeans as the basic
feed for livestock
C) is related to the inadequate methods employed in the
prevention of famine
D) is that livestock need water as much as plants do
E) is that land used for pasturage should be utilized for
the cultivation of crops

meat consumption
deplete natural resources
make a claim
commercial farming methods
living conditions
food product
arable land
health hazards
combat famine
take measure
improve the quality
adopt farming methods
make an effort



The writer of the passage regards the 'gentleman
scientists' of the nineteenth century as privileged because

In modern times, it was perhaps the 'gentleman scientists' of

the nineteenth century who came closest to a genuinely
objective form of scientific research. These privileged
amateurs enjoyed a financial independence which most
scientists today cannot have, and which enabled them to
satisfy their scientific curiosity without the need to please
patrons. With the growth of scientific research after World War
II, science has become an expensive occupation. Many
scientists today look back upon the 1960s as a golden age of
modern-day science, when research was mainly funded by
the taxpayer, and scientific enquiry was seen by governments
to be part of the public good, and worth paying for. Today, the
situation is very different. 'Academic freedom' is now often
little more than an illusion for most scientists working at
universities or in publicly-funded research institutes.
Moreover, science is now largely dominated by the interests
of the industrial world, and hence, hardly deserves the name


the choice of field was rapidly expanding

there were plenty of patrons willing to finance them
they were unrestricted by financial pressures
scientific research was still in its early stages and it
was easy to discover something new
E) they were always well-rewarded for their efforts
The phrase 'part of the public good' (lines 13-14) in
effect means ----.

According to the passage, the major difference
between the 'gentleman scientists' and present-day ones

scientific research
financial independence
satisfy ones curiosity
scientific enquiry
highly controversial
academic freedom
rapidly expand
set the standards

A) has frequently been ignored by governments and

B) is that the former were free to research as they
chose, while the latter are not
C) has become a highly controversial issue in university
D) is not nearly so obvious as some people believe it to
E) the former were less objective in their research
methods than the latter are

deserving of a good public

setting good standards for society
ensuring a better future for society
beneficial to society
recognized by the general public as being good

The writer points out that in the 1960s ----.

A) research activities were largely carried out under the

sponsorship of industry
B) scientists believed that they were entering upon a
golden age
C) academic freedom was already a thing of the past
D) scientists carried out their research activities at the
public expense
E) scientific research largely concentrated on meeting
the needs of war
The writer of the passage argues that contemporary
scientific research ----.
A) is, to a large extent, controlled by the interests of
B) finds its best milieu within the universities
C) is advancing at an incredibly fast rate
D) offers one of the most exciting and stimulating of
E) is far more concerned with theory than with any
practical application



It is clear from the passage that writer often wonders
about why ----.

Why does sea water taste salty? It is a question that has been
asked by countless people down the ages. And the answer
seems straightforward: rain constantly erodes the surface of
the Earth, washing a mix of natural chemicals into rivers and
thence into the sea. The most water-soluble and abundant of
these just happen to taste salty. All very simple. Or is it? After
all, erosion has been taking place for millions of years,
dumping ever more of these salty compounds into the sea, yet
the concentration is still far below the saturation level. So the
real mystery is not why the sea tastes salty, but why it isnt
utterly packed with salt, and as lifeless as the Dead Sea. Here
is another curious thing about our planet. Its atmosphere has
existed for billions of years, and yet it still contains a mix of
highly reactive gases like oxygen and methane. Why havent
they settled down into a boring unreactive atmosphere like
that of Mars or Venus?

A) certain gases are not highly reactive

B) there is no end to the chemicals that are carried into
the sea
C) the world is as it is
D) people are not attracted to the Dead Sea
E) the atmosphere of Mars is similar to that of Venus
The phrase just happen to supports the writers view
of the world as a place ----.

where many phenomena remain inexplicable

where everything goes according to a master plan
where most occurrences have a logical explanation
of continuous and relentless change
of little interest to anyone who is interested in science

According to the passage, the most important and
fascinating question about salt and the sea is ----?

why do certain natural elements taste salty

how much salt is there in the sea
how does the salt get to the sea
when will the salt in the sea reach saturation level
why isnt the sea more salty

saturation level
real mystery
exceedingly boring
remain inexplicable
logical explanation

