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Curso de Proteção de Sistemas Elétricos.

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Lecture 1 : Introduction

Objectives

In this lecture:

We will provide an overview of electrical energy systems.

Electrical energy systems consists of various equipments connected together. Typically, power is

generated at lower voltages (a few kV) (3-phase ac voltage source) which is stepped up by a transformer

and fed into a transmission grid. Thermal power should be generated at pit heads and hydro power at

reservoirs. A transmission grid is a meshed network of high voltage lines and transformers. It can have

multiple voltage levels like 400 kV, 220 kV, etc. The power is delivered to load centers which may be far

off (even thousands of km's apart).

Fig 1.1 shows the western region grid of

India. It can be seen that large amount of

generation is concentrated in the eastern end

while large load centers are concentrated in

the western end. The power is transferred

through the ac network and HVDC lines. At

load centers, voltage levels are stepped

down by step down transformers in multiple

stages and finally power is delivered to the

end user by a distribution system which is

mostly radial (no loops) in nature.

A unique feature of electrical energy systems

is its natural mode of synchronous operation.

It implies that during steady state the

electrical frequency is same all through the

system irrespective of the geographical

location. This closely knits the system

together.

We can perceive all generators acting in tandem like the ballet dancers in a dance.

They may occupy different angular positions, but all machines rotate at the same electrical speed. This

close knitting implies an embedded interaction of generators through the transmission network which is

governed by the differential and algebraic equations of the apparatus and interconnects. This aspect is

referred to as the system behavior. This system has to be protected from abnormalities which is the task

of protection system.

Electrical power system operates at various voltage levels from 415 V to 400 kV or even more. Electrical

apparatus used may be enclosed (e.g., motors) or placed in open (e.g., transmission lines). All such

equipment undergo abnormalities in their life time due to various reasons. For example, a worn out

bearing may cause overloading of a motor. A tree falling or touching an overhead line may cause a fault.

A lightning strike (classified as an act of God!) can cause insulation failure. Pollution may result in

degradation in performance of insulators which may lead to breakdown. Under frequency or over

frequency of a generator may result in mechanical damage to it's turbine requiring tripping of an

alternator. Even otherwise, low frequency operation will reduce the life of a turbine and hence it should be

avoided.

It is necessary to avoid these abnormal operating regions for safety of the equipment. Even more

important is safety of the human personnel which may be endangered due to exposure to live parts under

fault or abnormal operating conditions. Small current of the order of 50 mA is sufficient to be fatal!

Whenever human security is sacrificed or there exists possibility of equipment damage, it is necessary to

isolate and de-energize the equipment. Designing electrical equipment from safety perspective is also a

crucial design issue which will not be addressed here. To conclude, every electrical equipment has to be

monitored to protect it and provide human safety under abnormal operating conditions. This job is

assigned to electrical protection systems. It encompasses apparatus protection and system protection.

1.3

Types of Protection

Protection systems can be classified into apparatus protection and system protection.

Apparatus protection deals with detection of a fault in the apparatus and consequent protection.

Apparatus protection can be further classified into following:

Transmission Line Protection and feeder protection

Transformer Protection

Generator Protection

Motor Protection

Busbar Protection

1.3.2 System Protection

System protection deals with detection of proximity of system to unstable operating region and

consequent control actions to restore stable operating point and/or prevent damage to equipments.

Loss of system stability can lead to partial or complete system blackouts. Under-frequency relays, outof-step protection, islanding systems, rate of change of frequency relays, reverse power flow relays,

voltage surge relays etc are used for system protection. Wide Area Measurement (WAM) systems are

also being deployed for system protection. Control actions associated with system protection may be

classified into preventive or emergency control actions.

A human being is a complex system that performs through various apparatus like legs, hands, eyes,

ears, heart, bones, blood vessels etc. The heart is analogous to an electrical generator and stomach to

the boiler. The eating process provides raw material to generate calories. The power generated is

pumped by heart through a complex network of blood vessels. The primary transmission is through

arteries and veins. Furthermore, distribution is through fine capillaries. The system operator is the brain

which works on inputs of eyes, ears, skin etc. Diagnosing abnormality in any of these organs and taking

remedial measures can be thought of as job of "apparatus protection". However, does this cover the

complete gambit of anomalies? Are fever, infection etc, a specific apparatus problem? Why does it

cause overall deterioration in functioning of the human being?

The answer lies in the fact that the system which encompasses body has also abstraction like the mind.

Overall health is not just an aggregation of apparatus. It is something much more complex. It involves

complex process and associated dynamics (biological, chemical, mechanical etc.) and control. Thus,

protecting a system is not just apparatus protection but something much more. Since we cannot define

this "much more" clearly, it is complex and challenging. Monitoring of system behavior, taking corrective

measures to maintain synchronous operation and protecting the power system apparatus from harmful

operating states is referred as system protection.

Formally, a relay is a logical element

which processes the inputs (mostly

voltages and currents) from the

system/apparatus and issues a trip

decision if a fault within the relay's

jurisdiction is detected. A conceptual

diagram of relay is shown in fig 1.2.

In fig 1.3, a relay R 1 is used to

protect the transmission line under

fault F1 . An identical system is

connected at the other end of the

transmission line relay R 3 to open

circuit from the other ends as well.

To monitor the health of the apparatus, relay senses current through a current transformer (CT), voltage

through a voltage transformer (VT). VT is also known as Potential Transformer (PT).

The relay element analyzes these

inputs and decides whether (a) there

is a abnormality or a fault and (b) if

yes, whether it is within jurisdiction

of the relay. The jurisdiction of relay

R 1 is restricted to bus B where the

transmission line terminates. If the

fault is in it's jurisdiction, relay sends

a

tripping

signal

to

circuit

breaker(CB) which opens the circuit.

A real life analogy of the jurisdiction

of the relay can be thought by

considering transmission lines as

highways

on

which

traffic

(current/power) flows.

If there is an obstruction to the regular flow due to fault F1 or F2 , the traffic police (relay R 1 ) can sense

both F1 and F2 obstructions because of resulting abnormality in traffic (power flow). If the obstruction is

on road AB, it is in the jurisdiction of traffic police at R1; else if it is at F2 , it is in the jurisdiction of R 2 . R 1

should act for fault F2 , if and only if, R 2 fails to act. We say that relay R 1 backs up relay R 2 . Standard

way to obtain backup action is to use time discrimination i.e., delay operation of relay R 1 in case of doubt

to provide R 2 first chance to clear the fault.

If we zoom into a relay, we see three different types of realizations:

Electromechanical Relays

Numerical Relays

1.5.1 Electromechanical Relays

When

the

principle

of

electromechanical

energy

referred as an electromechanical relay. These relays

represent the first generation of relays. Let us consider a

simple example of an over current relay, which issues a

trip signal if current in the apparatus is above a

reference value. By proper geometrical placement of

current carrying conductor in the magnetic field, Lorentz

is produced in the operating coil.

force

This force is used to create the operating torque. If

constant 'B' is used (for example by a permanent

magnet), then the instantaneous torque produced is

proportional to instantaneous value of the current. Since

the

instantaneous

current

is

sinusoidal,

the

instantaneous torque is also sinusoidal which has a zero

average value. Thus, no net deflection of operating coil is

perceived.

On the other hand, if the B is also made proportional to

the instantaneous value of the current, then the

instantaneous torque will be proportional to square of

the instantaneous current (non-negative quantity). The

average torque will be proportional to square of the rms

current. Movement of the relay contact caused by the

operating torque may be restrained by a spring in the

overcurrent relay. If the spring has a spring constant 'k',

then the deflection is proportional to the operating

). When the

torque (in this case proportional to

deflection exceeds a preset value, the relay contacts

closes and a trip decision is issued. Electromechanical

relays are known for their ruggedness and immunity to

Electromagnetic Interference (EMI).

1.5.2Solid State Relays

With the advent of transistors, operational amplifiers etc, solid state relays were developed. They realize

the functionality through various operations like comparators etc. They provide more flexibility and have

less power consumption than their electromechanical counterpart. A major advantage with the solid state

relays is their ability to provide self checking facility i.e. the relays can monitor their own health and raise

a flag or alarm if its own component fails. Some of the advantages of solid state relays are low burden,

improved dynamic performance characteristics, high seismic withstand capacity and reduced panel space.

Relay burden refers to the amount of volt amperes (VA) consumed by the relay. Higher is this value,

more is the corresponding loading on the current and voltage sensors i.e. current transformers (CT) and

voltage transformers (VT) which energizes these relays. Higher loading of the sensors lead to deterioration

in their performance. A performance of CT or VT is gauged by the quality of the replication of the

corresponding primary waveform signal. Higher burden leads to problem of CT saturation and inaccuracies

in measurements. Thus it is desirable to keep CT/VT burdens as low as possible.

These relays have been now superseded by the microprocessor based relays or numerical relays.

1.5.3Numerical Relays

The block diagram of a numerical

relay is shown in fig 1.5.

It involves analog to digital (A/D)

conversion of analog voltage and

currents obtained from secondary of

CTs and VTs. These current and

voltage samples are fed to the

microprocessor or Digital Signal

Processors

(DSPs)

where

the

protection algorithms or programs

whether a fault exists in the

apparatus under consideration or

not. In case, a fault is diagnosed, a

trip decision is issued. Numerical

relays provide maximum flexibility

in defining relaying logic.

1.5.3Numerical Relays

The hardware comprising of numerical relay can be made scalable i.e., the maximum number of v and i

input signals can be scaled up easily. A generic hardware board can be developed to provide multiple

functionality. Changing the relaying functionality is achieved by simply changing the relaying program or

software. Also, various relaying functionalities can be multiplexed in a single relay. It has all the

advantages of solid state relays like self checking etc. Enabled with communication facility, it can be

treated as an Intelligent Electronic Device (IED) which can perform both control and protection

functionality. Also, a relay which can communicate can be made adaptive i.e. it can adjust to changing

apparatus or system conditions. For example, a differential protection scheme can adapt to transformer

tap changes. An overcurrent relay can adapt to different loading conditions. Numerical relays are both

"the present and the future". Hence, in this course, our presentation is biased towards numerical relaying.

This also gives an algorithmic flavour to the course.

A Circuit Breaker (CB) is basically a switch used to interrupt the flow of current. It opens on relay

command. The relay command initiates mechanical separation of the contacts. It is a complex element

because it has to handle large voltages (few to hundreds of kV's) and currents (in kA's). Interrupting

capacity of the circuit breaker is therefore expressed in MVA.

Power systems under fault behave more like inductive circuits. X/R ratio of lines is usually much greater

than unity. For 400 kV lines, it can be higher than 10 and it increases with voltage rating. From the

fundamentals of circuit analysis, we know that current in an inductive circuit (with finite resistance) cannot

change instantaneously. The abrupt change in current, if it happens due to switch opening, will result in

infinite di/dt and hence will induce infinite voltage. Even with finite di/dt, the induced voltages will be

quite high. The high induced voltage developed across the CB will ionize the dielectric between its

terminals. This results in arcing. When the current in CB goes through the natural zero, the arc can be

extinguished (quenched). However, if the interrupting medium has not regained its dielectric properties

then the arc can be restruck. The arcing currents reduce with passage of time and after a few cycles the

current is finally interrupted.

Usually CB opening time lies in the 2-6 cycles range. CBs are categorized by the interrupting medium

used. Minimum oil, air blast, vacuum arc and SF 6 CBs are some of the common examples. CB opening

mechanism requires much larger power input than what logical element relay can provide. Hence, when

relay issues a trip command, it closes a switch that energizes the CB opening mechanism powered by a

separate dc source (station battery). The arc struck in a CB produces large amount of heat which also has

to be dissipated.

Review Questions

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Recap

In this lecture we have learnt the following:

Necessity of a protection system.

Objectives

In this lecture we will introduce the following:

Principle of overcurrent protection.

For simplicity in explaining the key ideas, we consider three phase bolted faults. Generalization of different

fault types

will be discussed in subsequent lectures.

2.1

Overcurrent Protection

that, faults typically short circuits,

lead to currents much above the load

current. We can call them as

overcurrents. Over current relaying

and fuse protection uses the principle

that when the current exceeds a

predetermined value, it indicates

presence of a fault (short circuit). This

protection scheme finds usage in

radial distribution systems with a

single source. It is quite simple to

implement.

Fig 2.1 shows a radial distribution system with a single source. The fault current is fed from only one end

of the feeder. For this system it can be observed that:

To relay R 1 , both downstream faults F1 and F2 are visible i.e. I F1 as well as I F2 pass through CT of R 1 .

To relay R 2 , fault F1 , an upstream fault is not seen, only F2 is seen. This is because no component of I F1

passes

through CT of R 2 . Thus, selectivity is achieved naturally. Relaying decision is based solely on the

magnitude of fault current. Such a protection scheme is said to be non-directional.

2.2

In contrast, there can be situations where for the purpose of selectivity, phase angle information (always

relative to a reference phasor) may be required. Fig 2.2 shows such a case for a radial system with source

at both ends. Consequently, fault is fed from both the ends of the feeder. To interrupt the fault current,

relays at both ends of the feeder are required.

In this case, from the magnitude of the current seen by the relay R 2 , it is not possible to distinguish

whether the fault is in the section AB or BC. Since faults in section AB are not in its jurisdiction, it should

not trip. To obtain selectivity, a directional overcurrent relay is required. It uses both magnitude of current

and phase angle information for decision making. It is commonly used in subtransmission networks where

ring mains are used.

2.3 Distance Protection

Consider a simple radial system, which is fed from a

single source. Let us measure the apparent impedance

(V/I) at the sending end. For the unloaded system, I =

0, and the apparent impedance seen by the relay is

infinite. As the system is loaded,

the apparent

impedance reduces to some finite value (ZL +Z line)

where Z L is the load impedance and Z line is the line

impedance.

In presence of a fault at a per-unit

distance m', the impedance seen by the relay drops

to a mZline as shown in fig 2.3.

The basic principle of distance relay is that the apparent impedance seen by the relay, which is defined as

the ratio of phase voltage to line current of a transmission line (Zapp ), reduces drastically in the presence

of a line fault. A distance relay compares this ratio with the positive sequence impedance (Z 1 ) of the

transmission line. If the fraction Z app /Z1 is less than unity, it indicates a fault. This ratio also indicates the

distance of the fault from the relay. Because, impedance is a complex number, the distance protection is

inherently directional. The first quadrant is the forward direction i.e. impedance of the transmission line to

be protected lies in this quadrant. However, if only magnitude information is used, non-directional

impedance relay results. Fig 2.4 and 2.5 shows a characteristic of an impedance relay and mho relay'

both belonging to this class. The impedance relay trips if the magnitude of the impedance is within the

circular region. Since, the circle spans all the quadrants, it leads to non-directional protection scheme. In

contrast, the mho relay which covers primarily the first quadrant is directional in nature.

Thus, the trip law for the impedance relay can be written as follows:

, then trip; else restrain. While impedance relay has only one design parameter, Z set ;

'mho relay' has two design parameters Z n ,

line. Based upon legacy of electromechanical relays '

2.3.1 Example

1. (a)

Find out the value of Zn for a mho relay with torque angle

which has to give 100% protection to a

50 km long

110kV transmission line with impedance

per km and angle

.

Ans: The two design parameters of a mho relay are Zn and

been selected as

as on primary

Rv, VT ratio = 1000

where

(b)

load? CT ratio is

1000:5

Ans: Maximum Load current

= 1000A

Since this value will not fall within the operating circle, the mho relay will not trip for this load.

2.4 Principle of Differential Protection

Differential protection is based on the fact that any fault within an electrical equipment would cause the

current entering it, to be different, from the current leaving it. Thus by comparing the two currents either

in magnitude or in phase or both we can determine a fault and issue a trip decision if the difference

exceeds a predetermined set value.

2.4.1 Differential Protection for Transmission Line

Fig 2.6 shows a short

transmission line in which

shunt charging can be

neglected. Then under no

fault condition, phasor sum

of currents entering the

device is zero i.e.

Thus, we can say that

differential current under no

fault condition is zero.

However in case of fault in

the line segment AB, we get

presence of fault is nonzero.

This principle of checking the differential current is known as a differential protection scheme. In case of

transmission line, implementation of differential protection requires a communication channel to transmit

current values to the other end. It can be used for short feeders and a specific implementation is known

as pilot wire protection. Differential protection tends to be extremely accurate. Its zone is clearly

demarcated by the CTs which provide the boundary.

2.4 Principle of Differential Protection

2.4.1 Differential Protection for Transmission Line (Tapped Line)

Differential protection can be used for tapped lines (multiterminal lines) where boundary conditions are

defined as follows:

Under no fault condition:

Faulted condition:

Differential protection for detecting faults is an attractive option when both ends of the apparatus are

physically located near each other. e.g. on a transformer, a generator or a bus bar.

2.4.2 Differential Protection for Transformer

Consider

an

ideal

transformer with the CT

connections, as shown in

fig 2.8. To illustrate the

principle let us consider

that current rating of

primary winding is 100A

and secondary winding is

100:5 and 1000:5 CT on

the

primary

and

secondary winding, then

under normal (no fault)

operating conditions the

scaled CT currents will

match in magnitudes. By

connections the primary

and secondary CTs with

due care to the dots

(polarity

markings),

a

circulating current can be

set up as shown by dotted

line.

No current will flow through the branch having overcurrent current relay because it will result in violation

of KCL. Now if an internal fault occurs within the device like interturn short etc., then the normal mmf

balance is upset i.e.

. Under this condition, the CT secondary currents of primary and

secondary side CTs will not match. The resulting differential current will flow through overcurrent relay. If

the pick up setting of overcurrent relay is close to zero, it will immediately pick up and initiate the trip

decision.

In practice, the transformer is not ideal. Consequently, even if

, it is the magnetization

current or (no load) current. Thus, a differential current always flows through the overcurrent relay.

Therefore overcurrent relay pick up is adjusted above the no load current value. Consequently, minute

faults below no load current value cannot be detected. This compromises sensitivity.

2.4.3Differential Protection for Busbar

Ideally, differential protection is the solution for the bus-bar protection.

Figure 2.8 illustrates the basic idea. If the fault is external to the bus, it can be seen that algebraic sum of

the currents entering the bus is zero.

On the other hand, if fault is on the bus (internal fault), this sum is not zero.

Review Questions

1.

Why is phase angle information required to protect a radial system with source at both ends?

2.

3.

(2) Transformer protection.

(3) Busbar protection.

4.

For the tapped line (fig 2.6), no relays are provided at the tapping point. Can you explain reasons for the

same?

Recap

Principle of overcurrent protection.

Differential protection.

Lecture 3 : Protection Paradigms - System Protection

Objectives

In this lecture we will:

Introduce system protection relays like underfrequency relays, rate of change of frequency relays, reverse

- power flow

relays etc.

Usually, system protection requires study of the system dynamics and control. To understand

issues in system protection, we overview dynamical nature of the power system. Power system

behavior can be described in terms of differential and algebraic system of equations. Differential equations

can be written to describe behaviour of generators, transmission lines, motors, transformers etc. The

detailing depends upon the time scale of investigation.

Figure 3.1 shows the various time scales involved in modelling system dynamics. The dynamics involved in

switching, lightening, load rejection etc have a high frequency component which die down quickly. In

analysis of such dynamics, differential equations associated with inductances and capacitances of

transmission lines have to be modelled. Such analysis is restricted to a few cycles. It is done by

Electromagnetic Transient Program (EMTP).

At a larger time scale (order of seconds), response of the electromechanical elements is perceived. These

transients are typically excited by faults which disturb the system equilibrium by upsetting the generatorload balance in the system. As a consequence of fault, electrical power output reduces instantaneously while

the mechanical input does not change instantaneously. The resulting imbalance in power (and torque) excites

the electromechanical transients which are essentially slow because of the inertia of the mechanical elements

(rotor etc).

Detection and removal of fault is the task of the protection system (apparatus protection). Post-fault, the

system may or may not return to an equilibrium position. Transient stability studies are required to

determine the post fault system stability. In practice, out-of-step relaying, under frequency load shedding,

islanding etc are the measures used to enhance system stability and prevent blackouts. The distinction

between system protection and control (e.g. damping of power swings) is a finer one. In the today's world of

Integrated Control and Protection Systems (ICPS), this distinction does not make much sense. In this

lecture, we discuss these issues from distribution system perspective. In the next lecture, a transmission

system perspective will be discussed.

Consider a medium voltage distribution

system having local generation (e.g., captive

power generation) as shown in fig 3.2 which

is also synchronized with the grid. During

grid disturbance, if plant generators are not

successfully isolated from the grid, they also

sink with the grid, resulting in significant loss

in production and damage to process

equipments. The following relays are used to

detect such disturbances, its severity and

isolate the inplant system from the grid.

3.2.1 Underfrequency Relay and Rate of Change of Frequency Relay

generators tend to supply power to other

consumers connected to the substation. The

load-generation imbalance leads to fall in

frequency. The underfrequency relay R

detects this drop and isolates local generation

from the grid by tripping breaker at the point

of common coupling. After disconnection from

the grid, it has to be ascertained that there is

load-generation balance in the islanded

system. Because of the inertia of the

machines, frequency drops gradually. To

speed up the islanding decision, rate of

change of frequency relays are used.

Whenever there is an uncleared fault on the grid close to the plant, the plant generators tend to feed the

fault, and the voltages at the supply point drops. This can be used as a signal for isolating from the grid.

3.2.3 Reverse Power Relay

Distribution systems are radial in nature. This holds true for both utility and plant distribution systems. If

there is a fault on the utility's distribution system, it may trip a breaker thereby isolating plant from the

grid. This plant may still remain connected with downstream loads as shown in fig 3.4 and 3.5.

Consequently, power will flow from the plant generator to these loads.

If in the prefault state, power was being fed to the plant, then this reversal of power flow can be used to

island the plant generation and load from the remaining system. This approach is useful to detect loss of

grid supply whenever the difference between load and available generation is not sufficient to obtain an

appreciable rate of change of frequency but the active power continues to flow into the grid to feed the

external loads.

Example

In fig 3.4, consider that the plant imports at all times a minimum power of 5 MW. Studies indicate that for

various faults in utility side, minimum power export from the plant generator is 0.5 MW. Deduce the

setting of reverse power relay. If the plant generator is of 50 MW capacity, what is likelihood of

underfrequency or rate of change of frequency relay picking up on such faults?

Ans: Reverse power flow relay can be set to 0.4 MW. Since minimum reverse power flow is 1% of plant

capacity, it is quite likely, that utility disconnection may not be noticed by underfrequency or the rate of

change of frequency relays.

Vector shift relays and system protection schemes in transmission systems will be discussed in more

details in later lectures.

Many line outages result from lightning strokes that hit overhead

transmission

lines.

Lightning

discharges

normally produce

overvoltage surges which may last for a fraction of second and are

extremely harmful. The line outages can be reduced to an

acceptable level by protection schemes like installation of earth wires

and earthing of the towers.

Lightning overvoltages can be classified as follows:

Induced overvoltages which occur when lightning strokes reach the ground near the line.

Overvoltages due to shielding failures that occur when lightning strokes reach the phase conductors.

Overvoltages by back flashovers that occur when lightning stroke reaches the tower or the shield wire.

The most commonly used devices for protection against lightning surges are the following:

Shielding by earth wires: Normally, transmission lines are equipped with earth wires to shield against

lightning

discharges. The earthwires are placed above the line conductor at such a position that the lightning

strokes are intercepted by them. In addition to this, earthing of tower is also essential.

Lightning Arrestors: An alternative to the use of earthwire for protection of conductors against direct

lightning strokes is

to use lightning arrestors in parallel to insulator strings. Use of lightning arrestors is more economical

also.

ZnO varistor is commonly used as lightning arrestor because of its peculiar resistance characteristic. Its

resistance varies with applied voltage, i.e, its resistance is a nonlinear inverse function of applied voltage.

At normal voltage its resistance is high. But when high voltage surges like lightning strokes appear across

the varistor, its resistance decreases drastically to a very low value and the energy is dissipated in it,

giving protection against lightning.

Review Questions

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Recap

Various system protection relays like underfrequency relays, rate of change of frequency relays, reverse

power flow

Lightning protection.

Objectives

In this lecture we will learn the following desirable attributes of protection system viz:

Dependability.

Security.

Sensitivity.

Selectivity.

Reliability.

A protection system is characterized by following two important parameters:

Dependability

Security

4.1

Dependability

A relay is said to be dependable if it trips only when it is expected to trip. This happens either when the

fault is in it's primary jurisdiction or when it is called upon to provide the back-up protection. However,

false tripping of relays or tripping for faults that is either not within it's jurisdiction, or within it's purview,

compromises system operation. Power system may get unnecessarily stressed or else there can be loss

of service. Dependability is the degree of certainty that the relay will operate correctly:

4.1.1 Sensitivity

For simplicity, consider the case of overcurrent protection. The protective system must have ability to

detect the smallest possible fault current. The smaller the current that it can detect, the more sensitive it

is. One way to improve sensitivity is to determine characteristic signature of a fault. It is unique to the

fault type and it does not occur in the normal operation. For example, earth faults involve zero sequence

current. This provide a very sensitive method to detect earth faults. Once, this signature is seen,

abnormality is rightly classified and hence appropriate action is initialized.

4.2 Security

On the other hand, security is a property used to characterize false tripping on the relays. A relay is said

to be secure if it does not trip when it is not expected to trip. It is the degree of certainty that the relay

will not operate incorrectly:

False trips do not just create nuisance. They can even compromise system security. For example, tripping

of a tie-line in a two area system can result in load-generation imbalance in each area which can be

dangerous. Even when multiple paths for power flow are available, under peak load conditions, overloads

or congestion in the system may result. Dependability and security are contrasting requirements.

Typically, a relay engineer biases his setting towards dependability. This may cause some nuisance

tripping, which can in the worst case, trigger partial or complete blackout! Security of the relaying system

can be improved by improving selectivity of the relaying system.

4.2.1 Selectivity

Like

sensitivity,

selectivity also

implies an ability to discriminate. A

relay should not confuse some

peculiarities of an apparatus with a

fault. For example, transformer when

energized can draw up to 20 times

rated current (inrush current) which

can confuse, both overcurrent and

transformer differential protection.

Typically,

inrush

currents

are

characterized

by

large

second

harmonic content.

This discriminant is used to inhibit relay operation during inrush, there by, improving selectivity in

transformer protection. Also, a relay should be smart enough, not just to identify a fault but also be able

to decide whether fault is in it's jurisdiction or not. For example, a relay for a feeder should be able to

discriminate a fault on it's own feeder from faults on adjacent feeders. This implies that it should detect

first existence of fault in it's vicinity in the system and then take a decision whether it is in it's jurisdiction.

Recall that directional overcurrent relay was introduced to improve selectivity of overcurrent relay.

This jurisdiction of a relay is also called as zone of protection . Typically, protection zones are classified

into primary and backup zones. In detecting a fault and isolating the faulty element, the protective

system must be very selective. Ideally, the protective system should zero-in on the faulty element and

only isolate it, thus causing a minimum disruption to the system. Selectivity is usually provided by (1)

using time discrimination and (2) applying differential protection principle. With overcurrent and distance

relays, such boundaries are not properly demarcated (see fig 4.1). This is a very important consideration

in operation of power systems.

4.2.1Selectivity

However with a differential protection the CT location provides 'crisp' demarcation of zone of protection of

CT (see fig 4.2). The fault F1 is in the relay's zone of protection, but fault F2 is not in its jurisdiction.

Because differential protection scheme do not require time discrimination to improve selectivity, they are

essentially fast. These aspects will be discussed in more detail in the later lectures.

4.3 Reliability

A relaying system has to be reliable. Reliability can be achieved by redundancy i.e. duplicating the

relaying system. Obviously redundancy can be a costly proposition. Another way to improve reliability is

to ask an existing relay say, protecting an apparatus A to backup protection of apparatus B. Both the

approaches are used (simultaneously) in practice. However, it is important to realize that back-up

protection must be provided for safe operation of relaying system. Redundancy in protection also depends

upon the criticality of the power apparatus. For example, a 400 kV transmission line will have independent

(duplicated) protection using same or a different philosophy; on the other hand, a distribution system will

not have such local back-up. A quantitative measure for reliability is defined as follows:

4.3.1 Example

The performance of an overcurrent relay was monitored over a period of one year. It was found that the

relay operated 14 times, out of which 12 were correct trips. If the relay failed to issue trip decision on 3

occasions, compute dependability, security and reliability of the relay.

Number of correct trips = 12

Number of desired trips = 12 + 3 = 15

Note that even though dependability and security are individually above 80%, overall reliability much

poor (only 70.55%).

4.3

Reliability

Note that number of desired trips can be greater than or equal to number of correct trips. A desired trip

may not happen for various reasons like, the fault level being below the relaying sensitivity, stuck circuit

breaker, incorrect setting of relays poor maintenance of circuit breaker etc.

Zone of Protection

4.4

A relay's zone of protection is a region defined by relay's jurisdiction (see fig 4.3). It is shown by

demarcating the boundary. This demarcation for differential protection is quite crisp and is defined by

CT's location. On the other hand, such boundaries for overcurrent and distance relays are not very crisp.

It is essential that primary zones of protection should always overlap to ascertain that no position of the

system ever remains unprotected. It can be seen in fig 4.3. This overlap also accounts for faults in the

circuit breakers. To provide this overlap additional CTs are required.

Necessity of Speed in Relaying

To maximize safety, and minimize equipment damage and system instability, a fault should be cleared as

quickly as possible. This implies that relay should quickly arrive at a decision and circuit breaker

operation should be fast enough. Typically, a fast circuit breaker would operate in about two cycles. A

reasonable time estimate for ascertaining presence of fault is one cycle. This implies approximately three

cycle fault clearing time for primary protection. On the other hand, if five cycle circuit breaker is used,

fault clearing time increases to six cycles. So long as short circuit fault exist in a transmission system, the

electrical output of generator remains below the mechanical input. If a bolted three phase fault occurs

close to generator terminal (fig 4.4), P e = 0. Thus, as per equation (1) with input P m; the generator

accelerates.

--- (1)

4.4 Necessity of Speed in Relaying (contd..)

Fig 4.5 shows the pre and post fault

characteristics for the single machine

infinite bus system shown in fig 4.4. Initial

operating point A is on the pre fault

characteristic. Occurrence of fault reduces

P e to 0. The power generation imbalance

accelerates generator and hence its

(power angle) increases. At point C the

fault is cleared by tripping the faulted line

and the system moves to post fault

characteristics. The power output jumps to

point D. Now P e > P m and the machine

decelerates.

At point E,

is equal to zero

and the extreme point of swing is reached.

As P e > P m, the deceleration continues

and hence the rotor starts retarding. At

point O, P e = P m the acceleration is zero,

but machine speed is lower than nominal

. Consequently, the

speed

angle

However, as

reduces further, P e also

reduces, therefore P m - P e > 0 and the

generator starts accelerating. This arrests

at point F and the swing

the drop in

reverses,

again

a

consequence

of

acceleration. In absence of damping, these

oscillations will recur just like oscillation of

a simple pendulum. However, because of

damping provided by generator, the

oscillations reduce in magnitude and finally

system settles to equilibrium at point O.

Click Here for Simulation

It should be obvious that interval BC is

dependent on fault clearing time of the

protection system. The shaded area

ABCC 1 is the acceleration area and

area C 1 DEE 1 the deceleration area. As

per equal area criteria, the post fault

system reaches stable equilibrium if

accelerating area equals to the

decelerating area. The limit point for

deceleration is defined by point G the

intersection point of P m0 and the post

fault characteristic.

If the swing of generator exceeds beyond point G, the generator moves from deceleration to acceleration

region. Then, its angle

continues to rise indefinitely, and the machine is said to go out-of-step. If any

machine goes out-of-step with rest of system it has to be islanded. Out-of-step condition in a multi

machine system can be simulated by transient stability program. Detection in real-time is a much more

challenging task and it is dealt by out-of-step relaying' schemes. When a multi machine system is

islanded in to different sub-systems, then for stable operation of each sub-system, it is necessary that

each sub-system should have generation load balance. Fig 4.6, however it should be obvious by now that

from the stability perspective, transmission system protection should be made as fast as possible. As the

fault clearing time increases, the stability margin (area EE 1 G) reduces. The fault clearing time at which

the stability margin reduces to zero is called the critical clearing time.

4.4.1 Speed Vs. Accuracy Conflict

Intuition tells us that quickness is an invitation to disaster. The possible consequences of quick tripping

decisions are:

Nuisance Tripping

Nuisance tripping is the tripping

when there is no fault, e.g. an

overcurrent relay tripping on load. It

compromises faith in the relaying

system due to unnecessary loss of

service. On the other hand, tripping

on faults that are outside the relay's

jurisdiction

also

cause

an

unwarranted loss of service in the

healthy parts of the system.

It has to be mentioned that speed

and accuracy bear an inverse

relationship. The high-speed systems

tend to be less accurate for the

simple reason that a high speed

system has lesser amount of

information available at it's disposal

for making decision.

Thus, the protection engineer has to strike a balance between these two incompatible requirements.

Innovations in protection are essentially driven by such requirements. The ways to tackle this conflict will

become clear as we proceed into future lectures.

Review Questions

1.

2.

3.

(a) Overcurrent protection scheme

(b) Differential protection scheme.

4.

5.

6.

The performance of a distance relay was monitored over a period of 2 years. It was found that it operated

15 times,

12 were desired trips due to faults in its jurisdiction. It was found that relay failed to issue trip decision on

2 occasions.

Compute dependability and security for the relay.

Define the following terms

(a) % Dependability

(b) % Security

(c) % Reliability

Recap

In this lecture we have learnt the following desirable attributes of protection system viz:

Dependability

Security

Sensitivity

Selectivity

Reliability

Congratulations, you have finished Lecture 4. To view the next lecture select it from the left hand side

menu of the page

Lecture 5 : Introduction to CT

Objectives

In this lecture we will

Introduce CT.

5.1 Introduction

Practically all electrical measurements and relaying decisions are derived from current and voltage signals.

Since relaying hardware works with smaller range of current (in amperes and not kA) and voltage (volts

and not kV), real life signals (feeder or transmission line currents) and bus voltages have to be scaled to

lower levels and then fed to the relays. This job is done by current and voltage transformers (CTs and

VTs). CTs and VTs also electrically isolate the relaying system from the actual power apparatus. The

electrical isolation from the primary voltage also provides safety of both human personnel and the

equipment. Thus,

CT and VTs are the sensors for the relay.

CT and VT function like ears' and the eyes' of the protection system. They listen to and observe all

happening in the

external world. Relay itself is the brain which processes these signals and issues decision commands

implemented by circuit breakers, alarms etc.

Clearly, quality of the relaying decision depends upon faithful' reproduction on the secondary side of the

transformer. In this module, we will learn a lot more about these devices. In particular, we will answer the

following questions:

How is a CT different from the normal transformer?

To begin with, equivalent circuit

of a CT is not much different

from

that

of

a

regular

transformer (fig 5.1). However, a

fundamental difference is that

while regular power transformers

are excited by a voltage source,

a current transformer has current

source

excitation.

Primary

series with the transmission line.

The load on the secondary side is

the relaying burden and the lead

wire resistance.

introduced by CT in series with

the

transmission

line

is

insignificant and hence, the

connection of the CT does not

alter current in the feeder or the

power apparatus at all. Hence

from modeling perspectives it is

reasonable to assume that CT

primary is connected to a current

source.

Therefore,

the

CT

equivalent circuit will look as

shown in fig 5.2. The remaining

steps in modeling are as follows:

As impedance in series with the current source can be neglected, we can neglect the primary winding

resistance and

leakage reactance in CT modeling.

For the convenience in analysis, we can shift the magnetizing impedance from the primary side to the

secondary side of

the ideal transformer.

After application of the above

steps, the CT equivalent circuit

is as shown in the fig 5.3. Note

that the secondary winding

resistance

and

leakage

reactance is not neglected as it

will affect the performance of

CT. The total impedance on the

secondary side is the sum of

relay

burden,

lead

wire

resistance

and

leakage

impedance

of

secondary

winding. Therefore, the voltage

developed in the secondary

winding depends upon these

parameters directly.

The secondary voltage developed by the CT has to be monitored because as per the transformer emf

equation, the flux level in the core depends upon it. The transformer emf equation is given by,

where

corresponding to this flux is

or less obvious that the CT will

saturate. During saturation, CT

secondary

winding

cannot

replicate the primary current

accurately

and

hence, the

performance

of

the

CT

deteriorates.

Thus, we conclude that in

practice, while selecting a CT we

should ascertain that it should

not saturate on the sinusoidal

currents that it would be

subjected to.

Use of numerical relays due to their very small burden vis-a-vis solid state and electromechanical relays,

improves the CT performance. CT is to be operated always in closed condition. If the CT is open circuited,

all the current I p /N, would flow through X m. This will lead to the development of dangerously high level of

voltage in secondary winding which can even burn out the CT.

We can further, simplify the equivalent circuit of a CT by transferring the current source (through the ideal

transformer) to the secondary side. Thus, the equivalent circuit of the CT is as shown in fig 5.4.

5.2.1Equivalent circuit of saturated CT

One of the major problems faced by the protection

systems engineer is the saturation of CT on large ac

currents and dc offset current present during the

transient. When the CT is saturated, primary current

source cannot be faithfully reflected to the secondary

side. In other words, we can open circuit the current

source in fig 5.4. Also, the magnetizing impedance falls

down during saturation. Then the transformer behaves

more like an air core device, with negligible coupling

between the primary and secondary winding. The high

reluctance due to the air path implies that the

magnetizing impedance (inductance) falls down. The

corresponding equivalent circuit is shown in fig 5.5.

5.3 Classification of CTs

The CTs can be classified into following types:

Measurement CTs

Protection CTs

A measurement grade CT has much lower VA capacity than a protection grade CT. A measurement CT has

to be accurate over its complete range e.g. from 5% to 125% of normal current. In other words, its

magnetizing impedance at low current levels. (and hence low flux levels) should be very high. Note that

due to non-linear nature of B-H curve, magnetizing impedance is not constant but varies over the CT's

operating range. It is not expected to give linear response (secondary current a scaled replica of the

primary current) during large fault currents.

In contrast, for a protection grade CT, linear response is expected up to 20 times the rated current. Its

performance has to be accurate in the range of normal currents and upto fault currents. Specifically, for

protection grade CT's magnetizing impedance should be maintained to a large value in the range of the

currents of the order of fault currents.

When a CT is used for both the purposes, it has to be of required accuracy class to satisfy both accuracy

conditions of measurement CTs and protection CTs. In other words, it has to be accurate for both very

small and very large values of current. Typically, CT secondary rated current is standardized to 1A or 5A

(more common).

However, it would be unreasonable to assume that the linear response will be independent of the net

burden on the CT secondary. For simplicity, we refer to the net impedance on the secondary side

(neglecting magnetizing impedance) as the CT burden. It is quite obvious that the driving force

required to drive the primary current replica will increase as this burden increases. If this voltage exceeds

the designer's set limits, then the CT core will saturate and hence linear response will be lost. Hence,

when we say that a CT will give linear response up to 20 times the rated current, there is also an implicit

constraint that the CT burden will be kept to a low value. In general, name-plate rating specifies a voltage

limit on the secondary (e.g., 100 V) up to which linear response is expected. If the CT burden causes this

voltage to be exceeded, CT saturation results.

