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Review of Quasi Turbine Rotary Air Engine

Patil Shital, Rananavare Prajakta, Jadhav Ashish


Department of Mechanical Engg, AITRC, Vita, 415311, Maharashtra, India
International Journal of Research In Mechanical Engineering
Volume 3, Issue 2, March-April, 2015, pp. 32-37
ISSN Online: 2347-5188 Print: 2347-8772, DOA : 15042015
iaster 2015, www.iaster.com

ABSTRACT
In this paper we have discussed the concept of quasi turbine rotary air engine. The primary
advantage of quasi turbine is simple construction and small size with many less moving parts would
provide greater reliability at lower cost than any other turbine. It gives eight power strokes per
revolution of shaft. Also it is light in weight and compact in size. There is no any pollution through
this engine. The quasi turbine has multi-fuel property. The quasi turbine is a piston less rotary
machine using a deformable rotor whose vanes are hinged at the vertices. The volume enclosed
between the vanes of the rotor and the stator casing provides compression and expansion in a fashion
similar to the familiar Wankel engine, but the hinging at the edges allows higher compression ratio.
The quasi turbine rotary air engine is still in its infancy stage.

Keywords: Quasi Turbine, Positive Displacement Rotor, Piston less Rotary Machine.
1. INTRODUCTION
A heat engine is required to convert the recovered heat energy into mechanical energy. Heat engines
generally require compression and expansion of a working fluid. The quasi turbine is the most
compact and efficient tool currently available for compression and expansion of most working fluids.
Therefore, the quasi turbine will be used for all examples involving use of heat engines for converting
recovered heat energy into mechanical energy. The quasi turbine is a positive displacement turbine
alternative, suitable as a double-circuits rotary motor or expander for compressed air, steam and other
fluid. The turbine is a compact, low weight and high torque machine with top efficiency. The quasi
turbine is a piston less rotary machine using a deformable rotor whose vanes are hinged at the
vertices. The volume enclosed between the vanes of the rotor and the stator casing provides
compression and expansion in a fashion similar to the familiar Wankel engine, but the engine at the
edges allows higher compression ratio.
1.1

Theory

1.1.1Quasi Turbine Overview


The quasi turbine is a pressure driven continuous torque deformable spinning wheel. It can be
considered to be the cross road of three modern engines-inspired by the turbine, it perfects the piston
and improves upon wankel. A quasi turbine is thus a non-crankshaft rotary engine having a four faced
articulated rotor with free and accessible center, rotating without vibration and producing high torque
at low rpm.

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International Journal of Research In Mechanical Engineering


Volume-3, Issue-2, March-April, 2015, www.iaster.com

Fig.1:- Quasi Turbine Rotor

ISSN

(O) 2347-5188
(P) 2347-8772

Fig.2 :- The Quasi Turbine[5]

The quasi turbine is a pressure driven continuous torque deformable spinning wheel. It can be
considered to be the cross road of three modern engines-inspired by the turbine, it perfects the piston
and improves upon wankel. A quasi turbine is thus a non-crankshaft rotary engine having a four faced
articulated rotor with free and accessible center, rotating without vibration and producing high torque
at low rpm. The rotor as an assembly is deformable and the four faces are joined together by hinges at
the vertices. The volume enclosed between the blades of the rotor and stator casing provides
compression and expansion in a fashion similar to the wankel engine.
1.1.2 Quasi Turbine Fundamentals
In the gas turbine, the combusted gases are directed through nozzles against the blade of the turbine rotor
and are expanded to atmospheric pressure. The amount of work derived from the gas turbine engine is the
difference between the work required to compress the air and the work obtain from the turbine. In the quasi
turbine, there are no turbine blades. Instead, the high pressure of the combusted gases during the power
stroke forces each rotor segment in the direction of rotation (static pressure expansion). Thus, the quasi
turbine is a static pressure engine, not an aerodynamic, constant pressure engine.
In quasi turbine air engine, an oval housing surrounds a four-sided articulated rotor which turns and
moves within the housing, trapping the working fluid (air) into four chambers. As the rotor turns, its
motion and the shape of the housing cause each side of the housing to get closer and further from the
rotor, compressing and expanding the chambers similarly to the strokes in a reciprocating engine.
By selectively admitting and discharging air, the four chambers of the rotor generate eight power
strokes per rotor revolution which results in smooth operation at a large range of rotation.
Configuration Of Quasi Turbine
1.2.1Quasi Turbine without Carriages
1.2

Quasi turbine engine without carriages or in simple


configuration is very much similar to a conventional rotary
engine. It has a rotor that revolves within the housing. The
engine makes use of complex computer calculated oval shape
stator housing, creating regions of increasing and decreasing
volumes as the rotor runs. The rotor has four blades hinged to
each other at their ends. The sides of the rotor seal against the
sides of the housing, and the corners of the rotor seals against
the inner periphery, dividing it into four chambers. The four
strokes of an engine are sequentially arranged the housing.
Fig.3:- Without Carriage Quasi Turbine[2]

