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Outline

Fuel System of Conventional EFI-diesel

Fuel filter, sedimenter SPV (injection volume control)

In the conventional EFI-diesel, control of injection timing


and volume is performed electronically. The device that
generates the fuel pressure is the same pump used in an
ordinary diesel engine.
HINT:
The fuel return circuit from the injection nozzle or
injection pump is not illustrated at left, but the fuel
return circuit is attached to the actual fuel system.
(1/2)

TCV
(Injection timing control)

Fuel tank
Injection nozzle

Fuel filter, sedimenter SPV (injection volume control)

TCV
(Injection timing control)

Fuel tank
Injection nozzle

The fuel that is drawn up by the feed pump travels from


the fuel tank through the fuel filter, and is introduced into
the pump where it becomes pressurized and then
pumped by the plunger inside of the injection pump. This
process is the same as in an ordinary diesel pump. The
fuel in the pump chamber becomes pressurized by the
feed pump so that it is between 1.5 and 2.0 MPa. Furthermore, in accordance with the signals from the ECU, the
SPV controls the injection volume (injection duration) and
the TCV controls the fuel injection timing (injection starting timing).
HINT:
The fuel return circuit from the injection nozzle or
injection pump is not illustrated at left, but the fuel
return circuit is attached to the actual fuel system.
(2/2)
Type of Pump

Axial plunger type pump Radial plunger type pump

A conventional EFI-diesel uses one of the two types of


distributor pump: an axial plunger type pump, and a radial
plunger type pump with a higher injection pressure.

-1-

Internal construction of axial plunger type pump


SPV (Spill Control Valve)
Speed sensor

Feed pump
Roller ring
Plungers

Rotor
Cam plate

TCV (Timing Control Valve)

Internal construction radial plunger type pump


(1/1)

Sp e ed se n so r

S PV (Sp i ll Co n tro l Va lv e)

Fe e d p u m p

R oto r

Ro l l er s
P l un g e rs
T C V (T im i n g C o n tro l Val ve )

C am ri n g

REFERENCE
Injection Pressure for Each Type of Pump
Axial Plunger Type Pump
(used on 5L-E 1KZ-TE, etc.)

Approx. 80 MPa maximum

Radial Plunger Type Pump


(used on direct-injection engines such as 1HD-FTE, 15B-FTE, etc.)

Approx. 130 MPa maximum


(1/1)

Pump

Construction of Pump Portion of Axial Plunger Type


Pump
The pump consists of the following:

-2-

Roller ring

Rollers

Cam plate

Plungers
(1/1)

-3-

Operation of Pump Portion of Axail Plunger Type


Pump
(1/1)

Construction of Pump Portion of Radial Plunger Type


Pump
The pump consists of the following:

Cam ring

4 rollers

-4-

4 plungers
(1/1)

REFERENCE
Pump for 6-Cylinder Type
(1/1)

Pump for 4-cylinder type

Pump for 6-cylinder type

Operation of Pump Portion of Radial Plunger Type


Pump
(1/1)

-5-

Injection Volume

Outline of SPV
There are two types of SPV (Spill Control Valve) that control the injection volume.

Conventional type SPV Direct-acting type SPV

Conventional type SPV


(used in axail plunger type pump)
Direct-acting type SPV
(used in the radial plunger type pump for high-pressure applications)
(1/1)

Conventional Type SPV


Coil

Pilot valve

The conventional type SPV consists of two valves:


main valve and pilot valve.
(1/2)

Pilot spring

Main spring

1. Construction

Main valve

2. Operation
At normal condition
The pilot valve of the SPV is normally closed, as electricity runs through the coil. The fuel pressure and the
spring force causes the main valve to close passage
"A" as well, due to the pressure from the inside of the
valve being greater than that of the outside of the
valve.
When
the signal from the engine ECU is turned off
When the signal from the ECU turns off, causing the
current applied to the coil to turn off, the pilot valve
moves upward by the force of the pilot spring, causing
passage "B" to open.
When the pilot valve is opened
Then, the pressure that is applied above the main
valve decreases. As a result, the main valve ascends,
causing passage "A" to open.
(2/2)
-6-