5.3.1 ANSI / IEEE classification

ANSI/IEEE standards classify CTs into two types:

Class T CT

Class C CT

5.3.1.1Class T CTs

or more primary turns wound on a core. It is

associated with high leakage flux in the core.

Because of this, the only way to determine it's

performance is by test. In other words,

standardized performance curves cannot be used

with this types of CTs.

Figure 5.6 shows one such experimentally

calibrated curve for a CT. The letter B' indicates

the burden in ohms to which the CT is subjected. It

is seen that when burden is less than say 0.1

ohms, CT meets the linear performance criterion.

However, as the burden increases to 0.5 ohms, the

corresponding linearity criteria is not met till the

end. At 4 ohms burden, there is significant

deviation from the linear response. A general rule

of thumb is that, one should try to keep the CT

burden as low as possible.

Ratio Error: CT performance is usually gauged from the ratio error. The ratio error is the percentage

deviation in the current magnitude in the secondary from the desired value. In other words, if the

current measured in the secondary is I s , true or actual value is I p /N, where N is nominal ratio (e.g. N

for a 100:5 CT is 20) and I p is the primary current then ratio error is given by

. When

When the CT is saturated, coupling between primary and secondary is reduced. Hence large ratio errors

are expected in saturation. The current in the secondary is also phase shifted. For measurement grade

CTs, there are strict performance requirements on phase angle errors also. Error in phase angle

measurement affects power factor calculation and ultimately real and reactive power measurements. It

.

is expected that the ratio error for protection grade CTs will be maintained within

5.3.2Class C CT

Letter designation 'C' indicates that the leakeage flux is negligible. Class C CTs are the more accurate bar

type CTs. In such CTs, the leakage flux from the core is kept very small. For such CTs, the performance

for

can be evaluated from the standard exciting curves. Also, the ratio error is maintained within

standard operating conditions. For such CTs, voltage rating on the secondary is specified up to which

linear response is guaranteed. For example, a class C CT specification could be as follows: 200:5 C 100.

The labeling scheme indicates that we are dealing with a 200:5 class C CT which will provide linear

response up to 20 times rated current provided the burden on the secondary is kept below

ohm. Similarly, a corresponding class T CT may be labeled as 200:5 T 100.

For class C CTs, standard chart for

This provides the protection engineer data to do more exact calculations (refer fig 5.7). e.g., in

determining relaying sensitivity.

Review Questions

1.

2.

3.

What are the consequences of CT saturation on large AC current? How can it be avoided?

4.

(a) Measurement CTs and Protection CTs.

5.

By mistake someone has interchanged the terminals of measurement CT and protection CT. Both CT are

at the same

place and having same current ratings. What will happen in normal condition and abnormal condition?

Recap

Functions of CT and VT.

Classifications of CTs .

Lecture 6 : CT Tutorial

Objectives

In this lecture we will solve some tutorial problems on CT and analyse:

The performance of a class C CT based on standard excitation curve.

Example 1:

A

, C400 CT with excitation curves shown on above fig 5.7, is connected to a 2.0

burden. Based

on the accuracy classification, what is the maximum symmetrical fault current that may be applied to this

CT without exceeding a 10% ratio error?

Answer:

CT ratio = 1200/5

Secondary resistance = 0.61

Relay burden = 2

For 20 times rated secondary current, i.e., 100A

Secondary voltage = 100 x (2 + 0.61) = 261 Volts which is less than knee point of the CT. Since this

voltage is less than 400V, from electrical perspective, linearity will not be lost at even higher currents.

Approximate limit on secondary current is given by

= 36720A.

fault current

More exact calculation requires usage of fig 5.7. This would involve 'cut and try' approach.

Example 2:

A

, C400 CT is connected on the

tap. What is the maximum secondary burden that can

be used and we can maintain rated accuracy at 20 times rated symmetrical secondary current?

Answer:

The secondary voltage

= 333V

Secondary current

333 = 100(0.51+RB)

Secondary burden = 3.33 - 0.51 = 2.72

Example 3:

. The relay setting is 2A and the CT ratio is

Assume that secondary burden of a 300:5 class C CT is 5

. Using fig 5.7, calculate the primary current required to operate the relay?

Answer:

Secondary burden = 5

Secondary resistance for 300/5 CT = 0.15

Relay setting,

V s = 2 x (5 + 0.15) = 10.3V

Corresponding exciting current = 0.04A

Total secondary current = 2 + 0.04 = 2.04A

Note that, strictly, phasor addition of currents has to be done. However, algebraic addition simplifies work

and usually leads to conservative estimate of voltages. Hence, this practice is considered acceptable.

Primary current to operate the relay =

= 122A

Example 4:

A relay is expected to operate for 7000A primary current. The class C CT ratio is

Secondary burden is 3.5

. Will the CT saturate at this burden? Also, comment on the ratio error.

Answer:

Secondary current

V s = 58.33 (3.5 + 0.31) = 222.25V.

From the excitation curve (fig. 5.7) of 600/5 CT, we can see that the CT will be in deep saturation and %

ratio error will exceed the limits.

Example 5:

What will be the approximate % error if a 500:5 class C CT is connected to a secondary burden of 2.5

and the secondary current is 68A.

Answer:

For a 500/5 CT, secondary resistance R s = 0.25

Secondary burden R B = 2.5

= 187V

Corresponding exciting current I E = 6A (fig 5.7) (approximate)

% ratio error =

= 8.82%

Example 6:

If a 300:5 class C CT (fig 6.1) is connected to a meter with resistance

the CT is 4.5A find out the primary current, voltage developed across the meter and % ratio error. Lead

secondary resistance

of a 300:5 CT

wire resistance

Answer:

,

Total secondary resistance

Secondary voltage

= 5.0265V

From Fig 5.7,

Exciting current I E for 5.265V

= 0.03A (approximate)

Turns ratio N = 300/5 = 60

= 60(4.5 + 0.03)

= 271.8A

Voltage across meter

= 4.5V

Ratio error

= 0.67%

Review Questions

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

A circuit has a 1200:5 C 400 CT with characteristics as shown in fig 5.7. The maximum symmetrical fault

for which the

associated relays are to operate is 17,800 Amp. Find out the approximate % error if the secondary burden

is:

(2) 4

(1) 2

The secondary burden in a relay circuit is 4 . The overcurrent relay set to pick up at 3 Amp and CT ratio

is 400:5.

Calculate the minimum primary current to just operate the relay?

Find out the maximum secondary burden that can be used and still maintain rated accuracy at 20 times

rated

symmetrical secondary current if a 1200:5 C 400 CT is connected on 800/5 tap.

If the secondary burden of 1200:5 C 400 CT connected to 300:5 tap is 2 , find out. Find out the

maximum symmetrical

fault current that may be applied to this CT without exceeding 10% ratio error.

Let the primary fault current in the primary side of a CT be given by

(a) Show that this equation can be rearranged as follows.

For u(t) where u(t) is the unit step function.

(b) Consider the simplified equivalent circuit of CT as shown in fig 6.2

Let

Primary Fault current

1)

2)

3)

(Sine Component)

(Cosine Component)

(d c component)

Recap

In this lecture we have learnt the following by solving the tutorial problems:

Ratio error increases with secondary burden and there is a maximum limit for secondary burden of a CT.

Lecture 7 : CT Saturation and DC Offset Current

Objectives

In this lecture we will discuss:

Typically, fault current consists of

symmetrical ac component and a dc

offset current. To understand this

issue,

consider

an

unloaded

transmission line excited by a voltage

source. The fault strikes at time

. This can be simulated by

closing the switch at

If

in fig 7.1.

or

fault current in the line is given by

the following expressions.

where

is the time constant of the line

= Lline/Rline. Fig 7.2 shows a typical wave form of fault current

containing DC offset current. The fault current can be decomposed into two components. The first

component models the steady state sinusoidal ac response while the second component is the dc offset

current due to the presence of inductance in the circuit. Recall that current in an inductance can not

.

change instantaneously. DC offset current is a consequence of maintaining initial condition

While the dc offset current in theory, would persist till infinity, it's trace in the actual wave form would not

be seen beyond a few time constants. Table - 1 illustrates the values of

up to 10 time constants.

Table 1

Time

t=0

t=

0.3678

t=2

t=4

t=6

t=8

t = 10

0.1353

0.0183

0.0024

0.0003

0.00004

It is more or less obvious that, dc offset is not seen in the waveform after 5 time constants. The peak

value of dc offset current I 0 can be worked out by setting the current i(t 0 ) to zero.

This implies that

Thus

(1)

Clearly, the peak value of dc offset current

depends upon the following parameters:

Time at which fault strikes,

Phase angle

|Zline| and

of ac voltage and

of transmission line.

Voltage V m

It can be seen that severity of dc offset component in fault current is maximum when from equation (1)

a)

and

b)

For example, if angle of transmission line is

, then with

and

sec =

Peak value of dc offset current can be as high as the symmetrical ac peak.

While, in above analysis, we have considered a single phase current, a 3 phase fault on a 3 phase

transmission line

would always induce dc offset current in at least two phases. DC offset has adverse impact on the CT

performance.

In the remaining lecture, we analyze effect of the dc offset current on CT performance.

We now plan to show that CT can saturate on dc offset current. Also, we plan to show that the resulting

distortions in the CT secondary current can be unacceptably high. While doing this analysis, we will

neglect ac symmetrical component.

Note that when a CT core is saturated, it cannot replicate the ac component as the strong mutual coupling

between primary and secondary is lost.

First consider an ideal CT excited by the dc

offset current source. An ideal CT will

faithfully replicate the primary current

waveform on the secondary side. Hence,

the secondary current would be given by

secondary would be given by

across CT

7.4.

For simplicity, let us assume that the initial flux in the transformer core at t = 0 is

Then, we can compute the flux in the transformer core by using Faraday's law,

--- (2)

(3)

Fig 7.5 shows the plot of the flux due to dc offset current as a function of time with

. It can be

maximum value of I 0 is

, it implies that

as

can be as high as

, Since,

Note that unlike ac voltage induced

flux, which is sinusoidal in nature, this

flux (2) is unidirectional. AC voltage

induced flux has zero average value.

However, dc offset induced flux does

not have this nice feature. The total

instantaneous flux in ideal CT core is a

summation of ac flux and dc flux (see

fig 7.6)

The voltage developed across the CT

secondary by the steady state i.e.,

sinusoidal component of the fault

current

is

given

by,

.

The sinusoidal ac flux in the CT core

can be obtained by substituting

operator

by

in equation (2).

Hence,

or

Thus, the peak value of ac flux is given by the following relationship.

Hence, the peak value of instantaneous flux in the core is given by,

In practice, if this flux exceeds the knee-point flux in the core (see fig 7.7), then the CT core will saturate.

As a consequence of CT core saturation,

the secondary current would not faithfully

replicate the primary current. In fact, in

practice it is observed that CT secondary

current is clipped as shown in fig 7.8. The

clipping of CT current leads to blinding of

further. Hence, CT saturation in presence

of dc offset current is a serious problem

which relay designers have to face.

Note that dc flux accumulates gradually. In

fact it depends upon the transmission line

time constant ( ). It is apparent that

saturation should not occur immediately

after the inception of the fault. Thus, if the

relay is fast enough in decision making, it

is likely that a relaying decision would be

undertaken before the CT fully saturates.

This is another important reason for

demanding speed from the relaying

system.

For bus-fault protection, where the CT

saturation due to dc offset current can be

a significant contributing factor, quarter

cycle operations specification are imposed.

Similarly, a distance relay is expected to

operate within

cycle time.

Typically, an efficient design of transformer would correspond to choosing the core cross section such that

should be near the knee point of B - H curve. One obvious way of avoiding CT saturation on dc flux is

to oversize the core so that for flux

factor

Core-oversizing factor =

Note that X/R in above equation is the transmission line X/R ratio. For a 220KV line with X/R

10, this

20,

would imply that transformer core should be oversized by a factor of 11. For a EHV line, with X/R

this would imply an oversizing requirement of about 21 times the usual design. Clearly, this high amount

of oversizing is not practical. Thus, an important conclusion is that, protection engineers have to live with

the saturation problem. Under the situation one should try to quickly reach the decision, before CT

saturates. However, this brings in the picture, the well discussed 'speed vs accuracy conflict'. We will have

more to say on the accuracy aspect of relaying in later lectures.

While choosing a CT for a particular application, it is necessary to observe following precautions.

The CT rating and continuous load current should match. For example, if maximum load current is 90A, a

100:5 CT may

be acceptable but 50:5 is not acceptable.

The maximum fault current should be less than 20 times the CT rated current. For example, 100:5 CT can

be used, so

long as burden on the CT is within the rated values and maximum primary fault current is below 2000A.

The voltage rating of CT should be compatible. For example, 100:5 C100 would give linear response, upto

20 times

rated current provided CT burden is kept below(100/20 x 5 = 1

only if maximum current is limited to 1000A.

). With 2

Paralleling of CT's e.g. in differential protection, or with SLG fault can create significant errors in CT

performance. One

should generally ascertain that magnetizing current is kept much below the pick up value.

7.4.1Exercise Problems

1.

If the current ratio is adequate for a protection, but CT burden is high; then the performance of CT may

deteriorate due to

large magnetizing current and/or saturation problem (see fig 7.9). The CT performance can be improved

by connecting the CT's in series (see fig 7.10).

Show the dotted terminals for correct secondary series connection in fig 7.10.

2.

Electromechanical relays tend to saturate at high currents. This reduces the relay burden on CT, and so

that the CT

performance at moderately high currents may be considered better than at relay's rated burden at 5A.

Use of instantaneous over current relays has the potential to overcome this problem of saturation of CT's.

Differential protection can operate on external faults due to the unequal saturation of CT's.

Review Questions

1.

What are the factors on which the peak value of DC offset current depends?

2.

3.

Derive the equation for peak value of total flux developed in a CT core.

4.

5.

Recap

DC offset current.

Cautions in CT selection.

Lecture 8 : Introduction to VT

Objectives

In this lecture we will learn the following:

Derive the equivalent circuit of a CCVT.

Classification of CCVT.

Design of CCVT.

Many relaying applications like

distance

relays,

directional

overcurrent

relays

require

measurement of voltages at a

bus. This task is done by a

voltage transformer (VT).

The principle of a voltage

transformer is identical to the

conventional transformer. Hence,

its equivalent circuit can be

represented as shown in fig 8.1.

of the VT is standardized to 110

V (ac). Hence, as the primary

voltage increases, the turns ratio

N1 :N 2 increases and transformer

becomes bulky.

To cut down the VT size and cost,

a capacitance potential divider is

used (fig 8.2). Thus, a reduced

voltage is fed to primary of the

transformer. This reduces the

size of VT. This leads to

development

of

coupling

capacitor voltage transformers

(CCVT).

8.1.1Role of Tuning Reactor

Assuming, the transformer to be ideal, the Thevenin's equivalent circuit of CCVT is shown in fig 8.3.

divider, affects the voltage received by the relay. To

achieve high level of accuracy, it is therefore

necessary to compensate for this voltage drop by

connecting a tuning inductor. The tuning inductors

value is so chosen that it compensates for the net C'

at power frequency (50Hz in India). The phasor

diagram across resistive load, is as shown in fig

8.4(a). (See fig 8.4).

From the corresponding equivalent circuit, it is

apparent that, if

, then voltage

actual voltage to be measured. (See fig 8.5).

8.2 CCVT in Power Line Communication

The capacitance potential divider also

serves the dual purpose of providing a

shunt path to high frequency signal used in

power

line

carrier

communication.

Normally, CCVT is used in HV/EHV systems

where carrier line communication is used.

High frequency i.e. Radio Frequency (RF)

signals (50 - 400 kHz) can be coupled to

power line for communication. At high

frequency, the capacitive shunt impedance

is very small and hence these signals can

be tapped by the potential divider. To block

the path to ground for the RF signal, a

small drainage reactor is connected in

series with the capacitance divider. At

power frequencies, it has a very small

impedance. Thus, the role of capacitance

potential divider at power frequency is not

compromised. On the other hand, at RF,

the impedance of drainage reactor is large

and it blocks the RF signal.

Also, compensating reactor and transformer leakage reactance by their inductive nature, block the path of

RF signal. This signal is then tapped by a tuning pack which provides low impedance to the RF signal.

The iron cores of the reactor and transformer will not only introduce copper and core losses but it can also

produce ferroresonance caused by the nonlinearity of the iron cores. Hence a ferroresonance suppression

circuit is also included in the secondary of the transformer. The dangerous overvoltages caused by

ferroresonance are eliminated by this circuit. Unfortunately, it can aggravate CCVT transients.

8.3

As can be seen in the fig 8.5, CCVT equivalent circuit is a R-L-C circuit. If transformer is considered ideal,

. The corresponding differential equation is given by

.

For a solid 3 - phase fault say near the CCVT bus at t=t 0 . v(t) = 0 for

governing differential equation is given by

where

and

and

. If

background in network analysis that response of such a circuit to step excitation, depends upon

is natural

and point on the voltage waveform where the fault strikes. Such transients

are known as subsistence transients. Fig 8.7 shows subsistence transients of CCVT. It can be seen that

subsistence transients can reduce the accuracy of distance relays.

8.4 Classification of CCVTs

CCVTs can be classified into following two types:

Class 1

Class 2

Table 8.1 shows the maximum limit for the ratio and phase angle errors. It can be seen that errors of

Class 2 type are double than that of class 1 type.

Table 8.1 : Limits for Ratio and Phase Angle Errors

VT Class

Class 1

Class 2

Review Questions

1.

2.

3.

4.

Recap

Role of VT.

Lecture 9 : VT Tutorial

Objectives

In this lecture we will solve tutorial problems to:

Design a CCVT.

Example 1 :

Design a CCVT for a 132kV transmission line using the following data. Resistive Burden

frequency deviation to be subjected to

= 150VA,

choices of V 2 as 33 kV, 11 kV, 6.6 kV and 3.3 kV. Transmission line voltage V = 132 kV. The standardized

VT secondary voltage is 110 volts (L - L).

Answer:

Let V 2 (L - N) be the voltage to be produced by the capacitive potential divider with capacitance values C 1

and C 2 . Let L be the value of tuning inductor. Our first task is to come up with a value of L. Here the

specification for phase angle error

calculated as follows:

At tuning frequency,

from

by

Substituting

Example 1: (contd..)

From figure 9.3,

Using this equation the value L for different values of V 2 is found out.

(1) Let V 2 be 33kV (L - N) Then;

Example 1 : (contd..)

(2)

(3)

, tan

(4)

Example 1 : (contd..)

The values of L,

V2

L in H

33 kV

6722.2

0.00151

11 kV

747.2

0.0136

6.6 kV

269

0.0377

3.3 kV

67.25

0.151

From the above table it is clear that smaller the value of V 2 , the smaller is the value of L and higher the

value of C 1 and C 2 for tuning condition. If we select too low value of V 2 and L then capacitance values

will be beyond available limits, and if we select higher value of V 2 and L, then CCVT's inductor will

become bulky. So a compromise solution is necessary and let us select V 2 = 6.6 kV

For V 2 = 6.6 kV

L = 269 H

Now,

In this design, we have explained the basic concept for CCVT design and we assumed the transformer to

be ideal. However in real life design, the value of magnetizing impedance of transformer, resistance of

reactor etc have to be taken into account, as the ratio error

and the phase angle error

will also

get affected by these values. The next example brings out these issues.

Example 2:

The equivalent circuit of a CCVT

is shown in fig 9.4. The values of

and

C 1 and C 2 are 0.0018

0.0186

respectively. Tuning

497H and resistance of 4620 .

X m of the VT referred to 6.6 kV

side is 1M , core loss = 20

watts per phase, VA burden =

150VA per phase. Value of C m for

compensating the current drawn

.

by X m is equal to

(b)

Find out the nominal value of V/V2

(c)

If the frequency drops from 50Hz to 47Hz, what would be the values of ratio error and phase angle error?

(a)

Answer (a):

If

and

where

and

Now,

C m has to be in parallel resonance with X m. Therefore,

The value is also same as the selected value of C m. Hence, the selection of both L and C m is appropriate.

Answer (b):

= 11.33

V = 11.33 x 6.6

Thus, this VT is connected to a 132 kV bus.

Example 2: (contd..)

Answer (c):

Core loss = 20 W

at

= 50 Hz

Example 2 : (contd..)

The frequency of interest is 47Hz. Hence values of X m and other impedance can be calculated at 47Hz.

Figure 9.5 can be simplified as figure 9.6.

Where

source is nothing but open circuit emf. V T is the terminal voltage on load. Hence % ratio error

=1.81%

Phase angle error

.

Clearly, the phase angle error is on the higher side.

Review Questions

1.

Assume that the primary voltage of a CCVT is 400 kV and the voltage to be produced by the capacitive

potential divider is

3.3 kV. If C 2 is taken as 0.02

2.

and X m = 1.2 M

values of tuning

inductance and capacitance to be connected across CCVT's secondary for compensating X m. Standardized

secondary voltage of a VT is 110V (L-L).

3.

Design a CCVT for a 400 kV transmission line using the following data. Secondary resistive burden (3

= 300VA.

Core loss (3

angle error

) = 50W.

Recap

In this lecture by solving the tutorial problems we have learnt the following:

How to decide V 2 .

How to choose

Lecture 10 : Sequence Components

Objectives

In this lecture we will

Synthesize a

Analyze

unbalanced phasors.

10.1 Introduction

Electrical systems occasionally experience short circuits. These short circuits are hazardous to the safety

of both equipment and people. Though the protective devices will isolate the faults safely, the parts of the

system should withstand the resulting mechanical and thermal stresses. Fault impedance and fault current

estimates also form input for the setting and coordination of protective devices like overcurrent relay,

distance relay etc. Hence it is very important to estimate the magnitude of the fault currents. The

equipment rating are decided based on this value. Fault currents can be estimated either by hand

calculation or by fault analysis program.

Sources of Fault Current

The fault current in a system can be contributed by any of the following.

Synchronous Motors and Condensers

Induction Machines

Synchronous Generators

Distributed Generation

Faults in a 3 phase system can be single line to ground, double line to ground, line to line or three phase.

Power system operation during any of these faults can be analyzed using sequence components. The

method of sequence component was discovered by Charles L. Fortescue in 1918. He came up with the

unbalanced system has 6 degrees of freedom; whereas, a

balanced

following intuition that any

system has only 2 degrees of freedom. Hence an unbalanced

Note: This idea can be easily extended to N-phase system where

.

For a three phase system with phase sequence a-b-c, the three sets of balanced phasors are called

positive, negative and zero sequences.

10.2.1Positive Sequence Component

It represents a set of balanced phasors

and

(1)

(2)

Where

a' is cubic root of unity. Multiplying a phasor by a'

causes a rotation of

in the anticlockwise

direction (lead of

lag of

same balanced set of phasors that we expect in steady

operation of an ideal power system. Thus, a, b and c

phasors are nothing but V a1 , V b1 and V c1 respectively.

The sequence phasors are shown in fig 10.1. If the

stator of an induction motor is subjected to positive

sequence voltage, it should cause rotation in

anticlockwise direction. Note that placement of V a1

can be done arbitrarily in the x-y plane. But once, V a1

is fixed both V b1 and V c1 are fixed.

Thus, a positive sequence set of phasors have 2 degrees of freedom i.e. we can decide placement of

|Va1 | (magnitude) and

arbitrarily.

10.2.2Negative Sequence Component

Negative sequence phasors are used to represent a balanced set of phasors (each of equal magnitude

) but in which the order of V b and V c has been reversed with respect to the

and phase difference of

positive sequence phasor. Thus,

(3)

(4)

This is illustrated in fig 10.2. Note that placement of V a2 in x y plane can be done arbitrarily. However,

once V a2 is fixed both V b2 and V c2 are automatically fixed. Thus, negative sequence component have

exactly two degrees of freedom which is to fix magnitude and angle of V a2 .

If stator of a

induction motor is subject to negative sequence voltage the rotor will rotate in a

clockwise direction. i.e. in exactly opposite direction to that obtained with the positive sequence voltage.

The zero sequence phasors V a0 , V b0 and V c0 are a set of balanced phasors defined as follows.

(5)

10.2.2Zero Sequence Component (contd..)

Again there are two degrees of freedom in placing the zero sequence phasors. Application of zero

sequence does not create any rotation to the rotor of an induction machine. This is because the net mmf

induced in the air gap is zero.

An unbalanced set of phasors can be synthesized by linear combination (superposition of positive,

negative and zero sequence phasors).

For example,

So far we have seen that,

(6)

where

and

Matrix [T] defines a linear transformation of phasors from sequence domain to phase domain. Matrix [T]

enjoys some interesting properties. For example, every pair of rows or columns of matrix [T] are

orthogonal. For example,

If c 1 = (1, 1, 1) t and c 2 = (1, a 2 , a)t

Then, (c1 ) H c 2 = (c2 ) H c 1 = 0 where H is Hermitian operator defined as transpose and conjugate of a

vector or matrix.

Similarly,

In other words, T H T = T T H = D, where D is a diagonal matrix

With

and

(7)

10.3.1Geometrical interpretation

We illustrate the inverse transformation for phase to sequence domain by geometrical method. We are

given a set of unbalanced phasors and we have to compute the sequence components from it.

Algebraically, it is simply application of equation (7). Geometrically, it can be interpreted by noting that

rotation of phasor in anticlockwise direction and a 2 is

rotation of phasor in

'a' represents

anticlockwise direction.

10.3.2Significance of Transformation

One should understand the significance of linearity in sequence component transformation clearly.

Sequence transformation matrix [T] provides a methodology to convert sequence domain phasors to

phase domain

phasors.

Conversely, inverse transformation matrix [T -1 ] provides a mechanism to convert phasors in a-b-c

domain to sequence

domain. This is typically required for analysis purpose. Also, the mapping between phase domain and

sequence domain is 1:1.

There is no loss of information in either domain. In other words, both domains have identical information

content.

The transformations [T] and [T-1 ] are linear i.e. if

and

in a-b-c domain,

then superposition

and

sequence domain. Conversely, if we superpose phasors in sequence domain, then in a-b-c domain also it

amounts to equivalent superposition of phasors. Thus,

Where

and

and

Similarly,

Sequence components provide a methodology to view unbalanced phasors as a set of balanced phasors.

If a network is balanced, then the resulting analysis gets extremely simplified. This is because we are

able to break a three phase network into three decoupled sequence networks (under some acceptable

symmetry assumptions). We now elaborate on this concept of decoupled sequence networks.

10.4 Modeling Network in Sequence Components

We now show that corresponding network modeling can also be simplified in sequence domain. If the

three phase network elements enjoy a particular symmetry (circulant structure) then, application of

sequence component transformation diagonalizes three phase impedance or admittance matrix. Thus, we

achieve decoupling in positive, negative and zero sequence networks, provided that network is balanced.

Hence, sequence component analysis is used when network is balanced but phasors or loads are

unbalanced. To begin with, consider a transposed transmission line whose three phase model is given by

the following equation. Z s is the self impedance of transmission line and Z m is the mutual impedance

between two phases. These quantities can be evaluated from GMD and GMR of transmission line.

and

is the drop in phase voltage across the line due to currents I a , I b and I c respectively then,

(8)

and

we get,

Where

Hence,

(9)

Let Z 0 = Z s + 2Zm

Z 1 =Z s - Z m

Z2 = Zs - Zm

Then equation (8) can be decoupled into three separate equations one for each sequence component as

follows.

,

and

Also, note that

and

. Reference

Thus, we see that positive, negative and zero sequence networks are decoupled. In general, if Z matrix

has following circulant symmetry we can decouple the positive, negative and zero sequence networks by

sequence transformation T. It can be shown that if,

, then

where

(10)

Thus, all the sequence components can be determined from the above equations.

It is used when the network is balanced. For a n - node system a

can

be decoupled into three

and

. Hence it

It can be applied for both balanced and unbalanced loads. However, simplicity and elegance of sequence

component

approach reduces when network is unbalanced.

Zero sequence current is used to provide sensitive earth fault detection technique.

Consider a transposed transmission line connected to an ideal voltage source E. The fault appears at the

remote end of transmission line. We now derive sequence network interconnections for different fault

types. We begin with a three phase fault.

10.5.1Three phase fault: Three phase faults are considered to be symmetrical and hence sequence

components are not

necessary for their calculation.

It can be easily shown that for a three phase

fault, fault currents are balanced with,

I 2 = I 0 = 0 and I 1 = I a

(Hint : I 012 = T -1 I abc with I b = a 2 I a and I c

= aI a ).

Thus, for a Three Phase Fault only Positive

Sequence Network is considered. The fault

currents are given by the following equations

(solid fault)

Z f)

10.5.2Single Line to Ground Fault (SLG):

On an unloaded system (fig 10.7), let there

be 'a' phase to ground fault with a fault

impedance Z f . Then, the faulted system is

described by,

I a = I f , I b = 0 and I c = 0. Applying sequence

transformation, we get

Thus, I 0 = I 1 = I 2 =Ia /3. Let V f represent the

voltage of the transmission line at the

receiving end of the line where fault is

created.

Further, from equation,

(10)

premultiplying (9) by T -1

i.e.

or

(11)

(12)

(13)

Since for SLG fault at phase 'a'

The SLG fault can be visualized by a series connection of positive, negative and zero sequence networks

with three times the fault impedance.

The positive sequence, negative sequence and Zero sequence fault currents are given by following

equations.

(Solid Fault)

On similar lines following equations can be derived for LL and LLG faults.

LL fault:

fault.

(solid fault)

Z f)

10.5.3Line to Line Ground Fault (LLG):

1.

Bolted Fault:

2.

I b = I 0 + a 2 Ia 1 + aIa 2

I c = I 0 + aIa 1 + a 2 Ia 2

I F = I b + I c = 3I0

Z f is fault impedance between the lines, while Z FG is the fault impedance to Ground.

Review Questions

1.

2.

Derive the sequence transformation matrix using 'c' phase as reference phasor.

3.

If Z s is the self impedance and Z m mutual impedance of a transmission line, show that Z 0 = Z s + 2Zm

and Z 1 and

Z 2 = Z S - Z m.

4.

5.

6.

Derive the equation for fault current in (a) L-L fault with fault impedance Z f . (b) L-L-G fault.

If we do not want to lose information during a transformation 'f' from domain say A to B, then it is

be invertible. In addition, to simplify analysis, we prefer linear transformations. List out some other

transformations that

you have come across in electrical engineering.

7.

8.

Show that the transformation matrix is invertible. Hence, define the inverse transformation from

Clarke's components to phase components.

Using Clarke's transformation show that

1) for a - g fault

2) b - c - g fault

3) b - c fault

4) 3 - phase fault

9.

Suppose that in an DSP implementation of relay, we have to choose between the sequence

transformation and Clarke's

transformation suggest your choice and justify it from computational requirement and ability to

correctly detect a fault.

Recap

Sources of fault current.

Fault current formulae and interconnection of sequence network for three phase, S-L-G, L-L and L-L-G

faults.

Lecture 11 : Sequence Components (Tutorial)

Objectives

Find out fault currents for S-L-G, L-L and L-L-G faults.

1.

The currents in a

,

Ans:

where

1.

b phase

Ans:

c phase

2.

The zero, positive and negative sequence voltages of phase a' are given below. Find out the phase

voltages

and

,

Ans:

2.

Ans:

3.

impedance of

and zero sequence impedance of j0.5

j1.0

, negative sequence

on phase a' find out the fault current. (b) If the fault is through an impedance of j2

fault current?

Ans: The fault has occurred on a' phase. Taking a' phase as reference,

(a)

For a single line to ground fault,

Fault current

(b)

4.

In a

system, if the per unit values of positive, negative and zero sequence reactances are given by

,

respectively. Determine the fault current, if the fault is (a) L-L-G (b) L-L.

and

Ans:

(a)

,

Let V = 1pu

i.e.,

since

or

4.

Ans:

(b)

L-L fault

For line to line fault between b' and c'

Fault current

i.e.,

5.

Calculate the positive, negative and zero sequence impedance of a feeder if its self impedance is j1.67

and mutual

impedance is j0.67 .

Self impedance

, mutual impedance

= 1.67 0.67

=1

Negative sequence impedance

= 1.67 0.67

=1

Zero sequence impedance

= 3.01

6.

Ans: With b' phase as reference phasor, the transformation matrix can be defined as follows.

Justifications:

Now, if

, thus we see that all the zero sequence components are extracted.

i.e., only positive sequence excitation is present, then,

If

[

[i.e.,

[i.e.,

lags

lags

by

by

]

]

, only negative sequence excitation is present.

i.e., we will get

7.

[i.e.,

lags

by

[i.e.,

lags

by

Comment if the two sequence transformations obtained by taking a' phase and b' phase as reference

are identical or

not.

Ans: With a' phase as reference phasor, the sequence transformation is defined as,

(1)

or

With b' phase as reference phasor, the sequence transformation is defined as,

(2)

Now, rearranging the equation (2) to follow the same order as (1) we get,

or

Clearly,

and

8.

In problem No. 2 if the data represented sequence components with b' phase as reference phasor, instead

of a'

phase, compute

and

Ans: With b' phase as reference phasor, the sequence transformation is given by,

We will get

Hence, we can conclude that changing of reference phasor causes renaming of phasors and hence a

different result.

9.

Analyze a bolted S-L-G fault on phase b' of an unloaded transmission line using sequence components

with b phase

as reference phasor.

Therefore,

i.e.,

Based on 3 phase model of balanced circuit

or

where

9.

The terminal voltages are given by,

Ans:

i.e.,

or

Thus, to analyze S-L-G fault on b - phase or a - c L-L fault or L-L-G fault we should take b phase as

reference phasor in sequence computation.

10.

Derive the relationship between zero, positive and negative sequence phasors defined with b' as

reference phasor and

corresponding sequence phasors defined with a' as reference phasor.

Ans: With a' as reference phasor, the sequence transformation is defined as,

10.

For zero sequence phasor,

Ans:

Therefore,

Positive sequence phasor,

Since

or,

i.e., positive sequence current with b' as reference phasor lags by

with a' as reference phasor.

i.e., negative sequence current with b' as reference phasor leads the negative sequence current with a'

.

as reference phasor, by

Review Questions

1.

2.

Derive the relationship between the transformation matrices T a and T c with 'a' and 'c' as reference

phasors respectively.

Derive the relationship between positive, negative and zero sequence phasors with 'c' as reference phasor

with

corresponding sequence phasor with 'b' as reference phasor.

3.

4.

5.

highest and why?

Find the symmetrical components if

and

The zero, positive and negative currents of phase a' are given by (5+j1)A, (7.5 j1.2)A and (6+j2)A

respectively. Find out.

,

6.

A

j0.6

and

, 20MVA, 11kV generator with positive, negative and zero sequence impedance j2

is

, j1.8

and

7.

remote end of the feeder, calculate the fault current.

Find out the ratio of fault currents for S-L-G fault to bolted

and

8.

In a

and j4.5

system, the pu values of positive, negative and zero sequence impedances are given by j1.5,

respectively. The fault impedance is given by j1

fault.

Recap

To calculate sequence components for an unbalanced set of phasors.

To find out the unbalanced phasors from a given set of sequence components.

Relationship between sequence transformation matrices with 'b' and 'c' as reference phasors.

Lecture 12 : Sequence Modeling of Power Apparatus

Objectives

In this lecture we will discuss

Per unit calculation and its advantages.

Modeling aspects of static apparatus like transmission line and transformers.

Modeling of rotating machine like synchronous machines and induction machines.

Formation of sequence admittance matrices.

Evaluation of Thevenin's equivalent.

We begin with a brief review of per unit calculation used in power system analysis.

Per unit value of any quantity is the ratio of that quantity to its base value.

Quantities like voltage, current, power, impedance etc can be expressed in per unit. In the per unit

system, there are four base quantities: base apparent power in volt-amperes, base voltage, base current

and base impedance.

The following formulae apply to three phase system, where the base voltage is the line-to-line voltage in

volts or kilovolts and the base apparent power is the three phase apparent power in kilovolt-amperes or

megavolt-ampere (MVA).

1.

Manufacturers usually provide equipment data with name plate rating as base.

2.

3.

Especially useful in networks with multiple voltage levels interconnected through transformers.

4.

5.

Standard base conversion (scaling with MVA Base) formulae are available.

Note: Many books in first course on power system analysis cover per unit in detail. Readers who wish to

go into more details can look into these references.

We now begin discussing on the sequence modeling of power apparatus.

We first consider modeling of transmission lines and transformers.

A balanced three phase transmission line model is given by (fig 12.1). The voltage drop across the line in

phase coordinates is given by,

(1)

Where,

and

and

Thus, for a transposed transmission line, the positive and negative sequence impedances are equal. A

is to assume it to be three times

.

commonly used approximation for

12.2.2Modeling of Mutually Coupled Lines

If a pair of 3

12.2 shows two three phase transmission lines running

parallel and close to each other. As per Ampere's law,

if the lines

and

carry a positive

is

zero.

The

reason

for

this

is

.

However, for zero

sequence currents in circuit 1, flux linking in circuit 2 is not

zero. Thus, we see that for parallel coupled lines, mutual

coupling is seen predominantly in the zero sequence

circuit. However, it is not modeled for positive and

negative sequence circuits. The same result can be

mathematically derived as follows.

Consider two three phase transmission lines on the same tower. Assume that both lines are transposed.

Then, all the mutual impedances between the two circuits are equal. Let mutual impedance of phase

with phases

and

be equal to

is given by,

It can be seen that mutual coupling between positive and negative sequence network of parallel

transmission lines is zero. But, mutual coupling in zero sequence network is not zero. Hence, three phase

faults and line to line faults will not be affected by mutual coupling. However, for all faults involving

ground, fault current will be affected by mutual coupling. This can affect the performance of relays.

12.2.3Modeling of Ground

With positive or negative sequence currents, the ground potential at the two distinct ends of say a

transmission line can be taken as zero. If there is a neutral conductor, no-current flows through it

because phasor summation of such balanced currents is zero. However, the story with zero sequence

currents is a bit different. The summation of zero sequence currents in the three phases does not add to

zero unless, the current itself is zero. Thus, there will be a drop in voltage across the two ground

terminals which depends upon resistance of ground or ground wire. For simplicity, of analysis, this

ground impedance (with a scaling factor of 3) is incorporated in the transmission line impedance of zero

sequence network.

12.2.4Modeling of Transformer

The equivalent sequence diagram for a 2

winding three phase transformer depends

upon (1) magnetic circuit design and (2)

transformer connection. By magnetic circuit

design, we imply different designs like three

phase three limb core, three phase 5 limb

shell, a bank of three single phase

transformers

or

three

phase

auto

transformers. For modeling of transformers,

the

magnetization

branch

is

usually

neglected because magnetizing current is

very small when the transformer core is not

saturated. Hence, only leakage impedance is

taken into consideration.

The leakage impedance is not affected appreciably by a change in phase sequence (a-b-c or b-a-c) as

the transformer is a static device. Therefore, for transformers, positive sequence impedance and

negative sequence impedance are identical.