One point made in the passage is that unanswered
questions about the world and the universe ----.
A) will, at some point in the future, be answered in a
satisfactory manner
B) are now very few in number
C) are unimportant and can be ignored
D) help to highlight the mysteries of the world
E) are only of interest to scientists

One aim of the writer in this passage is to make
people realize that ----.
A) it is dangerous to interfere with the balance of nature
B) everything in the universe has an explanation
C) many of the facts about various planets are
exceedingly boring
D) all the seas in the world will eventually be like the
Dead Sea
E) what may seem simple and straightforward may
actually not be so



Family-owned companies are bad for business, a new study

argues - at least when they dominate a large portion of a
country's economy. Outside the United States and Britain
most major corporations are in the hands of a few wealthy
families, rather than, as in the US and Britain, being owned by
a wide network of shareholders. The power of these small
families often extends far beyond the companies they own
directly, thanks to a system of "control pyramids" in which they
exercise indirect control over a large number of smaller
companies. This concentration of corporate power doesn't
merely leave a high percentage of wealth in the hands of
billionaires -it also retards growth, diminishes efficiency, and
limits economic freedom. Moreover, "a tiny elite that cannot be
sacked," as the study puts it, is likely to pursue "economic
entrenchment", in which property rights and financial
openness are restricted to protect a few families' economic
and political prerogatives or rights.

By the "tiny elite that cannot be sacked" of the
passage is meant ----.
A) families running small businesses at the base of the
"control pyramids"
B) the non-family share-holders
C) the high-ranking employees of the big corporations
D) the few billionaire families who own and rule the
major corporations
E) families without economic and political prerogatives
It is clear from the passage that a major aim of the big
family companies is to ----.
A) preserve the status quo that is, their own wealth and
B) increase their political power and play a role in policy
C) make the business world more competitive
D) reduce the powers of their shareholders
E) encourage the growth of economic freedom
throughout the world

The aim of the passage is to ----.

A) highlight the different ways in which business is

carried on in the US and in Britain
B) compare small family businesses and large
C) present the findings of a research project into the
nature of large, family-owned corporations
D) discredit the practices of big business, especially
when shareholders are involved
E) contradict the conclusions of a study into the
practices of large, family-owned corporations

family-owned company
major corporations
retard growth
diminish efficiency
economic freedom
property rights
create a company
highly competitive
grow fast
run small businesses
political power
play a role in

We understand from the passage that in Britain and
the US, the larger companies ----.
A) are constantly merging to create even larger
B) frequently extend their control over smaller
C) are characterized by much financial openness
D) are usually owned by shareholders who may be
many in number
E) are highly competitive and growing fast
We learn from the passage that the "control
pyramids" ----.
A) offer smaller companies a much-needed guidance
B) are in general very beneficial
C) depict the system of management within a large
D) characterize all family businesses whether large or
E) tend to restrict growth and lower efficiency



Recent activity in several US church communities has

seemed almost unbelievable: churchgoers have gathered
around huge fires and cheered as they cast Harry Potter
books into the flames. They fear that the incredibly popular
series about a school for young wizards is spurring children
and adolescents toward a life of witchcraft and onto the
dangerous path toward Satanism. For these congregations,
J.K. Rowling's books are none other than the work of the devil
herself. To most people, however, the Harry Potter books and
films are merely compelling adventure stories, not a threat to
children's psyches. But what has been forgotten in the
excitement of 'Pottermania' is that boys and girls have been
fascinated by magic and sorcery for generations. Surveys
about magical practices among adolescents vary widely, but
some indicate that as many as 44 per cent have shown some
slight, passing interest in it. Although satanically motivated
violence occasionally makes headlines, research shows that
less than 5 per cent of young people take part in more
extensive witchcraft, and very few end up in the kind of
organized devil worship that can lead to such acts as ritual

In the passage, though the writer does not want to
make a big issue of the matter of witchcraft, he ----.
A) would like more surveys and studies to be carried out
on it
B) feels it should receive more public attention
C) admits that it can, on occasion, lead to terrible events
D) hopes that 'Pottermania' will soon die out of its own
E) believes that all cases of satanically motivated
violence should make the headlines and so serve as
According to the passage, those who burn the Harry
Potter books ----.
A) have previously burned other popular books
B) are actually indulging in a form of witchcraft
C) mostly do so without having first read the books
D) are being accused, quite unfairly, of displaying
extremist attitudes
E) do so because they believe these books encourage
young people to turn to witchcraft