Direct-acting Type SPV


1. Construction
Coil

Spool valve

ECU
ECU

Spring

In contrast to the conventional type SPV, the direct-acting


type SPV, which is fitted in a pump with a higher fuel pressure, achieves high levels of response and spill characteristics.
Furthermore, the signals from the ECU are amplified by
the EDU to operate the valve at a high voltage of approximately 150V when closing the valve. Thereafter, the valve
remains closed at a low voltage.
(1/2)

2. Operation
At normal condition
The spool valve is pulled downward to close the passage because the coil is energized.
When the current does not flow into the coil
When the current to the coil is turned off, the pressure
of the fuel pushes the spool valve upward to open the
passage.
(2/2)

REFERENCE
Starting Voltage of Direct-acting SPV

(v)

When the direct-acting type SPV starts to operate,


approximately 150V are applied to the coil. Thereafter,
duty-cycle control is effected at a lower voltage.
(1/1)

150

Time

-7-

A xi a l p l u n g er t yp e p u m p

Operation of Pump and SPV


There are two types of plungers:
Axial plunger type pump
Radial plunger type pump
(1/1)

R ad i a l p l u n g er typ e p u m p

Axial plunger Type Pump and SPV


Operation
Intake stroke
SPV closes.
Plunger moves left.
Fuel is drawn into chamber.
Injection
SPV closes.
Plunger moves right.
Fuel pressure rises and fuel is pumped.
Injection ends
SPV opens.
Due to fuel relief, pressure decreases.
Injection ends.
When the conditions for fuel cut-off have been met,
the pressure does not increase because the SPV
remains constantly open.
(1/1)

-8-

Radial Plunger Type Pump and SPV


Operation
Intake stroke
SPV opens.
Rollers and plungers expand outward, drawing fuel
into the chamber.
Pressure rises
SPV closes.
Rollers and plungers contract, causing pressure to
rise.
Injection
SPV closes.
Rotor rotates and connects the rotor's pumping port
and distribution port, allowing the fuel to be pumped.
Injection ends
SPV opens.
Due to fuel relief, pressure decreases.
Injection ends.
When the conditions for fuel cut-off have been met,
the pressure does not increase because the SPV
remains constantly open.
(1/1)
Injection Volume Adjustment
The injection volume is adjusted by
operating the SPV in accordance with
the signals from the ECU to vary the timing of the ending of the injection.
(1/1)

Start of injection
Start of injection
Plunger
Plunger

Close
Close
SPV
SPV
Open
Open

Decrease Increase

Initial condition
d o
Initial condition

Injection Timing

Construction of TCV (Timing Control Valve)


Coil

Moving core

Spring

Stator core

The construction of the timing control valve is shown in


the illustration in the left.
(1/2)
-9-

The construction of the timer is shown in the illustration in


the left.
(2/2)

Roller ring

Timer piston

TCV (Timing Control Valve)

Operation of Timer of Axial Plunger Type Pump


The TCV valve is controlled by the ratio (duty-cycle ratio)
of the ON/OFF time of the current that is applied to the
coil. The length of time that the valve remains open, with
the current ON, controls the fuel pressure in the timer piston.
Advance
When the length of time that the valve remains open is
short (the ratio of the current being applied is low), the
amount of fuel that is bypassed becomes smaller. Thus,
the timer piston moves to the left to rotate the roller ring in
the direction of timing advance.
Retard
When the length of time that the valve remains open is
long (the ratio of the current being applied is high), the
amount of fuel that is bypassed becomes greater. Thus,
the timer piston moves to the right by the force of the
spring to rotate the roller ring in the direction of timing
retard.
(1/1)
Operation of Timer of Radial Plunger Type Pump
The TCV valve is controlled by the ratio (duty-cycle ratio)
of the ON/OFF time of the current that is applied to the
coil. The length of time that the valve remains open, with
the current ON, controls the fuel pressure in the timer piston.
Advance
When the length of time that the valve remains open is
short (the ratio of the current being applied is low), the
amount of fuel that is bypassed becomes smaller. Thus,
the timer piston moves to the left to rotate the roller ring in
the
direction
ofof
timing
advance.
spring
long
amount
the
Retard
retard.
timer
to
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ofrotate
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Thus,
(1/1)
the
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-When
10
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Service Hint