However, excitation for zero sequence flux of the transformer depends on the type of core used. For a

core type (fig 12.3) transformer,

windings of the transformer are provided with zero sequence excitation, then

Substitutiting it in above equation we get

and

.

will not be zero.

Rather a leakage flux would exist in the high reluctance path through air and transformer tank. Since,

transformer tank is not stacked, it leads to heating of the tank. Hence,

- core transformers should

not be preferred for use in systems where load is unbalanced e.g. a

for a shell type transformer (fig 12.4) there exists a low reluctance path through side limbs for zero

sequence flux. Hence, there is no over heating of transformer tank.

In studies typically involving transformer protection, e.g. estimation of inrush current computation and

overfluxing, saturation of transformer core cannot be neglected. However, such elaborate studies are not

carried out with short circuit analysis programs. Rather, time domain simulation Electro Magnetic

Transient Program (EMTP) is used.

12.2.4Modeling of Transformer (contd..)

In case of a bank of three single phase

transformers, it can be easily argued that for

such

a

configuration,

independent low

reluctance zero sequence flux path exists and

hence appreciable zero sequence flux can stay

in the core. Therefore, zero sequence

impedance of three phase transformer bank

can be as high as the positive sequence

impedance. It should be mentioned that actual

impedance will also include resistance of the

windings. However,

ratio of transformers

To summarize, the positive and negative

sequence reactances of all transformers are

identical. Zero sequence reactance is the

transformer leakage impedance. In 3-phase

core-type transformers the construction does

not provide an iron path for zero sequence.

For these, the zero-sequence flux must pass from the core to the tank and return. Hence, for these

types X 0 usually is 0.85 to 0.9 X 1 , and when known the specific value shall be used. For shell type

transformers which are preferred in distribution systems, zero sequence impedance is same as positive

and negative sequence impedance.

Role of Circuit Connection

So far we have discussed design issues that characterize the zero sequence impedance of a three phase

transformer. However, this impedance may not always appear between the H (HV) to L (LV) bus. In case

of positive or negative sequence currents, there is always a path for line currents from H to L through

the sequence leakage impedance. This is irrespective of the transformer connection (D/Y or Y/Y etc)

because, there is always a path for positive and negative sequence line currents to flow.

However, zero sequence line currents for a transformer depend not only on zero sequence impedance

but also on the type of transformer connection. For example, a star ungrounded winding does not

provide any path for flow of zero sequence current. The neutral current is given by

. Since, neutral is ungrounded

and hence

is also zero. Delta winding

permit circulating zero sequence currents which cannot appear in the line. (fig 12.5).

12.2.4Modeling of Transformer (contd..)

Fig 12.6 summarizes the effect of winding connections on positive, negative and zero sequence circuit for

3

transformer. N1 indicates neutral bus for positive sequence, N2 indicates neutral bus for negative

sequence and N0 for zero sequence networks.

12.2.4 Modeling of Transformer (contd..)

12.2

12.3

12.3.1.1Positive sequence Impedance of Synchronous Generators

The subtransient reactance

determines the current during the first cycle after fault occurs. In

increases to

, the synchronous reactance; this is the value that determines the current flow after a

Synchronous generator data available from manufacturers.

Typically, motors are used in distribution systems. Hence, fault current analysis for distribution

systems requires explicit modeling of electrical motors. During a fault, motor acts as a generator to

supply fault current. The rotor carrying the field winding is driven by the inertia of the rotor and load.

Stator excitation is reduced due to drop in voltage. The fault current diminishes as the rotor

decelerates. The generator equivalent circuit is used for synchronous motor. The constant driving

,

and

are used to establish the current values at three points

voltage and three reactance

in time. Synchronous condensers can be treated in same manner as synchronous motors.

12.3

12.3.1.3Negative Sequence Impedance of Synchronous Machines

For a synchronous machine, positive and negative sequence impedances cannot be equal. In case of a

synchronous machine, negative sequence currents create a rotating mmf in opposite direction to the

rotor mmf. Hence, double frequency emf and currents are induced in rotor. Negative sequence

impedance is 70-95% of subtransient reactance. It can be approximated by subtransient reactance.

For a salient pole machine, it is taken as a mean of

and

Zero Sequence currents cannot create rotating mmf. In fact, with sinusoidally distributed three phase

windings, the net flux at any point in the air gap is zero. Hence, zero sequence impedance is only a

small % (0.1-0.7) of the positive sequence impedances. It varies so critically with armature winding

pitch that an average value can hardly be given. Since synchronous machines only generate positive

sequence voltage, the internal voltages used with negative sequence and zero sequence networks are

zero. If star point is grounded through impedance

, then

will have to be added to zero

In asynchronous machines, transient state of current is damped quickly i.e. within 1-2 cycle. During a

fault, rotor is driven by inertia of load and rotor itself. There is no dc field excitation on rotor. Rotor

winding is short circuited. Hence, whatever rotor excitation is present, it is due to the induced fields in

the rotor from the rotating stator mmf. As stator excitation is lost and rotor slows down, this field is

lost quickly.

The current contribution of an induction motor to a terminal fault reduces and disappears completely

is assigned for

after a few cycles. As a consequence, only the sub transient value of reactance

positive and negative sequence. This value is almost equal to the locked rotor reactance.

Subsequently, machine behaves as a passive element with impedance of value

where rated

LL voltage and 3 phase MVA rating is used. Zero Sequence modeling can be treated in similar lines as

synchronous machines because rotor plays no significant role.

For fault calculations an induction generator can be treated as an induction motor. Wound rotor

induction motors normally operating with their rotor rings short circuited will contribute fault current in

the same manner as a squirrel cage induction motor. Occasionally, large wound rotor motors operated

with some external resistance maintained in their rotor circuits may have sufficiently low short circuit

time constants. Hence, their fault contribution is not significant and may be neglected.

12.3.3Modeling of Electrical Utility Systems

The generator equivalent circuit can be used to represent a utility system. Usually, the utility generators

are remote from the industrial plant. The current contributed to a fault in the remote plant appears to be

merely a small increase in load to the very large central station generators, and this current contribution

tends to remain constant. Hence, it is represented at the plant by single valued equivalent impedance

referred to the point of connection.

12.3.4Load Modeling

One approximate way of accounting prefault load flow condition in short circuit analysis associated with

transmission system is to model load as positive sequence shunt impedance.

In many utilities, series capacitors or Thyristor

Controlled Series Compensation (TCSC) as shown in

fig 12.7 is used to boost the transmission line

power flow capacity. The series capacitors have a

negative value of reactance and hence should

increase the fault current levels in their vicinity.

However, across every capacitor, a metal oxide

varistor (MOV) is also connected to limit over

voltages during fault.

Typically, during a fault MOV conducts, and reduces

the capacitive reactance contribution to the

transmission line impedance. Hence, it also reduces

fault current values. Since, the behaviour of MOV is

non-linear i.e., its V-I characteristics are nonlinear, short circuit analysis with series capacitors

becomes an iterative process.

Modeling in three phase domain is usually preferred.

Now, that, we have necessary information about apparatus modeling, we can start assembling the

sequence network. A three phase admittance matrix model for power system in phase coordinates can be

expressed as follows:

.

refers to the

current injection at a node i. The sequence transformation on nodal voltages can be expressed as follows:

Similar transformation is defined for current vector. Thus, in the sequence coordinates, the admittance

model is given by the following equation,

It can be verified that if

matrix

In other words, there is no coupling between the zero, positive and negative sequence components of a

balanced network because

matrices

and

rows and columns in such a way that all the zero sequence, positive sequence and negative sequence

quantities are grouped together, a three phase admittance matrix can be described by three decoupled

sequence matrices as follows,

In the above equation, each of the sequence admittance matrix represents the corresponding sequence

network.

Differences between Y BUS Modeling in Short Circuit Analysis and Load Flow Analysis

admittance matrix while short circuit analysis requires

positive, negative and zero sequence admittance

matrix. The admittance matrix formulation used in load

flow analysis and short circuit analysis have some

subtle differences. In load flow analysis, the voltage at

generator terminal is assumed to be fixed. Hence,

source impedance and internal generator voltages are

not modeled.

In contrast, in short circuit analysis, the generator

model is an internal emf source (open circuit source

voltage) behind a transient reactance (see fig 12.8)

which leads to equivalent Norton circuit as shown in fig

12.9. Hence, machine sequence impedances admittance

have to be added to the corresponding diagonal entries

of Y BUS in short circuit analysis. Similar remarks hold

for load modeling. Hence, positive sequence Y BUS of

load flow analysis and short circuit analysis are not

identical.

Let the prefault network be described by the following model,

or 2, are the sequence components under consideration. Typically, for a balanced system representing a

prefault transmission network,

interest is

equation is given by

Estimation of the fault current requires construction of Thevenin's equivalent circuit at the faulted

busses. Interconnection of thevenin's equivalents in sequence domain will depend upon fault type. Faults

in a power system can be classified into shunt faults and series faults. Shunt faults are typically, bus

faults viz. L-L-L, L-L, L-G and L-L-G. An example of series fault is opening of a phase conductor in a

transmission line. A simultaneous fault involves multiple occurances of fault at the same time instant. For

example, a phase conductor breaking and falling to ground is a simultaneous fault which is mix of both

shunt and series faults. Most of above faults can be analyzed in sequence components.

For simplicity, we restrict analysis to bus fault which is created at a bus i . Faults on intermediate points

of transmission line can be modeled by introducing phantom buses. The prefault load flow analysis

(typically carried out on the positive sequence network) provide the Thevenin's (open circuit) voltage

, while the fault impedance

is treated as the load impedance on the

bus.

To compute the Thevenin's impedance at faulted bus 'i' , all the current sources are open circuited (made

zero) and then 1 p.u. of current is injected at bus 'i' . In the vector notations, this process is represented

column of identity matrix. Then, the equation

by current injection vector e i where e i is the

is solved by sparse LU factorization and forward backward substitution. The

element of the resulting voltage V i gives the Thevenin's impedance. The computation of Thevenin's

impedance for negative and zero sequence networks proceed on similar lines. The fault currents are

computed by well known sequence network interconnections, discussed in the lecture no. 10.

12.5.2Calculation of Short Circuit MVA

When short circuit analysis program is used to determine the rating of circuit breakers, short circuit MVA

at the fault bus is specified. Typically, it is computed for a three phase fault. The following equations

summarize its calculation.

Since, from design considerations, the maximum fault MVA is of interest, the faults considered are

bolted faults. Short circuit MVA is also used to specify the strength of the utility interconnection, while

carrying out fault analysis for distribution system. For example, if short circuit MVA level is specified as

500MVA at the point of interconnection, then on a 100kVA system base, it implies a source impedance of

. A bus with high value of fault MVA is said to be a strong bus and conversely a bus

with low fault MVA, is said to be a weak bus.

Fault analysis involves quasi-sinusoidal-steady-state modeling of a dynamical system involving fault. It

assumes that (a) the system is stable and (b) network natural transient are neglected. Evaluation of the

system stability i.e. whether post-fault system will retain synchronism or not requires transient stability

analysis. The justification for such approximation in fault analysis is that, it is used to determine rating of

circuit breakers, and pickup settings for relays which depend on fault currents. A more involved analysis

of transient behaviour immediately after a fault (a few cycles) requires usage of Electro Magnetic

Transient Program (EMTP). EMTP models fast transients but usually neglects electromechanical transients

which are essentially slower due to inertia of rotors. Thus, fault current levels can as well be extracted

by EMTP. However, data requirement of EMTP modeling is quite high. In absence of data for such

detailed modeling, short circuit analysis program provide a fast and conservative estimate of fault

currents. However, fault analysis programs cannot model onset of dc offset current.

Many standards like IEC, ANSI/IEEE, VDE specify empirical multiplication factors to obtain the maximum

asymmetrical fault current levels. For industrial systems, an approximate value that can be used is 1.6

i.e. maximum asymmetrical fault current can be taken to be 1.6 times maximum symmetrical fault

current. At transmission system level, this value can increase further. It can be of the order of 2.7-3.0.

Finally, when setting for time delayed relays have to be evaluated (example, setting of backup relays),

then the values of source impedances also have to be altered. Standards specify the requisite

multiplication factors. Considering, all such issues, we conclude that fault analysis is a flavour of both

"science and art".

Review Questions

1.

2.

How does mutual coupling between transmission lines affect the fault current?

3.

Why is the zero sequence impedance of a shell type transformer different than that of a core type

transformer?

4.

The zero sequence impedance of a synchronous machine is small compared to its positive sequence

impedance.

Why?

5.

fault MVA of an industrial power system at the point of connection with utility system is 50kVA .

On a 100kVA

base, determine the sequence impedances for utility system.

Recap

The advantages of per unit calculation.

Lecture 13 : Sequence Modeling (Tutorial)

Objectives

In this lecture we will solve tutorial problems on fault analysis in sequence domain

1.

Fig 13.1 shows the single line diagram of a 13.8kV system connected to a 480V bus through a

13.8kV/480V

transformer. Two motor loads of 400hp and 600hp are connected to the bus through three parallel three

, compute the fault currents. Repeat the

core copper cables. If a 3 phase bolted fault occurs at

calculations for fault at

Ans: Let us take base power as 1000kVA and base voltage as 480V.

Base impedance

element into per unit values on a common

base. Here the impedance base is 0.2304

.

Short circuit contribution from 13.8kV

source = 600MVA.

Source Modeling

Short circuit current

ratio = 15

or

1. i.e.

Ans:

i.e.

in pu = 0.00011 + j0.00165

= 5.75%

= 1.21%

The per unit value of

i.e.

in pu = 0.0121 + j0.0562

Cable

Modeling

,

Length of cable

Reactance of one conductor per km = 0.108

Since, three conductors are in parallel, equivalent resistance and reactance for 500m length is given by,

Converting

and

in pu

= 0.129

in pu

i.e.

1. Ans:

in pu = 0.129 + j0.078

Cable

Modeling

Length of cable

Resistance of one conductor per km is given as 0.181

and reactance / km is given as 0.124

three conductors are in parallel, equivalent resistance and reactance for 300m cable is given by,

Converting into pu

. Since,

i.e.

in pu

pu

in pu

pu

in pu = 0.0786 + j0.0538

Motors

Note that 1hp = 746watts; if we assume a

motor power factor of 0.746, then

equivalent motor kVA will be unity. Hence,

we will assume that 1hp is equivalent to

1kVA.

Subtransient reactance = 25%

Ratio = 6

Per unit reactance of motor 1

pu

pu

For motor 2

pu

pu

in pu = 0.069 + j0.416

The equivalent circuit of the system used to calculate the Thevenin's equivalent at node A is shown in fig

13.2. The dotted lines indicate the ground potential.

1. Ans: Fault at

We now desire to compute Thevenin's

impedance at node A.

, the network as shown in fig

For fault at

13.2 can be reduced to network as shown

in fig 13.3. Hence, Thevenin's impedance,

is given by,

Fault

1. Ans: F

2

at

13.2. can be reduced as shown in fig

13.4.

Calculation of Z

1. Ans:

i.e.,

Therefore, the total three phase fault current at F2

Fig 13.5 shows the single line diagram of a 3 bus system. The sequence data for transmission lines and

2.

generators

are given in table 1. If a bolted single line to ground fault occurs at F, calculate the fault current. If the

fault impedance is j0.1 pu; what will be the fault current?

Fault current

Z 1 = Positive sequence impedance

Z 2 = Negative sequence impedance

We have to find out the Thevenin's

equivalent zero, positive and negative

sequence impedances with respect to

fault F.

Description

Sequence Data in pu

Zero

Positive

Negative

Generator - A

j0.03

j0.25

j0.15

Generator - B

j0.02

j0.20

j0.12

Transmission Line 1

j0.14

j0.08

j0.08

Transmission Line 2

j0.17

j0.13

j0.13

Transmission Line 3

j0.10

j0.06

j0.06

Transmission Line 4

j0.12

j0.06

j0.06

For calculating Z 0 , the circuit shown in fig 13.5 is reduced as shown in fig 13.6.

Similarly, positive sequence impedance Z 1 can be found out by reducing the circuit as shown in fig 13.7.

i.e. Z 1 , positive sequence impedance = j0.01 + j0.124

= j0.134 pu

2. Ans: Negative Sequence Impedance

For negative sequence impedance the circuit can be as shown in fig 13.8.

i.e. negative sequence impedance

= j0.09 pu

Now, fault current

If fault impedance

, then

Review Questions

1.

2.

For the system shown in example no. 2 , find out the fault current for

a)

b)

L-L fault and L-L-G fault with j0.1fault impedance. Single line diagram of this question is shown in fig

13.5.

Single line diagram of a system is shown in fig 13.10. The base value is taken as 30MVA, 34.5kV. The

positive and

,

respectively. Load voltage is

negative sequence impedances of load are

c)

3.

kept at 1.0 pu. Calculate the fault current for fault at F. Assume that zero sequence reactance of

generator is zero.

Recap

To calculate per unit values of different elements in a system.

Lecture 14 : Fuse Protection

Objectives

In this lecture we will learn the following:

Abnormality and faults.

Types of HV fuses viz, expulsion, vacuum and non-expulsion fuses and their functionality.

When an equipment (e.g. transmission line, transformer, generator, motor) is operating within the rated

specifications (speed, voltage, current etc.), we say that it is in the normal state. Therefore, abnormal

state pertains to deviation from the rated operating point. It may refer to overcurrent, under voltage, over

or under frequency. If the apparatus continues to operate in this state for long enough time, it can lead to

damage or reduction in life of the equipment. On the other hand, it may be also unsafe to operate in this

region. A fault refers to a serious abnormality which typically requires immediate deenergization of the

equipment.

Usually, faults are considered dangerous because of overcurrent that they create. This can damage the

apparatus and it endangers the human safety. Three phase faults, Line to Line faults (LL), Single Line to

Ground fault (SLG), Line to Line Ground faults (LLG) are some standard faults considered in our analysis.

Three phase faults and Line to Line faults are also known as phase faults while Single Line to Ground and

Double Line to Ground faults are also known as ground faults. However, not all faults create large

overcurrents. For example, earth faults which may result due to partial insulation failure may not create

large currents. However, it makes operation of the equipment unsafe from human safety perspective and

further, if the fault is left unattended it can aggravate.

Fig 14.1 illustrates various aspects

in this process. In the normal

state, all system variables are

within the normal range.

Abnormal state reflects an

increase in possibility of a

disturbance. Severe disturbance

results in a faulty state. If the

fault is temporary then the

system returns to normal state.

Permanent fault requires isolating

the equipment. Post-fault

maintenance (restorative state),

of the equipment can be

recommenced.

protection, refers to fault

detection and deenergization of

the equipment. In contrast,

condition monitoring refers to

monitoring the equipment to

detect possibility of equipment

failure. Condition monitoring and

good maintenance can reduce a

number of potential faults.

This lecture deals with overcurrent protection for radial distribution systems. In a radial system with single

source, the magnitude of fault current depends upon the following:

Source contribution (Source voltage and impedance).

Transformer impedance.

Motor contribution (Back emf and impedance of induction and synchronous motors).

Meshed system or a system with multiple sources require directional relays discussed in subsequent

lectures. The first step in the overcurrent protection is estimation of the fault current. If the system is

radial and fed from a single or equivalent source, this job is simplified. For conservative calculation, utility

source impedance should be considered as zero (unlimited MVA supplying capacity). The reason for this

assumption is that, changes in utility system, addition of generators, strengthening of transmission

network etc. can reduce the source impedance. Consequently, the maximum fault current is limited by the

impedance of the distribution transformer. In a single source radial system, typically fault current reduces

as we move away from the source (an exception being a system with large motor loads at the remote

ends). The transformer short circuit current can be calculated from this formula,

Isc = [( Transformer Full Load current ) x 100 / (% z)]

Any motor e.g. induction, synchronous condenser or motor etc. must be considered as a source for

calculating fault current in the first few cycles. For the sake of simplicity and because of its large usage,

we consider only induction motor load. Further, when calculating short circuit current it is a common

practice to lump all motors that are grouped together. In other words, they are treated as if they are on a

common bus. Assuming a group motor subtransient reactance (X") of 25 %, the typical contribution is 4

times full load current.

Terminology Fuse' does not require any introduction. A fuse' refers to a device that opens a circuit with

fusible part, which is heated and severed by current flowing through it. The fusible part is also called the

Element. When current flows in a fuse, heat is generated and the element temperature rises. If the

current is within (less or equal to) its continuous rated value, then the steady state temperature is such

that the fuse does not melt. However, if the current has large enough magnitude, it will lead to the fuse

element to melt before the steady state temperature conditions are achieved. After melting, an arc may

be struck. The fault current will be finally interrupted when the arc is de-ionized. Thus, fuse operation

involves two phases viz. melting and current interruption.

An enormous variety of fuses are available today. In terms of quantity, fuses outnumber any other over

current protection devices. They provide economy in protection as well as flexibility in rating and time

current characteristic. They are used for overcurrent protection of transformers, capacitors and lateral

taps in distribution systems.

Fig 14.2 shows location of fuses in a distribution system. Each transformer and capacitor bank has fuse

protection to selectively disconnect the device in case of a fault in the device. Transformer fuses can also

provide overload protection. The sectionalizing fuses are used to divide the system into smaller sections

which can be then isolated from the rest of the system. For the fault F1 or F2 it is the responsibility of

fuse A to operate. Thus, only customers connected to this line are affected. In absence of fuse A, fuse B

would have to be operated but this would lead to a interruption in service to larger number of customers.

Role of reclosers will be discussed in later lectures.

Fuses are characterized by thermal' and 'interrupting' characteristics. Thermal characteristic are quite

intuitive and relate to the following:

Current rating.

Melting characteristics.

Interrupting characteristics refer to the following:

Voltage rating.

Interrupting rating.

14.4.1Thermal Characteristics

As the magnitude of the current increases, melting time

reduces. It should be obvious that larger magnitude

currents will lead to higher power dissipation (I 2 R) in

element. This would imply that melting time of the fuse

should be inversely proportional to magnitude of square

of current. The relationship between the magnitude of

the current that causes melting and the time needed for

it to melt is given by the fuse's melting time current

characteristics (TCC). To cover a wide range of currents

and operating time, TCC is plotted on a log-log paper.

The current is the symmetrical current. The current on

x-axis is the symmetrical current. It does not involve dc

offset current. Further, fuse does not carry initial current

C and

C

and ambient temperature is between

(IEEE Std 37.41-1994). Since, the melting time vary in

a range, minimum melting time curve is plotted as

shown in fig 14.3 .

The severing of fuse element is a primary consequence

of thermal effect. It does not depend upon mechanical

forces, inertia etc. Thus there is no limit on how short

the melting time can be. This extremely small melting

(fast operation) of a fuse at very high currents tends to

distinguish it from most other protective devices.

14.4.2Interrupting Characteristics

It is important to realize that power apparatus and

systems contain inductive elements. Hence, melting of a

fusing element is not sufficient to interrupt the current.

Consequently, there is always some period of arcing

before the current is interrupted. During this period, fuse

must withstand any immediate transient voltage condition

and subsequent steady state recovery voltage. Addition

of melting time and this arcing overhead gives the total

clearing time.

Total clearing TCC curve (fig 14.4) describes this

information. For lower currents, melting time can be

large and arcing time small because of lower stored

energy

large. Hence, TCC for melting time and total clearing time

increases.

diverges as

Both of these characteristics are required to coordinate

back up fuse or overcurrent relay or any other protective

devices. Back up device should provide sufficient

'opportunity window' (time) to primary fuse to clear the

fault. This ensures selectivity. Recall that selectivity

minimizes loss of service.

Fuse melting time characteristic is usually described in literature as very inverse. To understand this,

we need to address the physics of the problem. When overcurrents are smaller in magnitude, rate of

heat generated in the element is low and only slightly higher than rate of dissipation. As a consequence,

temperature of the element increases gradually. As the current increases, melting time reduces at a rate

which is more than expected increased rate of heat generation (I 2 R). This is because, heat which is

generated in reduced cross section and/or centre of element, cannot be removed as fast as it is

produced. This gives fuse a very inverse characteristics. At very short melting times, no heat is lost

from the smaller cross section of the element.

14.4.4Voltage Rating

So far we have not broached the subject of voltage rating of a fuse. However, even a fuse has a

maximum rated voltage. It is the highest voltage at which fuse is designed to operate and it is important

that a fuse should not be asked to interrupt current above this voltage. Faults can be line to ground or

line to line. When applied phase to ground on three phase systems, the voltage rating of the fuse should

equal or exceed the phase to ground system voltage. When applied in the line on the same system, the

conservative approach is to choose the fuse voltage to be equal to system phase to phase voltage.

Sometimes, for a fuse both maximum and minimum interrupting currents are specified.

Fuse can be classified into two types (see the chart below)

1.

The expulsion type fuse is used where expulsion gases cause no problem such as in overhead circuits and

equipment. These fuses can be termed as current awaiting types; and the function of interrupting medium

is similar to that of an ac circuit breaker. The temperature of arc is of the order of 4000-5000K. At this

temperature special materials located in close proximity to fuse element rapidly create gases. Preferred

gas generating materials are fiber, melamine, boric acid and liquids such as oil or carbon tetrachloride.

These gases help to create a high pressure turbulent medium surrounding the arc, thus when the current

does reach to zero and the arc channel reduces to a minimum; the ablated gases rapidly mix with

remaining ionized gas and thereby deionize them as well as remove them from arc area'. In turn, this

leads to rapid build up of dielectric strength that can withstand the transient recovery voltage (TRV) and

steady state power system voltage.

TRV for expulsion fuse is shown in fig 14.5. Note that in an inductive circuit, current zero occurs at

lag to voltage i.e. when voltage is at maximum value. The action of interrupting medium causes TRV to be

seen in this region.

2. Vacuum Fuse

Vacuum fuse is a non expulsive fuse but still a current zero awaiting type. The design, operation and

current-voltage-time relationship of this fuse closely matches with that of an expulsion fuse. The main

difference is that it is a completely sealed unit and no expulsion action. Interruption occurs because of

rapid dielectric build up that occur in a vacuum after current zero is reached.

Suppose that an overcurrent protective element could insert a large resistance in series during fault

current. This would then improve the power factor in the fault circuit which otherwise is more or less

inductive. Thus, the zero crossing of the current and voltage would be in phase. This implies that when

the arc is extinguished temporarily at current zero, the applied voltage across it will also be zero. This

should be contrasted with expulsion type or current awaiting type fuse where typically, I(t) = 0, V = V m. (

phase lag in an inductive circuit). If at current zero, V(t) = V m, then the presence of a large electric

field does not help in quick de-ionization. In contrast, when the current zero and voltage zero are in

phase, then when the temporary arc is extinguished, the dielectric medium will be quickly de-ionized.

(This also reduces TRV. Inclusion of higher resistance also reduces peak value of current.)

This leads to speeding in fuse action. The

primary question however, is how to insert

the high resistance in series. Basically, the

current limiting fuses attempt to constrict

the arc and it is cooled by sand.

A typical current limiting fuse is shown in fig

14.6 . In this case, the fusible element is

very long. The element is completely

surrounded with filler material, typically

silica sand, to contain the arc as well as

maintain a very high pressure in the long

restricted arc area caused by the practically

simultaneous melting of the full length of

element. This then allows the fuse to

produce a very high resistance in the circuit

in a very short period of time (typically

hundreds of sec).

3. Current Limiting Fuse

14.7. We now conclude this lecture, by briefly

discussing the physics of arc interruption. Simplified

fault current circuit is shown in fig 14.8.

E arc (t) is the arc voltage and V(t) is the source

voltage, then differential equation governing the circuit

is:

2.

The current is proportional to the area under the difference of source and arc voltage. The inductance

provides a stored

energy and the necessary voltage to sustain the current even if the instantaneous arc voltage of the fuse

momentarily exceeds the source voltage.

Thus, a higher source voltage will adversely affect the interruption of current.

3.

Conversely, a high fuse arc voltage, sustained over time will help in greater limitation of the fault current.

4.

1.

shows the

function of expulsion type and current

limiting fuses. Notice that in expulsion type

fuses, arc voltage is low, the peak first cycle

current is not limited and current is

interrupted after one or two loops at near

nominal current zero. In contrast, in current

limiting fuse, high arc voltage resulting in

substantial current limiting capacity with

advanced current zero. This condition is

achieved at time ti, when

Fuses can also be classified by their domain of application. Based on this approach they are classified into

following types:

Power class.

Power fuses are tested to TRVs and X/R ratio values more likely to be encountered in or near the

generating station or substation for three phase circuits. Distribution fuses have specifications more

closely matched to distribution system which is further away from source or substation on a single phase

or three phase system.

Review Questions

1.

2.

3.

b) Interrupting rating.

c) Voltage rating.

4.

5.

Explain how does a current limiting fuse, insert a high series resistance in the fault circuit? What benefits

does it

achieve?

Recap

In this lecture we have learnt the following:

Available Fault Current: This is the maximum rms short circuit current that flows to a faulted node or

point. The

magnitude is limited by the ac impedance to that specific point. The impedance is the sum of the utility

source impedance and the in-plant circuit impedance.

Continuous Current Rating: As with all overcurrent devices, most fuses are limited to a continuous loading

of 80% of

their label rating. This is due to the mutual heating between switch, fuse and adjacent devices.

Current limiting Fuse: First generation fuses, e.g. expulsion type, only limit the duration (time) of the

fault. The modern

current-limiting fuse, however, not only limits the duration of the fault, but also limits the magnitude of

the fault.

Interrupting Rating: This is the maximum current that overcurrent device can safely interrupt at a

stated voltage,

frequency, and short circuit power factor. Interrupting ratings are expressed in rms symmetrical amperes.

It is common for a device rated 200 000 A to have an abbreviated marking such as 200 KA IR.

Voltage Rating: The rms alternating current voltage at which the fuse is designed to operate. Fuses of

the 600 V class

will always function safely on a lesser voltage. For example 600 V fuses are typically used on 480 and 208

V.

Congratulations, you have finished Lecture 14. To view the next lecture select it from the left hand side

menu of the page

Lecture 15 : Fundamentals of Overcurrent Protection

Objectives

In this lecture we will

Advantage of fuse based protection is its simplicity and cheapness. However, with fuses it is difficult to

control the time to trip. This creates difficulty in primary-backup coordination activity. Also, once a fuse

melts, unless it is replaced, the equipment cannot be energized again. Thus, it is not possible to have

remote operation. This motivates development of an overcurrent relay.

Whenever, we discuss overcurrent, it should be realized, that there is an implicit upper limit on current

which is considered healthy. Typically, this reference is the maximum load current that an equipment

can endure during continuous operation. Also, faults (short circuits), lead to overcurrents. Thus, a simple

protection philosophy that could be easily implemented by a microcontroller or microprocessor would be

as follows:

Algorithm A : Model Algorithm for Overcurrent Relay

Set reference or threshold for discriminating overcurrent I ref.

Measure the device current I. This may correspond to the rms value of the fundamental

component of the current.

Compute ratio abs(I / I ref).

Since currents are measured through current transformer, both I ref and I should be referred to

either primary or secondary of the CT. This ratio abs(I / I ref) is called the Plug Setting

Multiplier (PSM). The value of PSM indicates the severity of the fault as seen by the relay.

Trip the device, if PSM is above the threshold. The threshold should be strictly greater than 1,

e.g. 1.5.

Usually the rated secondary current is standardized to 5A. Typical, CT rating are 100:5, 500:5, 1000:5

etc. The primary rated current is chosen in such a way that under load conditions CT current is a bit

lower than 5A. If the full load current is much below 5A, it indicates under-utilization of CT (Vice-Versa).

Because of the above CT ratio selection philosophy, many times we may find I ref to be 5A.

The principle of overcurrent relaying is as shown in fig 15.1. The first step is to read the device current.

Device current is scaled down by a CT and then digitized by an A/D converter. The magnitude of the

fundamental component can be estimated from current samples by using various parameter estimation

methods. These methods will be discussed in more details in subsequent lectures. In the next step, the

is positive, then it indicates possibility

input current is compared with the reference current. If sign of

of a fault. The ratio I / I ref is also known as Plug Setting Multiplier (PSM).

15.1.4Time Multipier Setting

Overcurrent relays have to play dual

roles of both primary and backup

protection. For example, in a radial

distribution system, there may be

more feeders downstream. If the

downstream fuse or relay R 1 or

circuit breaker fails to detect the

fault and/or isolate the equipment,

upstream relays/CBs R 2 have to be

opened. (see fig 15.2).

In the previous lecture, we have

seen that in a distribution system,

the primary protection at lateral

point is provided by a fuse. The fuse

has

inverse

time-current

characteristics.

The

back

up

protection to fuse is provided by

overcurrent relays at feeder point.

So to replicate fuse behaviour, an

overcurrent relay also has an inbuilt inverse nature.

should be initiated if and only if

downstream relay (e.g. R 1 ) has

failed. Thus, back up action requires

a wait state. Note that a fuse did

not have this flexibility of providing

the wait state. For this purpose, in

an overcurrent relay, an additional

feature of Time Multiplier Setting

(TMS) is provided. The basic idea is

that by increasing or decreasing the

TMS, the relay operating time can

be

increased

or

decreased

proportionately.

Fig 15.3 illustrates the characteristics of a overcurrent relay. The characteristic is inverse as in case of a

fuse. By increasing or decreasing the TMS, we can move the characteristic up or down. Formally, TMS is

defined as the ratio

where, for a given PSM T is the desired relay operating time and Tm is the

corresponding operating time at TMS of 1.0. TMS is also referred to as TDS (Time Dial Setting).

15.1.4Time Multipier Setting

Two fundamental requirements of protection are as follows:

1.

2.

Back up protection should act if and only if primary protection has failed. Hence, it is intentionally slow.

This provides

selectivity.

For relays which do not have co-ordination responsibility (e.g. relays at the leaf nodes), usually TMS can

be set to the minimum. With the knowledge of PSM and TMS, the desired relay operating time is

calculated. Consequently, in fig 15.1, which depicts a numerical overcurrent relay, a down counter is

initialized. If the overcurrent persists even after the counter reaches zero, a trip decision is issued. If the

fault is cleared by some other relay or there is a transient or if fault itself is temporary; then current I

may reduce below I ref before the counter resets. Then, the timer is decremented until it reaches zero but

no trip decision is issued.

Various Time Current Characteristics (TCCs) for overcurrent relay are used in practice. Salient features

are described below:

Instantaneous Relay (no intentional time delay) : The operating time of an instantaneous relay is of

the order of a few milliseconds. Traditionally, such a relay has only the pick-up setting and it does not

have any TMS. As the name indicates, it's action is fast. It is used when it is obvious that large fault

currents are the consequence of fault on the equipment being protected by the relay e.g., close-in fault

on a long feeder. This relay is not suitable for backup protection.

Time delayed Definite Time Relay : A definite time over-current relay can be adjusted to issue a trip

output after a specified delay when the relay picks up (PSM>1). This delay is fixed and it is independent of

PSM value. Thus, it has a adjustable time setting as well as a pick up adjustment. It is used for short

length feeders where the fault current does not change significantly with the location of the fault across

the feeder.

Fig 15.4 illustrates an overcurrent protection scheme for radial distribution system of fig 15.2, with definite

time relays. Relay R 1 does not have any coordination responsibility and hence it can trip without any

intentional time delay. Relay R 2 has to coordinate with relay R 1 and hence its time of operation is delayed

by time equal to Coordination Time Interval (CTI). Relay R 3 has to back up R 2 . Hence its time of

operation is delayed by another CTI. Thus, we see that as we move along towards source, the relaying

action slows down. Typically, there is an upper limit on any fault clearing time in the system and it equals

approximately 1sec. This limit would be hit near the relay close to source.

Example: Consider a CTI of 0.3sec. Then what is the maximum length of a radial system of a feeder that

can be protected by overcurrent relay. Assume, that primary protection uses DT relays and primary

protection time should not be more than 1sec.

Answer: Let 'n' be the maximum number of feeder sections that can be protected by overcurrent relays

and let TOC max be the upper limit on the speed of primary protection. Then

. Thus

overcurrent relays should be used over a limited length in the 3 feeder sections.

Inverse definite minimum time (IDMT) Relay : Consider a simple radial system as shown in fig 15.5.

In this case the relay R 1 would have

to backup the fuse. Now, if we use a

definite time relay to coordinate R 1

with fuse, the coordination.

characteristics would appear as

shown in fig 15.6.

In this case, it is seen that after

point X, the relay acts faster than the

fuse for fault in the section XB.

Thus, it is not the fuse but the relay

that operates to clear fault in this

section. This, unnecessarily leads to

lack of service to a load at node A.

This lack of coordination is a

consequence of the fact that fuse

and definite time relay having

different characteristics. The problem

can be solved if the relay

characteristics are also shaped

similar to the fuse. It will have the

dual advantage of clearing larger

fault current quickly and easily

coordinating with the fuse. This leads

to development of an inverse

characteristic for overcurrent relay.

This is probably the most widely used

characteristic. It is inverse in the

initial part and tends to approach a

definite minimum operating time

characteristic as the current becomes

very high.

Various inverse current operating

time characteristics of a relay are

shown in fig 15.7. They are normal

or standard inverse, very inverse and

extremely inverse characteristics.

The inverseness of this characteristic is higher than that of the normal inverse characteristic (fig 15.7).

Extremely inverse time

The inverseness of this characteristic is even higher than that of the very inverse characteristic (fig 15.7).

These relays are preferred where less time of operation of relay is required. Table - A summarizes the IEC

standard equations governing inverse characteristic. Similar equations are also described by other

standards like ANSI/IEEE. Also with many electromechanical relays, the inverse characteristic does not

follow any of the standard equations. Then , the manufacturer supplies experimentally determined curves

for the specified relay.

IEC SI (Standard Inverse)

IEC VI (Very Inverse)

IEC EI (Extremely Inverse)

As PSM approaches unity, it is clear from above equations that relay operating time increases to infinity.

With electromechanical relays, usually manufacturers do not guarantee accuracy of the relay operating

time in the PSM range 1 to 1.5. Hence, traditionally PSM of an overcurrent relay is set above 1.5.

However, in principle, such restrictions do not apply to numerical relays. Our next task would be to

understand the methodology of setting Is and TMS of overcurrent relays. Hence, we now discuss

guidelines for setting overcurrent relays. We begin with the classification of the faults.

IEEE Moderately Inverse

US CO8 Inverse

15

15.3 Guidelines for Setting pick up current for phase fault protection

a. Phase Faults: They do not involve ground.

e.g. three phase and Line to Line fault.

b. Earth Faults: As the name indicates earth

faults involve ground e.g. Single Line to

Ground, Double Line to Ground.

For electromechanical relays we require a

separate CT for ground fault detection as

shown in fig 15.8. For numerical relays

only three CTs and one relay are

necessary.

Guidelines to be followed for phase fault

protection are discussed below:

(1) Pickup current should be above maximum

load current seen by the feeder. This

ensures that relay does not trip on load.

Typical norm is to set I ref > 1.25 I Lmax .

(3)

minimum fault current i.e; I ref < If min.

This ensure that protection system

operates for low as well as high fault

current. During this

condition, in the

utility least number of generators are in

service. Hence, this coordination occurs at

light load condition and at the remote end

of the feeder.