The attitude of the writer of the passage towards the
burning of the Harry Potter books by various church
communities is ----.
A) an understanding one, as many young people have
been led astray by these books
B) one of deep anger
C) sympathetic as basically he believes they are right
about the ill-effects of the Harry Potter books
D) one of amazement at their response
E) one of repulsion at their hysteria and fanaticism

seem unbelievable
incredibly popular
adventure stories
vary widely
ritual murder
deep anger
perfectly harmless
become involved
carry out studies
receive public attention

One point emphasized in the passage is that the
interest of young people in magic ----.
A) is no more dangerous than their love of adventure
B) needs to be recognized by society and firm action
C) really is largely due to the Harry Potter stories
D) is by no means a new development
E) should be encouraged as it is perfectly harmless
According to the passage, though a fair number of
young people have felt a vague, temporary interest in
magic, ----.
A) it has always been easy to convince them of its
B) few have become seriously involved
C) they have never, in any way, been harmed by it
D) most do not even know the meaning of Satanism
E) this never continues into adolescence



Therapists have to be very careful before they make a

diagnosis of delusional disorder. A great many complaints are
founded on fact. It is possible that a patient is really being
harassed at work, that her husband is deceiving her, or that
her business partner is cheating her. Indeed, therapists must
be careful not to mislabel facts as delusions, a trap known as
'the Martha Mitchell effect'. Martha Mitchell was the wife of
former US attorney general John Mitchell. In October 1972, he
was accused of having ordered the break-in at the Democratic
campaign headquarters in the Watergate Hotel in
Washington, D.C. Mrs Mitchell repeatedly told the press that
her husband was being made a scapegoat to protect the real
culprit President Richard M. Nixon. The White House spread
disinformation about Mrs Mitchell, saying she had a drinking
problem and implying that her statements were delusional.
When the scandal was ultimately unravelled, Mrs Mitchell's
statements were proved true and she was shown to be utterly
sane and with no drinking problem.

According to the passage, Mrs Mitchell's statements
about her husband ----.

were disregarded by the press

were imaginary rather than factual
were, in fact, true but deliberately denied
convinced President Nixon that his attorney general
was innocent
E) were examined by therapists on a regular basis
lt is clear from the passage that, by 'the Martha
Mitchell effect' is meant ----.

The passage draws attention to the fact that ----.

A) John Mitchell had indeed violated the law on several

B) it can sometimes be difficult for therapists to
distinguish between fact and delusion
C) President Nixon had never trusted his attorney
D) Mrs Mitchell had always been subject to delusions
E) complaints always have a foundation in fact

the labelling of facts as delusions

Mrs Mitchell's loyal support of her husband
the use of a wife's evidence against her husband
the unravelling of the Watergate scandal
the giving of false testimony at a trial

make a diagnosis
prove true
violate the law
display an interest
legal procedure
on a regular basis
loyal support
false testimony

We understand from the passage that Mrs Mitchell ---

A) was often treated by therapists on account of her

B) did indeed have a drinking problem
C) was indifferent to the disinformation spread by the
White House
D) was unjustly portrayed as suffering from delusions
E) displayed little interest in the Watergate affair
We learn from the passage that, in the Watergate
affair, US attorney general John Mitchell ----.
A) was criminally involved in the break-in at the
Democratic campaign headquarters
B) was made to appear as the leading wrongdoer
C) asked the press to interview his wife
D) advised President Nixon on the legal procedure
E) was anxious that his wife should not get involved with
the press



Before the Polish-born French-American mathematician

Benoit Mandelbrot made his mark on the world, scientists
liked to forget about the imperfections and irregularities of
nature. The study of perfect squares, triangles and planes had
dominated their field for over 2, 000 years, since the Greek
geometer Euclid wrote maths' oldest treatise 'Elements' and
provided us with the tools to measure these flawlessly smooth
shapes. Any question about how to measure the real shape of
a tree, a coastline or anything with a rough edge could not be
tackled by Euclidean geometry and had therefore been
ignored. But Mandelbrot changed all this when he invented
fractal geometry, which enables us to measure roughness.
'My whole career has been one long, ardent pursuit of the
concept of roughness', he says. 'The roughness of clusters in
the physics of disorder, of turbulent flows, of exotic noises, of
chaotic dynamical systems, of the distribution of galaxies, of
coastlines, of stock-price charts and of mathematical

One point made in the passage is that Euclidean
geometry ----.
A) has led to a better appreciation of the irregularities in
B) has had to be modified in the light of new discoveries
C) has been shown to be invalid
D) is not universally applicable
E) doesn't deserve the respect it has enjoyed for 2,000

According to the passage, fractal geometry ----.

