Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 4

Calculus II Cheat Sheet

Divergence Test: A series an diverges if:


By: Matthew Schurmann
lim an 6= 0

LHopistals Rule

Given:
lim

xk

P-Series Test: A series converges if it is of the form:

X
1
np
n=0

f (x)

0
=
or
g(x)

p>1

Provided that the limit exists, and that as stated the limit Integral Test: A series an converges if:
Z
is an indeterminate form. k can be any real number, zero,
f (n)dn = L 6=
infinity, negative etc...
0

f (x)
f 0 (x)
lim
= lim 0
=L
xk g(x)
xk g (x)

Provided that f(n) is positive, decreasing and integrable.

Limit Comparison Test:


A series an converges
Note: LHospitals Rule can be used to evaluate other if:
an
indeterminate forms such as 1 , 00 , 0 , 0 , and
lim
=L L>0
0
n
bn
. Each must be algebraically transformed to a 0
or
Provided that the bn converges and is positive. If
case first.
bn is divergent and this condition is true, an diverges.

Improper Integrals

Ratio Test: A series an absolutely converges if:

Given: an integral containing either , , or a singular


point. Such as:
Z

lim |

an+1
|=L
an

(L > 1, L 6= )

f (x)dx

Alternating Series Test: A series converges if it is


To evaluate this integral, take the antiderivative of f(x), of the form:

X
and replace the infinite limits with limite of the variables
(1)n an
a and b:
n=0
Z
If an decreases n, and an passes the divergence test.
f (x) = F (x)|ba = lim F (b) lim F (a)

A Power Series is of the form:

Infinite Sequences & Series

Given: an = a1 , a2 , a3 , ..., an . A sequence is convergent


if:
lim an = L 6=

n=0

Its radius of convergence is:

A series is the sum of a sequence. Similarly, a series is


convergent if:

X
Note:
an = L 6=
n=0

Geometric series are of the form:

a(r)n

n=0

a
1r

xn =

n=0

A geometric series converges if |r| < 1, and its sum is:


a(r)n =

r = lim

|an |
|an+1 |
1
1x

Transformations of this formula can be used to find power


series representations of some functions... but Taylor series represent a much easier method. For instance, take
a derivative or an integral:

n=0

an (x a)n

X
1
=
nxn1
(1 x)2
n=1

|r| < 1

ln(1 + x) =

More often than not, it is much easier to tell if a series


converges than it is to determine its sum.
1

X
(1)n n
x
n
n=1

Taylor & Maclaurin Series

j = h0, 1, 0i (y axis)
k = h0, 0, 1i (z axis)

The Taylor formula can be used to find a power series


representation of any infinitely differentiable function:
f (x) =

Magnitude (modulus) of ~a:


q
|~a| = a2x + a2y + a2z

f (n) (a)
(x a)n
n!
n=0

The series is said to be centered around x = a. A Unit Vector in the direction of ~a:
Maclaurin series is a taylor series centered at x = 0. The
~a
u~a =
Taylor Polynomial of degree k is just a truncated Taylor
|~a|
Series, truncated after k terms:
Dot (scalar) Product of ~a and ~b:
f (k) (a)
k
0
(x a)
P (x) = f (a) + f (a)(x a) + ... +
k!
~a ~b = |~a||~b| cos() = ax bx + ay by + az bz
The remainder term would be:
Cross (vector) Product of ~a and ~b:

X
f (n) (a)


Rn (x) =
(x a)n
i
j
n!
k

n=k+1
~a ~b = |~a||~b| sin() = det ax ay az
bx by bz
The maximum error due to truncating the series is less
than or equal to Rk+1 .
~a k ~b if:
Some Maclaurin Series to know:
~a = ~b (proportional)
ex =

X
xn
n!
n=0

~a ~b if:
~a ~b = 0
between ~a and ~b:

X
(1)n x2n
cos(x) =
(2n)!
n=0

= cos

X
(1)n x2n+1
sin(x) =
(2n + 1)!
n=0

cosh(x) =

sinh(x) =

tan1 (x) =

~a ~b
|~a||~b|

Scalar Projection of ~b onto ~a:

x2n
(2n)!
n=0

~a ~b
comp~a~b =
|~a|

X
x2n+1
(2n + 1)!
n=0

Vector Projection of ~b onto ~a:


~a ~b
proj~a~b =
~a
|~a|2

X
(1)n+1 x2n1
(2n 1)!
n=1

For the purposes of Calculus II, most Taylor/Maclaurin


Series can be found my making substitutions on these.

Vector between 2 points:

Distance formula in 3-Space:


p
D = (x2 x1 )2 + (y2 y1 )2 + (z2 z1 )2

r~12 = hx2 x1 , y2 y1 , z2 z1 i

Vector Operations

Given: Vectors ~a and ~b

Scalar Triple Product of ~a, ~b, and ~c:

~a = hax , ay , az i
~b = hbx , by , bz i

~a (~b ~c)

Note:
in terms of components of unit vectors i, j and k.