Pick up current should also be below the minimum fault current of the feeder that it has to backup.

Otherwise, a relay's

backup protection responsibility will not be fulfilled.

Remark: If (1), (2) and (3) can not be satisfied simultaneously, then overcurrent relays cannot be used

for protection. Alternatives are distance or pilot protection.

(4)

For a fault on the feeder being backed up, the relay should provide sufficient time for the corresponding

primary relay to

act before it issues tripping command. This interval is called CTI (co-ordination time interval). Typically,

CTI is about 0.3 sec. It consists of

CB operating time+ Relay operating time+ Overtravel (time for electromechanical relay) + Factor of

safety.

Guidelines for earth fault protection would be discussed in a subsequent lecture.

We now discuss the problem of relay setting and coordination. Relay setting and coordination involves

primarily following steps:

Identify all possible Primary-Back-up relay pairs.

Overcurrent relays are used in distribution

systems which are radial in nature (no

loops). Thus, they can be modeled by a

directed tree having typically one source.

Fig 15.9 shows a coordination tree. Actual

leaf nodes, the topology of the graph is

identical to that of disribution system; the

mapping from distribution system to tree

is self explanatory. Each node in the tree

indicates a relay. An edge exists between

two nodes of the tree if, the corresponding

relays have a primary backup coordination

relationship. The source node is also called

as the "root node". The terminal nodes

except the source node are referred as leaf

nodes.

In a directed tree, nodes have parent child

relationship. Parent node of a node A

refers to the adjacent node which supplies

power to node A. In a tree, each node

except source node has a unique parent.

Conversely, a node fed by the parent is

called a child. Root node has children but

no parent. Similarly, leaf nodes have

parent but they do not have any child.

Note that except at leaf nodes, a relay

plays the dual role of primary and back up

protection.

Model algorithm for identifying primary - backup relay pairs is as follows:

Intialization: Identifying, leaf nodes and root node. Set step counter k to 1. List leaf node relays as

primary relays. Record the relays in row 1 of table called relative sequence matrix. Set active child nodes

to leaf nodes. Set these relays in the first row of a table called relative sequence matrix.

Main Step: While there exist a parent node that is not equal to source node; do the following

(a)

(b)

The corresponding relays back up the leaf node relays. Store, the relays in row k + 1 of RSM.

(c)

(d)

Update k = k + 1.

For this particular example, there are 5 steps required in relay coordination. Identification of primary back

relay pairs begins at leaf nodes. There is no constraint involved in setting the relay at leaf node, as they

have no backup protection responsibility. Their sole role is to do primary protection, as quickly as possible.

Therefore, these relays can be set first (step 1 in fig 15.10). The reader should step through the

interactive example to obtain the feel of these steps. The relays to be coordinated at each step are

summarized in Table B.

Table B : Relative Sequence Matrix

Step

Set Relays

Step 1 R 1 , R 2 , R 3 , R 4 , R 5

Step 2 R 6 , R 7 , R 8 , R 9 , R 10

NIL

R 6 with R 1 , R 7 with R 2 , R 8 with R 4 , R 9 with R 5 , R 10

with R 3

Step 4 R 14, R 15

Step 5 R

with R

and R

16

16

14

15

This table is also referred as Relative Sequence Matrix (RSM). The sequence for relay coordination is

recorded in the above table.

Once, the primary and backup relay pairs have been unidentified along the sequence of setting as in Table

B, we can start determining to relay setting (PSM setting) and coordination (TMS) activity. The relay

setting or co-ordination begins at the leaf node. This is because, there are no relays to be backed up. For

the relays in the first row of RSM, TMS is set to the minimum value.

If the PSM or relays has not been set so far, we set the PSM. At the same time we set the PSM of the

backup relays. Then, the TMS of the back-up relays is computed so that they maintain at least a time

delay equal to CTI with all primary relays. Note that a relay may have to back up multiple relays. Then,

we delete the leaf nodes, update the coordination tree and this process is repeated until we hit the source

node. Algorithm B, describes the steps in relay coordination.

Step 1 Initialize the coordination tree.

Step 2 Are there any leaf nodes except the root? If yes, go to step - 3, else to step - 7.

Step 3 Identify the leaf nodes in coordination tree.

Step 4 If the PSM and/or TMS of these relays have not been set so far, set them.

Step 5

Identify the parents of leaf-nodes in step - 3. Compute their PSM and TMS for backup protection and

co-ordination.

Step 6 Delete the leaf nodes. Update the co-ordination tree and go back to step - 2.

Review Questions

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

What are the various Time Current Characteristics available for an overcurrent relay?

Recap

Advantages of overcurrent relay over fuse.

Lecture 16 : PSM Setting and Phase Relay Coordination (Tutorial)

Objectives

In this lecture we will solve tutorial problems for

PSM setting and relay coordination for phase fault.

To explain intricacies of the problem, let us consider a radial system in the fig 16.1. Fault under

consideration is a 3 - phase fault. Relays used have Normal Inverse, IEC standard characteristics.

Coordination time interval CTI is 0.3sec. It is required that primary protection should fulfill its

responsibility within 1.0sec of the occurrence of fault.

The relays along with Circuit Breaker are labeled as R 1 , R 2 , R 3 , R 4 . The bus loads and fault currents are

tabulated in Table 1. It is obvious that pick up current settings for the relays should be above the feeder

load currents and not the bus load currents. In fact, one should consider the maximum possible loading

conditions, to decide conservatively pick-up current settings. A rule of thumb is to set the pick-up current

at 1.25 times maximum load current. Another 'rule of thumb' is to limit pick-up current to 2/3rd of the

minimum fault current. This decides the range available for setting relay pick-up.

Table 2 details the calculations associated with setting of overcurrent relays. It shows both the minimum

fault current and the maximum load current. Now ideally, one can set the pick up current of the

overcurrent relay anywhere within the maximum feeder load current (column 2) and minimum fault

current (column 3). However, as explained in the previous lecture, with electromechanical relays, we

should not allow PSM to be below 1.5. Since I p = If min/PSM, upper limit on PSM sets lower limit on I p ,

which is equal to

If min at PSM = 1.5. For example, pick up of relay R 1 can be set between 62.5 A

Table 1 : Data for Phase Relay Setting and Coordination

Bus

Maximum Load

bus A

50

250

500

bus B

50

650

1200

bus C

100

1100

2000

bus D

50

1600

3500

Now to decide the pick-up current of relay R 2 , it is not adequate to just look at the minimum fault current

of section CB. This is because, relay R 2 also has to back up the section BA in case relay R 1 or the its CB

or the associated circuitry fails. Hence, minimum fault current to be protected by relay R 2 is also 250 A.

Now one can choose pick up current of R 2 to be equal to R 1 . However, if we use same TMS setting for R 2

as R 1 then it leads to a serious conflict of interest between relays R 1 and R 2 with both of them competing

to clear the fault. If R 1 clears the fault F1 first, then there is absolutely no problem. But if R 2 clears the

fault first then, there is an unwanted loss of service to load at node B. This brings out another additional

requirement for relay R 2 viz. it should give preference to relay R 1 for faults on section BA. This can be

achieved in two ways:

1.

2.

Relay R 2 conservatively waits for a specified time for relay R 1 to act (time discrimination principle).

In the absence of the communication channel availability, alternative 2 is the only viable option.

In this example, we will use IEC - SI characteristic for all relays R 1 - R 4 . Various steps of PSM setting are

summarized in Table 2.

(1)

(2)

(3)

coordination in fig 16.1. It is visualized by fig 16.2.

The descriptive explanation of various steps follows:

Step 1

In this step, we will set relay R 1

Choose for relay R 1 TMS = 0.025. No intentional time delay is provided because R 1 does not have backup

responsibility.

Relay 1 (R1 )

As explained before, pickup current of R 1 = 160A.

For fault on section AB (Ifmax = 500 A):

PSM = Fault Current / Actual Pick up = 500/160 = 3.125

TMS = 0.025

Operating time using IEC SI TCC.

= 0.15sec

The corresponding point 'a' is marked on fig 16.2 (step 1). Now, the back-up protection for section AB is

given by relay 2. Setting of relay -2 is explained in the next step.

Step 2

Relay 2 (R2 )

Let, Actual Pick up = 167 A. The PSM setting of R 2 has been already explained and summarized in row 2

of table 2.

We co-ordinate R 2 with R 1 for close in fault for relay R 1 . This leads to large PSM. Other alternative would

be to perform relay co-ordination at minimum fault current on remote feeder (Ifmin). However, coordination at If max of remote feeder is preferred because it is observed that TCC for say TMS1 and TMS2

(TMS 2 > TMS1 ) tend to come closer for large PSM. Conversely, as PSM reduces, they separate out. Thus,

if we co-ordinate relays at large PSM, then co-ordination at lower values is automatically ascertained.

PSM = Fault Current / Actual Pick up = 500/167 = 2.99

Expected operating time for relay 2 = Operating time of relay 1+ CTI

= 0.15 + 0.3 = 0.45sec.

TMS

Now

PSM

with

= 0.07

for maximum fault current on section BC (1200A)

= Fault Current / Actual Pick up = 1200/167 = 7.185

TMS = 0.07 operating time of relay 2

In the similar way all relays can be coordinated. Details of PSM setting are given in Table 1. Reader,

should in an interactive mode single-step through the example in Table - 1. Similarly for TMS, readers

should single step through fig 16.2.

It is clear that slowest relay in the system is R 4 . To compute its worst case performance, we should

evaluate its fault clearing time with minimum fault current at remote bus D for primary protection and bus

C for backup protection.

Time of operation for fault current of 1600A (bus D) = 0.82sec.

Time of operation for fault current of 1100A (bus C) = 1.5sec.

Since primary protection is always cleared within 1sec, we can consider the protection system to be

satisfactory.

We have emphasized earlier that CT and PT play a critical role in determining performance of relaying

system. We now evaluate their effect in performance of overcurrent relaying application.

16.3 Fault Type and CT burden

In the previous lectures on CT, we have discussed the effect of CT burden on the performance of CTs. But

in real life application, in three phase CT connection, the burden on individual CTs will vary with the type

of connection and the type of fault. This is summarized in Table 3.

Table 3 : Fault Type and Its Effects on CT burden

Type of fault

Connection

3 - Phase

Phase

or

Phase

to

Phase to Ground

Wye (connected at Z = R + R + Z

S

L

R

CT)

Z = R S+ 2RL + Z R

S

L

R

CT)

Z = R S+ 2RL + 2ZR

Z

RS

is the CT secondary winding resistance and CT lead resistance; also includes any

relay impedance that is inside the delta connection (ohms)

RL

ZR

Consider a three phase fault in Wye connected CT.

For a three phase fault as shown in fig 16.3.

, hence the current does not

require an explicit return path. Therefore, only

single lead wire resistance R L is taken into account.

Then effective impedance seen by CT, Z = R S + R L

+ Z R.

Now, take the case of a phase to ground fault.

Here, the fault current requires an explicit return

path and hence the lead wire resistance R L has to

be doubled. Then the effective impedance seen by

the CT, Z = R S + 2RL + Z R.

shown in Table 3.

16.4

3.

4.

Example

1.A

8

MVA,

138/13.8 KV

transformer is connected to an

infinite bus. If a bolted three

phase fault occurs at F, find out

the

fault

current.

The

impedance of the transformer

is 10% and location of the fault

is close to the bus as shown in

fig 16.4.

2.If the distribution feeder has

600/5 C 200 CT with a knee

point 100 Volt, calculate the

voltage developed across CT

and

comment

on

its

performance.

CT

secondary

resistance is 0.414 .

Assume that (1) CTs are star connected (2) Lead wire resistance is 0.411

and relay impedance is 0.259

.

If the existing 8 MVA transformer is replaced with a new 28 MVA transformer with 10% leakage

impedance, find out the

new fault current. Will this new fault current lead to CT saturation?

In case CT saturates, comment on the performance of

(a) Primary relay (b) back up relay (c) co-ordination between primary and back up relay pair.

Solution:

1.

= 334.7A

% Impedance of transformer X = 10

Fault current

= 3347A

16.4 Example

Solution:

2.

CT secondary current

To obtain conservative estimate of CT performance we will use this value. This amounts to assuming

bolted SLG fault current to be comparable to bolted 3 phase fault current. In comparison to three phase

fault, CT phases larger burden with S-L-G fault.

Z B = 0.414 + 0.414 + 0.259 = 1.084

For S-L-G fault it is

= 0.414 + (0.411 + 0.259) + (0.411 + 0.259) = 1.754

Effective impedance seen by the CT, Z = R S + 2RL + Z R

= 0.414 + 2(0.411) + 0.259

= 1.495

Since the secondary voltage, V S is less than knee point voltage the CT will not saturate.

3.

Full load current =

New Fault current = 11715 A

CT secondary current

= 97.6

1.754 = 171.19 V

Since, the knee point is 100 V the CT will saturate at 171.19 V.

4.

a.

b.

c.

Because of CT saturation, the secondary current will be clipped. Thus, CT secondary current will reduce.

Hence, PSM will reduce and primary relay operation time will increase. This will slow down the operation of

primary overcurrent relay. But typically, the back up relays in a radial system will have higher ratio CTs

than the primary. Consequently, knee point voltage is also higher. This implies that the back up relay,

which does not saturate can act before the primary since, these CTs are generally less likely to saturate.

Hence, relay co-ordination may be lost.

This can be minimized by one of the following methods.

Additional co-ordination time can be included in the settings.

Set the instantaneous relay units below the current at which saturation begins.

Relays with less inverse time characteristics can be used upstream from the relay which has saturated

CTs. This

ensures a greater time margin at high currents when saturation is more likely.

Review Questions

1.

In a radial system if minimum fault current is less than or equal to maximum load current, can

overcurrent relay be used?

Why?

2.

3.

Calculate the burden on a delta connected CT for a three phase fault and S-L-G fault.

Recap

Setting and coordination of relays in a radial system for phase faults.

Lecture 17 : Earth Fault Protection using Overcurrent Relays

Objectives

In this lecture, we will learn

Automatic reclosing.

Earth-fault relay is used to

protect feeder against faults

involving ground. Typically, earth

faults are single line to ground

and double line to ground faults.

For the purpose of setting and

coordination, only single line to

ground faults are considered.

Consider a radial system as

shown in fig 17.1. For a fault

near the source, the maximum

fault current for a-g fault is given

.

by

If we model the utility system with identical values for all the sequence impedances then,

. This

value is identical to the bolted three phase fault current. If however, Z S0 < Z S1 then the bolted single line

to ground fault current can be higher than the three phase fault current. As we move away from the

source, for a bolted fault, fault current reduces due to larger feeder impedance contribution to the

denominator. Since, for a feeder, zero sequence impedance can be much higher than the positive or

negative sequence impedance, it is apparent that fault current for bolted fault reduces significantly as we

go away from source. Thus, as we go away from the source, the bolted three phase fault current will be

higher than corresponding ground fault current as it does not depend upon zero sequence impedance of

the feeder. In addition, if the single line to ground fault has an impedance Z F, then the fault current can

fall even below the bolted a-g fault value,

Thus, we conclude that there can be significant variation in the earth fault current values. They

can be even below the load current due to large impedance to ground. Hence, to provide

sensitive protection, earth fault relays use zero sequence current rather than phase current for

fault detection. Note that the zero sequence component is absent in normal load current or

phase faults. Hence, pickup with zero sequence current can be much below the load current

value, thereby providing sensitive earth fault protection. In what follows, we will discuss the

setting and coordination of earth fault relays.

In practice, distribution systems are inherently

unbalanced. Thus, load current would also have a

small percentage of zero sequence due to

unbalance. Hence, it is mandatory to keep the pick

up current above the maximum unbalance

expected under normal conditions.

A rule of thumb is to assume maximum unbalance

factor to be between 5 to 10%.

It should be also observed that earth fault relays

will not respond to the three phase or line to line

faults. One earth fault relay is adequate to provide

protection for all types of earth fault (a-g, b-g, c-g,

a-b-g etc). Three phase relays are required to

provide protection against phase faults (three

phase, a-b, b-c, c-a). Thus with four relays as

shown in fig 17.2 complete overcurrent protection

can be provided.

Example

Consider a feeder as shown in fig 17.3 with earth fault relays R 1 and R 2 . Relay R 1 is used for providing

protection against earth fault at the secondary side of 2.5MVA, 11/3.3kV transformer, whereas, relay R 2

has to provide protection at bus B.

Two CTs are used for protection. 200:5 CT is connected to instantaneous relay and 500:5 is connected to

inverse current characteristic relay.

1)

2)

3)

Compute the setting of instantaneous and standard inverse units at relay at R 1 . Assume that

maximum system unbalance is 20% and

SLG fault current at bus A is 480 A and at bus B it is 650A.

Compute the time required by relay R 2 to clear SLG fault at bus B.

Use coordination time interval (CTI) of 0.3sec.

Example

a) Setting of Relay R1

Since the relay is on secondary side of transformer, our calculations will be referred to secondary side.

From fig 17.3,

. Earth fault relay should not

pick up for the unbalance current 20% of 437A = 87.47A. Hence choose a pick up value of 100A.

Thus, instantaneous relay will pick up at 100 5 / 200 = 2.5A

Typical range available for setting is 1-4A. We choose the pick up at 3A.

If standard inverse relay is also set to pick up at the same current in primary, which is 100A, then with

500:5 CT, pick up current of relay R 1 referred to secondary is 1A.

Since R 1 has no back up responsibility, we choose its TMS to minimum, i.e. 0.1.

Now, for a L-G fault current of 480A at bus A,

PSM for R 1 = fault current / actual pick up = 480/100 = 4.8.

From standard inverse TCC,

Time of operation of earth fault relay R 1 ,

= 0.439sec.

b) Setting of Relay R2

Then time of operation of earth fault relay R 2 , which has to provide back up protection to bus A

= 0.439 + 0.3 = 0.739sec

Since this relay is on primary side of transformer, our calculations will be now referred to primary side.

Full load current at primary side of transformer =

R 2 should not trip for the unbalance current. i.e. 20% of full load current = 26A.

Let us, choose safely the pick up value to be 30A.

Pick up current of R 2 referred to secondary of 200:5 CT = 30 5 / 200 = 0.75A.

Fault current of 480A referred to 11kV side = 480 x 3.3/11 = 144A.

PSM for NI current = 144/30 = 4.8.

Desired time of operation of earth fault relay R 2 , TR2 = TR1 + CTI = 0.439 + 0.3 = 0.739sec

Substituting in equation,

Substituting in equation,

We now briefly introduce the concept of adaptive relaying. Adaptive relaying is a protection scheme in

which settings can adapt to the system conditions automatically, so that relaying is tuned to the

prevailing power system conditions. Traditionally, relaying settings are computed conservatively. For

example, in overcurrent fault protection, one would like to choose pick-up current to be above the

maximum possible load current and below minimum possible fault current. Sometimes, it may be quite

difficult to obtain such 'comfort zones'. for relay settings. If one accepts that load currents vary

significantly from 'light loads' to 'peak load' conditions, one can increase 'sensitivity' of a overcurrent relay

under light load conditions by safely reducing corresponding overcurrent pick up value. Such, adjustments

makes relaying' adaptive'.

In the present era, generation is being added to the distributed system directly. This also changes the

fault level in the system directly. Presence or absence of grid and/or distributed generator will alter fault

current levels drastically, and it would be impossible to achieve a single acceptable setting for distributed

generators. However, if for example, overcurrent relay could be made aware through communication that

grid and/or DG is connected, it could choose the settings from a set of a present values and 'adaptive' to

new load condition. Adaptive protection has not yet realized its full potential, and hence provides new

Many faults (80-90%) in the overhead distribution system like flash over of insulators, crow faults,

temporary tree contacts , etc are temporary in nature. Thus, taking a feeder or line permanent outage

may lead to unnecessary long loss of service to customers. Hence, many utilities use fast automatic

reclosers for an overhead radial feeder without synchronous machines or with minimum induction motor

load. Presence of synchronous machines will require additional problem of synchro-check to be addressed.

The almost universal practice is to use three and occasionally four attempts to restore service before lock

out (see fig 17.4).

Subsequently, energization is by manual intervention. The initial reclosure can be high speed (0.2 0.5sec) or delayed for 3 - 5 seconds. This allows for de-ionization time for fault arc. If the temporary fault

is cleared, then the service is restored. Otherwise, the relay again trips the feeder. Then one or two

additional time delayed reclosures are programmed on the reclosing relay. Typical schedule might be

instantaneous, followed by 30sec, or 35sec, followed by 15sec. If the circuit still continues to trip, the fault

is declared as permanent and the recloser is locked out. Reclosers use three phase and single phase oil or

vacuum circuit breakers for overhead distribution lines.

With underground network, faults tend to be more often permanent and reclosers are not recommended.

In case of large synchronous motors, distributed generators or induction motor loads, it is recommended

that sufficient time is allowed for underfrequency relays to trip these sources of back emf out-of-thecircuit.

Application of reclosers in distribution systems requires selection of its ratings such as minimum trip

current, continuous current, symmetrical interrupting current etc.

For a single phase system, single phase reclosers can be used whereas for a three phase system, one

three phase recloser or three single phase reclosers can be used. Reclosers have to be selected by

considering the following factors.

Voltage Rating.

Continuous current Rating : This is the maximum load current the recloser has to carry.

Maximum Symmetrical Interrupting Rating: The maximum symmetrical fault current should not exceed

this rating.

Minimum Tripping current : This is the minimum fault current that a recloser will clear. It is equal to two

times the

continuous current rating. Usually tolerance is 10%. This decides the sensitivity of the recloser.

The following example will explain the selection of reclosers in a simple distribution system.

Example

Consider

a

three

phase

distribution system with a single

phase tap as shown in fig 17.5.

Maximum load on this single

phase tap is 40A and that on

three phase line is 200A. Fault

currents at F1 ,F 2 , F3 and F4 are

also shown in the fig 17.5. Table

1 shows the available standard

rating of single phase and three

phase reclosers. Select the ratings

of reclosers at A and B.

Example

Answer

Recloser at B

Maximum load current on this single phase line = 40A.

Continuous current rating of this recloser must be 1.25 - 1.5 times the maximum load current to account

for anticipated load growth.

i.e. Continuous current rating of this recloser at B = 40 1.5 = 60A.

From the table 1, any recloser with continuous current rating of 100A and above is acceptable.

Maximum fault current at B = 1750A.

Interrupting current rating must be greater than 1750A. From the table 1, we see that recloser with 100A

continous current rating has 2000A symmetrical rms short circuit current rating. Hence, we can choose

this recloser.

Minimum tripping current = Continuous current rating 2 10% tolerance

= 100 2 10% of 100 = 220A

Since the minimum trip current 220A is less than the minimum fault current 250A at the line end, it can

protect the entire line.

Voltage rating of the line is 11kV. So we can select the maximum voltage rating of 15.5kV (from the

table).

Recloser at A

This recloser has to protect the three phase line. Hence a three phase recloser can be used here.

Maximum load current in this line = 200A.

Hence continuous rating of recloser at A = 200 1.25 = 250A.

From the table let us choose recloser with a continuous rating of 280A.

Maximum fault current at A = 3500A.

From the table , symmetrical interrupting capability of recloser A with 280A continous rating is 4000A

which is more than maximum fault current of 3500A. Hence, this recloser meets our requirements.

Minimum tripping current = Continuous current rating 2 10% tolerance

= 280 2 10% of 560 = 616A.

Since the minimum fault current at the end of this line is 280A, recloser at A cannot protect the entire

line. Hence, in order to increase sensitivity ground relay can be added here.

Example

Answer

Table 1 (Source : IEEE Tutorial Course 80EH0157 - 8 - PWR)

rms

Symmetrical Interrupting Rating

Continous Current Rating

at Maximum Volts

15.0

50

1250

15.5

100

2000

15.5

280

4000

15.5

560

8000

27.0

100

2500

27.0

280

4000

38.0

560

8000

15.0

50

1250

15.5

100

2000

15.5

280

4000

15.5

400

4000

15.5

560

8000

15.5

560

16000

Review Questions

1.

Give reasons:

(a)

The magnitude of earth fault current can vary over a wide range.

(b)

The fault current for bolted S-L-G fault reduces as we go away from source.

2.

3.

Recap

In this lecture we have learnt the following:

Earth fault can be detected by the presence of zero sequence component.

Congratulations, you have finished Lecture 17. To view the next lecture select it from the left hand side

menu of the page

Lecture 18 : Directional Overcurrent Relaying

Objectives

In this lecture we will learn

The discrimination problem in a radial system with multiple sources and parallel paths.

The operation of

18.1 Necessity

1.

In the overcurrent protection scheme considered in previous lectures, we had implicitly assumed that,

System is radial.

2.

This is quite true for traditional distribution systems but it does not hold true for sub-transmission or

transmission system with multiple sources. Fig 18.1 shows a system which is radial but it has two sources

connected to it. If relays for protection are installed only at one end of transmission line say towards

source A end, it is obvious that after opening of relay in red, the fault will continue to be fed from source

B. Hence, relays are also installed at other end of line to detect fault and disconnect transmission line

from the other end as well. Similar situation will exist even for a single source system if parallel paths

exist (fig 18.2). Hence, system which have multiple paths to source require relays at both ends. However,

installing relays at both ends does not provide a complete relaying solution. To understand the reason,

consider the action of red relay in fig 18.1 with respect to two likely faults F1 and F2 .

If the fault is at

F1 then it is

responsibility of

red

relays to

open. If fault is

at F2 , then it is

the green relays

which should trip

the

line.

However, it is

quite likely that

for fault F2 , the

may trip before

circled

green

relay opens to

disconnect feed

from the source

B, the reason

being that both

relays

are

subjected

to

same

fault

current.

In other words, circled red relay competes with circled green relay to clear fault. Opening of circled red

relay unnecessarily causes loss of service to load at bus P and it should be classified as wrong operation.

To overcome this limitation, the relay element has to be provided with additional discrimination feature to

distinguish between faults that it should respond to, and others that it should not respond to. Further, this

'selectivity' will not be sufficient if it is based upon magnitude of pick up current (or fault currents). In the

previous lectures, we had used time discrimination to provide selectivity. From the fig 18.3, it is apparent

R3

R 5 and R 6

R4

R2.

that such discrimination will hold between relay sequences R 1

However, it is not possible to provide such time discrimination between relays like R 2 and R 3 . Now

consider two possible fault locations with respect to relay R 3 as shown in fig 18.4. The relay R 2 should

operate if fault is at F1 because it is on primary feeder but not behind i.e. at F2 . With polarity of CT

connection as shown in fig 18.5, it is apparent that for fault F1 current I 1 seen by the relay lags V p by 90

degrees (fig 18.6). This is under the assumption of bolted fault and reactive nature of circuit impedance.

However, when the fault is in the position F2 , then relay current leads the bus voltage 'V p '.

Thus, if we measure the bus voltage phasor V p and compute the

phase angle of relay current with respect to bus voltage, then we can

use the following logic to provide selectivity. If the relay 'detects fault'

and current lags V R (= V p ), then permit relay tripping. If the relay

'detects fault' and current leads V R (= V p ), then inhibit the relay

tripping. The 'discrimination principle' based on phase angle

comparison between a set of phasors, one of which is used as

reference is called 'directional discrimination principle'. Relays with

this principle are called directional relays.

For example, overcurrent relays can be made directional by adding

above discrimination logic to well known overcurrent logic. Such

relays are called as directional overcurrent relays. They are used in

distribution system or subtransmission system where 'ring main'

configuration is used to provide more reliability of service. Cost of this

relaying scheme is higher than 'non-directional' overcurrent due to

additional cost of VT.

We now discuss the choice of reference phasor for various type of phase and ground faults. Recall that

phase relays are used to protect against phase fault (3 phase and L-L).

Now, with traditional overcurrent relays, a directional overcurrent relay can be visualized as a cascade

connection of 'one directional unit' and one overcurrent unit. If the polarity of the current is appropriate,

then directional unit picks up. If the current magnitude is above pickup, then the overcurrent unit also

picks up and when both units pickup, the trip coil is energized and CB tripping is ensured. In a numerical

relay, this can be programmed by a simple 'AND' logic.

Any fault involving ground is called a ground fault. Traditionally, three phase relays and one ground relay

have been used to protect a feeder or a transmission line. However, in a numerical relay, all these

functions can be integrated into a single relay which acquires 3-phase voltages and 3-phase currents.

Design of Directional Units for Phase Fault

Let us first consider, a three phase fault. In this case, choice of the reference phasor can be the phase

voltage itself. For a purely reactive circuit, the fault current in the correct direction lags the reference

. With respect to reference phase 'V a ', we can draw operating line (also called as zero

phasor by

torque line due to legacy of electromechanical realys) which separates the plane into two regions marked

as 'operate' and 'Do not operate'. If the fault is in the operating region, then I a lags V a and we issue trip

decision. In case, fault is behind the relay, the fault current leads V a and hence lies in the "do not

operate" region.

18.2 Fundamental Principle

Thus, if we measure the bus voltage phasor V p and compute the

phase angle of relay current with respect to bus voltage, then we can

use the following logic to provide selectivity. If the relay 'detects fault'

and current lags V R (= V p ), then permit relay tripping. If the relay

'detects fault' and current leads V R (= V p ), then inhibit the relay

tripping. The 'discrimination principle' based on phase angle

comparison between a set of phasors, one of which is used as

reference is called 'directional discrimination principle'. Relays with

this principle are called directional relays.

For example, overcurrent relays can be made directional by adding

above discrimination logic to well known overcurrent logic. Such

relays are called as directional overcurrent relays. They are used in

distribution system or subtransmission system where 'ring main'

configuration is used to provide more reliability of service. Cost of this

relaying scheme is higher than 'non-directional' overcurrent due to

additional cost of VT.

We now discuss the choice of reference phasor for various type of phase and ground faults. Recall that

phase relays are used to protect against phase fault (3 phase and L-L).

Now, with traditional overcurrent relays, a directional overcurrent relay can be visualized as a cascade

connection of 'one directional unit' and one overcurrent unit. If the polarity of the current is appropriate,

then directional unit picks up. If the current magnitude is above pickup, then the overcurrent unit also

picks up and when both units pickup, the trip coil is energized and CB tripping is ensured. In a numerical

relay, this can be programmed by a simple 'AND' logic.

Any fault involving ground is called a ground fault. Traditionally, three phase relays and one ground relay

have been used to protect a feeder or a transmission line. However, in a numerical relay, all these

functions can be integrated into a single relay which acquires 3-phase voltages and 3-phase currents.

Design of Directional Units for Phase Fault

Let us first consider, a three phase fault. In this case, choice of the reference phasor can be the phase

voltage itself. For a purely reactive circuit, the fault current in the correct direction lags the reference

. With respect to reference phase 'V a ', we can draw operating line (also called as zero

phasor by

torque line due to legacy of electromechanical realys) which separates the plane into two regions marked

as 'operate' and 'Do not operate'. If the fault is in the operating region, then I a lags V a and we issue trip

decision. In case, fault is behind the relay, the fault current leads V a and hence lies in the "do not

operate" region.

18.3 Phase Fault Protection

Fig 18.7 shows vector diagram and relationship between different phasors. The threshold or maximum

torque line is a line perpendicular to the zero torque line. Again this terminology is because of the legacy

of electromechanical relay. The threshold or maximum torque line can be placed at an angle with respect

to V a also. This does add complexity to electromechanical relay design. But same placement is a simple

programming job in a numerical relay. For example, the common practice is to place the maximum

torque line at an angle of 60 degrees lag or 45 degrees with respect to ' V a ' (fig 18.8).

quadrature with V a , it is possible to use V bc as the

reference phasor and locate the maximum torque line

at 30 degrees leading it. This is what traditionally

practiced in legacy directional overcurrent relays (see

fig 18.9). With this placement we now show that

directional unit will pickup for both 3-phase and L-L

faults.

Now consider a line fault involving phase 'a' and 'b'.

Then, using 3-phase line model we get,

V a - V f = Z s I a + Z m(-I a ) = (Zs - Z m) I a = Z 1 I a

Similarly,

V b - V f = Z s I b + Z mI a = - (Zs - Z m) I a = - Z 1 I a

V a - V b = 2(Z s - Z m) I a

Since, (Zs - Z m) = Z 1 = Z 2 of a feeder

If for simplicity we assume Z to be purely reactive, then from fig 18.9 we get that I f ab will be at an angle

of 60 degrees lagging to V an . Thus,

unit with V bc as reference phasor will pickup on both 3-phase

fault and L-L fault. For a L-L fault involving phases 'a' and 'c' , V ac lags V an by

. Assuming purely

reactive circuit, the phase current Ia will lag V bc by

. As seen in the figure, I ac will be again in the

operate region and the directional unit will pickup. Thus, this unit (

lead with V bc as reference

phasor) will pickup for all phase faults involving phase 'a'. In contrast, for L-L fault involving phases 'b'

and 'c', I bc will lag V bc by

. Hence, it will lie outside the tripping region of the directional unit.

Therefore, directional unit will not pick up.

To summarize, the key feature in obtaining directional discrimination is the placement of zero torque line

which separates the R-X plane into two regions viz. operate and do not operate. It is apparent that in

numerical relays, this placement is quite flexible and can be specified with respect to any one reference

voltage phasor. This placement can be made programmable.

18.4 Earth Fault Protection

Typically, earthfaults are SLG and LLG faults. Earthfaults are distinguished by presence of zero sequence

currents 'I 0 '. Since, except for unbalance, normal system operation is devoid of I 0 component, much more

sensitive pickup is possible for earthfault by using component I 0 = (I a + I b + I c ) / 3 and declaring a fault

if "I 0 " exceeds a threshold.

However, in a system with multiple sources or parallel paths, we will require earthfault relays to be

directional. The reference phasor is sometimes called as "polarizing quantity". Also both voltage and

current polarizing signals are used with ground fault relaying.

18.4.1Voltage Polarization

Let the system be initially unloaded and a ground fault

occur on phase a. Then if I a = 3I0 and I b = I c = 0. It

is observed that corresponding drop in voltage of phase

a while 'b' and 'c' voltages remain unchanged. Fault

current is shown in fig 18.10. Fig 18.11 shows the

Fig

18.12

shows the

computation

of "3V 0 ".

appropriateness of -3V0 as a reference phasor. "V0 " is

not present during normal conditions but available only

during fault. Let the maximum torque be drawn at 60

degrees lag with respect to "-3V0 " phasor.

It is then clear that zero torque line which separates

the plane into operate and do not operate zone leads 3V0 by 30 degrees. Thus, for fault in the correct region,

3I0 lags -3V0 hence falls in operate region. If fault is

behind the relay, 3I0 will lead -3V0 by about 45 to 60

degrees and hence will lie in do not operate region.

Hence, earth fault directional unit will not pick-up.

18.4.2Current Polarization

An alternative to voltage polarization is current polarization. It does not require an additional VT. We

briefly introduce its principle. When the system is balanced, 3I0 = I a + I b +I c = 0. During ground fault

say at phase 'a', at F1 3I0 flows from ground to neutral of a wye-delta power or distribution transformer

bank. If we assume for simplicity that I b = I c = 0, then 3I0 and I a are in phase. This indicates that

directional unit for ground relay should pick-up as 'I a ' is in phase with '3I0 '.Thus we place maximum

torque line at zero degrees with respect to I 0 phasor. The corresponding trip, no trip relay are marked in

fig 18.13. If however fault is behind the relay, then the I a will fall in do not operate region and hence

relay will not pickup as

and

Review Questions

1.

A single source system with parallel paths requires directional relays. Why?

2.

3.

4.

5.

What is a polarizing quantity? Differentiate between voltage polarization and current polarization.

6.

Show that a

directional unit with V ab as reference phasor will pick up on a - c and b - c phase faults.

Recap

In this lecture we have learnt the following:

Directional feature can be incorporated in an overcurrent relay and it improves its selectivity.

directional unit with V bc as reference phasor will pick up on a - b and a - c phase faults.

Directional earth fault relays using voltage and current as polarizing quantity.

Lecture 19 : Directional Overcurrent Relay Coordination (Tutorial)

Objectives

In this lecture we will solve a tutorial on directional relay coordination and see that

In a mesh system both clockwise and anticlockwise loops have to be coordinated separately.

19.1 Introduction

Coordination

of

directional

overcurrent relays involves

setting of relays one by one

so that at each stage the relay

coordinates with its primary

relay. But in a loop as shown

in fig 19.1, the last relay to be

set is the very first, in which

initial setting were assumed.

This

makes

the

relay

coordination activity in a mesh

system iterative. This should

be contrasted with a radial

system

where

the

relay

coordination is completed in

one pass. The iterative nature

of

relay

setting

and

coordination converges when

on revisiting the same relay, if

we do not have to change the

relay settings and TMS.

As shown in fig 19.1, a typical

transmission line is protected

by directional relays at both

ends. Hence we have to

consider two loops, i.e. one

loop formed in clockwise

direction and the another in

anticlockwise direction.

In this case clockwise loop is given by R 5

R6

R7

R8

R 5 and anti clockwise loop is given by

R2

R3

R4

R 1 where arrow

' should be read as backs up'.

R1

Now, let us consider the anticlockwise loop for setting. We can start setting from any one of the four

relays, i.e. R 1 , R 2 , R 3 and R 4 . Let us start from R 2 , i.e. setting in relay R 2 is assumed appropriately.

Typically this implies that some value of TMS within the limits is taken. Limit points should be avoided at

initial stage. PSM can be calculated using the guidelines outlined in the previous lectures. R 1 will be set to

coordinate with R 2 , since R 1 has to back up R 2 . Now R 4 has to coordinate with R 1 , R 3 with R 4 and R 2

with R 3 . Thus we can see that the setting of R 2 has changed from what it was initially to coordinate with

R 3 . After first iteration, we update the setting of R 2 to the corresponding new setting, to coordinate with

R 3 , thus closing the loop. If the setting of the R 2 has changed significantly, then we repeat the above

process by fine tuning the settings of all the relays in the loop again.

As every iteration improvises the relay settings (TMS), we expect the settings to converge in a few

iterations. We have to repeat the same process with the clockwise loop also. Then all the relays will be set

and relay coordination activity is complete.

19.2 Example

The following example will illustrate this process in detail. In the fig 19.1, the remote bus fault currents

seen by each primary and back up relay pairs are tabulated below (Table 1).

Table 1 : Fault Current seen by Primary - Back up Relay Pairs

Anti clockwise loop

Remote Bus Fault

at

Current seen by

primary relay

Clockwise loop

Current seen by

back up relay

Current seen by

primary relay

up relay

F1

R 2 (639A)

R 1 (152A)

R 6 (1365A)

R 5 (272A)

F2

R 1 (1652A)

R 4 (391A)

R 7 (868A)

R 6 (240A)

F3

R 4 (1097A)

R 3 (140A)

R 8 (1764A)

R 7 (287A)

F4

R 3 (937A)

R 2 (142A)

R 5 (553A)

R 8 (197A)

For the relays in table 1, if the pick up values are as tabulated in table 2, find out the TMS.

Table 2 : Pick up Values of Relays

R1

R2

R3

R4

R5

R6

R7

R8

Pick up

60

setting (A)

80

60

160

80

160

128

100

Relay

Answer

We can assume relay setting for any one of the four relays. Let us start setting from relay R 2 .