A) makes possible the measurement of anything with a

rough edge
B) is actually, as regards method, very similar to
Euclidean geometry
C) is merely an extension of Euclidean geometry
D) is well on the way to replacing Euclidean geometry
E) is just one of several remarkable innovations
propounded by Mandelbrot

It is clear from the passage that, before Mandelbrot's
concepts attracted the attention of the scientific world, ----.
A) mathematics followed the lead of Euclid and
concentrated on regular shapes
B) everyone felt that Euclidean geometry was
C) scientists relied on Euclidean geometry to measure
trees and exotic noises
D) Mandelbrot almost lost confidence in the concept of
E) Mandelbrot was careful to limit the scope of his
studies into roughness

dominate their field

lose confidence
immensely exciting
universally applicable
deserve the respect
remarkable innovations

According to the passage, Euclidean geometry can,
in a way, be regarded as having had a negative effect
upon the development of mathematics because it ----.

can be neither substantiated nor disproved

is too involved with measurement
makes the investigation of roughness impossible
is far too comprehensive
put forward the concept of roughness
lt is clear from the passage that Mandelbrot ---.

A) only began to work on the concept of roughness at a

later stage in his career
B) finds the concept of roughness immensely exciting,
and apparent in widely different areas
C) worked on the concept of roughness because he
wanted to prove that Euclid's theories were
D) didnt discover fractal geometry but worked to extend
its uses
E) has still to convince the scientific world of the value of
fractal geometry



Much has been said and written about the declining numbers
of and disappointing lack of diversity among American college
students majoring in engineering. Among the factors cited to
explain this phenomenon are the lack of exposure of high
school students to the very idea of engineering and the fact
that many have insufficient mathematics and science
background to gain entrance to engineering school, even if
they do identify the profession as a possible career. This is
unfortunate, for the ideas of engineering should be integrated
into the curricula not only of high schools but also of middle
and primary schools. Our children are being done a disservice
by not being exposed properly throughout their education to
engineering activities identified as such. After all, even preschool children have the prerequisites in their play for
appreciating exactly what engineering is: design. Indeed,
design is everywhere around them throughout their school
day, even in their before-school and after-school activities. it
need only be pointed out to them that they are designing
something, and therefore being engineers of sorts, in virtually
everything that they do.

The writer points out that children can, at a very early
age, ----.
A) be encouraged to take part in after-school activities
B) develop an interest in scientific matters
C) make up their minds to study engineering at
D) learn something about the basis of engineering,
which is design
E) be influenced by their school environment

According to the passage, all school programmes ----.

A) should be designed to make students aware of the

engineering practices and principles
B) ought to give priority to the sciences
C) must encourage children to make creative designs
D) seem to put the emphasis on the need to diversify
E) overlook the fact that all children are different

The writer of the passage feels strongly that ----.

A) children should be involved in engineering activities

at an early age
B) many children are being unfairly directed into a
career in engineering
C) the mathematics and science courses in schools
need to be modernized
D) university engineering courses ought to be upgraded
E) the education of pre-school children is being given
too much importance

declining numbers
gain entrance
give much importance
entrance requirements
adequate knowledge
highly intelligent
develop an interest

Among the reasons given in the passage for the
decline in the numbers of engineering students is that --.
A) the American schools still follow out-dated curricula
B) university entrance requirements are far too
C) it is generally recognized as one of the most difficult
of all the courses
D) engineering in the US is not considered to be a
competitive field of study
E) many of them fail to acquire an adequate knowledge
of mathematics and science at high schools

The writer recognizes the fact that engineering ----.