The scalar triple product is the volume of the parallepiped


formed by ~a, ~b, and ~c. If ~a, ~b, and ~c are co-planar, their
scalar triple product is equal to zero.

i = h1, 0, 0i (x axis)
2

Lines and Planes

Parametric (Vector) Equations

Lines are described in terms of a point P0 they pass Parametric Equations are vector functions in terms of t:
through, and their directional vector, ~v :
~r(t) = hx(t), y(t), z(t)i
P0 = (x0 , y0 , z0 )
Derivatives:
~v = hvx , vy , vz i

0
0
0
r~0 (t) = hx (t), y (t), z (t)i

Vector Equation for a Line:


Integrals:
Z

` = ~v (~r r~0 )
Where ~r is the vector from the origin to any point on the
line, and r~0 is the vector from the origin to P0 .

Z
Z
Z
~r(t) = h x(t)dt, y(t)dt, z(t)dt i

The length of ~r(t) on [a,b]:

Parametric Equations for a Line in terms of t:

x = x 0 + vx t
y = y 0 + vy t
`=

z = z0 + vz t

Z
L=

|r~0 (t)|dt =

x0 2 (t) + y 0 2 (t) + z 0 2 (t)

Tangent Vector:
T =

Symmetric Equations for a Line:

r~0 (t)
|r~0 (t)|

Curvature:

y y0
z z0
x x0
=
=
vx
vy
vz

T (t)
|r0 (t) r00 (t)|
=
=
|r0 (t)|3
|r~0 (t)|

`1 k `2 iff v~1 k v~2


`1 `2 iff v~1 v~2
(`1 , `2 ) = (v~1 , v~2 )

Normal Vector:
N=

T 0 (t)
|T 0 (t)|

To determine if `1 intersects `2 , set their paramet- Binormal Vector:


ric equations equal - one in terms of t and one in terms
B =T N
of s. Solve the first two for s and t, and check to see if
Position, Velocity & Acceleration:
the third equation (for z) holds true.
~v = r0 (t)

A plane is given in terms of a point P0 and a normal vector ~n:


P0 = (x0 , y0 , z0 )

~a = r00 (t)

~v = hnx , ny , nz i

Scalar Equation of a plane:

Functions of Several Variables

Functions of several variables depend on more than x,


such as: f (x, y, z)... Limits:

0 = nx (x x0 ) + ny (y y0 ) + nz (z z0 )

lim

p1 k p2 iff n~1 k n~2


p1 p2 iff n~1 n~2
(p1 , p2 ) = (n~1 , n~2 )

f (x, y, z) = L

(x,y,z)(n,k,t)

Provided that no path exists which leads to a different


value for L.

Line of intersection between two planes:


Partial Derivatives:

f
= fx
x
To find partial derivatives, hold all others constant and
differentiate normally.

~v = n~1 n~2
Distance Between a point and a plane:
D = comp~n~b

Clauriats Theorem:

Where ~b is the vector between the point and any point on


the plane.

fxy = fyx
3

Chain Rule for f (x(t, s), y(t, s)):


f
f x f x
=
+
x
x t
x s

Gradients/Directional Derivs.

Gradient Vector:
~ = hfx , fy , fz i
5f

Tangent Plane:
0 = fx (x x0 ) + fy (y y0 ) + fz (z z0 )

The gradient points to the direction of steepest increase.

Total Differential of z = f (x, y):


dz =

Directional Derivatives:

f
f
dx +
dy
x
y

~ u~a
Du f = 5f

Tangent Plane to Parametric Surface r(u(t), v(t)):

Lagrange Multipliers:

n = ru rv

~ = 5g
~
5f

Implicit Differentiation (F is implicit):


Fx
dy
=
dx
Fy

fx = gx
fy = gy

z
Fx
=
x
Fz
Fy
z
=
y
Fz

fz = gz
Use these three equations and the constraint g(X, y, z) to
solve for the max/min points of f under the constraint g

Level Curves:
To draw level curves for z = f (x, y) let z = k and graph
for k = 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, ....

10

Double Integrals

Rectangular Regions:

Common Graphs: Ellipsoid:


y2
z2
x2
+ 2 + 2 =1
2
a
b
c

Z Z
R

Elliptic Paraboloid:

f (x, y) dx dy
a

Fubinis Theorem:
Z bZ b
Z
f (x, y) dx dy =

z
x2
y2
= 2 + 2
c
a
b
Hyperbolic Paraboloid:

x2
y2
z
= 2 2
c
a
b

f (x, y) dy dx

Polar Coordinates:

Cone:

x = r cos()

z2
x2
y2
= 2 + 2
2
c
a
b
Hyperboloid Single Sheet:

y = r sin()

x2
y2
z2
+

=1
a2
b2
c2
Hyperboloid Double Sheet:

Z
f (x, y) dx dy =

Z Z
R

x2
y2
z2
2 + 2 =1
2
a
b
c

Local Extrema: Second Derivative Test:


1.) To find critical points, set fx and fy to zero.
2.) Find the determinant for each point:
2
D = fxx fyy fxy

if D > 0, and fxx > 0 Local Minimum


if D > 0, and fxx < 0 Local Maximum
if D < 0 Saddle Point.
Absolute Extrema: Find Local max/min in the region,
and local max/min on the borders of the region and
compare.
4

x2 + y 2 = 1
Z Z
f (x, y) dx dy =
f (x, y)r dr d
D