Iteration 1

For relay R 2 , assume a TMS of 0.05 (Normal range is 0.025 to 1.2). The reason to initialize TMS to 0.05

and not the minimum value i.e. 0.025 is that further iterations may reduce TMS. If to begin with 0.025

then the problem becomes infeasible.

For fault at F1 where R 2 acts as primary,

= 0.165sec

For fault at F1 , R 1 will back up R 2 .

Hence time of operation R 1 =

+ CTI (where CTI is the coordination time interval and CTI = 0.3sec.)

(where I = 152A, Is = 60A)

i.e.

= 0.0623

(where I = 1652A, Is = 60A)

= 0.127sec

19.2 Example (contd..)

Answer

Iteration 1 (contd..)

Relay R 4 will back up R 1 for fault at F2 . Hence, time of operation of R 4 =

0.427sec

i.e.,

Then,

= 0.055

= 0.196sec

Since relay R 3 has to back up R 4 , time of operation of relay R 3 =

+ CTI = 0.496sec

For a fault at F3

i.e.,

= 0.0605

Now for fault at F4 , where R 3 acts as primary,

(where I = 937A, Is = 60A)

= 0.15sec

19.2 Example (contd..)

Answer

Iteration 1 (contd..)

For fault F4 , R 2 has to back up R 3

i.e., Time of operation of R 2 =

+ CTI = 0.45sec

(where I = 142A, Is = 80A)

= 0.037

We had assumed a value of 0.05 for

update the TMS of R 2 to 0.037.

Iteration 2

For fault at F1 , time of operation

= 0.122sec

Time of operation of R 1 =

+ CTI

or

i.e., 0.422

= 0.0565

= 0.1154

R 4 backs up R 1 for fault at F2

19.2 Example (contd..)

Answer

Iteration 2 (contd..)

Time of operation of R 4 =

= 0.4154

i.e. 0.4154

= 0.0535

Now, for fault at F3 , where R 4 acts as primary,

= 0.191sec

Since, relay R 3 backs up R 4 , time of operation of relay R 3 =

i.e. 0.491 =

= 0.0599

For fault at F4 , where R 3 acts as primary,

Time of operation

R 2 backs up R 3 ; Therefore,

Time of operation of R 2 =

= 0.1484sec

= 0.4484sec

i.e. 0.4484

= 0.0369

Now, let us update the TMS of R 2 to this new value, i.e., 0.0369 and repeat iteration.

Answer

Iteration 3

For fault at F1 ,

= 0.1217sec

For relay R 1 , which has to back up R 2

Time of operation = 0.3 + 0.1217 = 0.4217sec

i.e. 0.4217

= 0.0565

Then for fault at F2 ,

= 0.1154sec

= 0.1154 + 0.3 = 0.4154sec

i.e. 0.4154

= 0.0535

For fault at F3 , where R 4 acts as primary, we have

= 0.191sec

Answer

Iteration 3 (contd..)

R 3 backs up R 4

Time of operation of R 3 = 0.3 + 0.191 = 0.491sec

i.e. 0.491 =

= 0.0599

For fault at F4 ,

= 0.1484sec

Now R 2 backs up R 3

i.e. time of operation of R 2 = 0.3 + 0.1484 = 0.4484

= 0.0369 which is same as the result of iteration 2.

Therefore no more iteration is required. Hence, setting and coordination of all the four anticlockwise relays

are complete.

Coordination of all primary and back up relay pairs R 2 - R 1 , R 1 - R 4 , R 4 - R 3 and R 3 - R 2 for faults at F1 ,

F2 , F3 and F4 respectively are visualized in fig 19.2.

19.2 Example (contd..)

Answer

Iteration 3

For fault at F1 ,

= 0.1217sec

For relay R 1 , which has to back up R 2

Time of operation = 0.3 + 0.1217 = 0.4217sec

i.e. 0.4217

= 0.0565

Then for fault at F2 ,

= 0.1154sec

= 0.1154 + 0.3 = 0.4154sec

i.e. 0.4154

= 0.0535

For fault at F3 , where R 4 acts as primary, we have

= 0.191sec

Answer

Iteration 3 (contd..)

R 3 backs up R 4

Time of operation of R 3 = 0.3 + 0.191 = 0.491sec

i.e. 0.491 =

= 0.0599

For fault at F4 ,

= 0.1484sec

Now R 2 backs up R 3

= 0.0369 which is same as the result of iteration 2.

Therefore no more iteration is required. Hence, setting and coordination of all the four anticlockwise relays

are complete.

Coordination of all primary and back up relay pairs R 2 - R 1 , R 1 - R 4 , R 4 - R 3 and R 3 - R 2 for faults at F1 ,

F2 , F3 and F4 respectively are visualized in fig 19.2.

19.2Example (contd..)

Answer

Setting and Coordination of Clockwise Relays

Iteration 1

Now let us start setting all the clockwise relays. Let us start from relay R 5 for fault at F4 .

Assume a TMS of 0.05 for relay R 5 . Then, time of operation of relay R 5 ,

i.e. Time of operation of back up relay R 8 =

= 0.1775 + 0.3

= 0.4775sec

Now, 0.4775 =

= 0.04656

+ CTI

= 0.11sec

Now relay R 7 will back up R 8 . Then time of operation of R 7 = 0.11 + 0.3 = 0.41sec

i.e., 0.41

= 0.0477

R 7 acts as primary relay for fault at F2 .

= 0.1711sec

19.2

Example (contd..)

Answer

Setting and Coordination of Clockwise Relays

Iteration 1 (contd..)

R 6 backs up R 7 ,

i.e. Time of operation for R 6

= 0.1711 + 0.3 = 0.4711

i.e. 0.4711

= 0.0274

For fault at F1 , R 6 acts as primary,

= 0.0875sec

i.e.,

R 5 backs up R 6

i.e. Time of operation of R 5 = 0.0875 + 0.3 = 0.3875

i.e., 0.3875

= 0.0686

i.e. after 1st iteration TMS of R 5 has been changed from 0.05 to 0.0686. Let us update TMS of R 5 to

0.0686 and begin iteration 2.

19.2

Example (contd..)

Answer

Setting and Coordination of Clockwise Relays

Iteration 2

= 0.0686

For fault F4 ,

= 0.2436

i.e. Time of operation of R 5 =

= 0.5436sec

i.e. 0.5436 =

= 0.053

For fault F3 , where R 8 acts as primary,

= 0.1256sec

Relay R 7 backs up R 8

Time of operation of R7 = 0.1256 + 0.3 = 0.4256sec

i.e. 0.4256

= 0.0495

19.2

Example (contd..)

Answer

Setting and Coordination of Clockwise Relays

Iteration 2 (contd..)

For fault at F2 , R 7 acts as primary,

= 0.1776sec

i.e.

R 6 backs up R 7 ,

i.e. Time of operation for R 6 = 0.1776 + 0.3 = 0.4776sec

i.e. 0.4776

= 0.0278

For fault at F1 , R 6 acts as primary,

= 0.0888sec

i.e.

R 5 backs up R 6 ,

i.e. Time of operation of R 5 = 0.0888 + 0.3

= 0.3888sec

i.e. 0.3888

= 0.0688

Now let us set TMS of R 5 to 0.0688 and repeat iteration.

Answer

Setting and Coordination of Clockwise Relays

Iteration 3

= 0.0688

For fault at F4

= 0.2443

R 8 backs up R 5 ,

i.e. Time of operation of R 8 =

= 0.5443sec

0.5443 =

i.e.

= 0.0531

= 0.1258sec

Then

Relay R 7 backs up R 8

i.e. Time of operation of R 7 = 0.3 + 0.1258 = 0.4258sec

0.4258

= 0.0495

19.2Example (contd..)

Answer

Setting and Coordination of Clockwise Relays

Iteration 3 (contd..)

For fault at F2 , R 7 acts as primary,

= 0.1776sec

i.e.

= 0.3 + 0.1776 = 0.4776sec

i.e. 0.4776

= 0.0278

For fault at F1 , R 6 acts as primary,

= 0.0888sec

Since R 5 backs up R 6 for fault at F1 , time of operation of R 5 = 0.3 + 0.0888sec = 0.3888sec

i.e., 0.3888

= 0.0688.

Since, the result of iterations 2 and 3 are the same, the iteration is complete. Thus, all the clockwise relays

are set. The settings are tabulated in table 3. Coordination of all clockwise relay pairs R 6 - R 5 , R 7 - R 6 , R 8

- R 7 and R 5 - R 8 for faults at F1 , F2 , F3 and F4 are visualized in fig 19.3.

19.2Example (contd..)

Answer

Setting and Coordination of Clockwise Relays

Table 3 TMS Setting for Relay

Relay

1 st Iteration

2 nd Iteration

3 rd Iteration

R1

0.623

0.0565

0.0565

R2

0.05

0.0369

0.0369

R3

0.0605

0.0599

0.0599

R4

0.055

0.0535

0.0535

R5

0.05

0.0686

0.0688

R6

0.0274

0.0278

0.0278

R7

0.0477

0.0495

0.0495

R8

0.04656

0.053

0.0531

Review Questions

1.

2.

In the given example if the standard inverse relays are replaced with very inverse relays. Find out

whether relay

3.

Recap

In a meshed system both clockwise and anticlockwise loops have to be considered separately.

Lecture 20 : Directional Overcurrent Relay Coordination in Multi-loop System

Objectives

In this lecture we will

Discuss the directional relay coordination problem associated with multiple loop system.

Identify all possible clockwise and anticlockwise loops for the given systems.

20.1 Introduction

In the previous lecture, we discussed the coordination problem associated with single loop system. But the

complexity of coordination problem increases in multiple loop system which share some relays. Hence we

have to find one common acceptable setting for relays which share multiple loops so that their

coordination in individual loops is achievable. The number of such relays should be kept to minimum, so

that we make minimum assumptions on relay setting in coordination of loops. Such relays are called

Minimum Break Point Relays. For example, it can be verified that R 6 , R 14 and R 9 are such relays in the fig

20.1. By opening these relays, we are able to break any clockwise or anti clockwise relay loops and it

should be checked that no other relay set exists which achieves the above criteria with lesser number of

relays. If you open R 1 , R 13, R 4 and R 10 all loops are broken. But we now require four relays. Therefore,

the first choice is more acceptable than the second because we have to assume lesser number of TMS to

start the coordination process. There can be multiple choices to minimum break point relays. For example

an alternative choice is R 12, R 7 and R 3 .

Computation of minimum break point set of relays is a involved problem which requires combinatorial

optimization techniques.

Now let us analyze the system in more detail. There are 3 simple loops in the fig 20.1. So the three

clockwise coordination problems are given by,

R 14

R 12

R 13

1.

R8

2.

R9

R 10

R 11

R7

3.

R8

R9

R 10

R 11

R 12

R 13

4.

R1

R2

R7

R6

5.

R 14

R3

R4

R5

6.

R1

R2

R3

R4

R5

R6

Now these loops are not exclusive and they share relays. For example, loop 1 and loop 3 share R 8 , R 12

and R 13. Therefore, it implies that individual loops cannot be coordinated independently. So the crux of

the problem is to find acceptable setting at relays which are shared by multiple loops. Now, take the

example of R 6 , R 14 and R 9 . These relays feature in all loops and by opening them we can open all

clockwise and anti clockwise loops. Similar statement can be made for R 3 , R 7 and R 12. This set also

appears in all loops.

Another such set is R 1 , R 13, R 4 and R 10. Now it is better to begin by assuming setting in R 6 , R 14 and R 9

or R 12, R 7 and R 3 , because they involves lesser number of relays than R 1 , R 13, R 4 and R 10. Thus

amount of assumptions are reduced which should reduce the number of iterations in relay coordination.

Such a set of minimum number of relays which when opened break all loops in the system are called

Minimum Break Point Relay set. There are multiple choices, but each of such sets has same (minimum)

number of relays.

So the relay coordination process is as follows.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Find the set of relays which back up the primary relays in above step.

6.

7.

All relays exhausted. If yes, RSM is complete else set current back up relays as primary relay and go to 5.

8.

From the graph and RSM work out set of sequential primary back up pairs (SSP) for coordination.

9.

From the short circuit analysis, find primary back up current pairs.

Test the primary back up coordination for all relays in the first row of RSM. If any primary back up relay

11.

pair does not

satisfy the coordination criteria, coordination fails, so select the first primary back up pair from the SSP

and return to step 10.

20.2 Example

Consider a transmission network system as shown in fig 20.2. Identify all possible clockwise and

anticlockwise loops and also minimum breakpoint relays.

In the above figure, there are 12 loops, i.e., 6 in the clockwise direction and 6 in the anticlockwise

direction.

The clockwise loops are given by

1.

R1

R9

R4

2.

R2

R3

R 10

3.

R1

R2

R3

4.

R 13

R 21

R 16

5.

R 14

R 15

R 22

6.

R 13

R 14

R 15

R4

R 16

The anticlockwise loops are given by

1.

R5

R 10

R8

2.

R6

R7

R9

3.

R5

R6

R7

4.

R 17

R 22

R 20

5.

R 18

R 19

R 21

6.

R 17

R 18

R 19

R8

R 20

Hint: One set of minimum break point relays are given by,

R 8 , R 9 , R 2 , R 20, R 21, R 14.

Course Projects

For a transmission system as shown in fig 20.3, the pick up currents and the fault currents seen by the

primary and back up relay pairs for remote bus faults at F1 , F2 , F3 , F4 , F5 and F6 are tabulated in table 1

and 2 respectively.

Table 1 : Pick up Current

Relay

R1

R2

R3

R4

R5

R6

R7

R8

R9

R 10

R 11

R 12

R 13

R 14

Pick up

Current

120

192

80

120

160

80

160

240

80

160

128

128

120

160

Remote Bus

Fault at

Clockwise Loop

Current seen

Primary Relay

by Current seen

Back up Relay

by Current seen

Primary Relay

by Current seen

Back up Relay

F1

R 13 (861A)

R 12 (0)

R 6 (977A)

R 7 (576A)

F2

R 8 (3422A)

R 13 (56A)

R 7 (1764A)

R 2 (1477A)

F5

R 14 (1483A)

R 8 (1119A)

R 2 (4589A)

R 1 (307A)

F6

R 12 (767A)

R 14 (469A)

R 1 (601A)

R 6 (0)

F2

R 7 (1764A)

R 11 (287A)

R 5 (1074A)

R 4 (0)

F3

R 9 (553A)

R 7 (157A)

R 4 (946A)

R 3 (114A)

F4

R 10 (1365A)

R 9 (0)

R 3 (639A)

R 14 (152A)

F5

R 11 (868A)

R 10 (240A)

R 14 (1483A)

R 5 (364A)

F3

R 9 (553A)

R 8 (396)

--

--

by

F6

R 12 (767A)

R 11 (298A)

F1

--

--

R 6 (977A)

R 5 (401A)

F4

--

--

R 3 (639A)

R 2 (487A)

--

--

= 0.01989

Write a program to coordinate the relays. Identify the minimum break point relays. There may be some

relays whose coordination is not possible. Identify such relays. This equation corresponds to CO-8

Westinghouse relay characteristic as shown in fig 20.4.

Review Questions

1.

2.

For the transmission system as shown in fig 20.4, identify all possible clockwise and anticlockwise loops

and

minimum break point relays.

3.

4.

5.

Develop an algorithm for coordination of sequential primary back up current pair. It should account for

limits of the

setting (TMS, PSM) of relays and also identify current pairs which cannot be coordinated

Recap

In this lecture we have learnt the following:

Break point relays and minimum break point relays.

Clockwise and anticlockwise loops coordination problems for the given systems.

Lecture 21 : Introduction to Distance Relaying

Objectives

In this lecture we will

Introduce distance protection.

Fault modeling of balanced transmission line for 3 phase faults, L-L fault.

21.1 Introduction

Overcurrent protection scheme is essentially a simple protection scheme. Consequently, its accuracy is not

very high. It is comparatively cheap as non-directional protection does not require VT. However, it is not

suitable for protection of meshed transmission systems where selectivity and sensitivity requirements are

more stringent. Overcurrent protection is also not a feasible option, if fault current and load currents are

comparable. We now discuss about distance protection scheme which provides both 'higher' sensitivity

and selectivity.

Distance protection provides the following features:

More accurate as more information is used for taking decision.

Directional, i.e. it responds to the phase angle of current with respect to voltage phasor.

Back-up protection.

Primarily used in transmission line protection. Also it can be applied to generator backup, loss of field and

transformer

backup protection.

21.2.1Three Phase Fault Protection

Consider a balanced (transposed) transmission line (fig 21.1)

(1)

Let T =

(2)

Then,

(3)

Similarly,

(4)

21.2.1Three Phase Fault Protection (contd..)

Where Z 0 = Z s + 2Zm; [zero sequence impedance]

Z 1 = Z s - Z m; [positive sequence impedance]

Z 2 = Z s - Z m; [negative sequence impedance]

Thus,

Now let a

bolted fault occur at percentage (%) distance, x of the line (fig 21.2)

For a solid

fault, V n = 0. Thus,

21.2.1Three Phase Fault Protection (contd..)

In the sequence domain

Ib = a2 Ia

I c = aI a

From equation (4), we get

I 0 = 0; I 1 = I a ; I 2 = 0;

So only positive sequence network is excited. Hence,

(5)

By using equation (5), we can locate the

(6)

It then follows that, a relay which monitor line current and phase voltages can locate

fault by

using equation (6). In the absence of fault currents I a , I b and I c are smaller in magnitude.

Consequently, apparent impedance seen by the relay is much higher. Hence, a simple logic to locate

fault is provided by equation (6).

It can be easily seen that for a

[Hint: Substitute I b = a 2 I a , V b = a 2 V a , I c =

(7)

aI a , V c = a V a ]

Notice that, if equation (7) is used for locating fault, then the relay input voltage is the line voltage and

not the phase voltage. Similarly, current input is the difference of line currents and not actual line

currents. Thus, equation (7) provides an alternate way of locating

fault. Note that per unit

distance to fault is given by ratio of apparent impedance seen by the relay to the positive sequence

impedance of the line.

21.2.2Line to Line Fault Protection

Consider a bolted L-L fault on the phase b-c of the system (fig 21.3).

Again, system is considered unloaded for simplicity. Then the governing equations in 3-phase

coordinates given by

(8)

where

Further

21.2.2Line to Line Fault Protection (contd..)

Simplifying equation (8), we get

(9)

(10)

(11)

Now, subtract equation (11) from equation (10)

(12)

From equation (7) and (12) we conclude that a relay input configured as per equation (7) can measure

both 3-phase fault and L-L fault.

Therefore, traditionally the distance relays are configured as per equation (7) to detect and locate both

L-L and 3-phase faults. Therefore, distance to fault is given by

where, l is length of line and Z app is the impedance seen by the relay.

This is the fundamental principle of distance relaying.

21.3.1Single Line to Ground Fault

We now derive the governing equation for S-L-G fault case. Consider a single line to ground fault in

phase 'a' on a unloaded transmission line at a per unit distance . (fig 21.4)

(13)

Thus, ratio

equals

and not

relay input voltages and currents have to be configured in such a way that for any type of bolted fault

(Zf = 0), the apparent impedance seen by relay is given by

. Therefore, it follows that we should

modify equation (13) suitably.

(14)

21.3.1Single Line to Ground Fault (contd..)

(15)

Now,

Hence,

(16)

(17)

Since

, let

(18)

21.3.1Single Line to Ground Fault (contd..)

where m is called compensation factor for zero sequence current. Similarly, it can be shown for b-g and

c-g faults.

(19)

and

(20)

It is clear that traditionally the ground fault relays require a different input configuration from phase fault

relays (3-phase and L-L)

1.

2.

A L-L-G fault can also be detected by the S-L-G relay equations. There are 10 types of shunt faults

against which a system has to be protected. They are:

3-phase fault

1

L-L faults

3

3.

S-L-G faults

L-L-G faults

4.

The relaying units configured by equation (7) and (18,19,20) do this job satisfactorily.

Therefore, there would be errors introduced when the

fault has some impedance

transmission line impedance AB. Rather it would lie in

a region shown by trapezoid in fig 21.5. Also, note that

arcing faults are primarily resistive in nature.

Usually, distance relay characteristics are visualized by

drawing the relay characteristics in R-X plane. If the

apparent impedance seen by the relay falls inside the

trip region (enclosed region), then relay declares a

fault and issues a trip decision. This decision making

can be done in about 1/2 - 1 cycle time, if no

intentional time delays are introduced, e.g, for backup

protection.

While trapezoid or quadrilateral characteristics are

quite popular with the numerical relays, previous

generation of electromechanical and solid state relays

used other characteristics like 'mho' characteristics

(see fig 21.6), which were easier to derive. Mho relay

circles usually enclosed a larger area than the

quadrilateral characteristics for identical line

impedance and arcing impedance parameters. Thus,

they are more susceptible to nuisance tripping. Hence,

these characteristics have been superceded by the

trapezoidal characteristics.

Review Questions

1.

3.

Show that for a bolted fault per unit distance to a fault in a transmission is the ratio of apparent

impedance seen by the

relay to the positive sequence impedance of line.

Derive an equation for locating a-b fault in a transmission line.

4.

Why does the distance ground fault relay require a different configuration?

2.

Recap

In this lecture we have learnt the following:

The advantages of distance protection.

Distance relays can be used for protecting the system from all kinds of fault.

Lecture 22 : Setting of Distance Relays

Objectives

In this lecture we will explain

Setting of distance relays

Zone 1 setting and the reason for keeping zone 1 setting at 80% of primary line length.

Load encroachment.

Zone 1 of Protection

Distance relays can be classified into phase relay and ground relays. Phase relays are used to protect the

transmission line against phase faults (three phase, L-L) and ground relays are used to protect against

ground faults (S-L-G, L-L-G). In this lecture, we will learn the ways to set distance relay. Just like an

overcurrent relay, a distance relay also has to perform the dual task of primary and back up protection.

For example, in fig 22.1, the distance relay R 1 has to provide primary protection to line AB and back up

protection to lines BC, BD and BE.

The

primary

protection

should be fast and hence

preferably it should be

done

without

any

intentional

time

delay,

while back up protection

should operate if and only

if corresponding primary

relay fails. In fig 22.1, R 1

backs operation of relays

R 3 , R 5 and R 7 . Typically,

distance

relays

are

provided

with

multiple

zones of protection to meet

the stringent selectivity

and

sensitivity

requirements.

At

least

three zones of protection

are provided for distance

relays.

Zone 1 is designated by Z 1 and zones 2 and 3 by Z 2 and Z 3 respectively. Zone 1 is meant for protection

of the primary line. Typically, it is set to cover 80% of the line length. Zone 1 provides fastest protection

because there is no intentional time delay associated with it. Operating time of Z 1 can be of the order of 1

cycle. Zone 1 does not cover the entire length of the primary line because it is difficult to distinguish

all of which are close to bus B. In other words, if a fault is close to

between faults at

bus, one cannot ascertain if it is on the primary line, bus or on back up line. This is because of the

following reasons:

1.

CTs and PTs have limited accuracy. During fault, a CT may undergo partial or complete saturation. The

resulting errors

in measurement of apparent impedance seen by relay, makes it difficult to determine fault location at the

boundary of lines very accurately.

2.

Derivations for equations of distance relays made some assumptions like neglecting capacitance of line,

unloaded

system transposed lines and bolted faults. In practice none of these assumptions are valid. Fault on a line

will also destroy effect of transposing. Such factors affect accuracy of distance relaying. Further,

algorithms for numerical relays may use a specific transmission line model. For example, a transmission

line may be modeledas a series R L circuit and the contribution of distributed shunt capacitance may be

neglected. Due to model limitation and because of transients accompanied with the fault, working of

numerical algorithm is prone to errors.

3.

With only local measurements, and a small time window, it is difficult to determine fault impedance

accurately. For

example, if the fault has an impedance (

),

more exact. The impedance seen by the relay R 1

(fig 22.2) for fault F also depends upon the current

contribution from the remote end, thus

.

4.

There are infeed and outfeed effects associated with working of distance relays. Recall that a distance

relaying

scheme uses only local voltage and current measurements for a bus and transmission line. Hence, it

cannot model infeed or outfeed properly.

Zone 2 and Zone 3 for Protection

Usually zone 2 is set to 120% of primary line impedance Z 1 . This provides sufficient margin to account

for non-zero fault impedance and other errors in relaying. Also one should note that Z 2 also provides

back up protection to a part of the adjacent line. Therefore, one would desire that Z 2 should be extended

to cover as large a portion of adjacent line as possible.

Typically, Z 2 is set to reach 50% of the shortest back up line provided that

where

Z P and Z B are the positive sequence impedance of primary and the shortest back up line respectively. If

the shortest back up line is too short then, it is likely that Z P + 1.5ZB will be less than 1.2ZP . In such a

case, Z 2 is set to 1.2ZP . Since, back up protection has to be provided for entire length of remote line, a

third zone of protection, Z 3 is used.

Zone 2 and Zone 3 for Protection (contd..)

It is set to cover the farthest (longest) remote lines (BD in fig 22.3(a) for relay R 1 acting as a back up

relay). Since its operation should not interfere with Z 2 operation of relays

, it is set up to

operate with a time delay of 2 CTI where CTI is the coordination time interval. The settings of relay R 1 on

an R-X plane is visualized in fig 22.3(b). The timing diagrams are shown in fig 22.3(c).

There is a specific reason as to why Z 2 is not set to reach beyond 50% of the shortest remote line. As

shown in fig 22.4 (a), if the reach of Z 2 of a relay R 1 is extended too much, then it can overlap with the

Z 2 of the relay R 3 .

Under such a situation, there exists following conflict. If the fault is on line BC (and in Z 2 of R 3 ), relay R 3

should get the first opportunity to clear the fault. Unfortunately, now both R 1 and R 3 compete to clear

the fault. This means that Z 2 of the relay R 1 has to be further slowed down by CTI. This leads to timing

diagram (fig 22.4 (b)).

Thus, it is clear that fault clearing time in 20% region of line AB is delayed a bit too much, thereby

degrading performance of Z 2 of relay R 1 . Hence, a conscious effort is made to avoid overlaps of Z 2 of

relay R 1 and R 3 . Setting back zone Z 2 of R 1 to maximum of 120% of primary line impedance or primary

line impedance plus 50% of smallest back up impedance usually works out as a good compromise to

reach as much of back up lines by Z 2 without getting into Z 2 overlap problem.

However, under certain conditions, when the shortest line to be backed up is too short, it may not be

possible to avoid Z 2 overlap. Similarly, one may even encounter Z 3 overlap problem. On such small line

segments, alternative way to improve speed characteristic of relay is to use pilot relaying. This aspect will

be discussed in later lectures.

Example

1. Consider a protection system shown in fig 22.5. Identify the primary relays for back up relay R 1 .

Relay R 1 not only backup's line BC but also parallel line AB. Therefore, for relay R 1 acting as back up, the

Ans:

primary relays

are R 5 and R 4 .

Now assuming that pu impedance of all transmission lines in above fig 22.5 is

pu

/km, determine

2.

the setting of

zone 1, zone 2 and zone 3 relays of R 1 .

Ans:

[because BA is the shortest back up line]

[because BC is the longest back up line]

This approach for setting of distance relays presented is known as kilometric distance approach because

the set values of impedances are proportional to lengths. In doing so, we have neglected effect of load

currents and as well as the effect of change in operating condition in the system. More accurate settings

can be computed by evaluating fault impedance seen by the relay for a fault by using short circuit

analysis programs.

Consider the operation of distance relay R 1 for a fault F close to remote bus on line BC (fig 22.6).

Hence,

(1)

Thus, we see that the distance relay at R 1 does not measure impedance

. If there is an

equivalent generator source at bus E, then it feeds the fault current. Thus

and

are

approximately in phase. This is known as infeed effect. From equation (1), it is clear that infeed causes

an equivalent increase in apparent impedance seen by the relay R 1 .

From the relay's perspective, the fault is pushed beyond its actual location. Thus, a fault in zone-2 may

be pushed into zone-3, thereby compromising selectivity of zone-2. However, infeed effect does not

compromise selectivity of zone-1. In other words, relay R 1 perceives fault to farther away from than its

actual location.

However, if there is an equivalent load at bus E, then I AB and I EB are in phase opposition. This causes an

apparent reduction in the impedance seen by the relay R 1 . In other words, the relay R 1 perceives fault to

be at a point closer than its actual location. If this perceived point falls well in the section AB, the relay R 1

will operate instantaneously for a fault on the back up line, thereby compromising selectivity. Hence,

instantaneous primary protection zone (Z1 ) of distance relay is always set below 100% line impedance.

Typically, zone 1 is set to cover 0.8 to 0.9 times the primary line length. In other words, we expect errors

in measurements of fault impedance to be within 10-20% accuracy. The remaining portion of the primary

line is provided with a time delayed protection known as Z 2 . The zone 2 protection is delayed at least by

the coordination time interval, CTI to give first opportunity to relays

it falls into its primary protection zone. Note that, relay R 3 in fig 22.6 is immune to infeed or outfeed

effect for fault F.

Consider the steady state positive

sequence model of a transmission line

shown in fig 22.7.

Then, it can be shown that apparent

impedance seen by relay R is given by,

=

(2)

1.

Quadrant of Z R in the R - X plane correspond to the quadrant of apparent power (S ij ) in (Pij - Q ij ) plane.

2.

The apparent impedance seen by the relay is proportional to square of the magnitude of bus voltage. If

the bus voltage

drops say to 0.9 pu from 1 pu, then Z R reduces to 81% of its value with nominal voltage. Further, if the

bus voltage drops to say 0.8 pu, then the apparent impedance seen by the relay will drop to 64% of its

value at 1 pu.

3.

The apparent impedance seen by the relay is inversely proportional to the apparent power flowing on the

line. If the

apparent power doubles up, the impedance seen by relay will reduce by 50%.

During peak load conditions, it is quite likely that combined effect of (2) and (3) may reduce the apparent

impedance seen by the relay to sufficiently small value so as to fall in Z 2 or Z 3 characteristic. This is quite

likely in case of a relay backing up a very long line. In such a case, Z 3 impedance setting can be quite

large. If the impedance seen by relay due to large loads falls within the zone, then it will pick up and trip

the circuit after its time dial setting requirement are met. Under such circumstances, the relay is said to

trip on load encroachment . Tripping on load encroachment compromises security and it can even

initiate cascade tripping which in turn can lead to black outs.

Thus, safeguards have to be provided to

prevent tripping on load encroachment. A

distinguishing feature of load from faults is

that typically, loads have large power

with large

factor and this leads to

ratio. In contrast, faults are more or

less reactive in nature and the

ratio

is quite high.

Thus, to prevent tripping on load

encroachment, the relay characteristic are

modified by excluding an area in R X

plane, which corresponds to high power

factor. A typical modified characteristic to

account for load encroachment is shown in

fig 22.8.

The conditions of low value of Z R discussed

in (1) and (2) can also arise due to

voltage

instability or transients associated with electromechanical oscillations of rotors of synchronous machines

after a major disturbance like the faults. This can also induce nuisance tripping. Such tripping is known as

tripping on power swings and it will be studied in the later lectures.

Review Questions

1.

Why is zone 1 protection of distance relays always set below 100% line length?

2.

What is meant by infeed effect? How will it affect the performance of a distance relay?

3.

4.

5.

6.

Recap

In this lecture we have learnt the following:

Setting of distance relays for zone 1 protection.

Overlapping problem.

Lecture 23 : Pilot Protection with Distance Relays

Objectives

In this lecture we will introduce the basic principle of different directional comparison schemes like:

Directional comparison blocking system.

These schemes are used to improve speed and selectivity of the conventional distance relaying.

Introduction

1.

We have seen that distance relays provide fast protection upto 80% of the primary line length. However,

primary protection for remaining 20% is deliberately slowed down by coordination time interval. Pilot

protection is used for lines to provide the high speed simultaneous detection of phase and ground faults

for 100% of the primary line. Since distance relays are directional relays, the corresponding schemes are

known as directional comparison schemes. Following directional comparison schemes are in use.

Directional comparison blocking.

2.

3.

4.

a) Non-permissive.

b) Permissive.

The basic idea behind all these schemes is to obtain the response of the distance relay element at other

end to speed- up decision making. This requires additional communication signals. If relay R 1 could obtain

the response of relay R 2 regarding the location of fault, then uncertainity in locating faults close to

boundary is no more significant and it can quickly clear the fault anywhere on the primary line (internal

fault).

We now briefly describe each of these schemes.

Basic Principle

1.

2.

Use directional fault detectors to detect faults in the direction of primary line.

Use blocking signal from the remote end in case the fault is not on the primary

line.

Consider the requirement of protecting line AB. If the fault is at F1 (anywhere on the line AB), fast

protective action is required from relays R 1 and R 2 . To achieve this action, relays R 1 and R 2 are enabled

with two units each called fault detectors (FD 1 and FD 2 ) and carrier starts S 1 and S 2 . Typically, the fault

detectors correspond to Z 2 of distance relays at respective locations as shown in fig 23.1. They overreach

the primary line. The carrier start relays look for fault in opposite sense to respective FD. They are called

carrier starts because the channel signals between A and B are initiated by them.

Imagine a scheme where FD issues a trip signal after identifying a fault unless it is quickly blocked by an

external agent (carrier starters). For example, if the fault is in F1 , both FD 1 and FD 2 will pick up. Since

neither carrier starts S 1 nor S 2 will pick up, fault F1 will be cleared quickly. In contrast, suppose that fault

is at F2 . Then FD 1 will pick up and so will S 2 . The S 2 will initiate channel and send blocking signal to FD 1 .

The FD 1 will be blocked from tripping action until its timer runs out. In this interval, either the primary

relay R 3 will clear the fault or else it is cleared by R 1 as a back up measure.

In other words, in this scheme, the relays are set for fast clearing action. They do not care whether the

fault is in primary line or the back up line. Blocking from the other end is used to prevent fast tripping for

faults on backup line.

The directional comparison unblocking pilot system is explained below:

1.

2.

Basic Principle

After detecting a fault in the right direction, put the relays in block mode' for CTI.

Use unblock signals from the remote if the fault is on the primary line.

In this scheme as shown in fig 23.2, Z 2 of R 1 and R 2 remain in block mode' for a specified time after

seeing the fault. Of course, if there is no fault in the system anywhere, neither fault detectors will pick

up. In case, relay R 2 observes a fault in the direction of bus A, it sends an unblock signal to relay R 1 (and

vice- versa). If the fault is in the primary line AB (F 1 ), both R 1 and R 2 detect the fault, and also receive

unblock signal from the opposite end. The unblocking signal helps in immediate action of both relays R 1

and R 2 leads to fast tripping of line. In case, the fault is at F2 , then the relay R 2 will not send unblock

signal to R 1 . While relay R 1 sees the fault, its FD also initiates a down counter set to CTI. If the FD

detects fault even after counter has run down, then a trip signal is issued by R 1 for back up fault clearing

action in the adjacent line.

The advantage of directional comparison unblocking pilot system is that it eliminates need of carrier

starts S 1 and S 2 . Typically, it is implemented using frequency shift keying (FSK) channels.

To summarize, the relays or more appropriately their fault detectors detect fault in the appropriate

direction. Unblock signal from the remote end is used to quickly clear the faults on the primary line.

We now explain the principle of directional comparison overreaching transfer trip pilot system:

Basic Principle

1.

2.

Else, initiate back up protection.

This scheme is shown in fig 23.3. In this scheme, for internal fault both FD 1 and FD 2 operate to shift

respective transmitters to trip mode. A logical AND-ing of trip of both FD 1 and FD 2 provides the trip

output at both ends of the line. In case of external fault either FD 1 or FD 2 will not pick up and hence

relays R 1 and R 2 will not operate.

In case there is no fault, neither FD 1 nor FD 2 operate. In case of external fault either FD 1 or FD 2 will pick

up depending upon whether fault is on right side of node B or left side of node A. This over reaching

initiates a timer. If external fault persists beyond CTI, then a back up trip decision is initiated by Z 2 of

the respective relays.

We now discuss the directional comparison under reaching transfer trip pilot system. The under reaching

terminology implies that the FDs are to be set so as always to overlap but not over reach any remote

terminal under all operating condition. The schematic diagram of this scheme is given in fig 23.4.

Phase directional distance relay zone1 unit meets this requirement. Two types of such implementation

exist. They are known as a) non permissive b) permissive. With external faults, neither FD 1 nor FD 2 picks

up. For internal faults in the overlap area of FD 1 and FD 2 both FD 1 and FD 2 pick up. To clear internal

faults quickly which are not in the overlap region, OR-ing of the trip decision of FD 1 and FD 2 is used at

both ends. This system is not very much in use.

Review Question

1.

a)

b)

c)

d)

2.

Briefly explain how, the directional comparison schemes provide uniformly fast protection for faults on the

primary line

while providing time discrimination for the backup action.

Recap

Direction comparison schemes that use communication from other end to speed the trip decision for fault

on the

primary line.

Various schemes which were discussed are:

Directional comparison blocking system.

Directional comparison unblocking pilot system.

Directional comparison overeaching transfer trip pilot system.

Directional comparison under reaching transfer trip pilot system.

The communication requirement in these schemes is not very high as only block/unblock signals are

communicated to

the other end.

Congratulations, you have finished Lecture 23. To view the next lecture select it from the left hand side

menu of the page

Lecture 24 : Power Swings and Distance Relaying

Objectives

In this lecture we will learn the following:

In this lecture, we will introduce the concept of power swings. It will be shown that the post fault power

swings may encroach the relay characteristics. This can lead to nuisance tripping of distance relays which

can sacrifice the system security.

Power swings refer to

oscillation in active and

reactive power flows on a

transmission

line

consequent to a large

disturbance like a fault.

The oscillation in the

apparent power and bus

voltages is seen by the

relay as an impedance

swing on the R-X plane. If

the impedance trajectory

enters a relay zone and if

stays there for sufficiently

long time, then the relay

will issue a trip decision on

power swing. Tripping on

power

swings

is

not

desirable.

We

now

investigate

this

phenomenon and then

discuss

remedial

measures.

Let us consider a simple

two

machines

system

connected

by

a

transmission

line

of

impedance Z L as shown in

fig 24.1(a). E S and E R are

the generator voltages at

two ends and we assume

that the system is purely

reactive.

The voltage E S leads E R by an angle

so that power flows from A to B during steady state. The relay

under consideration is located at bus A end. The power angle curve is shown in fig 24.1(b) . The system

is operating at initial steady operating point A with P mo as output power and

as initial rotor angle.

is given by:

(1)

Now, suppose, that a self clearing transient three phase short circuit fault occurs on the line. During the

fault, the electrical output power

drops to zero. The resulting rotor acceleration advances rotor angle

to

, corresponding to angle

jumps back to the sinusoidal curve. As per equal area criteria, the rotor will swing up to maximum rotor

, such that,

angle

Accelerating Area (A1 ) = Decelerating Area (A 2 )

Rotor angle

(2)

During fault, P e = 0, hence,

(3)

(4)

is specified as

follows:

Integrating equation (4) and substituting

at time t = t1 , with

(5)

Thus, accelerating area A 1 is given by,

(6)

(7)

Similarly, decelerating area, A 2 , can be calculated as follows.