A) is becoming less and less popular as a field of study

among university students
B) is only suitable for highly intelligent students
C) is a complicated subject only suitable for really
mature students
D) has become one of the most popular fields of study at
American universities
E) requires many years of training prior to qualification



Even though there have been truly significant advances in

modern medicine, health problems still abound and cause
untold misery. Although heart disease and cancer were rare at
the beginning of the 20th century, today these two diseases
strike with increasing frequency, in spite of billions of dollars in
research to combat them, and in spite of tremendous
advances in diagnostic and surgical techniques. In America,
one person in three suffers from allergies, one in ten has
ulcers and one in five is mentally ill. Every year, a quarter of a
million infants are born with a birth defect and undergo
expensive surgery, or are hidden away in institutions. Other
degenerative diseases such as arthritis, multiple sclerosis,
diabetes, and chronic fatigue afflict a significant majority of
Americans. Further learning disabilities make life miserable for
seven million young people and their parents. These diseases
were extremely rare only a generation or two ago. Today,
chronic illness afflicts nearly half of all Americans and causes
three out of four deaths in the United States.


The writer of this passage draws our attention to ----.

A) the fact that it is young people who are the most

affected by degenerative diseases
B) the paradox that medicine today has improved
remarkably, but more and more people are suffering
from various diseases
C) the commonly-held view that cancer will, in a few
decades, be completely eradicated
D) the argument that good health depends upon a
healthy diet and early diagnosis
E) the possibility that it is mental rather than physical
health that is going to be the major problem of the
future in the US
The passage stresses that ill-health gives rise to a
great deal of misery ----.

One point that is stressed in the passage about the
American people is that ----.
A) they are less liable to degenerative diseases than
most other peoples
B) the rate of infant mortality among them is rising
C) there is an alarming lack of communication between
parents and their children
D) the incidence of cancer among them is slowly being
reduced due to medical advances
E) in one way or another, a very large proportion of them
have health problems

which is not confined to the patient alone

which is largely associated with pain
especially in the case of chronic illness
even before an accurate diagnosis has been made
especially when the symptoms are severe

In line 15 of the passage the term 'significant majority'
refers to ----.

According to the passage, cancer and heart diseases
are on the increase ----.

an articulate majority
a statistically small majority
a large and important majority
a rapidly increasing majority
an unexpected but continuing majority

truly significant advances

untold misery
suffers from allergies
birth defect
undergo a surgery
learning disabilities
rise rapidly
serious side effects
improve remarkably
commonly-held view
make accurate diagnosis

A) and most of the cures have serious side effects

B) due to problems of diagnosis which for the present
seem insurmountable
C) since research so far carried out in these fields has
been quite inadequate
D) even though a great deal of money is being spent on
research into them
E) but very little is being done by the authorities to
combat them



Fast-food is such a pervasive part of American life that it has

become synonymous with American culture. Fast food was
born in America and it has now swollen into a $106-billion
industry. America exports fast-food worldwide and its
attendant corporate culture, has probably been more
influential and done more to destroy local food economies and
cultural diversity than any government propaganda
programme could hope to accomplish. No corner of the earth
is safe from its presence and no aspect of life is unaffected.
Fast-food is now found in shopping malls, airports, hospitals,
gas stations, stadiums, on trains, and increasingly, in schools.
There are 23, 000 restaurants in one chain alone, and another
2, 000 are being opened every year. Its effect has been the
same on the millions of people it feeds daily and on the
people it employs. Fast-food culture has changed how we
work, from its assembly line kitchens filled with robotic frying
machines to the trite phrases spoken to customers by its
poorly paid part time workforce. In the United States, more
than 57 per cent of the population eat meals away from home
on any given day and they spend more money on fast-food
than they do on higher education, personal computers, or
even on new cars.

The writer of the passage clearly regrets the fact that
A) the fast-food companies cannot afford to pay even
their part-time workers adequate salaries
B) the growth of the fast-food industry has now come to
a halt
C) there are still more traditional restaurants than fastfood ones
D) the fast-food industry cannot retain the high
standards with which it started
E) local and traditional styles of food are being pushed
off the market
The assertion at the end of the passage that
Americans spend more money on fast-food than they do
on higher education ----.
A) is a criticism of the amount of money spent on fastfood by Americans
B) suggests that Americans are greedy for good food
C) means that 57 percent of the American population
has very little money left over when it has paid for its
D) is an indication that higher education in the US is not
E) is, in the light of the rest of the passage, a gross

The word 'swollen' in line 3 ----.