33

International Journal of Research In Mechanical Engineering


Volume-3, Issue-2, March-April, 2015, www.iaster.com

ISSN

(O) 2347-5188
(P) 2347-8772

1.2.2 Quasi Turbine with Carriages


In this configuration, the rotor is composed of four pivoting blades which do a similar function as the
piston. At one end of the pivoting blade, it has a hook pivot and on the other end a cylinder pivot. Each
pivot sits intone of the four rocking carriages. Each carriage is free to rotate around the same pivot in such
a way as to be continuously and precisely in contact with
the housing. The filler tip on the blade is meant to
control the residual value in the chamber.The top of the
filler tip shortened to permit an adequate compression
ratio. The traction slot on the other side of the blade is
meant to couple it with an external shaft so as to draw
the power generated. The wheels on carriages are made
larger so that it reduces the contact pressure on the
housing and also ensures a smooth motion of the rotor.
Fig.4:- With Carriage Quasi Turbine

The housing (stator) has a computer generated unique profile which is almost near to an oval shape.
The housing has four ports on it:

An intake port 1 (compressed air in)


An exhaust port- 1 ( expanded air out )
An intake port -2 (compressed air in)
An exhaust port 2 (expanded air out)

2. CONSTRUCTION
The main parts of the quasi turbine air engine are as follows:
2.1 Casing and Side Plates
Casing is made up of Nylon 66.Nylon is having property of self lubrication; it is able to withstand
against forces induced in quasi turbine. Casing side plates are made up of plain carbon steel which
closes the casing on other side. The inlet and exhaust ports are provided on either sides of casing.
2.2 Main Shaft
The main shaft is made up of alloy steel. It transmits the rotary motion of the quasi turbine rotor to the
pulley.
2.3 Vanes
Vanes are made up of alloy steel. The vane profile confirms to the inner lining of casing. The vanes
are mounted on the vane holders.
2.4 Vane Holder
Vane holders are also made up of alloy steel elements that hold the vanes and are mounted on the
rotor rollers. Vane holders provide for the central hinging operation when the phase change from
expansion to exhaust takes place, so also they transfer the motion and power produced by expansion
to the rotor.

34

International Journal of Research In Mechanical Engineering


Volume-3, Issue-2, March-April, 2015, www.iaster.com

ISSN

(O) 2347-5188
(P) 2347-8772

2.5 Rotor Link Bracket


It is square bracket on which the vanes are mounted. The main purpose of the rotor link bracket is to
fix the vanes with respect to each other. It is provided with four holes in which the lock pins are fitted
mount the vanes.

3. WORKING OF QUASI TURBINE ENGINE

Fig.5:- Working of Quasi Turbine[2]

This model was designed for compressed air and steam applications. The quasi turbine can handle
large volumes of air or steam. Figure shows the rotor in the top dead center position.The rotor consists
of four blades which are identical. Each of the four blades produces to compression strokes per
revolution which provides a total of eight compression strokes per revolution when used as a
compressor. When used as an air or steam, eight power strokes per revolution are provided. The
model has four ports, starting with upper right port we will number the ports clockwise 1234. Ports 1
and 3 are intake ports and ports 2 and 4 are exhaust ports.One complete rotation of the rotor, the total
displacement is eight times the displacements of a one of the chambers.
The quasi turbine is a piston less rotary machine using
vanes which are hinged at the ends. The volume enclosed
between vanes and casing provides compression and
expansion.The hinging at the edges allows higher
compression ratio. The two inlet pressure of compressed air
rotates vanes in opposite direction this equal and opposite
forces forms a couple and moves the vanes thus shaft of
turbine rotates.Quasi turbine is a compact,low weight and
high torque machine with high efficiecy.The quasi turbine
rotates from pressure as low as 1 bar.It has higher power to
weight ratios and mechanical simplicity.
Fig.6:-Couple Generated in Quasi Turbine

Above figure show the force vector in a quasi turbine when two opposed chambers are pressurized, by
external compressed air. Beacause the pressure vectors are off center, the quasi turbine rotor
experiances a net rotational force.