(8)

(9)

i.e.

Since,

(10)

is function of P mo as well as

depends on P mo and

from equation

i.e.

(11)

The variation of

Now that we have reviewed, the rotor angle dynamics, we proceed to discuss the relay's perception of

the dynamical system.

A distance relay may classify power swing as a phase fault if the impedance trajectory enters operating

characteristic of the relay. We will now derive the apparent impedance seen by the relay R on the R-X

plane. Again consider simple two machine system connected by a transmission line of impedance Z L as

shown in fig 24.1(a). For the sake of convenience machine B is treated as a reference and it's angle is

set to zero.

(12)

Where,

(13)

Now, the impedance seen by relay is given by the following equation,

(14)

Let us define

. Assuming for simplicity, both the voltages as equal to 1pu, i.e. k = 1. Then,

(15)

From equation (15) at

equation. The vector component

in equation (15) is a constant in R X plane.

The

component

lies

on

. Thus, the trajectory of the impedance

measured by relay during the power swing is

a straight line as shown in fig 24.3. The angle

subtended by a point in the locus on S and R

. For simplicity, angle of

end points is angle

,

and

.

swing impedance trajectory on the impedance

line is known as electrical center of the swing.

between two

(fig 24.4(a)). The angle,

sources can be mapped graphically as the

angle subtended by source points E S and E R

on the swing trajectory. At the electrical

center, angle between two sources is

.

The existence of the electrical center is an

indication of system instability, the two

generators now being out of step.

If the power swing is stable, i.e. if the post

will be less

fault system is stable, then

than

If

, then the power swing locus on the R X is an arc of the circle. (See fig 24.4(b)).

(16)

Then,

location of the electrical center is dependent

upon the

phenomenon. This is because, during unstable

transient,

is not stationary. As the rotor

angles separate in time electrical center arises

during out-of-step condition. When

, the rotors are said to have slipped a pole.

However,

once

past

,

the

corresponding phasors start coming closer to

each other. Thus, electrical center vanishes

after sometime. When

= 0, another

transient point, the rotor is said to have

slipped by 2 - poles.

system at the point of occurrence of electrical

center is shown in fig 24.5.

At the electrical center, the voltage is exactly

zero. This means that relays at both ends of

the line perceive it as a bolted three phase

fault and immediately trip the line. Thus, we

can conclude that existence of electrical

center implies (1) system instability (2)

likelihood of nuisance tripping of distance

relay.

Now consider a doubleend-fed

transmission

line with three stepped

distance

protection

scheme having Z 1 , Z 2

and Z 3 protection zones

as shown in fig 24.6.

The mho relays are

used and characteristics

are plotted on R-X

plane as shown in fig

24.7. Swing impedance

trajectory

is

also

overlapped

on

relay

characteristics

for

a

simple case of equal

end voltages (i.e. k =

1)

and

it

is

perpendicular to line

AB.

and

are

,

rotor

enters the zone Z 1 , Z 2

and Z 3 respectively and

it can be obtained from

the

intersection

of

swing trajectory with

the

relay

characteristics.

Recall

is

the

that

maximum rotor angle

for stable power swing.

Following inferences can

be drawn.

,

then

If

swing will not enter the

relay characteristics.

If

Z 3 . If it stays in zone Z 3 for larger interval

than its TDS, then the

relay will trip the line.

, swing will enter in both the zones Z 2 and Z 3 . If it stays in zone 2, for a larger

If

interval than its TDS, then the relay will trip on Z 2 . Typically, TDS of Z 2 is less than TDS of Z 3 .

If

, swing will enter in the zones Z 1 , Z 2 and Z 3 and operate zone 1 protection without any

intentional delay.

So far, we have discussed power swings for a 2-machine system. Evaluation of power swings on a

multimachine system requires usage of transient stability program. By using transient stability program,

during post fault the relay end node voltage and line currents can be monitored and then the swing

trajectory can be traced on a impedance plane.

Review Questions

1.

Define a power swing and elaborate its consequences on distance relaying performance.

2.

Derive the expressions for apparent impedance seen by a relay in a two area system as function of angle

of separation

. Show that the locus is a straight line if |E A| = |E B| and a circle if |E A|

3.

Recap

Characterized the swing locus seen by distance relay.

|E B|.

Lecture 25 : Analysis of Power Swings in a Multi Machine System

Objectives

In this lecture we will

Analyse a given transmission network.

Determine whether the power swing in R-X plane cuts through any transmission line.

when it is connected to the network be I ij from

the i th end and I ji at the j th end respectively.

Then, under the assumption of linearity, the

effect of the transmission line connection can be

evaluated by superimposing injected currents

and

on the network in

which

line

i-j

was

disconnected.

Thus,

. Since, we

are only interested in characterizing behavior at

busses i and j, we can ignore the remaining rows

in (2).

Thus,

(3)

Equivalently, (3) can be expressed as follows.

(4)

where

symmetry assumption,

The equivalent circuit of fig 25.1 can be reduced as shown in fig 25.2. Now from the equivalent circuit of

fig 25.2 we get that,

(5)

;

;

Thus the equivalent circuit is as

shown in fig 25.3.

where

Thus,

(6)

is less than

then

electrical center is formed on line L. If it is greater than Z L , then electrical center lies outside the

transmission line L.

Example 1

For the system shown in fig

25.3, determine the two port

equivalent and find out whether

the power swing locus passes

through

(a) transmission line c'

(b) transmission line b'

Solution:

(a)

In order to analyze whether the power swing will pass through the transmission line c', we need to

develop a two

machine equivalent across the line. For that, the transmission line c' is disconnected from the network

and Z bus matrix is formed.

Let us form the nodal admittance matrix or Y bus for the given system with transmission line c'

disconnected.

Example 1 (contd..)

Solution:

Since we are considering the transmission line c' which is connected between buses 2 and 3, we can

ignore the first row and column of the Z bus matrix and the reduced model will be,

Therefore,

i.e.

Example 1 (contd..)

Solution:

Hence the network will be as shown in fig 25.4, with transmission line c' connected across it.

The total impedance between the two sources is given by,

,

impedance line at

trajectory

intersects the

on R-X plane. From fig 25.5 it can be seen that

electrical center of the swing lies on the transmission

line c'.

Example 1 (contd..)

Solution:

(b)

Now consider the transmission line b'. For forming the two machine equivalent, transmission line b' is

disconnected

from the system and Z bus is formed by inverting Y bus.

Since we are considering only the buses 1 and 2 across which line b' is connected, we can ignore the third

row and third column of the Z bus matrix. Thus, the reduced system model is given by,

and

Since,

Example 1 (contd..)

Solution:

line b' across the network as shown in fig 25.6 and then the total impedance across the sources will be,

,

impedance line at

trajectory

intersects

the

see from fig 25.7 we can see that the intersecting

point of swing impedance trajectory with impedance

line lies outside the transmission line b'.

Review Questions

1.

For the system shown in fig 25.3, determine whether swing locus passes through transmission line 'f'.

2.

For the system shown in fig 25.8, find out whether power swing passes through any of the transmission

lines?

Recap

In this lecture we have learnt the following:

Developed a two source equivalent of the power system.

Analysed the system to determine whether swing locus passes through any transmission line.

Found that swing locus passes through one of the transmission line.

Lecture 26 : Power Swing Detection, Blocking and Out-of-Step Relays

Objectives

In this lecture, we will

Discuss the effect of unstable power swings in a two area system.

1) Out of step blocking relays.

2) Out of step tripping relays.

Discuss the guidelines for setting out of step blocking relays and out of step tripping relays.

Introduction

We have so far seen that power swings can be classified as either stable or unstable. Basically, a relay

which is expected to issue trip decision on a fault should not pick up on a swing (either stable or

unstable). When a power swing is a consequence of stable disturbance, unwanted line tripping can

aggravate disturbance and lead to instability. On the other hand, when the power swing is a consequence

of disturbance, classified as unstable, then interconnected operation of the system is simply not possible.

This implies that the system has to be split into multiple islands each of which can have independent

existence i.e. each island can maintain synchronism of generators. Now to achieve stable operation in

each island, generator load balance has to be ascertained. If an island has excess generation, it should

be shelved and similarly if an island has excess load then load shedding is required. Load shedding is

usually initiated by underfrequency relays, as excess load tends to pull the frequency down. However, to

minimize the loss of service to consumers, the boundary of islands has to be selected carefully. To

illustrate this point, consider a simple two area system as shown in fig 26.1.

Now consequent to a disturbance, let the system be unstable and let the location of electrical center be

on line AB. Recall that at the electrical center, voltage zero point is created when the two generators are

out of step. Alternatively, electrical center appears when the power swing intersects the transmission line

characteristics. This implies that relays located at the two ends of the transmission line, perceive the out

of step condition as a bolted three phase fault on the transmission line. Consequently, relays R 1 and R 2

will issue a trip decision, thereby islanding the system. Now, the generator at A (PG = 0.666pu) islands

with a load of 0.333pu and generator at B (PG= 0.333pu) islands with a load of 0.666pu. The resulting

loss of load is 0.333pu in island B and loss of generation in island A is 0.333pu.

However, if we had islanded the system by tripping line BC then an ideal solution of zero load or

generation shedding would have been achieved. This suggests that during unstable swings, we should

block the relays from operation. Consequently, more selective tripping can be initiated to achieve the

desirable islands. We now, arrive at a thumb rule that under out of step condition, distance relays should

be blocked from operation on swings.

Introduction (contd..)

Let us now re-look, the case of a stable power swing. The resulting movement of apparent impedance

seen by relay on the R-X plane may encroach Z 2 or Z 3 of a relay. If the swing stays inside the zone for

long enough time, then the relay will issue a trip command. This is also not desirable. Hence, even under

stable swings, the distance relays have to be blocked from tripping.

To conclude this discussion, it is not desirable for distance relay to trip on power swing whether the swing

is stable or not. This implies that distance relay should be equipped with swing detection and blocking

mechanism. This aspect is elaborated in this lecture.

Power Swing Detection

The basic idea in detecting a power swing is that change in apparent impedance seen by relay

due

due to power swing is a slow process

limited by inertia of generators. Thus, this time discrimination can be used to distinguish swings from

faults.

Based upon the above

principle, fig 26.2 shows

out of step blocking

scheme with an offset

Mho unit.

The

out-of-step

blocking unit is similar

to the Mho unit. It is a

circle concentric to mho

- tripping characteristic

but it has a larger

radius. In other words,

the

tripping

characteristic

is

embedded inside the

blocking

unit.

This

ascertains

that

any

power

swing

which

enters tripping will first

enter the out-of-step

blocking characteristic.

For the swing locus,

shown in fig 26.2, this

happens at point A.

After a short while, it

reaches

the

tripping

characteristics

and

enters tripping region at

point B.

Introduction (contd..)

Out-of-Step Blocking Relays (contd..)

If the transit time,

from point A to B is

larger than a preset

interval of the order

of few cycles, the out

of step blocking unit

will operate auxiliary

relays

to

block

tripping

of

phase

relays.

In case, only blocking

of

reclosing

is

required, the blocking

unit

will

restrain

automatic

reclosing

equipment. An out of

step blocking scheme

with an impedance

starting relay having

similar principle as

described above is

shown in fig 26.3.

Out-of-Step tripping relay is required for controlled separation of the system into multiple islands. Out of

step condition is detected by out of step tripping relay which detects presence of an unstable power

swing. It then proceeds to either trip the local breaker or issue a transfer trip signal to remote breaker to

separate the system at a more convenient point.

Introduction (contd..)

Out-of-Step Tripping Relay (contd..)

As shown in fig 26.4

the

basic

scheme

consists

of

two

modified

reactance

type

units

whose

characteristics are set

parallel to the system

impedance

characteristic SR with

one on each side of

line SR.

Consider an unstable

swing PQ as shown in

fig 26.2. It will cross

the first unit at point

X when it will pick up,

and

emerge

from

relay characteristic at

.

The

two

crossing, indicate that

swing has crossed the

impedance

characteristic

and

hence is a loss of

synchronism

condition, leading to

an out of step trip

decision. The scheme

will equally well pick

up if swing movement

.

was from Q to

The scheme would

also pick up even if

the unstable swing is

behind the relay.

For example, a swing from

to

. If the swing is far away from the line characteristic, then currents

involved are quite less. It is then associated with very low power reversals which do not characterize

unstable swings. To prevent tripping on such condition, the out of step relay is supervised by an

overcurrent relay unit. If the current signal is below a preset value, it inhibits the tripping signal of out of

step relay.

Introduction (contd..)

Guide lines for Setting Out-of-Step Tripping Relay

The primary question in setting the out of step relay discussed in previous section is to freeze the location

. In general, this

of the line segments L1 and L2 . i.e. decide the perpendicular distance MX and

for at least a preset interval

setting should be such that the swing locus will remain between

usually 0.005sec. This time is the operating time of the auxiliary relays which evaluates the sequence of

events and determines a loss of synchronism condition. Usually, this represents what is achieved in actual

system and hence does not pose any series rejection. Also, the characteristics L1 and L2 should not be set

so far apart to pick up on load conditions.

In other words, the angle subtended by X on R and S should be larger than

loading condition will always have angle below

carrying out transient stability simulations.

and as maximum

Consider the system shown in fig 26.5a. In the case of out of step condition, optimum location to break

the system into multiple islands is at bus-B.

If during out of step condition, the

electrical center also appears in the line

segment

BC,

then

the required

separation

is

achieved

naturally.

However, as we know the location of

electrical center is not fixed and it

depends upon system conditions like

E S, E R, number of lines in service,

Thevenin's impedances Z S1 and Z S2

etc.

Now, if due to system conditions, the

electrical center location shifts to

section CD, then uncontrolled system

separation will take place at cut - 2,

where generation load balance is not

obtained.

Hence, it is desirable to block distance

relay operation on power swings and

install an out of step tripping relay at

Bus-C. The respective power swings

are shown in fig 26.5b. Now, for this

scenario, the loss of synchronism

requires a transfer trip signal to be

generated to breakers at bus B. In

general, the point of best separation is

not fixed and it depends upon loading

and generating conditions.

Thus, supervising control with system operator intervention may be required to decide the islanding

location. Now WAM (Wide Area Measurement) technology has opened up new options for system

protection.

Introduction (contd..)

Setting of Out-of-Step Blocking Relays

The guidelines to set an

out of step blocking

relay

is

that

with

maximum slip between

systems, it will take an

impedance

trajectory

more than 4 cycles to

traverse the distance

from

out

of

step

characteristic to mho

tripping curve. The 4

cycle

time

is

the

required pick up time of

auxiliary relay which

establishes

blocking

function. As in case if

tripping

relays,

precaution has to be

taken that out of step

blocking

characteristic

does not encroach the

load impedance point

and establish increment

blocking of line tripping

relays.

Usually,

blocking

is

applied only to zone1

and zone2 and not to

zone3.

This enables clearing of fault which may arise during power swing block condition. The blocking function

setting for reclose blocking condition is also similar to that described for trip blocking setting. Blocking

automatic reclosing is a must for out of step condition. In case the OSB offset mho characteristic

encroaches into the load region, then it has to be appropriately modified. This is achieved by using

. Separation angle is as shown in fig 26.6.

additional blinders, typically set at

Introduction (contd..)

Setting of Out-of-Step Blocking Relays (contd..)

When additional blinders as shown in fig

26.6 are used, the 4 cycle travel time

from OSB elements has to be monitored

with respect to the blinder elements. To

restrict the reach of relays, instead of

blinders and mho relays, lens type

characteristics as shown in fig 26.7 are

also used. Many of these functions like

tripping, blocking and fault detection can

be easily integrated into a single

numerical relay with a lot more flexibility

to shape characteristics of numerical

relays and upcoming WAM technology

which use synchronized PMU provide

many new options in out of step

relaying. However, these developments

are beyond the scope of this course.

With large

of generators, it is also likely that electrical center may lie within the generator. When

such a situation is detected it is advisable to avoid the knee jerk reaction of tripping the generator. A

more beneficial strategy would be to use transfer trip signal to achieve generator function with load

generator balancing.

Monitoring the Circuit Breaker Tripping

point of

To avoid stress on the circuit breaker, it is advisable to delay CB trip until after the

separation is crossed over and the voltages are coming in phase. Tripping circuit breaker close to out of

step condition with separating phasors induces very large transient voltages on circuit breaker which is

not very advisable.

Review Questions

1.

2.

Why is it necessary for equipping distance relays with swing detection and blocking mechanism?

3.

Recap

Disadvantages of stable and unstable power swings.

Guidelines for setting out of step tripping relays and out of step blocking relays.

Lecture 27 : An Introduction

Objectives

In this lecture, we will learn the following:

Relay hardware.

a) Nonsimultaneous Sampling.

b) Simultaneous Sampling.

2) Relay Hardware.

3) Open System relaying.

The first and foremost driving force for advances in relaying systems is the need to improve reliability. In

turn, this implies increase in dependability as well as security. This need to improve reliability propelled

the development of solid state relays. Solid state relays have inherent self checking facility which was not

available with electromechanical relays. This feature is also available with numerical relays (fig 27.1). For

example, when we boot a computer, it goes through a self checking phase where in it checks RAM, hard

disk, etc. Also, with the reduced cost of computer hardware, and an exponential growth in processing

capability, numerical relays can provide high performance at moderate costs.

Since, numerical relays are based on digital technology, they are more or less immune to variation or

drift in parameters of individual components like OP-AMPS etc. due to changes in temperature, ageing

etc. Numerical relays also help in reducing burden (volt-amperes) of Current Transformer (CT) and

Voltage Transformer (VT). This is desirable because ideally sensors should not consume any power. If a

sensor consumes energy from the measurand, it will automatically distort the signal. This problem is

further aggravated in CTs due to non-linearity of iron core. Numerical relays offer very low impedance to

the secondary of CT and hence reduce burden on CT.

Numerical relays permit much more flexibility than their electromechanical and solid state counterparts.

In electromechanical relays, the constructional details like magnetic path, air gap etc., are used to design

various operating characteristics. Since, solid state relays mainly use analog circuit, they permit more

innovation than corresponding electromechanical relays which are no doubt robust. However, solid state

relays can not have the kind of flexibility that computer aided relaying can have. For example, providing

magnitude scaling and phase shift to a voltage signal to generate line to line voltage from phase to

neutral voltage is much simpler with computer aided relaying because it can be handled by the program.

A computer relay can be programmed. Further, due to the programming feature, it is possible to have

generic hardware for multiple relays, which reduces the cost of inventory.

Numerical relaying along with developments in fiber optic communication have pioneered development of

automated substations. Once, the analog signals from CTs and VTs are digitized, they can be converted

to optical signals and transmitted on substation LAN using fiber optic network. With high level of EMI

immunity offered by fiber optic cable, it has become the transmission medium by choice in substation

environment. Numerical relays can be nicely interfaced with a substation LAN. This in turn should be

contrasted with legacy substations (fig 27.1) where in lead wires have to run from each CT and VT to the

control panel (fig 27.2).This not only reduces wiring complexity in the substation but also reduces burden

on the CT as resistances of long lead wires are eliminated. Further, a single fiber optic LAN permits

multiplexing of multiple analog signals which is not possible with legacy arrangement.

Numerical relays also permit development of new functions as well as development of adaptive relaying

schemes. Traditionally, relaying systems are designed and set in a conservative manner. They represent

compromise between:

economy and performance

dependability and security

complexity and simplicity

speed and accuracy

credible and conceivable

Adaptive relaying is meant to minimize such compromises and also allow relays to fine-tune to existing

system conditions. Specific adaptive relaying features will be discussed in the later lectures.

Numerical relays also permit storage of pre and post fault data (of the order of few cycles). This data can

also be time stamped, now-a-days by Geographical Positioning System (GPS). GPS systems (a cluster of

24 satellites of pentagon, USA) not only provides positional information but also a time pulse every

second for synchronization of sampling. Thus, in principle, every sample and every event like closing or

opening of breakers can be time stamped. This helps in postmortem analysis which is used to determine

whether (1) a relay operated correctly (or incorrectly) and (2) any other relaying system or device (like

circuit breaker) has failed to operate. Time stamping of relay operation allows us to capture the sequence

of relay operations. Thus, in a complex situation like catastrophic failure of the power system (brown out

or black out), it is now possible to precisely determine the sequence of relay operations. This helps

engineers to capture and simulate the disturbance using transient stability, (EMTP) programs.

Such simulation studies help in

understanding shortcomings of the

existing

systems

and

thereby

improvising them. In this role, a

fault data recorder (FDR).

Numerical

relays

also

simplify

interfacing with CTs and VTs.

Consider a protective function which

requires zero sequence voltage.

Traditionally, it would be generated

by open delta VT connection in fig

27.3 If zero sequence current is also

required, it is obtained by using an

additional CT in the ground wire.

With

numerical

relays,

zero

sequence voltages and currents can

be derived inside the processor from

the phase voltage (Va , V b , V c ) and

line currents (I a , I b and I c ).

In differential protection e.g., three

phase

transformer

protection,

traditional protection schemes also

require additional care to handle

polarity, scaling and phase shifting

problems. This may even necessiate

use of an auxiliary CT.

Such complications can be resolved with ease when numerical relays are used. This aspect will be

discussed in more detail in the lectures on transformer protection.

27.2.1Block Diagram

Fig 27.4 shows the functional block diagram of a digital relay. It can be seen that a digital relay consists

of:

Analog input subsystem

Digital input subsystem

Digital output subsystem

A processor along with RAM (data scratch pad), main memory (historical data file) and power supply.

The 3- voltage and current signals are analog in nature. Since, a computer works with digital data,

analog signals have to be sampled and discretized. Additionally, signal scaling and isolation to protect

the low voltage computer system and scale the voltage and current signals to proportionate voltage

signal (e.g., within 5V ) is necessary. This functionality is provided by the analog input subsystem.

Typically, it consists of sample and hold circuit, Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) and multiplexer

interfaced to the processor. The digital input data consists of Circuit Breaker (CB) status (open or close).

The digital output is relay's operate / do not operate decision.

Once, the data is acquired within RAM, it is filtered by a digital filter and processed by the relay logic.

The algorithms for extracting phasors and relay logic will be discussed in subsequent lectures.

27.2

There are two commonly used schemes for configuring the analog input subsystem. One is known as

the 'simultaneous' & other 'non-simultaneous' scheme.

Fig 27.5 illustrates non-simultaneous sampling scheme. In this scheme, a multiplexer selects the

analog channel sequentially. Typically, power system applications involve more than one analog input.

To reduce the cost of the hardware, multiple channels are multiplexed through analog multiplexer to a

single ADC. An analog multiplexer permits a single output line to mirror the signal at the selected

input, say one of the 3 voltages/ 3 currents.

Thus, multiplexer is a collection of analog switches. Each channel can be selected by supplying

appropriate binary code to the multiplexer e.g. for 8-channel multiplexer, 3 bit address space is

required. A chip disable line permits parallel expansion if external logic is used to select desired

multiplexer. A multiplexer has two inputs (terminals) for a single channel. It provides better noise

immunity. Accuracy of the analog multiplexer depends on load impedance at the output terminal.

Typical recommended value is 10 7 to 10 8 . As Sample (S) and Hold (H) circuit has impedance in the

range 10 8 - 10 12

27.2

, no problem is encountered.

27.2.2.1Non-Simultaneous Sampling Scheme

There are two commonly used schemes for configuring the analog input subsystem. Fig 27.5 illustrates

one such scheme. In the first scheme, a multiplexer selects the analog channel. Typically, power

system applications involve more than one analog input. To reduce the cost of the hardware, multiple

channels are multiplexed through analog multiplexer to a single ADC. An analog multiplexer permits a

single output line to mirror the signal at the selected input, say one of the 3 voltages/ 3 currents.

Thus, multiplexer is a collection of analog switches. Each channel can be selected by supplying

appropriate binary code to the multiplexer e.g. for 8-channel multiplexer, 3 bit address space is

required. A chip disable line permits parallel expansion if external logic is used to select desired

multiplexer. A multiplexer has two inputs (terminals) for a single channel. It provides better noise

immunity. Accuracy of the analog multiplexer depends on load impedance at the output terminal.

Typical recommended value is 10 7 to 10 8 . As S and H circuit has impedance in the range 10 8 10 12

, no problem is encountered.

27.2.3Sample and Hold Circuit

The analog information is held by

a Sample and Hold circuit (fig

27.6). Any A/D converter requires

a finite conversion time. A S & H

circuit which conceptually is a

shunt capacitor with a switch holds

the information (in terms of

voltage). While the conversion

takes place, switch is in open

position. This is known as the

`hold' state. When the switch is

closed, the V out of S and H follows

the V in .

27.5, it can be observed that the

relative

phasor

information

between

two

signals

is not

preserved.This is because the

samples from different inputs are

not obtained at same instant of

time. One way to overcome, this

hardware

limitation

is

to

interpolate the value of the sample

from previous values.

V a (t) be sampled first and then

V b (t) be sampled. The first two

samples of 'a' & 'b' phases are

given by points 'A' and 'C'. After

one sampling interval, samples 'B'

and 'D' are obtained, for phases 'a'

and 'b' respectively. The problem

is to estimate value of V b (t) at the

sampling instant for 'a' i.e. say at

sample 'B'. This can be obtained

by linear interpolation for samples

'C' and 'D' and corresponding to

point 'E'.

27.2.3Sample and Hold Circuit (contd..)

Simultaneous Sampling Scheme

Fig 27.8 shows a simultaneous sampling scheme. In this scheme, all S&H amplifiers are set to hold state

simultaneously. This preserves the relative phase information between multiple analog signals.Then, the

multiplexer selects the channel sequentially. Typically, digital relays use successive ADC which have a

conversion time of 15-30 s. The sampling rate must satisfy Nyquist criteria. This issue will be discussed

in the later lectures.

Finally, an antialiasing filter is used after signal conditioning hardware. Anti aliasing filter is a low pass

filter (LPF) used to cut off the high frequency content (including noise) in the input signal. The cutoff

frequency of LPF and the sampling rate have to be properly matched. This issue is addressed in later

lectures.

27.2.4Relaying hardware for Metering

In principle, the hardware setup shown in fig 27.8 can be used for both measurement and protection

function. However, considering the order of difference between current magnitudes in case of fault and

load, there can be loss of accuracy during metering applications. Consider a hypothetical case where in

maximum load current is 100A and maximum fault current is 20 times this load current (2000A). Let a

12 bit unipolar ADC be used for sampling current signal. This implies that resolution of ADC is

2000/(2**12-1)=0.488 A. This resolution may be inadequate for metering purposes. One solution is to

increase resolution i.e. the number of bits in ADC. For example, one may use 16 bit ADC in place of 12

bit ADC.

However, increasing the number of bits of ADC also affects the selection of processor. A good design

guideline is to choose a processor with double the number of bits of ADC. This ensures that truncation

and numerical precision problems associated with finite precsion arithematic do not cause significant loss

of accuracy. For example, with 16 bit ADC, 32 bit processor is the natural choice. Alternatively, a

variable gain amplifier can be used along with the ADC. At low currents, high gain setting is used and at

high currents low gain setting is preferred. However, during the change from one setting to another, loss

of information can take place. Therefore, a simple solution would be to keep metering and protection

functionality separate.

Open system relaying motivated by experiences from energy management field where in a plethora of

manufacturers specific equipment has led to difficulty in expanding the system without changing the

entire existing SCADA (system control and data aquisition) system. Open system movement encourages

standard based development, thereby permitting incremental or evolutionary growth. This has to be

contrasted with proprietary solutions that required either a complete changeover or force the utility to a

vendor.

Consider a case of two vendors (A and B) supplying a Remote Terminal Units (RTUs) to a utility C. Let us

consider that initially, the utility had procured the SCADA system from the manufacturer A. At a later

date, the utility wants to add RTUs from the vendor B because it has cost and performance benefits. If

the initial solution provided by vendor A was proprietory, it will not be possible for RTUs of vendor B to

be interfaced with SCADA system supplied by vendor A. This restricts cross migration and hence it is

unfair. On the otherhand, if the initial SCADA system was based on open standards, then the device of

another vendor using the same standard could be interfaced with ease. This is the basic idea behind any

open systems movement. An open relay conceptually consists of two separate 'boxes'. The first box is

the well known standard computer. The second box encloses the scalable analog input subsystem. The

processing board which may have multiple DSPs is plugged onto PC motherboard and once programmed

can run independently of the PC. Such a relay may be interfaced with substaion LAN using standard

protocol.

Recap

In this lecture, following important reasons for advocating numerical relays were identified:

Cost: The processing power measured in Floating Point Operations Per Seconds (FLOPS) has been

steadily increasing. This is because of the technological advances in VLSI. Today, general purpose as well

as high speed Digital Signal Processors (DSP) are available at reasonable cost. As such, cost of numerical

relays is competitive with traditional electromechanical and solid state relays.

Self Checking and Reliability: A numerical relay just like a PC can check the health of its components

periodically. In

case of a failure, it can raise an alarm. No amount of periodic maintenance can provide this facility, which

goes a long way in improving the reliability of digital relay.

System Integration and Digital Environment: There is a trend towards automation in power systems.

Transmission

systems were automated first to improve the reliability of the overall transmission system by use of

SCADA and setting up of energy control centers. Today digital electronics has permitted automation at

substation level. Substation automation and distribution system automation have brought the digital

technology of computation and communication at the lower voltage levels. Numerical relays fit

appropriately in such an environment.

Functional Flexibility and Adaptive Relaying: Numerical relays are programmable. A multi-purpose

hardware can be

programmed with many relaying schemes. The complexity of the relaying logic is limited by the

imagination of the relay engineer and the processing capability of the processor. With the emergence of

the DSP based numerical relays, it is possible to incorporate a number of features in a relay. Further, such

relays can be equipped with communication facilities thereby, opening the possibility of adaptive relaying.

Congratulations, you have finished Lecture 27. To view the next lecture select it from the left hand side

menu of the page

Lecture 28 : Sampling Theorem

Objectives

In this lecture, you will review the following concepts from signal processing:

Role of DSP in relaying.

Sampling theorem.

Digital relaying involves digital processing of one or more analog signals. It involves following three

steps:

1.

2.

3.

Usually in DSP, after processing information in discrete domain, it has to be converted back to analog

domain. However, for us the step- 3 does not involve conversion of processed signals back to analog

form.

In the previous lecture, we have discussed the step - 1 in detail. In this lecture we discuss the next step.

At this point, a worthwhile observation is that direct analog signal processing is conceptually much

simpler. However, advantages of digital processing far outweigh analog processing. Some of the

advantages of digital processing are as follows:

Operation of digital circuits do not depend on precise values of digital signals. As a result, a digital circuit

is less

sensitive to tolerances of component values.

A digital circuit has little sensitivity to temperature, aging and other external parameters.

In terms of economics of volume, a digital circuit can be reproduced easily in volume quantities. With

VLSI circuits, it is

possible to integrate highly sophisticated and complex digital signal processing systems on a single chip.

In DSP, accuracy of computation can be increased by increasing word length. With the availability of

floating point

arithmetic in digital signal processors, dynamic ranges of signal and coefficients can be increased.

A signal processor can process many signals, reducing processing cost per signal.

Digital implementation allows the realization of certain characteristics not possible with analog

implementation; such

as polygon in R-X plane for distance relaying.

Digital signals can be stored indefinitely without loss of accuracy.

There are also some disadvantages with DSP. One of them is that DSP contains active devices. Active

devices are less reliable than passive components. Passive components consume less power than active

devices. However, advantages of digital relays (i.e. relaying using digital signal processing) are far more

significant than the disadvantages. In what follows, we discuss digital signal processing for relaying.

28.2 Sampling

Consider a continuous time domain sinusoid signal as, x(t) = sin(2 0 t) .The sine wave has frequency

0 e.g. 50 Hz. Let the waveform x(t) be sampled at a rate of s samples/sec, i.e. with time period ts = 1/

s sec. Let the sampling process start at time

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

Because of periodicity of sine wave, it is not possible to distinguish two samples with a phase difference

equal to 2m , where

is an integer. Therefore,

(6)

(7)

If we choose

to be an integer multiple of

above equation transforms into the following:

i.e.

(8)

value of .

28.2 Sampling

Consider a continuous time domain sinusoid signal as, x(t) = sin(2 0 t) .The sine wave has frequency

0 e.g. 50 Hz. Let the waveform x(t) be sampled at a rate of s samples/sec, i.e. with time period ts = 1/

values;

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

Because of periodicity of sine wave, it is not possible to distinguish two samples with a phase difference

equal to 2m , where

is an integer. Therefore,

(6)

(7)

If we choose

to be an integer multiple of

above equation transforms into the following:

i.e.

(8)

value of .

The equation (8), leads to a very interesting result viz.

When sampling at a rate of s samples/sec. if k is any positive or negative integer, we cannot distinguish

between sampled values of sine wave of 0 Hz and a sine wave of (f 0 +kf s) Hz.

Fig 28.2 shows a 7kHz signal

being sampled at 6khz with 0

= 7, s= 6 and k = -1, we

reach the conclusion that we

cannot

distinguish

between

signal of 7kHz and 1kHz with

sampling frequency of 6kHz.

This effect of 7kHz signal taking

an alias of 1kHz signal is called

aliasing. In this case, a high

frequency signal has taken an

alias of a low frequency signal.

An another example, consider a 50Hz signal sampled at 50Hz (see in fig 28.3). It can be seen that

signal is aliased to dc signal.

Fig 28.4 shows a signal with frequency content between B Hz . Such signals are said to be band limited

signals. Note that because

and

magnitude

component of a real life signals have typically an even symmetry around dc signal. By the observation

made in the previous slide that a signal of 0 Hz can be aliased to ( 0 s ) Hz { = 1, 2,--- } , it

follows that post sampling in frequency domain, we will see repeating lobes (replicas) of original signal,

each lobe being displaced by s Hz. In other words, after sampling we cannot distinguish the signal lobe

from other replicated lobes.

An interesting analog can be drawn by considering a room having many mirrors each reflecting image

from one to another. It is seen that if a person is standing in such a room, another observer cannot

distinguish him from his image. The difficulty can be resolved if the observer has an idea of location or

coordinates of the real person. In the same manner, we can identify the original lobe from replicated

lobes if we have an idea of the frequency content of original signal. In fig 28.5, notice that lobes are

distinctly separated because s > 2B Hz . On the other hand, if s = 2B Hz , then as seen in fig 28.6,

lobes will just touch each other. If however, s < 2B Hz, then lobes will overlap (fig 28.7) and this will

lead to distortion of replicated frequency spectrum. Thus, it is necessary that s the sampling frequency

should atleast equal to 2B Hz.

1.

Sampling at a rate

2.

Sampling at a rate

3.

Sampling at a rate

1.

When sampling frequency, s< 2B, then there is an overlapping effect around frequency s/2, known as

the folding frequency. As a consequence of superposition, the frequency domain information is

distorted. Thus, we should choose s > 2B. This important result is a part of sampling theorem stated

below in two equivalent ways.

A band limited signal of finite energy, which has no frequency component higher than

Hz, is completely

described

by specifying the values of the signal at instants of time separated by

2.

seconds.

A band limited signal of finite energy which has no frequency component higher than

completely

per sec.

recovered from the knowledge of its samples taken at a rate of

The sampling rate of 2B samples per sec is known as Nyquist rate.

Hz may be

In practice, even a band limited signal will contain noise. Noise reflects as high frequency component in

Hz, we cannot

the overall spectrum, (fig 28.8). Thus, even if we sample the signal at a rate say

reconstruct the correct frequency domain information. Noise is aliased to lower frequency. It distorts the

frequency domain information by superposing an alias of noise on the original signal. To avoid this, in

practice it is necessary to pass the continuous signal first through an analog low pass filter. Such a filter

is known as anti-aliasing filter. Fig 28.9 illustrates this concept.

28.2 Sampling

Review Questions

1.

2.

A 40 kHz signal is sampled at 49 kHz. What is the minimum frequency to which this signal will be aliased.

3.

Recap

Role of DSP in relaying.

Sampling theorem.

Lecture 29 : Least Square Method for Estimation of Phasors - I

Objectives

In this lecture, we will formulate the phasor estimation problem

In particular we will learn 2-sample approach to estimation.

impedance seen by a relay. In a

numerical relaying setup, voltage and

current signals would be sampled at

appropriate frequency and acquired by a

micro processor or a DSP. For relaying

decision making we need to estimate the

voltage and current phasor. For

simplicity, imagine a single phase circuit

as shown below. Also assume that the

frequency of the supply (e.g. 50/60Hz) is

known.

(1)

and current waveform by

(2)

Let us concentrate on the problem of estimating voltage phasor (

Let us assume that a sample is acquired after every

and the next one at

where,

and

and

Henceforth, we use the convention that first sample is obtained at

sample is given by

Now, treating

and

as unknowns, we get

(3)

(4)

and

(5)

, m an integer, then

, which

implies the singularity of coefficient matrix. In such an event, it is not possible to proceed with

, we get

. Corresponding samples are shown in fig

estimation. For example, with

29.2.

This corresponds to a sampling rate of two samples per cycle. If power system frequency is

implies that sampling rate should be higher than

, so that

, this

Henceforth, we use the convention that first sample is obtained at

sample is given by

Now, treating

and

as unknowns, we get

(3)

(4)

and

(5)

, m an integer, then

, which

implies the singularity of coefficient matrix. In such an event, it is not possible to proceed with

, we get

. Corresponding samples are shown in fig

estimation. For example, with

29.2.

This corresponds to a sampling rate of two samples per cycle. If power system frequency is

implies that sampling rate should be higher than

, so that

, this

. In fact, this is in

agreement with the well known sampling theorem (seen in previous lecture).

Consequently

and

and

(6)

(7)

. We also say that sampling window has 2 samples per window (see fig 29.4).

replaced by sample

In any relaying application, computations have to be completed before the arrival of next sample. Note

that, when uniform sampling is used with time space of

sec.

, a constant.

Example 1

Consider a signal

(a)

sec.

t msec

V

(b)

0

5.00

5

8.66

10

-5.00

15

-8.66

20

5.00

25

8.66

30

-5.00

35

-8.66

40

5.00

45

8.66

Fig 29.3 shows the estimate of voltage magnitude

Fig 29.4 also introduces the concept of data window for estimation. This window contains the 'active' set

of samples which are currently being processed for phasor estimation. In the present case, we say that

we are using a 2-sample window. Each consecutive window, differs from the previous window by adding

a new sample and by removing the oldest active sample.

Example 2

perfect sinusoid. Further, transducers like

voltage transformer, A/D converter etc.

introduce inaccuracies which we can model

as noise. The noise has a zero mean, and

it's standard deviation measures the

accuracy of the meter. Typically, noise is

distribution. Therefore, measurement value

will be within 36 around the true value, 99%

of the time. Consequently, if a 0-100V

voltmeter has a standard deviation of 1%,

then it implies that a measurement of a

signal having magnitude of 100V will be

measured any where between 97-103V,

99% of time.

(8)

Function randn is obtained from a random number generator for normal distribution in MATLAB. E models

the standard deviation of noise. A smaller value of E implies lower level of noise and vice versa. Now we

conduct an experiment to estimate voltage phasor in presence of noise for 100 samples using 2-sample

for different levels of noise is shown in table 1. They are

method. The mean and standard deviation of

calculated as per following equations. Let X 1 , X 2 ..... X N be N samples under consideration. Then, mean

is called variance.