A) emphasizes the speed at which the industry has

B) suggests that the growth is excessive and unhealthy
C) has very positive connotations
D) draws attention to the inevitability of the growth of the
E) implies that the industry will continue to grow on

corporate culture
destroy economy
cultural diversity
poorly paid
grow steadily
give an account
receive support
far-reaching effects
pay a salary

This passage on American's fast-food industry ----.

shows convincingly that it is falling into disfavour
is clearly written by someone who loves good food
concentrates on negative aspects
gives a rational account of why it grew so fast
reveals the support it received from government

One point that receives a lot of attention in the
passage is ----.
A) the fact that fast-food is now more popular outside
the US than it is inside
B) the fact that fast-food meets our dietary needs
C) the consideration the fast-food companies show to
their employees
D) the far-reaching effects of the fast-food industry
E) the idea that in such places as gas stations and trains
fast-food is actually the only practical kind of food



It may be that golf originated in Holland but certainly Scotland

fostered the game and is famous for it. In fact, in 1457 the
Scottish Parliament, disturbed because football and golf had
lured young Scots from the more soldierly exercise of archery,
passed an ordinance that banned football and golf. James I
and Charles I of the royal line of Stuarts were golf enthusiasts,
whereby the game came to be known as 'the royal' and
ancient game of golf. The golf balls used in the early games
were leather-covered and stuffed with feathers. Clubs of all
kinds were fashioned by hand to suit individual players. The
great step in spreading the game came with the change from
the feather ball to the present-day ball introduced in about
1850. In I860, formal competitions began with the
establishment of an annual tournament for the British Open
championship. There are records of 'golf clubs' in the United
States as far back as colonial days. However, it remained a
rather sedate and almost aristocratic pastime until a 20-yearold Francis Ouimet of Boston defeated two great British
professionals, Harry Vardon and Ted Ray, in the United
States Open championship at Brookline, Mass., in 1913. This
feat put the game and Francis Ouimet on the front pages of
the newspapers and stirred a wave of enthusiasm for the

The point is made in the passage that golf has been
described as a 'royal' game ----.
A) though for the last two centuries no kings have
participated in the game
B) since the professionals of the game are treated with
so much respect
C) as golf clubs are particular about who they accept as
D) because two British kings were passionately fond of it
E) which Americans find very annoying
As we learn from the passage, it was around the mid19th century that ----.
A) the old golf ordinance of the Scottish Parliament was
B) the first formal golf competitions between America
and Britain were held
C) the newspapers began to cover major golf
D) Scotland became the world's leading country in golf
E) important changes were introduced into golf

As we understand from the passage, golf only
became a popular game ----.
great step
annual tournament
have an adverse effect on
require an equipment
arouse enthusiasm
introduce important changes

A) after an unknown American beat two famous British

golf players in a US tournament
B) following the annual tournament organized in 1860
C) in the time of James I
D) after the introduction of annual formal competitions in
both England and America
E) after golf clubs were set up in colonial America
According to the passage, it was at one time believed
in Scotland that ----.
A) football was a better game than golf for young people
B) annual tournaments made the game too competitive
C) golf was having an adverse effect on young people's
military skills
D) young people should be encouraged to take up either
golf or archery
E) the origins of archery were in some way associated
with Holland

It is pointed out in the passage that golf ----.

was to some extent practised in colonial America
has been overshadowed by football in recent times
requires a great deal of expensive equipment
receives less newspaper coverage than football
didn't arouse as much enthusiasm as archery did in
medieval Scotland



The economic news from Europe was particularly

disappointing in the second half of 2002. Moreover, recent
surveys from the region imply little prospect of improvement in
the near future. Perhaps the most worrying aspect has been
the sharp decline in conditions in Germany - the area's largest
and most important economy. Domestic demand in Germany
is very weak and, with the global economy also struggling,
Germany's manufacturers have not been able to export their
way out of trouble as they have done in the past. With the
economy in such a weak state, it is no surprise then that
European stock markets have followed the US stock markets'
downturn over the past 6 months. While individual share
prices may be lower and market valuations look attractive, the
economy does not. Recovery seems some way off and strong
equity performance from Europe's markets seems unlikely in

The phrase 'to export their way out of trouble' means

sharp decline
global economy
seem unlikely
worrying decline
domestic sales
economic situation
expand the capacity
increase exports
get out of the recession

We understand from the passage that the economic
prospects in the current year for the European stock
markets ----.