35

International Journal of Research In Mechanical Engineering


Volume-3, Issue-2, March-April, 2015, www.iaster.com

ISSN

(O) 2347-5188
(P) 2347-8772

4. MERITS AND DEMERITS OF QUASI TURBINE


4.1 Merits
1) The quasi turbines simple construction and small size with many less moving parts would provide
greater reliability at lower cost than any other turbine. It gives eight power strokes per revolutions of shaft.
2) Light and compact- The quasi turbine is also suitable for portable tools, generator. Vehicle also
benefits from the light and compact characteristics of the quasi turbine.
3) Environment- Where environmental conditions command a zero pollution engine, the pneumatic
and steam quasi turbine can provide a practical solution, like inside-shop, or in underground mines.
4) Multi-fuel is also an environmental consideration in countries where gas and diesel is not currently
available, where imports are out of price. The air is used as working fluid it is zero pollution machine.
5) As the vanes and casing are of Nylon 66 so the quasi turbine not requires any lubricating system.
6) Instantaneous maximum torque for two opposed working chambers.
4.2 Demerits
1) Noise level is high.
2) The quasi turbine technology is still in its infancy stage.
3) Construction of the rotor is little bit difficult.

5. APPLICATIONS OF QUASI TURBINE ENGINE


1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

Waste air pressure recovery in blow molding process.


Gas pipeline pressure energy is recovered.
It is used as a steam engine.
Engine exhaust heat energy is recovered by quasi turbine rotary air engine.
Conversion of solar energy to electrical energy.
It is used for the industrial application like a drilling machine, die grinders, run the pumps,
compressor.

6. COMPARISON
6.1 Comparison between Quasi Turbine and Wankel Engine
1)

The Wankel engine uses a rigid three- face rotor with a crankshaft. The Quasi Turbine uses a
deformable four faces rotor without crankshaft.

2)

The Wankel engine shaft turns at three times the rotor RPM. The Quasi Turbine rotor and main
shaft turns at same RPM speed.

3)

The Wankel engine fires only ones per revolution. The Quasi Turbines fires four times per main
shaft revolution, producing exceptional torque continuity.

4)

The Wankel engine has a dead time. The Quasi Turbine strokes are consecutive with no dead time.

5)

The Wankel engine cannot be operated in diesel mode due to the excess expansion volume
which adiabatically cools down the combustion. Quasi turbine has no excessive volume and can
run in diesel mode.

36

International Journal of Research In Mechanical Engineering


Volume-3, Issue-2, March-April, 2015, www.iaster.com

ISSN

(O) 2347-5188
(P) 2347-8772

6.2 Comparison between Quasi Turbine Engine and I.C. Engine


1)

In I.C. Engine gas flow is not unidirectional, but changes directions with the piston direction
But in Quasi Turbine it is unidirectional.

2)

The duration of the piston rest time at top and bottom are without necessarily too long in I. C.
Engine. But it is the not the case for Quasi Turbine.

3)

In I.C. Engine there is quite important noise level and vibration. But it is the not case for Quasi
Turbine.

4)

In I.C. Engines accessories like cam shaft uses a substantial power, but in Quasi Turbine there
is no need of cams.

5)

In I.C. Engine lubricant is to be used as heat coolants, which require a Cumber some oil pan.
But Quasi Turbine requires no lubrication.

7. CONCLUSION
The quasi turbine is thus a pressure driven engine producing continuous torque with a symmetrical
deformable spinning wheel. It is a new engine alternative with some characteristics simultaneously
common to the turbine. Wankel and piston, offering top efficiency power modulation capability. A
review of the technology and possible applications of steam engines to industrial power and waste
heat opportunities indicates that air engine are likely to be part of the energy engineers portfolio as we
move forward. The basic limitation of quasi turbine engine at a present stage is that in its infancy
stage. Though a lot of advancement has been made since its invention has been marked quasi turbine
is a new technology probably unwelcome in the world of engine establishment.

REFERENCES
[1]

Stokes , M.D., Quantum Parallel: The Saint- Hilaire Quasi Turbine As The Basis For A
Simultaneous Paradigm Shift in Vehicle Propulsion Systems, White Paper published in
eMOTIONREPORTS.com and presented at the 2004 Global Power train Conference (GPC)
Advanced Power plants & Vehicles Session, Dearborn, Michigan, USA, 2004.

[2]

George Marchetti and Gilles Saint Hilaire., A Six Stroke, High-Efficiency Quasi Turbine
Concept Engine with Distinct, Thermally Insulated Compression and Expansion Components,
September 2005.

[3]

Saint-Hilaire et al., Quasi turbine Low RPM High Torque Pressure Driven Turbine For Top
Efficiency Power Modulation, IGTI- International Gas Turbine Institute and ASMEAmerican Society of Mechanical Engineers, Proceeding of the Turbo Expo Conference May
14-17,2007 Quasi Turbine Montreal.pdf.

[4]

Crom, C., Engine Exhaust Heat Recovery with Quasi Turbines, White Paper published in
Energy Central, 2007.

[5]

George Marchetti., Quasi turbine Strategic Potential as Photo Detonation Engine, A Short
Course in understanding the principles of Quasi Turbine design and performance, October
2002.

[6]

Crom, C., Technical Discussion Comparing the Quasi Turbine with Other Common Engines,
White Paper Published in Energy Central, 2005.

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