Example 2

perfect sinusoid. Further, transducers like

voltage transformer, A/D converter etc.

introduce inaccuracies which we can model

as noise. The noise has a zero mean, and

it's standard deviation measures the

accuracy of the meter. Typically, noise is

modeled by zero mean Gaussian

distribution. Consequently, if a 0-100V

voltmeter has a standard deviation of 1%,

then it implies that a measurement of a

signal having magnitude of 100V will be

measured any where between 97-103V,

99% of time.

(8)

Function randn is obtained from a random number generator for normal distribution in MATLAB. E models

the standard deviation of noise. A smaller value of E implies lower level of noise and vice versa. Now we

conduct an experiment to estimate voltage phasor in presence of noise for 100 samples using 2-sample

for different levels of noise is shown in table 1. They are

method. The mean and standard deviation of

calculated as per following equations. Let X 1 , X 2 ..... X N be N samples under consideration. Then, mean

is called variance.

Example 2

(contd..)

Table 1 : Effect of Gaussian Noise on Estimation of Phasors using 2-Sample Window

Randn multiplier(E)

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.1

1.2

Mean

10.0069

10.0162

10.0282

10.0426

10.0596

10.0791

10.1011

10.1256

10.1527

10.1824

10.2146

10.2495

Standard deviation

0.1596

0.3194

0.4793

0.6392

0.7991

0.9587

1.1182

1.2772

1.4358

1.5938

1.7510

1.9073

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.7

1.8

1.9

2.0

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

2.7

2.8

2.9

3.0

10.2871

10.3275

10.3707

10.4169

10.4662

10.5188

10.5750

10.6346

10.6975

10.7638

10.8336

10.9065

10.9825

11.0613

11.1430

11.2277

11.3152

11.4055

2.0624

2.2162

2.3683

2.5186

2.6666

2.8116

2.9531

3.0919

3.2284

3.3625

3.4940

3.6240

3.7529

3.8809

4.0080

4.1241

4.2590

4.3830

Example 2 (contd..)

Fig 29.6 shows the plot of estimated value of

1.

As magnitude of zero mean noise increases, the standard deviation associated with magnitude increase.

2.

Mean of

3.

is nearly 10.

This brings out an important fact that with bare minimum number of measurements, the noise affects the

accuracy. Therefore, in real-life, we have to device a procedure to filter noise and then estimate

and

. To filter out noise, we need to consider redundant measurement. Redundancy in measurement is

defined as ratio of actual number of measurement used for estimation to minimum number of

measurement required for estimation. This issue is elaborated in the subsequent lecture.

Review Questions

1.

2.

Recap

How to approach the phasor estimation problem in numerical relaying.

The significance of noise in estimation was brought out through 2-sample estimation method.

Lecture 30 : Least Square Method for Estimation of Phasors - II

Objectives

In this lecture, we will learn 3-sample estimation

Method for phasor estimation.

We now present a 3-sample technique for measurement of current and voltage which has better noise

elimination characteristic than the 2-sample technique discussed earlier. Three sample technique has a

redundancy of 1.5. In other words, we plan to show that standard deviation of the estimate reduces with

the use of a larger data window. For the voltage signal, consider three most recent samples given as

follows.

Where

(1)

Since, the real life signal has also noise in it, hence a more appropriate system model is given by

(2)

It should be obvious by now that our job of estimating, unknown

and

is no-longer as

Therefore, we now introduce a widely used technique for estimating the unknowns in presence of

redundant measurements. It is known as least square estimation.

Consider the problem of solving the following linear system of equations.

(3)

(4)

(5)

It is quite easy to verify that the system of equations is inconsistent because left hand side of (5) is the

sum of left hand side of (3) and (4) but right hand side of (5) is not the sum of RHS of (3) and (4). If we

view linear system of equations in matrix algebra format

; then, we know that the system of

equations is consistent if and only if

rank (A) = rank (A, b).

In this case

Some of you may be wondering as to what is the connection of this example with the problem at our

hand. Suppose that noise contribution in b(1) is 0.1, in b(2) is -0.1. Then the noise in the third

measurement is 1. It is now apparent that inconsistency in the linear system of equations is happening

because of noise. Thus, our job should be to estimate the noise and eliminate it. This can not be done

within the frame work of linear system of equations. It is for this purpose the method of least squares is

used.

Method of least squares is used for point estimation, curve fitting etc. It can be shown that even Fourier

series solves a least square estimation problem. So what is least square estimation problem? In some

such that

is nearest to vector . For this purpose, we define a

sense, we want to find a vector

residual vector

as

i.e.

to

min

Minimization of length of residual vector or square of length are equivalent in the sense, the minimum is

reached at same value of

. However, working with squares eliminates the problem of square roots in

calculating derivatives. Hence, a least square problem is defined as

(6)

The scalar

is introduced only for the sake of convenience. Again it does not affect the optimal

Substituting the values of A and b in (6), we get following least square problem.

i.e. min

i.e. min

Thus,

It is quite easy to verify that the system of equations is inconsistent because left hand side of (5) is the

sum of left hand side of (3) and (4) but right hand side of (5) is not the sum of RHS of (3) and (4). If we

view linear system of equations in matrix algebra format

; then, we know that the system of

equations is consistent if and only if

rank (A) = rank (A, b).

In this case

Some of you may be wondering as to what is the connection of this example with the problem at our

hand. Suppose that noise contribution in b(1) is 0.1, in b(2) is -0.1. Then the noise in the third

measurement is 1. It is now apparent that inconsistency in the linear system of equations is happening

because of noise. Thus, our job should be to estimate the noise and eliminate it. This can not be done

within the frame work of linear system of equations. It is for this purpose the method of least squares is

used.

Method of least squares is used for point estimation, curve fitting etc. It can be shown that even Fourier

series solves a least square estimation problem. So what is least square estimation problem? In some

such that

is nearest to vector . For this purpose, we define a

sense, we want to find a vector

residual vector

as

i.e.

to

min

Minimization of length of residual vector or square of length are equivalent in the sense, the minimum is

reached at same value of

. However, working with squares eliminates the problem of square roots in

calculating derivatives. Hence, a least square problem is defined as

(6)

The scalar

is introduced only for the sake of convenience. Again it does not affect the optimal

Substituting the values of A and b in (6), we get following least square problem.

min

i.e. min

i.e. min

Thus,

At the minimum, partial derivative of

with

and

Hence,

and

Consider system of equations given by

The number of unknowns (n) is less than number of knowns (m) i.e. redundancy

b is a

vector, A is a

matrix. We know from the basics of the optimization theory that at the

minimum or maximum, the gradient of the objective function is zero. The gradient of the objective

function

is a

vector given by

Setting this gradient to zero amounts to solving the following linear system of equations.

(7)

The solution of the above system of equations gives the optimal

definiteness property of

that

Thus applying the least square estimation methodology to eq(2), we can compute the estimate of

and

by solving the following system of equations.

(8)

Example : 1

We now repeat the previous example with a 3-sample window. The analogous results to example 1 are

shown in table 1. It can be seen that as a consequence of using a larger data window, the accuracy of

voltage estimation improves significantly.

Table 1 : 3 - Sample Estimation

Randn multiplier(E)

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.7

1.8

1.9

2.0

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

2.7

2.8

2.9

3.0

Mean

10.0061

10.0130

10.0207

10.0293

10.0387

10.0490

10.0601

10.0719

10.0846

10.0982

10.1125

10.1277

10.1436

10.1604

10.1780

10.1964

10.2156

10.2356

10.2564

10.2781

10.3005

10.3238

10.3479

10.3727

10.3985

10.4250

10.4524

10.4807

10.5099

10.5400

Standard deviation

0.0927

0.1855

0.2783

0.3712

0.4641

0.5570

0.6499

0.7428

0.8358

0.9287

1.0216

1.1144

1.2072

1.3000

1.3927

1.4853

1.5778

1.6702

1.7625

1.8547

1.9468

2.0386

2.1303

2.2218

2.3130

2.4040

2.4947

2.5849

2.6747

2.7638

standard deviation reduces to 0.0927. Similarly with E = 3, standard deviation with 2-sample approaches

4.3830, which reduces to 2.7638 with 3-sample window. This shows that redundancy helps in filtering out

noise. However estimation spans a large data window.

Review Questions

1.

2.

3.

A real symmetric square

Now consider

where A is a full-column, rank matrix. Show that

for all

is positive definite.

Show that at the minimum of a function f(x), the matrix of second derivatives

is at least

positive semi

definite. Also, show that if H is positive definite, then we have a strict local minimum.

4.

5.

A symmetric real

for all

Hence, show

is positive semi definite.

that if A is not at all full-column rank matrix, then

Show that a real symmetric

matrix is positive definite, if and only if all its Eigen values are real and

greater than

zero. Hence, comment on the positive definiteness of following matrices.

a) I n (

- identity matrix).

b)

c)

d)

Recap

The phasor estimation problem as a least squares estimation problem.

Lecture 31 : Fourier Algorithms

Objectives

In this lecture, we will learn

Phasor estimation using least square method.

So far we have used number of sample points required in estimation method to define the length of data

window. Alternatively, length of data window can be characterized by it's time span. For example, for a 3, thus, higher the sampling frequency, smaller the

sample data window, time span of data window is

time span. We now consider the case when length of the data window is one cycle, though we have a

freedom to choose number of samples in a window subject to the constraint N > 2.

Let the sampling frequency be such that (K>2) K samples be acquired in a cycle. With one cycle data

window the eq (5) can be simplified dramatically. For example, for the first cycle (samples 0, 1, 2K1), LS estimation model with K samples per cycle in the data window is given by follows eqn.

Now,

Since

1).

(1)

(see exercise

, it is not surprising to find out that above numerical integration is also zero.

Since

and

and

Thus, with one cycle data window, coefficient matrix in (15) becomes diagonal. Hence the equation

simplifies to

(2)

where

(3)

is also represented in literature as

=

and

(4)

(5)

Infact, these equations are identical to rectangular form of DFT to be discussed in later lectures.

Table 1 : Performance of Full Cycle Fourier Algorithm (K = 10)

Randn multiplier(E)

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.7

1.8

1.9

2.0

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

2.7

2.8

2.9

3.0

Mean

10.0058

10.0118

10.0180

10.0243

10.0308

10.0374

10.0442

10.0512

10.0583

10.0656

10.0731

10.0807

10.0885

10.0964

10.1045

10.1128

10.1212

10.1298

10.1386

10.1475

10.1566

10.1658

10.1752

10.1848

10.1945

10.2044

10.2144

10.2246

10.2350

10.2455

Standard deviation

0.0441

0.0882

0.1323

0.1764

0.2205

0.2646

0.3087

0.3528

0.3969

0.4409

0.4850

0.5290

0.5730

0.6170

0.6610

0.7050

0.7489

0.7928

0.8367

0.8806

0.9244

0.9682

1.0120

1.0558

1.0995

1.1432

1.1869

1.2305

1.2740

1.3176

Table 1 illustrates the results of the estimation when full cycle data window is used. It can be seen that

standard deviation associated with measurement reduces even further to 1.3176 for E = 3. This should

was 2.7638. This brings out an

be contrasted with 3-sample data window where corresponding

important aspect of relaying discussed earlier that accuracy of estimation is improved by increasing the

length of data window. (see Exercise - 2)

Example : 1

The algorithm that we have discussed is known as Full Cycle Fourier Algorithm. In this example, we

evaluate the capability of full cycle Fourier algorithm to filter out harmonics. Input signal corresponds to

a 50 Hz square wave shown below. The harmonic spectrum of such wave form is given by

This signal is sampled at a rate of 10 samples per cycle and full cycle Fourier method is applied to

estimate the fundamental. In addition noise is introduced using random number generator. The true

value of fundamental component is

= 12.7324.

Example : 1 (contd..)

Table 2 : Harmonic + noise filtering capability of full cycle algorithm

Randn

multiplier(E)

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.7

1.8

1.9

2.0

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

2.7

2.8

2.9

Mean

Standard deviation

12.9512

12.9583

12.9655

12.9728

12.9802

12.9878

12.9955

13.0033

13.0112

13.0193

13.0275

130358

13.0442

130527

13.0614

13.0702

13.0791

13.0881

13.0972

13.1065

13.1159

13.1254

13.1350

13.1448

13.1546

13.1646

13.1747

13.1849

13.1953

0.0444

0.0888

0.1332

0.1776

0.2220

0.2664

0.3108

0.3552

0.3996

0.4440

0.4884

0.5328

0.5772

0.6216

0.6660

0.7104

0.7548

0.7992

0.8435

0.8879

0.9323

0.9766

1.0209

1.0653

1.1096

1.1539

1.1982

1.2425

1.2867

3.0

13.2057

1.3310

Table 2 summarizes the response of full cycle algorithm in the presence of harmonics. It is seen that the

full cycle algorithm also filters harmonics effectively. Note that mean and average are calculated over

100 consecutive estimation.

Example : 2

To improve speed, we can even restrict the data window to half a cycle. When this is done, we get half

cycle Fourier algorithm. With K number of samples per half cycle, the relevant equations are given by

(see exercise - 4)

(6)

(7)

Notice that our convention is that the latest sample corresponds to the window number. Therefore, first K

- window are incomplete because K - samples are not available with them. To complete the incomplete

windows, adequate number of zeros are padded in the beginning. Correct estimates are obtained only

.

after

Table 3 : Performance of Half Cycle Fourier Algorithm

Randn

multiplier(E)

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.7

1.8

1.9

2.0

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

2.7

2.8

2.9

3.0

Mean

Standard deviation

10.0058

10.0119

10.0183

10.0251

10.0322

10.0396

10.0474

10.0555

10.0639

10.0727

10.0817

10.0912

10.1009

10.1110

10.1214

10.1321

10.1431

10.1545

10.1662

10.1783

10.1906

10.2033

10.2163

10.2297

10.2434

10.2574

10.2717

10.2864

10.3014

10.3168

0.0614

0.1228

0.1842

0.2456

0.3070

0.3684

0.4298

0.4911

0.5525

0.6138

0.6751

0.7364

0.7977

0.8589

0.9201

0.9813

1.0424

1.1034

1.1645

1.2254

1.2863

1.3472

1.4080

1.4687

1.5294

1.5899

1.6504

1.7108

1.7711

1.8314

Table 3 summarizes the performance of half cycle algorithm for the standard sinusoidal signal used in all

our examples. In presence of harmonics, it can be shown that the accuracy of the algorithm is not as

good as full cycle algorithm. (see example - 5)

Example : 2

To improve speed, we can even restrict the data window to half a cycle. When this is done, we get half

cycle Fourier algorithm. With K even number of samples per half cycle, the relevant equations are given

by (see exercise - 4)

(6)

(7)

Notice that our convention is that the latest sample corresponds to the window number. Therefore, first K

- window are incomplete because K - samples are not available with them. To complete the incomplete

windows, adequate number of zeros are padded in the beginning. Correct estimates are obtained only

.

after

Table 3 : Performance of Half Cycle Fourier Algorithm

Randn

multiplier(E)

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.7

1.8

1.9

2.0

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

2.7

2.8

2.9

3.0

Mean

Standard deviation

10.0058

10.0119

10.0183

10.0251

10.0322

10.0396

10.0474

10.0555

10.0639

10.0727

10.0817

10.0912

10.1009

10.1110

10.1214

10.1321

10.1431

10.1545

10.1662

10.1783

10.1906

10.2033

10.2163

10.2297

10.2434

10.2574

10.2717

10.2864

10.3014

10.3168

0.0614

0.1228

0.1842

0.2456

0.3070

0.3684

0.4298

0.4911

0.5525

0.6138

0.6751

0.7364

0.7977

0.8589

0.9201

0.9813

1.0424

1.1034

1.1645

1.2254

1.2863

1.3472

1.4080

1.4687

1.5294

1.5899

1.6504

1.7108

1.7711

1.8314

Table 3 summarizes the performance of half cycle algorithm for the standard sinusoidal signal used in all

our examples. In presence of harmonics, it can be shown that the accuracy of the algorithm is not as

good as full cycle algorithm. (see example - 5)

So far we have used number of sample points required in estimation method to define the length of data

window. Alternatively, length of data window can be characterized by it's time span. For example, for a 3, thus, higher the sampling frequency, smaller the

sample data window, time span of data window is

time span. We now consider the case when length of the data window is one cycle, though we have a

freedom to choose number of samples in a window subject to the constraint N > 2.

Let the sampling frequency be such that (K>2) K samples be acquired in a cycle. With one cycle data

window the eq (5) can be simplified dramatically. For example, for the first cycle (samples 0, 1, 2K1), LS estimation model with K samples per cycle in the data window is given by follows eqn.

Now,

Since

(1)

(see exercise

1).

, it is not surprising to find out that above numerical integration is also zero.

Since

and

and

Thus, with one cycle data window, coefficient matrix in (15) becomes diagonal. Hence the equation

simplifies to

(2)

where

(3)

We conclude this lecture by summarizing the effect of length of data window on delay in post fault

estimation of voltage and current signals.

Fig 31.3 shows pre-fault to post-fault

current waveform. A 3-sample full cycle

data window is considered. The window W1

contains only pre-fault data. Thus it can be

used to correctly estimate the pre-fault

current. The first post-fault sample is seen

in data window W2 . Window W2 contains

one post-fault current sample and two prefault current samples. Hence it does not

correspond to either pre fault or post fault

phasor. Hence, it's estimation is completely

erroneous. When, we reach window W4 , we

find that it is populated completely with

post fault data. Consequently, it's phasor

estimated corresponds to the post fault

phasor.

Thus, the delay introduced in measuring post-fault signal is equal to the length of data window. Thus, 1

cycle data window introduces a delay of 1 cycle in estimation. It is likely that CT may be driven into

saturation by DC offset current. While

one can strike a compromise between the problem of CT saturation and improving accuracy of estimation.

The next example considers the effect of delaying DC offset current of the fundamental on estimation.

Example : 3

Consider a current signal which does not have noise but it has DC offset. This represents fault current on

an unloaded system.

Fig 31.4 show the estimated magnitude of I m, measured for 5-fundamental cycles using 2-point, 3-point

cycle and full cycle Fourier algorithms. It can be seen that, significant errors are seen in all

estimation methods. Also, accuracy of full cycle fourier algorithm is seen to be the most accurate

algorithm. The reason is quite obvious. Even if we view DC offset current as noise, it is apparent that it

does not have a zero mean. Thus, least square based estimation algorithms are expected to fail under

such situations.

One way out of this imbroglio is that we should use some other filtering method for dc offset current. This

is usually achieved in hardware by what is known as mimic impedance. (refer Q. 7)

Mimic impedance is an impedance whose

ratio is identical to the

ratio of

a transmission line.

Fig 31.5 shows a current source having

sinusoidal component and dc offset current

impedance. The

connected to the

sinusoidal voltage developed across the

impedance is given by

where

One way out of this imbroglio is that we should use some other filtering method for dc offset current. This

is usually achieved in hardware by what is known as mimic impedance. (refer Q. 7)

Mimic impedance is an impedance whose

ratio is identical to the

ratio of

a transmission line.

Fig 31.5 shows a current source having

sinusoidal component and dc offset current

impedance. The

connected to the

sinusoidal voltage developed across the

impedance is given by

Time constant

is the

Infact this is the sinusoidal steady response for the mimic impedance circuit.

The current is scaled by magnitude

. Thus by an inverse

operation, we get back the sinusoidal current waveform devoid of dc offset component. Filtering algorithm

discussed earlier will then give satisfactory results. Mimic impedances are routinely used in distance

relays used for transmission line relaying where the problem of decaying dc offset is most serious. Mimic

impedance can also be implemented in software.

By now we have deduced that:

1.

Full cycle fourier algorithm gives the best performance in filtering harmonics and noise.

2.

3.

Three sample algorithm is quite fast but the accuracy of estimation is poor.

Any of the above estimation algorithms can be viewed as a digital filter whose job is to extract

fundamental in presence of harmonics and noise. The presentation so far was biased towards elimination

of noise. Filtering of harmonic can be discussed more neatly by evaluating the frequency response of the

estimation algorithms.

Input to the filter is stream of samples at frequency

primarily interested in extracting the fundamental component. The output of the estimation algorithm is

, the output

viewed by the relay logic as the fundamental component of the signal. Thus, if

should follow input. On the other hand, if

The frequency response can be evaluated by analytical tools. However, to simplify presentation, we

restrict the treatment to experimental (by simulation) evaluation of the frequency response. The

frequency response for 3-sample, half cycle and full cycle algorithms are shown in fig 31.7.

1.

Full cycle algorithm rejects dc component as well as harmonics (both even and odd) very efficiently. This

can be explained by the fact that

&

2.

Half cycle algorithm rejects odd harmonics efficiently but not the even harmonics. This can be explained

by

the fact that

&

3.

4.

Acharacteristic frequencies are wrongly interpreted by all algorithms as fundamental. Infact, the full cycle

Fourier algorithm is identical to DFT. Therefore, it is not surprising to find out that this behavior can be

explained by what is known as DFT leakage'. We will consider this issue in more detail in later lectures.

Input to the filter is stream of samples at frequency

primarily interested in extracting the fundamental component. The output of the estimation algorithm is

, the output

viewed by the relay logic as the fundamental component of the signal. Thus, if

should follow input. On the other hand, if

The frequency response can be evaluated by analytical tools. However, to simplify presentation, we

restrict the treatment to experimental (by simulation) evaluation of the frequency response. The

frequency response for 3-sample, half cycle and full cycle algorithms are shown in fig 31.7.

1.

Full cycle algorithm rejects dc component as well as harmonics (both even and odd) very efficiently

2.

Half cycle algorithm rejects odd harmonics efficiently but not the even harmonics

3.

Acharacteristic frequencies are wrongly interpreted by all algorithms as fundamental. Infact, the full cycle

fourier

algorithm is identical to DFT. Therefore, it is not surprising to find out that this behavior can be explained

by what is known as DFT leakage'. We will consider this issue in more detail in later lectures.

4.

Review Questions

Exercise 1:

Consider evaluation

harmonic signal over 2-cycles which is known to be zero. Consider sampling this signal at rate of K samples per cycle corresponding to fundamental frequency. The sampels are at start t = 0,....

1). Now append K+1 sample at the end clearly,

and

sample, allows us to cover one full cycle length of fundamental on x - axis. Now show that

(2K-

is

geometrically.

Exercise 2:

Assuming a sampling rate of 32 samples per cycle, generate samples for a 50 Hz sinusoidal signal with

at different levels of noise. Now choose noise parameter choose E = 0.5. Now consider standard

deviation of estimation obtained after 100 estimations. Plot the (curves of 6 vs K; the no. of cycles in

data window) where K is varied from 1 - 4. Hence, show that increasing the length of data window

reduces error. Interpret this result in terms of speed vs accuracy conflict in relaying.

Exercise 3:

Repeat exercise 2 for E = 0.1, 1, 2, 3 and 4.

Review Questions (contd..)

Exercise 4: (contd..)

Consider LS estimate of phasor using half cycle data window i.e. K-samples per half cycle at nominal

frequency. Show that the estimate equations are given as below:

and

calculating

and

Exercise 5:

Evaluate fundamental component of the square wave in Example - 1 using half cycle fourier algorithm.

What conclusions do you draw.

Exercise 6:

Suppose that square in Example - 1 also had a superposed dc component of 5v. Repeat Q. 5. Hence,

refine your conclusions.

Exercise 7:

One way to account for decaying dc offset current during estimation of fundamental is to account for it in

.

the signal model. Hence, consider the signal model to be

' is known, develop a LS method to estimate V m,

accuracy of this method with full cycle and half cycle algorithm.

Assuming that time constant '

Exercise 8:

Extend full cycle algorithm to measure 3rd and 5th harmonic in a signal. Assume suitable sampling

frequency.

Recap

Phasor estimation using least square method.

Lecture 32 : Fourier Analysis

Objectives

In this lecture, we will show that

Trignometric fourier series is nothing but LS approximate of a periodic signal over orthogonal basis of

polynominals.

Hence, we will extend fourier like method to functioning of other orthogonal functions like walsh, Harr etc.

Let

require that

1.

2.

3.

f(t) has finite number of maxima and minima in one period and

finite number of discontinuities.

Then, it can be expressed in either of the following equivalent forms.

a)

Where

harmonic where

- is an integer.

b)

In (a), the coefficients

and

forms (a) and (b) are equivalent. (b) can be obtained from (a) by following substitutions.

Thus,

and

Let

[Dirchelets conditions]. Then, it can be expressed in either of the following equivalent forms.

a)

Where

harmonic where

- is an integer.

b)

In (a), the coefficients

and

forms (a) and (b) are equivalent. (b) can be obtained from (a) by following substitutions.

Thus,

and

In other words,

represents a phasor of unit magnitude rotating in anti-clockwise direction at speed of

rad/s.

represents a phasor of unit magnitude rotating in clockwise direction at speed of

The coefficients

and

rad/s.

In other words,

represents a phasor of unit magnitude rotating in anti-clockwise direction at speed of

rad/s.

represents a phasor of unit magnitude rotating in clockwise direction at speed of

The coefficients

and

rad/s.

Since, many of the voltage and current phasor estimation methods are based upon least square

estimation, it is a worthwhile intellectual exercise to show that Fourier series truncated at some n can be

interpreted through Least square estimation theory.

We define the concept of mean square error (MSE). MSE is defined as:

The interval

, while

should be sine/cosine

function (or) exponential function of the Fourier series. Our job is to find the coefficient

so as to

minimize the mean square error. Thus, the optimization problem is given by,

Consider

approximated by

functions

as follows:

(1)

integer} and

. To

Now,

(2)

Now, if we choose

to be either

or

then the expression for the MSE simplifies drastically. It can be verified that with

.

and

= 0;

In fact, this is analogous to the statement that we will have zero average power exchange over a timeif the voltages and currents belong to different frequencies of the harmonic spectrum.

interval

Similarly, with

and

= 0;

(3)

. When

, we have the analogy of interaction between

, which leads to zero average power.

voltage and current phasors separated by

The concept of zero average power interaction at (1) sines and cosines harmonic at different frequencies

and (2) sines and cosines at same frequency can be generalized by the concept of orthogonal functions.

A set of complex valued functions

Fourier series (both in trigonometric and complex exponential form) are orthogonal. Many more set of

orthogonal functions like Walsh, Harr etc and corresponding approximate series can be found in the

literature of signal processing. They also have applications in power quality. However, for our use, Fourier

series suffices.

From the discussion so far, we conclude that in case of Fourier series over a time period

term in (2) vanishes. Hence,

, the second

(4)

Further, for

to be

, or

Hence,

For

, we get coefficient

shown that

For

, we get coefficient

similarly

by

substituting

, it can be

These coefficients of LS approximation are nothing but the coefficients of Fourier series. This leads us to a

very important conceptual result viz. coefficients in Fourier series minimize the MSE. This establishes the

linkage between Fourier series and Least square methods. Similar series can be developed for other set

of orthogonal functions. [See Q:2]

Review Questions

1.

Show that

2.

and

Review Questions

1.

Show that

2.

2.

and

b) Show that they are orthogonal.

3.

For the square pulse shown below with duty cycle d/T, compute the harmonic spectrum. Evaluate its

behaviour in

the limit S

.

4.

State the conditions under which periodic signal can be represented by Fourier Series.

Recap

In this lecture we have learnt the following:

Trignometric Fourier series is nothing but LS approximate of a periodic signal over orthogonal basis of

polynominals.

Hence, we can extend Fourier like method to functioning of other orthogonal functions like walsh, Harr

etc.

Lecture 33 : Discrete Fourier Transform

Objectives

In this lecture, we will

Derive Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and its inverse.

33.1 Motivation

Consider a finite duration signal

where

is an integer

of duration

such that

If we now evaluate the above integral by trapezoidal rule of integration after padding two zeros (red dots

in fig 33.1) at the extremity on either side [where the signal is zero], we obtain the following expressions.

(1)

The corresponding inverse which is used to reconstruct the signal is given by:

(2)

spectrum i.e.

then (2) would imply that we

can obtain

connecting any 2-samples can be defined plausibly in infinitely

many ways (see fig 33.2). This suggests that from (1), we should

be able to derive only limited amount of frequency domain

information.

33.1 Motivation

Consider a finite duration signal

where

is an integer

of duration

such that

If we now evaluate the above integral by trapezoidal rule of integration after padding two zeros (red dots

in fig 33.1) at the extremity on either side [where the signal is zero], we obtain the following expressions.

(1)

The corresponding inverse which is used to reconstruct the signal is given by:

(2)

spectrum i.e.

then (2) would imply that we

can obtain

connecting any 2-samples can be defined plausibly in infinitely

many ways (see fig 33.2). This suggests that from (1), we should

be able to derive only limited amount of frequency domain

information.

Since, we have N-data points [real] and

angle information in the frequency domain (2-units of information), it is reasonable to expect that we

should be in a position to predict atmost

transforms

Now, let

and

(3)

Note that our choice of frequency is such that the exponential term in (1) is independent of

. The

which may (or) may not have a corresponding analog parent' signal. This suggests to us the following

discrete version of Fourier transform for a finite discrete sequence

(4)

Our next job should be to come up with an inverse transformation. If inverse transformation exists, then

there is no loss of information from discrete (time) domain to frequency domain and vice-versa.

Existence of inverse will establish, transform nature of (4). If (2) defines IFT in continuous domain, in the

discrete domain, by analogy of (1) and (4) we can hypothesize following inverse transform.

(5)

Our next job is to verify that indeed (4) and (5) define a transformation pair. Substituting (4) in (5), we

get following expression for right hand side of (5).

(6)

Let us work this expression out in a long hand fashion; for compactness we use notation

.

last row

Now, grouping terms column wise, we get

is set to zero, for the second row it is set to one and for the

Note that this jugglery shows that we can interchange the summation order. One order indicates row

wise and another column wise summation

i.e.

(7)

Proof: For

Now, if

, let

Now,

where

AS

is integer, then

We see that equation (6) defines the inverse transformation if we choose

Thus, N-point DFT and IDFT for samples

where m = 0, ........., N - 1

Now,

where

AS

is integer, then

We see that equation (6) defines the inverse transformation if we choose

Thus, N-point DFT and IDFT for samples

where m = 0, ........., N - 1

Note that in general DFT and inverse DFT can be defined in many ways, each only differing in choice of

constant

and

. Thus, the generic form of DFT and IDFT is as follows:

DFT

IDFT

i.e.

For example, when

Choice of

Review Questions

1.

Recap

Derived DFT and IDFT.

Lecture 34 : Properties of Discrete Fourier Transform

Objectives

In this lecture, we will

1) Linearity,

2) Periodicity,

3) DFT symmetry,

4) DFT phase-shifting etc.

34.1 Linearity:

Let

and

given by

and

. Then DFT of sample set

is given by

Proof:

34.2 Periodicity :

We have evaluated DFT at

Where

. There after,

is an integer.

Proof:

(1)

Both

and

If the samples

seems counter

intuitive; because, from N bits of information in one domain (time), we are deriving 2N bits of information

in frequency domain. This suggests that there is some redundancy in computation of

. As per DFT symmetry property, following relationship holds.

, where symbol

Proof:

=

Since

If the samples

contain atmost

bits of information. On

the otherhand,

is a complex number

Thus, from sequence

, if

we derive

, it

bits of information. This is

are deriving

counter intuitive. We should expect some

relationship

in

the

sequence

[Symmetry]

and

[Anti-

appear as shown in fig 34.1 and 34.2.

DFT shifting property states that, for a

periodic sequence with periodicity

i.e.

,

an integer, an offset

in the frequency domain. In other words, if

we decide to sample x(n) starting at n equal

to some integer K, as opposed to n = 0, the

DFT of those time shifted sequence,

is

DFT shifting property states that, for a

periodic sequence with periodicity

i.e.

,

an integer, an offset

in the frequency domain. In other words, if

we decide to sample x(n) starting at n equal

to some integer K, as opposed to n = 0, the

DFT of those time shifted samples.

(2)

Now to compute

to

(from (2))

Review Questions

1.

,

,

2.

3.

By using inverse DFT, show that discrete samples can be recovered with knowledge of

Calculate the N pt. DFT of rectangular function given by,

properties

for this signal.

Recap

1) Linearity,

2) Symmetry,

3) DFT symmetry,

Lecture 35 : Computation of Phasor from Discrete Fourier Transform

Objectives

In this lecture, we will

Develop methodology to evaluate phasor from DFT.

Consider a sinusoidal input signal of frequency

, given by

(1)

This signal is conveniently represented by a phasor

(2)

Assume that

is sampled

. Then,

(3)

. Thus, choice

m = 1 corresponds to extracting the fundamental frequency component. The Discrete Fourier Transform

contains the fundamental frequency component given by

of

(4)

(5)

where,

(6)

(7)

Substituting x k from (3) in (6) and (7) it can be shown that for a sinusoidal input signal given by (1)

(8)

(9)

When the input signal contains other frequency components as well, the phasor calculated by equation

(9) is a filtered fundamental frequency phasor. It is presumed here that the input signal must be bandlimited to satisfy the Nyquist Criterion, to avoid errors due to aliasing affects.

In relaying applications, during steady state, we will be working with a moving window, such that each

and

indicate

and

component of DFT for

window is having N-most recent samples. Let

window. By our convention, window number is the sample number of the first sample in the active

window. As the first N - 1 windows are incomplete, there window number is one. Afterwards, window

number is incremented by one for each new sample.

Similarly,

window is given by

Thus, we see that with moving window, the phasor estimate rotates at a speed of

rotation in phasor during computation can be directly derived from DFT phase shifting property.

In the computation of phasor, we would not like this phasor rotation to occur due to DFT phase shifting. This

can be avoided if we modify equation (6) and (7). Replace

= 0 by

=

, in the lower limit and

=N+

- 1 in the upper limit, we get

Where

(10)

(11)

Substituting

for m = 1;

for m = 1;

Hence,

Thus, we conclude that artificial rotation induced in phasor computation by using DFT equations can be

eliminated by appropriately modifying the offset in the summation index of DFT equation.

From equation (10) and (11), we have

and

In the computation of phasor, we would not like this phasor rotation to occur due to DFT phase shifting.

This can be avoided if we modify equation (6) and (7). Replace

= 0 by

=

, in the lower limit and

=N+

Where

(10)

(11)

Substituting

for m = 1;

for m = 1;

Hence,

Thus, we conclude that artificial rotation induced in phasor computation by using DFT equations can be

eliminated by appropriately modifying the offset in the summation index of DFT equation.

From equation (10) and (11), we have

and

The computation for

can be visualized from the following pair wise multiplication and add sequence

Now, to compute

. Computation of

from

is

.

Since,

(12)

Similarly, for sine component, we have

(13)

Eqns. 12 and 13 provide a recursive update for DFT computation. The advantage of recursive form is that

it reduces computation from 2N multiply add operation in normal DFT to 4 additions and 2

multiplications.

To begin with, we will get 2N set

fundamental frequency

and

If our primary interest is to extract fundamental phasor component in the signal then, it can be verified

that, restricting moving window to half a cycle does not alter the end result of eqn. (5) and (6) provided

is given by

that N-now represents, number of samples per half-cycle. Now, the sample

. Thus, half cycle form of DFT phasor estimation is given by the following eqns.

(14)

(15)

Advantage of half cycle algorithm is that the moving window latches on to the post fault signal in

of

a cycle. Thus, compared to full cycle version, it is twice as fast. A keen observer would have noticed that

DFT based on moving window phasor estimation equations are identical to the full cycle and cycle fourier

algorithms derived in lecture-31. Thus, the frequency response of fourier algorithms developed in lecture

31 applies to the DFT version. In particular, it is not surprising to see that harmonic rejection property of

half cycle algorithm is inferior to its full cycle avatar. This is consistent with the speed vs accuracy'

conflict, we have discussed earlier.

Recursive form of half cycle DFT can be derived in an analogous manner to full cycle DFT. Realizing that

we get the following recursive update forms for fundamental phasor computation.

Eqns. 12 and 13 provide a recursive update for DFT computation. The advantage of recursive form is that

it reduces computation from 2N multiply add operation in normal DFT to 4 additions and 2

multiplications.

To begin with, we will get 2N set

fundamental frequency

and

If our primary interest is to extract fundamental phasor component in the signal then, it can be verified

that, restricting moving window to half a cycle does not alter the end result of eqn. (5) and (6) provided

is given by

that N-now represents, number of samples per half-cycle. Now, the sample

. Thus, half cycle form of DFT phasor estimation is given by the following eqns.

(14)

(15)

Advantage of half cycle algorithm is that the moving window latches on to the post fault signal in

of

a cycle. Thus, compared to full cycle version, it is twice as fast. A keen observer would have noticed that

DFT based on moving window phasor estimation equations are identical to the full cycle and cycle fourier

algorithms derived in lecture-x. Thus, the frequency response of fourier algorithms developed in lecture x

applies to the DFT version. In particular, it is not surprising to see that harmonic rejection property of

half cycle algorithm is inferior to its full cycle avatar. This is consistent with the speed vs accuracy'

conflict, we have discussed earlier.

Recursive form of half cycle DFT can be derived in an analogous manner to full cycle DFT. Realizing that

we get the following recursive update forms for fundamental phasor computation.

Eqns. 12 and 13 provide a recursive update for DFT computation. The advantage of recursive form is that

it reduces computation from 2N multiply add operation in normal DFT to 4 additions and 2

multiplications.

To begin with, we will get 2N set

fundamental frequency

and

If our primary interest is to extract fundamental phasor component in the signal then, it can be verified

that, restricting moving window to half a cycle does not alter the end result of eqn. (5) and (6) provided

is given by

that N-now represents, number of samples per half-cycle. Now, the sample

. Thus, half cycle form of DFT phasor estimation is given by the following eqns.

(14)

(15)

Advantage of half cycle algorithm is that the moving window latches on to the post fault signal in

of

a cycle. Thus, compared to full cycle version, it is twice as fast. A keen observer would have noticed that

DFT based on moving window phasor estimation equations are identical to the full cycle and cycle fourier

algorithms derived in lecture-x. Thus, the frequency response of fourier algorithms developed in lecture

31 applies to the DFT version. In particular, it is not surprising to see that harmonic rejection property of

half cycle algorithm is inferior to its full cycle avatar. This is consistent with the speed vs accuracy'

conflict, we have discussed earlier.

Recursive form of half cycle DFT can be derived in an analogous manner to full cycle DFT. Realizing that

we get the following recursive update forms for fundamental phasor computation.

Review Questions

1.

(a) Generate samples on this waveform using sampling frequency of 12 samples per cycle.

(b) Apply full cycle and half cycle algorithms to estimate phasor from generalized DFT approach.

(c) Repeat (b) using recursive forms.

2.

Repeat (2) and comment on the accuracy of full cycle and half cycle estimation methods.

Recap

In this lecture we have learnt the following:

Computation of phasor from DFT.

Lecture 36 : Fast Fourier Transform

Objectives

In this lecture,

We have seen that N- point DFT is given by the following expression

(1)

Let

, the

1.