to expand their market capacity through more exports

to find trouble-free markets for exports
to work extremely hard to increase their exports
to put an end to the slump
to get out of the recession through increased exports

are not foreseeable

are certainly promising
are constantly under discussion
seem most encouraging
don't look hopeful

It is pointed out in the passage that the present
economic recession in Germany ----.
A) is actually not as serious as is being experienced in
several other European countries
B) is being overcome by means of increased exports
C) is more persistent than previous ones have been
D) should have been foreseen much earlier
E) has been exaggerated in several surveys recently
The passage points out that Germany's current
economic problems ----.
A) have left the stock markets of Europe unaffected
B) have led to a worrying decline in the world economy
C) are far less serious than those of any other country in
D) stem in part from a drop in domestic sales
E) are in fact not as alarming as they were once thought
to be
According to the passage, the trend in European
stock markets ----.
A) does not reflect the economic situation in Germany
B) has been roughly the same as that in the US stock
C) improved greatly during the last six months of 2002
D) is related to the level of domestic demand in
E) seems to change every six months



Scientists who study Earth's moon have two big regrets about
the six Apollo missions that landed a dozen astronauts on the
lunar surface between 1969 and 1972. The biggest regret, of
course, is that the missions ended so abruptly, with so much
of the moon still unexplored. But researchers also lament that
the great triumph of Apollo led to a popular misconception:
because astronauts have visited the moon, there is no
compelling reason to go back. In the 1990s, however, two
probes that orbited the moon raised new questions about
Earth's airless satellite. One stunning discovery was strong
evidence of water ice in the perpetually shadowed areas near
the moon's poles. Because scientists believe that comets
deposited water and organic compounds on both Earth and its
moon, well-preserved ice at the lunar poles could yield clues
to the origins of life.

As we understand from the passage, a great many
people ----.
A) believe lunar missions should continue indefinitely
B) regard the Apollo missions as a scientific
C) are sure the moon cannot support life
D) feel that the very fact that man has landed on the
moon is enough
E) regard scientific investigations of the moon as

A major point made in the passage is that ----.

A) comets hold the secrets of the origins of life in the

B) the six Apollo missions to the moon were a great
scientific success
C) the chances of finding water on the moon are very
D) the probes of the 1990s demonstrated that the lunar
landings should has continued
E) scientists are agreed that there is nothing further to
learn about the moon

The point made in the passage is that it may be
possible to ----.
A) come to a better understanding of comets through the
study of the moon
B) learn more about the beginnings of life from the ice at
the moon's poles
C) resume Apollo missions as there is evidence of water
on the moon
D) identify the origin of the organic compounds found on
the moon
E) have a full knowledge of the moon without sending
any more astronauts there

a big regret
great triumph
popular misconception
raise new questions
yield clues
organic compounds
have a full knowledge of
scientific breakthrough
hold a secret

As is pointed out in the passage, one significant
outcome of the lunar probes in the 1990s was ----.
A) the staggering finding of evidence of water on the
B) the focussing of scientific attention on the comets
C) the resumption of lunar missions
D) the realization that life is possible on the moon
E) the realization that there were great similarities
between earth and moon
According to the passage, even though there were six
Apollo missions to the moon roughly thirty years ago, ----.
A) none of them could claim to be successful
B) man's knowledge of the moon has not increased at
C) a very large proportion of the lunar surface remains to
date unexamined
D) it was only the lunar poles that were explored fully
E) the idea of sending astronauts back to the moon
seems even more farfetched than formerly



The US National Institute of Standards and Technology

(NIST) will soon be testing a controversial theory about the
collapse of the World Trade Center towers. According to an
analysis by a leading fire safety expert, had the fire-proofing
insulation on the towers' steel structures been thicker, the
towers would have survived longer and might even have
remained standing after they were hit by the hijacked planes.
The work is being seized on by lawyers representing victims'
families and insurance companies. If confirmed, it could also
lead to changes in building codes. NIST is responsible for
drawing up the final report on the towers' collapses and
recommending if any changes are needed. It is widely
accepted that the collapses were caused by the failure of the
buildings' steel structure as it was weakened by the heat of
the fires.