Injection Pump Installation


Install the injection pump by aligning the matching mark
on the injection pump with the reference position mark on
the engine.
Because the ECU recognizes the injection timing and
makes appropriate corrections, it is not necessary to
adjust the injection timing after assembly, as with the
mechanical diesel pump.
(1/1)

SPV Inspection
Inspect the SPV by removing the connector and measuring the resistance between the SPV terminals.
(1/1)

TCV Inspection
Inspect the TCV coil by removing the connector and measuring the resistance between the TCV terminals.
- 11 -

Inspect the operation of the TCV by connecting the positive (+) and negative (-) terminals of the battery to the
TCV terminals and checking the clicking sound of the
solenoid.
(1/1)

- 12 -

Exercise
These are the pre-course study materials for the Frequent Service Job Course. The objective of this
course
is to learn the work procedure and points of frequent service jobs. In the pre-course study, you will
study
the
basic knowledge
needed for repair work, and the basic mechanism and operation of automobiles.
After
you
finish studying all of the chapters, please take the Examination.

Chapter Next Chapter


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Related Text

Exercises

Al l
A nsw e rs
C orr ect

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I nco r r ect
Answ er
R e t ur n t o p ag e o f
r el at e d t ex t f or r evi ew

Exercises

A ll
An swe rs
C o rre ct

I nco r r ect
Answ er
R e t ur n t o p ag e o f
r el at e d t ex t f or r evi ew

- 13 -

Question- 1
The following illustration shows the axial plunger type injection pump.
From the word group, select the part to perform the following controls (1-4).
1. Pumps the fuel from fuel tank.
2. Pumps and distributes the fuel.
3. Controls the injection volume.
4. Controls the injection timing.

a) Feed Pump
b) Speed Sensor
c) Rotor
d) Roller Rin
e) Cam Plate
f) TCV
g) SPV
h) Plunger

g
b

a
d
c

h
f

Answer: 1. 2. 3. 4.
Question- 2
The following illustration shows the radial plunger type injection pump.
From the word group, select the part to perform the following controls (1-4).
1. Pumps the high pressure fuel.
2. Distributes the fuel.
3. Controls the injection volume.
4. Controls the injection timing.

a) Feed Pump
b) Speed Sensor
c) Cam ring
d) Roller
e) Plunger
f) Rotor
g) SPV
h) TCV

d
h

Answer: 1. 2. 3. 4.

- 14 -

Question- 3
Mark each of the following statements True or False.

No. Question True or False Correct Answers

The axial plunger type injection pump used in the conventional EFIdiesel uses a greater injection pressure than the radial plunger type
injection pump.

True False

The axial plunger type injection pump and the radial plunger type
injection pump (both used in the conventional EFI-diesel) have the
same fuel pressurizing and distribution systems.
However, their injection volume and timing controls differ.

True False

Question- 4
The following illustrations show the SPV. From the word group, select the words that correspond
to 1-4 in the table.
(1)

Name

Application for High injection pressure pump


(2)

Operating voltage

Name

(3)

Application

for Ordinary pump

Operating voltage

a) Direct-acting type SPV

b) Conventional SPV

c) Normal voltage

(4)

d) High voltage

Answer: 1. 2. 3. 4.
Question- 5
Mark each of the following statements True or False.
No. Question True or False Correct Answers
1

2
43

When the power is turned ON to the SPV, the fuel passage opens
and the injection ends.
The SPV controls the relief timing of the fuel that has been pressurized by the plunger in order to regulate the injection volume. True False
regulate
The
ized
injection
TCV
ECU
fuelthe
that
timing.
regulates
activates
injection
is applied
thestart
TCV
operating
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timing.
and
timer
controls
stroke
True
piston
of
False
the
in
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regulate
inthe
order
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-to

True False

True False

Question- 6
Mark each of the following statements True or False.
No. Question True or False Correct Answers
1

The inspection of the coils for the SPV and the TCV is performed by
measuring the resistance between the terminals. True False

To reinstall the injection pump of the conventional EFI-diesel on the


engine, the injection timing must be adjusted just as with the
mechanical diesel pump.

- 16 -

True False