(2)

Proof: using Geometric progression series formula

because

We get

2.

From

and

(3)

, we get

(4)

Hence

3.

etc.

and

and

Now using the

, we have

(5)

etc.

(6)

can be written as follows.

(7)

Where

The

indexes the

and

column of the

denote the

and

column of matrix

, then, it is easy

to verify that

i.e. each column is first transposed to a row and every element is then replaced by its complex

conjugate.

For a real number, the complex conjugate is identical to the original number. Hence on real-valued

vectors, Hermitian and transpose operators are one and the same. However, for complex valued vectors

the two differ.

It is now easy to verify that

and

Thus,

(8)

(9)

The invertibility of

In relaying, typically we are not interested in deriving all possible frequency components. Our interest is

primarily in extracting the fundamental and sometimes 2 nd and 5 th harmonic (differential protection).

Since, matrix-vector product involves

multiplications, and similar number of additions, we say that

extracting all possible frequency components by (1) would involve

(read as order

) effort.

This effort is considered to be significantly high for real-time computing. However, with some ingenuity,

computations. This

fast approach to computing all possible frequency transforms in discrete domain is called Fast Fourier

brute force implementation of (1) requires 64 complex

Transform (FFT). For example, with

multiplications which can be reduced to 12 multiplications with FFT.

As we would not have much use for FFT in this course, we will not pursue this topic any further. Rather,

we now establish an equivalence between two very well known transforms viz. multiple DFT (or) FFT and

sequence component transformation. [for the remaining text through out we will refer equation (1) as

FFT].

We will first review N-phase sequence transformation. Consider a N-phase (balanced or unbalanced)

system (

). Let the phasors in phase domain e.g. (

for 3-phase system) be represented

by

. Note that

0-sequence component

There are n- such phasors in the 0-sequence system each of equal magnitude and angle.

1-sequence component

(10)

system

is equal in magnitude to

i.e.

(11)

(12)

Fig 36.1 (a, b and c) visualize the system for a 3phase system. Expressing these equations in

matrix format we obtain the following equations.

(13)

Thus, writing compactly

or

(14)

Where

Thus, from (8) and (14) we conclude that FFT and sequence transformation (defined from sequence

domain to the phase domain) involve the same transformation matrix P. Hence, the two transforms are

mathematically equivalent. In particular for N = 3. With a- phase as reference phasor, we see the

following equivalence relationships.

This mathematical equivalence brings out an important concept viz. transformations and decompositions

done via orthogonal matrices can have multiple interpretations. However, there is one important

difference between the two transformations. The samples

usually real numbers while corresponding phasors in sequence analysis are complex numbers. Thus,

while there is a redundancy in information in FFT domain which leads to DFT symmetry property, there is

no such redundancy in sequence domain. Hence, in sequence domain we do not come across such a

property.

The mathematical equivalence of two should put the reader at ease with both these transformations,

irrespective of which one he came across first.

Recap

Shown equivalence of generic FFT and N-phase sequence transformation.

Illustrated differences between the properties of the 2 - transforms , because first transform (FFT) is used

to

convert n-dimensional real vector (Rn ) to n-dimensional complex vector (Cn ) while the N-phase sequence

transformation maps a vector to a C n vector.

Lecture 37 : Estimation of System Frequency

Objectives

In this lecture,

We will introduce the concept of DFT leakage, and use it to estimate magnitude and phase angle errors

due to change

in system frequency.

So far while discussing the phasor estimation problem, we have assumed that frequency of the power

system remains fixed at it's nominal value (

). Hence, we have also fixed the sampling

frequency to

However, during disturbance and even in steady state to a certain extent, the frequency varies. Thus, we

expect the phasor estimation under constant frequency assumption to be erroneous. Under such

situations, how good is our estimate of the phasor? We now plan to answer this question. As a by product

of the analysis, we will also develop a frequency estimation technique which can be used in under

frequency and rate of change of frequency relays. To simplify presentation, the analysis is developed

.

gradually. First, we determine the DFT of complex exponential signal at frequency

Let the signal be given by

(1)

For this signal let N-sample be captured in P-cycles. P can be a positive integer or even a positive real

number. Then, sampling interval (

) is given by

, sampling speed by

expression:

. In the

(2)

Thus,

, is given by

(3)

Let

(4)

Then

(5)

(6)

.

Fig 37.1(a) shows the envelope of response for

as a function of

, where

is treated as a

to be a discrete number, this plot is sampled at

continuous variable. Since in DFT we have to restrict

discrete points (

). The plot indicates that fundamental is extracted correctly as

expected. At all harmonic frequencies, the DFT gain i.e.

, N =

12.

Fig 37.1(b) shows the envelope of response for 3 different frequencies 49, 50, 51 Hz. The sampling rate

is fixed at 12 samples per cycle at nominal frequency of 50 Hz. Thus, at 49 Hz, P = 49/50 and for 51Hz

waveform P = 51/50. It is seen from the figure that magnitude response is more or less identical when

Hz.

frequency deviation is within

Finally, fig 37.1(c) shows a set of response when frequency deviation from nominal is large enough i.e.

when

= 40, 50 and 60 Hz. Now it can be seen easily that, if we sample the envelope in fig 37.1(c)

), then the P = 0.8, and gain at 50 Hz is a

(not the time domain signal) of 40 Hz signal at 50 Hz (

finite non-zero value different from unity. This effect is known as DFT leakage. It can be said that the

energy in frequency bin

has leaked into frequency bin

.

Remark 1: As

varies from

cycles of

Hz waveform.

slides to the left when 'P' reduces below 1 and it slides to the right when

our waveform to be a 50 Hz signal, we always sample the envelope at

. However, if we assume

.

In DSP literature, DFT leakage is considered to be undesirable. It means that we wrongly interpret a 40

or a 60Hz signal as a 50 Hz signal. However, by a little more analysis, we will show that deviation small

enough from nominal frequency can be easily estimated from corresponding phase characteristic of DFT.

This not only allows us to build underfrequency and rate of change of frequency relays but it simplifies

hardware as sampling rate need not follow the system frequency. Consequently, no-zero crossing

detectors are required. From the relaying perspective, it turns out to be a boon in disguise.

As seen in fig 37.1(b), the DFT magnitude leakage for

= -

0.0065. Thus, we conclude that effect of magnitude leakage on estimation of phasor magnitude can be

neglected. However, the phase angle of DFT tells another story. Note that

For

and

Thus,

Thus an error of is

So far, we have concentrated on DFT response of complex exponential. In practice, we are interested in

DFT of real sine (or) cosine signal and not the complex exponential signal. However, deriving the

response for real cosine (or) sine signal from response of complex exponential is not very difficult. From

the fact that

and by following similar steps as in the case of complex

exponential, we get

Thus,

(7)

Thus,

(8)

With P

1,

while,

and

(9)

We conclude that even with real sine or cosine signal, any reasonable deviation of the signal from the

nominal value, leads to negligible magnitude leakage. However, phase angle error for 1Hz deviation in

frequency is approximately

which is not negligible.

Fig 37.2 shows the envelope of magnitude response of

per eqn. (9). For these plots, we have used N = 32 and

= 160 Hz.

Estimation of Frequency

Now our aim, is to develop a method of estimating power system frequency using the recursive DFT

approach to phasor estimation. We plan to show that in the moving window approach the phase angle

estimated by recursive DFT approach rotates at a speed proportional to the deviation from the nominal

frequency. In turn, this deviation can be assessed by measuring the rate of change of phase angle.

In the previous section, we have derived the DFT leakage for complex exponential and real cosine signals.

We will now generalize the DFT computation of complex exponential so that it can handle moving window

concept.

Generalized DFT of Complex Exponential

Following the methodology used while generalizing DFT, we can write generalized DFT for

window

(window number corresponds to the sample number of first sample in the window) as:

(10)

where

Substituting,

in (9), we get

where

Summation

(11)

we obtain

If m = P, then it is clear that DFT

. Hence, we

can expect obtain stationary DFT in (10) when m = P = 1 i.e. when signal corresponds to fundamental

frequency.

With the knowledge of the generalized DFT of the complex exponential, now we can derive the

generalized DFT expression for real cosine signal.

For a real cosine signal, with moving window concept eqn (7) can be generalized as follows:

(12)

(13)

Following the similar reasoning as outlined in the previous section of the DFT of real cosine signal, we can

(14)

deviates from nominal frequency i.e

, then

start rotating along with the window. From, (14) we can derive that

, we deduce that

(15)

is the sampling time interval. Summarizing, if we set sampling frequency for a sinusoidal signal

where

frequency invariant of the actual frequency of sinusoid, then the phasor estimated by moving window

approach rotates at a speed proportional to

. This rotation will be in anti-clockwise direction if

>

0 i.e.

>

< 0 i.e.

<

If we monitor, this phase rotation, then from the proportionality relationship of (15), we can estimate the

frequency '. If

denotes phase-angle, then from (15), we can obtain the rate of change of

as

follows:

(16)

Discussion

There are many advantages associated with the above algorithm. The method is not based on zero

crossing time and it is immune to noise and harmonics. Instead of using single phase quartiles, one can

estimate the positive sequence component and derive frequency from it. Such an approach will use all the

three phase voltages and hence will have better noise rejection properties. At harmonics of nominal

and hence, the above approach will reject frequencies m

completely.

frequency

Measurement of Frequency

To measure

If we assume that frequency computation will be further averaged over four measurements to smoothen

is given by

out noise, then time to compute deviation

detected in 3.2sec. This is an illustration of standard speed versus accuracy conflict in relaying. This

technique can be recommended for development of under frequency and rate of change of frequency

relays.

Recap

We introduced DFT leakage. It was shown that when fixed sampling frequency is used, typically Nsamples in 1 - cycle

at nominal frequency, then, DFT leakage is zero. This means that there are no magnitude and phase angle

errors in estimation. However, when the system frequency deviates from the nominal (of the order

say), then errors introduced in estimating the amplitude of the signal is negligible. However, now phase

angle errors are not negligible.

It was shown that if the frequency deviates from the nominal value, with constant sampling frequency,

the phasor starts rotating at a speed proportional to it. This can be used for frequency estimation.

Lecture 38 : Bus Protection

Objectives

In this lecture, we will learn

Importance of redundancy in bus protection.

Implementation of differential bus protection using high impedance bus differential relay.

Introduction

Faults in a power system can be either apparatus faults or bus faults. Apparatus fault refer to faults in

feeders, transformers, generators or motors. On the other hand bus is an external interconnection point

for terminals of different apparatus. A bus fault is usually rare, but if and when it happens its

consequences can be quite severe. It can lead loss of multiple feeders or transmission lines and hence

has a potential to create a large enough disturbance to induce transient instability. Even if it does not

lead to transient instability, loss of load from an important substation can be quite high. Because of these

reasons, bus rearrangement can have sufficient redundancy so that in case of a bus fault, an alternative

bus automatically takes over the functions of the main bus'. Thus, the end user sees no disruption in

service except during the fault interval. This can however involve significant costs, viz the cost of new

bus bar and additional circuit breakers to configure a parallel arrangement. Hence, different bus

configurations are used in practice each one representing a different trade off between cost, flexibility

and redundancy. In this lecture, we will discuss following bus arrangements:1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Differential protection discussed in lecture 3 is used for bus protection. If the algebraic sum of all

apparatus currents is zero, then there is no fault on the bus. However, during bus fault, the apparatus

current sums to the bus fault current.

Fig 38.1 shows the

single

bus

single

breaker arrangement. In

this particular example,

there are six feeders

connected to a bus.

Each feeder has a CT to

monitor feeder current

while a single VT is used

to measure bus voltage.

The

NC's

are

mechanical

switches

which

are

normally

closed.

During

bus

maintenance, these will

have to be opened to

guarantee

safety

to

maintenance personnel.

In case of bus fault, all

the breakers have to be

opened to isolate the

bus. In turn, it leads to

severe

disruption

of

service to loads. Hence,

this

scheme

has

minimum

flexibility.

However,

it

uses

minimum

number of

circuit breakers, (one

per feeder) and it also

requires only one VT.

Hence, it is cheap and is used for non critical, low priority feeders where loss of service is not a prime

consideration but low cost (investment) is.

This arrangement is used when

1.

substation.

2. Substation is fed from two separate power supplies with one supply for each bus.

If each bus has its own source, then bus coupler with overcurrent protection can be opened or closed. In

case of loss of supply, 51 (AC time overcurrent relay) is closed. For each bus, there is a differential

protection is provided. For a bus fault, we have to open all circuit breakers on bus along with 51T (trip

breaker). Thus, bus fault leads to only partial loss of service. The arrangement requires two VTs. Hence,

this scheme with addition of one bus bar and circuit breaker improves flexibility in comparison to the

single bus single breaker scheme.

Double Bus Double Breaker Arrangement

Fig 38.3 shows a double bus, double breaker arrangement.

As shown in the fig 38.3, each feeder is connected to two buses which in normal operation mode are

paralleled. Bus differential protection is provided for each bus. This scheme would be used typically at high

voltages like 400kV. Distance protection of such voltage level has to be directional as fault in the primary

line of Z2 of one of the relays cannot be left unattended for time required for Z2 operation. Hence,

directional comparison scheme is required for which CCVT is used for communication. Hence, one CCVT

per feeder would be used along with this scheme. In case of a bus fault (say on bus-1), the breakers

connected to it will have to be opened. Subsequently, the system function then automatically switches to

alternative bus (e.g. Bus 2) with no loss of service to load.

In case, if a feeder has to be isolated, both the breakers connected to it will have to be opened. For line

(feeder) protection, to measure feeder current the CT contribution from both bus 1 and 2 have to be

summed. i.e. corresponding CTs are paralleled. In case of a stuck breaker, local backup for breaker failure

is to operate all the corresponding bus breakers. This bus arrangement provides maximum flexibility but it

is also costly as two breakers per feeder are required.

Fig 38.4 shows a typical ring bus arrangement with four feeders.

Again to isolate a feeder, say on a feeder fault, two adjacent breakers have to be operated. Similarly,

feeder current is calculated by summing or paralleling the appropriate CTs. Each feeder requires its own

VT. The arrangement requires one circuit breaker per feeder and hence it is less costly. This arrangement

is popular because of low cost and high flexibility. As the bus section between the two breakers becomes

a part of the line, separate bus protection is not applicable or required. i.e, the feeder protection also

provides the functionality of bus bar protection.

Fig 38.5 shows the one

and a half circuit breaker

arrangement.

It is so called because

total number of breakers

is 1.5 times the number

of feeders. Fig 38.5

shows the arrangement

with 4 feeders and 6

breakers. There are two

buses, each one having

its own bus differential

protection. In case of a

bus fault, all breakers

connected to the bus will

have to be opened.

Automatically,

the

system operation moves

to

alternative

bus

without any further loss

of service. Hence, this

scheme also provides a

high level of flexibility.

Now, consider the case

of a stuck breaker say

while clearing of feeder

fault on L1 . In case of a

stuck breaker which is

connected to the bus

(shown in red in fig

38.5), the local breaker

all the breakers on the

bus. In the case of stuck

central

breaker

(see

green breaker) i.e. when

the shared breaker is

stuck, LBB consists of

opening the adjacent

breaker. In addition, a

transfer trip signal is

required to the breaker

at the remote end of the

feeder (L 2 ) connected to

the stuck breaker.

Differential relay for bus bar protection can be implemented in one of the following three ways:

1.

2.

3.

Comparison of current phasors.

High impedance bus differential relay.

The main difficulty in bus differential protection is that significant differential current may appear due to

saturation of CT on external fault. When a CT saturates, its secondary current is not scaled replica of

primary current. Therefore, sum of CT secondary current is not equal to sum of primary currents even

though primary CT currents sum to zero.

This causes a differential relay to operate on even external faults, leading to maloperation of bus

protection scheme. This compromises security and is not acceptable. While the percentage differential can

provide security against normal CT errors due to mismatch of CT turns ratio and magnetization current; it

is not adequate to handle severe CT saturation problem. So the relevant questions to be asked now are:

(1)

How was this problem handled in the past, i.e. in the era prior to numerical

relays?

High Impedance Bus Differential Relay

This approach has been the most successful with traditional electro mechanical and solid state relay. It is

based upon the following ingenious and innovative thinking. If you cannot beat CT saturation, exploit it!

In fact this is now a well accepted principle in theory of systematic innovation, also known as TRIZ (a

Russian acronym), that one innovative way to problem solving is to exploit the harm:

If you cannot undo the harm, stretch the harm to the extreme and then exploit it to your advantage".

Recall that when a CT core saturates, it behaves more like an air core device. The coupling between the

primary and secondary winding is negligible. The impedance now offered by the CT as seen from the CT

secondary terminals is very low and it equals the impedance of the CT secondary winding. The CT is no

more a current source with high impedance shunt. Rather, it is a plain low impedance path. Thus, if we

increase the impedance of the relay element which was to carry the differential current significantly, then

sum of all the CT secondary currents (except for the saturated CT) will be diverted into the low impedance

path of saturated CT's secondary. Therefore, differential current would be negligible and hence protection

system will not operate (See fig 38.6).Thus, now saturation of CT itself is responsible for saving a false

operation.

In

contrast,

numerical

relays

offer

a

low

impedance

path.

Hence, this scheme

of differential bus

bar protection cannot

be emulated with

numerical

relays.

Therefore,

with

numerical relays the

busbar

protection

has to be very fast.

i.e

preferably

decision making has

to

be

completed

before

the

CT

saturates. Recall that

saturation of CT is

primarily

a

consequence of DC

offset current.

The time for CT core saturation also depends upon time constant (L/R) of transmission line. If the

protection system could reach trip decision before the onset of CT core saturation, then it would be

reliable. Hence, numerical relaying based bus bar protection is expected to operate in quarter of a cycle.

Development of such protection scheme requires ingenuity because of the well known speed vs accuracy

conflict.

If the CT core saturation factor could be discounted for, then we could use constant % differential

characteristic for bus bar differential protection. We model a CT as scaled current source due to

transformation ratio in parallel with magnetizing impedance (Norton's equivalent). However, the

magnetizing impedance itself is nonlinear. It is large when CT core is not saturated and small when CT

core is saturated. The current in this branch directly contributes to the differential current.

This

suggests

that

%

differential

characteristics

should be modified to have

higher slopes to take care of

CT saturation. A fast protection

instantaneous sample based

differential protection scheme.

In

contrast,

a

phasor

summation scheme will be

inherently slower as correct

phasor estimates will have to

wait until the moving window

is totally populated with post

fault current samples. One way

out of this imbroglio is to use a

smaller data window (e.g. 3

sample window).

On the other hand, the comparison scheme based computation of instantaneous samples can be error

prone due to noise transient related problem. To obtain reliability, it is necessary that consistent

differential current should be obtained. A transient monitor function can be used to check that. A

transient counter is initialized to zero. If a fault is detected due to presence of differential current, then

counter is incremented. Conversely, if counter is greater than zero, and no fault is detected (small

enough differential current magnitude) then counter is decremented. If the counter crosses a preset

threshold value, trip decision is implemented. This scheme will not trip on transient.

However, in addition to internal faults, it will also trip on external fault. For this purpose, the differential

protection relay also has to have an inbuilt feature to detect CT saturation. One way to detect CT core

saturation is based on measuring current change in consecutive samples with the expected sinusoidal

signal model. A change much beyond the expected change in sinusoidal model indicates CT core

saturation. Many more innovative schemes can be thought out to detect CT saturation which is beyond

the scope of this lecture.

Review Questions

1.

2.

What are the advantages of single breaker double bus arrangement over single bus single breaker

arrangement?

3.

How does double bus double breaker bus arrangement provides maximum flexibility?

4.

5.

6.

Recap

In this lecture, we have learnt advantages and disadvantages of different bus arrangements

like

Single bus single breaker arrangement.

Congratulations, you have finished Lecture 38. To view the next lecture select it from the left hand side

menu of the page

Lecture 39 : Transformer Protection

Introduction

Differential protection of transformer was introduced in lecture 2. Traditionally, it involves establishing

circulating current through a pair of matched CTs installed on the primary and secondary winding of the

transformer. If there is no internal fault in the transformer, zero current flows through the differential

overcurrent element. However, in case of an internal fault, the CT secondary currents are not matched

is not zero. This causes the overcurrent element to pick up and

and hence the differential current

operate the circuit breakers to isolate the transformer.

Selection of CT Turns Ratio

and the corresponding CT

by

ratio be given by

and

as

Current in CT - 1 primary =

Current in CT - 1 secondary =

Current in CT - 2 primary =

Current in CT - 2 secondary =

If there is no fault, then with proper connections account for the CT polarity, we should obtain circulatory

current through CT secondary.

Hence,

Selection of CT Turns Ratio (contd..)

i.e,

or

(1)

If the transformer (to be protected ) is working on tap T as shown in fig 39.2, then the above equality

has to be modified as follows:

(2)

Example

Let the primary of the transformer winding has 1000 turns while secondary has 500 turns. If the primary

CT ratio is 100:5, find the CT ratio required in the secondary side to establish circulatory current scheme.

Ans:

=1000,

and

=20

Example (contd..)

Remarks 1: Sometimes due to odd turns ratio' involved in primary, it may not be possible to obtain

matching CTs on the secondary. In such situations auxiliary CTs' are used either on primary or secondary

(or both sides) to obtain circulatory currents in absence of internal faults. Primary of the auxilliary CT is

connected in series with secondary of main CT. Secondary of auxilliary CT participates in the circulating

current scheme.

Remark 2: The circulating current scheme described above has been traditionally used with

electromechanical and solid state relays. However in case of numerical relays, such physical connections

and CTs ratio

and

, one can work out the

are no more required. Given turns ratio

expected current in secondary of transformer (in absence of internal fault). Hence, auxiliary CTs become

redundant and the transformer connections are simplified drastically. Thus, with numerical relaying most

of the hardware connections and circulatory currents can be easily accounted in software. Further, with

digital protection systems differential protection can be implemented by either 'sample by sampe'

comparison or by first computing the phasors and then comparing them.

Phasor computation approach will involve a delay equal to the time required for moving window to latch

on to post fault phasor. Conversely, 'sample by sample' comparison approach can be faster but it is more

prone to picking up to noise or trannsients. Hence, even it has to be slowed down by 'polling scheme'. In

this scheme, we increment a winter, whenever large enough differential is detected. If counter is positive

and differential is below threshold, we decrement the counter. If the counter 'ensures as threshold, a trip

decision is issued.

Example (contd..)

Remark 3: When dealing with three phase transformers, the transformer connections like Y-Y or

also play a role in determining CT secondary interconnections to establish circulating current scheme.

This is because of the phase shifts typically of the order of

that result in the line currents when we

move from primary to secondary side of the power transformer. Fig 39.3 shows the typical connections

for star-delta transformer bank for establishing the circulatory currents. The study of the circuit brings

transformers: If the power

out the following important rule for interconnection of CT secondary for

transformer winding are connected in Y configuration, use

configuration for corresponding CT

secondary interconnections" (and vice-versa).

Remark 4: With numerical relays such interconnection complexity can be easily handled in software.

After, specifying the turns ratio and the phase shift from primary to secondary, it should be possible to

work out the expected secondary differential current by simple calculation.

Role of Percentage Differential Protection

So far, our discussion has focused on an ideal transformer. However, practical transformers and CTs pose

additional challenge to protection.

(1)

The primary of transformer will carry no load current even when the secondary is open circuited. This will

lead to

differential current on which the protection scheme should not operate.

(2)

It is not possible to exactly match the CT ratio as per equation (1). This would also lead to differential

currents under

healthy conditions.

(3)

If the transformer is used with an off nominal tap, then differential currents will arise as equation (2) is

not satisfied

even under healthy conditions. However, tap position can be read in numerical protection scheme and

accounted by equation (2). This would make the numerical protection scheme adaptive.

protection scheme from picking

up under such conditions, a

percentage

differential

protection scheme is used. (see

fig 39.4 )

It improves security at the cost

of sensitivity. Notice an offset of

to account for the no load

current. The current on the xaxis is the average current of

primary and secondary winding

referred to primary. It indicates

the restraining current while the

corresponding difference on Yaxis represents the differential

current. For reference current

direction see fig 39.1.

The differential protection will pick up if magnitude of differential current is more than a fixed percentage

of the restraining current.

Complications of Magnetizing Inrush

We now plan to show that even percentage

differential protection scheme will misclassify the

inrush current as fault current. This is because

during inrush, secondary current is negligible (zero

if secondary is open circuited), while primary

current can be as high as 10 - 20 times the full

load current. Thus some kind of restraint function

is required to inhibit the pick up on inrush.

Traditionally, this restraint is based upon second

harmonic content in primary which discriminates a

fault from the inrush condition.

Alternatives in numerical relaying also include voltage restraint used in integrated substation protection

scheme and flux restraint scheme. Before, discussing these schemes further, we will review the origin of

magnetizing inrush phenomenon.

Consider the circuit in fig 39.5. The switch is closed at t = 0. By Faraday's law, we have

, with

and

(3)

For simplicity, let us assume that

This wave form is quite different from what we obtain by steady state analysis as shown in fig 39.7.

During steady state analysis, we can replace

by

i.e,

and

(4)

Thus, it is clear that peak flux during energization is twice as high as the steady state peak sinusoidal

value. Depending upon the residual flux, it can be even higher. Now,

, where

is the knee

point flux density of core. Thus, during energization, the core is driven deep into saturation. The resulting

H and hence magnetizing current can be very high (up to 20 times full load current). This current is

. But in general,

known as inrush current of transformer. So far, we have assumed

depends upon the remnant flux in the core and H can be anywhere between

during energization will vary from

to

and

. Hence,

Our analysis so has a discrepancy. As per our analysis, flux and current wave shape in fig 39.6 should

persist till infinity i.e. it should represent the steady state flux and current waveform in the core.

However, we also know that steady state flux and current waveform is as per fig 39.7. The resulting

discrepancy is a consequence of our simplifying assumption viz, core is ideal and the winding is non

resistive. If we also model the winding resistance, we would observe that the voltage available at the

ideal transformer primary terminals would reduce drastically due to large voltage drop in the winding

impedance during inrush condition. Consequently, the effect should propagate and reduce flux in the

core. If the flux in the core reduces, so would magnetizing current. Thus, each cycle would have smaller

magnetization current peak and the magnetizing current and flux would finally approach the one

produced by steady state phasor equation.

To summarize the discussion so far,

1.

2.

Some methodology to detect inrush has to be devised and transformer differential protection has to be

inhibited from tripping during this condition.

Detection of Inrush Current and Overexcitation Condition

Appreciable differential current can result due to either inrush or overexcitation of transformer. When a

, we can infer that peak

transformer is overexcited, then from the relationship

sinusoidal flux is large. This implies that transformer core will be driven into saturation for an interval in

each half cycle. Due to this, there would be distortion from the sinusoidal magnetization current. During

saturation, the corresponding magnetizing current can be quite large and on the resulting differential the

protection system may issue a trip decision by confusing overexcitation for an internal fault. Hence, in

practice restraint has to be provided for both overexcitation and inrush current condition. There are three

possible ways in which this can be achieved.

(1)

Harmonic Restraint

Analysis of the current waveform indicates that inrush current is rich in second harmonic and current

during overfluxing has a large fifth harmonic component. Thus, if we compute the second and fifth

, then, we can provide following logic for restraining operation of

harmonic current in

differential protection. Restrain operation of differential protection if

for restrain (No load magnetization current)

1.

or

2.

(Where

(1)

[For restraining inrush current]

3.

(Where

or

[For restraining overexcitation]

4.

(Where

Typically,

and

are the percentage harmonic restraint and would depend upon type of transformer

and steel. For numerical relays, the design of anti aliasing filters also affects the choice of above

parameters. During any transient (including the fault condition), harmonics develop much more rapidly

than the fundamental and hence, typically numerical relays are restrained for about a cycle indirectly by

used in practice are 10, 20 or 30%.

these transients. Typical setting for

(2)

In an integrated substation protection system, it is reasonable to assume availability of bus voltage

measurement for transformer protection without extra cost of VT. Then, voltage measurement can be

used to restrain the operation of differential protection scheme on inrush or overexcitation. Traditionally,

this has been referred in literature as tripping suppressor as it suppresses tripping function. If the

voltage signal is high, the relay is restrained if

or

(5)

(6)

or

(7)

(8)

(2)

Expressions 5, 6 and 7 are self explanatory.

The last restraining function

is known as the transient monitor function. The transient monitor function

is used to qualify the purity of data. Typically, in a numerical relaying set up, with moving window

algorithm, there are a certain number of windows in which both pre fault and post fault data points are

present. Any phasor computation done with them is meaningless because the window does not fit with

(

sample) between

either prefault or post fault signal. Under such condition, the residual error

estimated (reconstructed) and measured signal is quite high. For a half cycle window with 6 samples in

it,

(3)

. When

Fig 39.9 shows the flux current plane associated with no fault and internal fault regions. It is difficult to

evaluate the actual flux in the core, because the initial condition is unknown. It depends also upon the

remanant flux. Fortunately, to distinguish no fault (or external fault) from the internal fault, we are

(3)

This can be easily worked out as follows.

Let the voltage at the terminal of the transformer be v(t), current i(t) and let L be the leakage inductance

of the winding. If we neglect the resistance of the winding, then,

(9)

From the above equation (9) we can deduce the following generic relationship.

(10)

Operation on the unsaturated region of magnetizing curve produces large value of slope

fault or overexcitation (saturated) regions have smaller

. Since, the

If current differential indicates trip and

else if

and

, then

else if

and

, then

, increment counter.

crosses a

known threshold, trip decision will be issued. On the other hand, during inrush or over excitation the

will alternate between low slope and high slope region depending upon whether the core is in saturation

or not. Thus, the counter

will indicate a small tooth kind of behavior with

being below the

threshold value. Hence, operation of the different protection scheme would be restrained in this region.

Remark 5: We have illustrated the basic principle so far using a single phase transformer for simplicity.

However, in practice, we use both three phase two winding and three phase three winding (primary,

secondary and tertiary) transformers. The basic principle of differential protection is the same but we now

have to scale up to multiple phases. For a three phase (two winding) transformer, there would be 3 trip

currents (one per phase) and three restraining currents (one per phase). For three phase three winding

transformers, two restraining per phase are required.

Review Questions

1.

2.

What are the advantage of numerical relaying over other relaying schemes in differential protection?

3.

4.

5.

The primary winding of a transformer has 2000 turns and CT ratio is 600:5. The secondary has 10000

turns and is

to 3

working on a tap of 60%. Find out CT ratio required for secondary side to establish circulating current

scheme.

6.

Explain how reliability is obtained by polling scheme in the 'sample by sample' comparison approach for

differential

protection.

Recap

How to select CT turns ratio for differential protection application.

Lecture 40 : Generator Protection

Objectives

In this lecture, we will learn about protection of generator against various faults and abnormalities like:

Internal Fault like LLG, phase and ground faults.

Introduction

Generator protection and control are interdependent problems. A generator has to be protected not only

from electrical faults (stator and rotor faults) and mechanical problems (e.g. Related to turbine, boilers

etc), but it also has to be protected from adverse system interaction arising like generator going of out of

step with the rest of system, loss of field winding etc. Under certain situations like internal faults, the

generator has to be quickly isolated (shut down), while problems like loss of field problem requires an

alarm' to alert the operator. Following is a descriptive list of internal faults and abnormal operating

conditions.

1.

Internal Faults

a.

Phase and /or ground faults in the stator and associated protection zone

b.

2.

a.

Overload.

b.

Overvoltage.

c.

Loss of field.

d.

e.

f.

g.

Subsynchronous oscillation.

h.

Typical interconnections for differential protection of

With a numerical relay, the circulatory as shown in fig 40.1 (a and b) is not be hard wired. Instead,

equivalent computations can be done in microprocessor. For differential protection, it is important to

choose CTs from same manufacturer with identical turns ratio to minimize CT mismatch. To improve

security, percentage differential protection is preferred. The accuracy of the differential protection for

generators is expected to be better than that of differential protection for transformers, as issues like

overfluxing, magnetizing inrush, no load current and different voltage rating of primary and secondary are

non existent.

Most faults in a generator are a consequence of insulation failure. They may lead to turn to turn

faults and ground faults. Hence ground fault protection is very essential for generators. Three types of

grounding schemes are used in practice

1.

2.

3.

Hybrid grounding.

It is used to limit the maximum fault current due to fault in winding near generator terminals to 1 10 A

primary. This reduces iron burning in the generator and it helps in avoiding costly repairs. Fig 40.2 below

shows a typical circuit connection.

High impedance grounding reduces sensitivity for both feeder ground protection and differential protection

in the stators of the generators. Alternative to high impedance grounding is low impedance grounding.

Low Impedance Grounding

The advantage of low impedance grounding is improved sensitivity of the protection. However, if the fault

is not cleared quickly, the damage to equipment can be much higher. It is possible to engineer ground

(zero sequence) differential protection using a directional ground overcurrent relaying as shown in fig

current with neutral current. If the

40.2. The basic idea is to compare the sum of terminal

two are identical, there is no internal ground fault. Conversely, a differential in the two quantities

indicates an internal ground fault on the generator.

What is it?

Reduction or loss of excitation to the field winding is an abnormality rather than a fault. If the field

winding is completely lost, then in principle, synchronous generator will try to mimic an induction

generator. This mode of operation is possible provided that power system to which generator is connected

is strong enough to provide necessary reactive power support. Recall that an induction generator has no

field winding and hence it cannot generate reactive power. If adequate reactive power support is not

available (a strong possibility!), then the generator will have to be shut down. It is likely that field winding

will be accidentally shut off and usually loss of synchronism will require appreciable time to take effect.

Hence, it is preferable to first raise an alarm for operator to restore field, failing which, generator has to

be shut down.

Consequences

Prima-facie, consequence of reduced excitation may not appear to be dramatic, but it can lead to endregion over-heating in turbo-alternators. Hence, this abnormality has to be detected and an alarm has to

be raised for the operator. The ultimate measure would be to shut down the generator. Fig 40.3 shows

the reactive power capability curve of a generator. It can be seen that in the lagging power factoroperating region, limits are determined either by rotor field heating limit or by stator armature heating

limit.

Consequences (contd..)

Turbo-alternators may not have adequate reactive power absorption capability. Hence, they are seldom

operated with leading power factor. Typically leading power factor operation of generators results when

the field excitation is reduced. Hence, limitations on the reactive power absorption capability set a lower

limit on the reduction on field excitation system (see dotted line in fig 40.4).

Consequences (contd..)

How?

Protection system for synchronous-generators should detect reduced or loss of excitation condition, raise

an alarm and if the abnormality persists, trip the generator. This can be achieved by use of distance

relays that are installed at generator terminals. Directionally, they look into the generator. For this

purpose, we need to interpret capability curve on the R-X plane. If the complex power generated is given

then the apparent impedance seen by the distance relay installed on the generator terminals

by

is given by

(1)

For simplicity, we have referred impedance has been referred to the primary side. Fig 40.5 shows the

capability curve transferred to R-X plane using eqn. (1).

To protect the generator two distance relays and directional units are used. To protect generator against

complete loss of field, inner circle is used. The relay operates when the impedance vector moves into this

circle. Operating time of about 0.2 to 0.3 seconds are used with a complete shut down of the generator.

, with the upper part of the circle 50-75% of

below

The diameter of this circle is of the order of

the origin.

The larger circle is used to detect reduced or partial loss of excitation system. Directional blinder may be

used to limit pickup on normal operating condition.

Quite often, a generator is connected to grid using a

transformer. The

side, traps the zero sequence current from flowing through the phase winding. However, positive and

negative sequence currents will find their way into stator winding. Positive sequence currents cannot

discriminate between balanced and unbalanced operating conditions. On, the other hand, negative

sequence currents clearly indicate the abnormality. Hence, it can be used as an effective discriminant for

unbalanced system operation. Negative sequence currents create an mmf wave in opposite direction to

the direction of rotation of rotor. Hence, it sweep across the rotor induces second harmonic currents in

rotor, which can cause severe over heating and ultimately, the melting of the wedges in the air gap.

ANSI standards have established that the limits can be expressed as

where

is the negative

sequence current flowing. The machine designer establishes constant k. It can be in the range of 5 50.

An inverse-time overcurrent relay excited by negative sequence current can be used for this protection.

If the mechanical input to the prime mover is removed while the generator is in service, then rotors mmf

wave will tend to drive the rotor, just like an induction motor. This is dangerous to both steam and hydro

turbine. In steam turbines, it may lead to overheating while in hydro turbine it would cause cavitation of

the turbine blades. The motoring of generator can be detected by reverse power flow relays having

sensitivity of 0.5% of rated power output with time delay of approximate 2 seconds.

How?

On its face value, over voltage protection should be more or less straightforward. First, one should raise

an alarm if the over voltage is above 110% of rated value. There would a subsequent trip if it persists for

1 min or more. Very large over voltages of the order of 120% of rated value or above, will lead to trip

within approximately 6 seconds.

Why?

Terminal voltage of a generator is controlled by an automatic voltage regulator (AVR). If the load current

(I) on the generator reduces, the AVR would automatically reduce the field current so as to reduce open

circuit emf E to maintain constant terminal voltage V. However, loss of a VT fuse, incorrect operation or

setting of AVR etc can lead to over voltage which is detrimental to the generator. Steady state over

voltage will lead to saturation of iron, both for generator and the unit transformer connected to it. This

will lead to large magnetizing currents, unacceptable flux patterns, over-heating, which can damage the

power apparatus. Hence, generators have to be protected against overvoltage.

V/f Protection

During start-up or shut down, the speed of the generator will deviate significantly from the nominal

over voltages with respect to nominal voltage. Rather overfluxing occurs when V/f ratio exceeds its

nominal value. Hence, over voltage protection is implemented after normalizing the terminal voltage by

the frequency of the generator.

Out-of-Step Protection

With modern generators having large Xd and EHV transmission having low reactance, it is likely that the

electrical center, a consequence of out-of step condition would be within the generator step-up

transformer unit. To detect this condition, distance relay looking into the generator (or into the

transformer-generator unit) should be installed. Even a distance relay used for loss-of-field protection will

pick-up on such power swing. If the swing moves out of the relay characteristic, before the timer runs

down, then, no trip action will be initiated. However, if the swing persists for sufficient time, the loss-ofexcitation distance relay will operate on power swing.

At this point of time, there are no new principles to be introduced from the numerical relaying

perspective. The differential protection scheme can be implemented by either using sample comparison

(time domain approach) or by using phasor comparison (frequency domain approach). Time domain

approach can be faster, than phasor comparison approach. The DFT approach with 1-cycle window will

require one cycle to latch on to the phasor. Usually, the time constant associated with DC offset currents

for generator faults will be large. Hence, decaying dc offset can be approximated by dc signal, which

implies the full cycle DFT will be able to reject it. However, with half-cycle estimation, mimic impedance

should be used.

Sample comparison approach is immune to dc-offset problem but building reliability with such an

approach requires a polling scheme. In other words, reliability is obtained at the cost of time by

ascertaining that successive samples return the trip decision. One can even implement a hybrid approach

where in one switches from time domain to frequency domain approach. The decision to switch will

depend upon the speed of rotation.

Recap

In this lecture we have learnt about the following:

Internal Fault like LLG, phase and ground faults.

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