As is pointed out in the passage, the inadequacy of
the fire-proofing insulation of the towers ----.
A) has been accepted by NIST as the main cause of the
B) has aroused a great deal of legal attention
C) is less important than the weakness of the steel
structure as the cause of the collapse
D) had long been recognized by fire-safety experts as
the weakest point in their construction
E) has never been considered by any serious body
According to the passage, if the tower collapse theory
concerning the fire-proofing insulation proves to be true, ---.

As it is pointed out in the passage, it is commonly
recognized that the main cause for the collapse of the
twin towers ----.

A) this will have, even so, no direct bearing on the fight

against terrorism
B) the victims' families will get no compensation
C) this will free NIST from all blame
D) then lawyers will have no grounds for objections
E) then NIST will probably introduce new building

A) will only be understood after the release of a detailed

report by NIST
B) can never be established beyond doubt
C) was the weakening of the steel structure due to the
heat of the fire
D) was not f-o much due to the heat of the fires as to the
force of the impact of the hijacked planes
E) is of special interest to insurance companies

controversial theory
draw up the final report
widely accept
special interest
sudden collapse
put the blame on
legal procedures
main cause
arouse attention
introduce a regulation

It is clear from the passage that ----.

A) the strength or the steel structure of the towers had

been questioned when the designs were drawn up
B) NIST has already made a thorough study of the
collapse of the towers
C) the reason for the sudden collapse of the two towers
is still under debate
D) the structure of the twin towers was in many respects
well below standard
E) the hijacked planes hit the weakest parts of the twin
As we learn from the passage, a specialist in fire
safety ----.
A) puts the blame for the collapse of the towers on the
thin fire-proofing insulation
B) is to blame for negligence as regards the burning of
the twin towers
C) has been cooperating with the victims' lawyers to
start legal procedures
D) has been commissioned to prepare a report on the
collapse of the towers
E) should have been aware of the structural weakness
of the towers and given due warning



The long-expected decline in the dollar is now well under way.

For years economists have predicted that America's huge
current-account deficit would eventually cause its currency to
plunge. So far the dollar's slide has been fairly gradual: it is
down by 13% in trade-weighted terms over the past year,
though it has dropped by almost twice as much against the
euro since its 2001 peak. As the decline seemed to pick up
speed this week, John Snow, George Bush's Treasury
Secretary, declared that he favors a 'strong dollar policy'. That
was surely the wrong answer even leaving aside the
debatable issue of whether cabinet secretaries can influence
the level of exchange rates. A weaker, not a stronger dollar, is
what the world needs now - so long as policymakers
elsewhere respond appropriately. America promoted a strong
dollar throughout the 1990s, when inflation was still thought to
be the main enemy. Today it makes less sense. Even after its
recent slide, the dollar seems overvalued. Moreover, with
ample space capacity in America, deflation looks a bigger risk
than inflation.

As we understand from the passage, the decline in
the value of the American dollar has ----.
A) had an adverse effect upon the value of the euro
B) bolstered American trade
C) been foreseen by economists over a long period of
D) been a major headache for policy makers
E) followed an unpredictable pattern
In the passage, with the phrase 'the wrong answer' is
meant ----.
A) the American government's indifference to the
decline of the dollar
B) the policy of keeping the dollar in line with the euro
C) keeping the dollar strong through trade
D) permitting the current-account deficit to continue
E) the Treasury Secretary's preference for a strong
dollar policy

It is pointed out in the passage that the American
policy, in the 1990s, for a strong dollar ----.
A) seems less rational now than it did then
B) has proved successful in boosting the economy
C) has been reversed by the Treasury Secretary, John
D) has frequently been disregarded by American
E) has been a major reason for the decline of the euro

debatable issue
respond appropriately
make sense
a big risk
prove successful
pose a serious problem
constitute a threat
enormous deficit
unexpected rise
adverse effect

It is stressed in the passage that for the American
economy, ----.
A) John Snow's policies promise a great deal of hope
B) it is not inflation but deflation that in fact may pose the
more serious problem
C) the global level of exchange rates constitutes a major
D) and for the world economy, a strong dollar is of vital
E) policy makers agree that deflation has been
responsible for many of the problems
According to the passage, what has brought about
the fall of the American dollar ----.
A) is the erratic global fluctuations in exchange rates
B) is the enormous deficit experienced by the American
C) has been a persistent recession in the global
D) is the wrong economic policies introduced by John
Snow, Treasury Secretary
E) is the unexpected rise in the value of the euro