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Frame Analysis

FRAME ANALYSIS
9.1

Introduction

In a typical reinforced concrete building, the structural system is quite complex. The structure is threedimensional (3D), comprising floor slabs, beams, columns, and footings, which monolithically
connected and act integrally to resist vertical loads (permanent and variable) and lateral loads (wind
loads, seismic loads). Figure 9.1 shows the example of 3D view of a reinforced concrete building
structure. This structure can be idealized as 3D frame which consist of slabs, beams and columns as
shown in figure 9.2(a). In many cases the slabs are analyzed separately, hence the idealized frame
consist only beams and columns as shown in Figure 9.2(b).
The analysis of 3D frame may represent the real behavior of the structure but it is quite
complicated since the structure is highly indeterminate. The analysis is normally carried out by
computer since manual calculations is unfeasible.
In order to simplify the analysis, the 3D frame structure is generally divided into a series of
independent parallel two dimensional plane frames (2D) along the column lines in the longitudinal and
transverse directions of the building as shown in figure 9.3. These 2D frames may further be simplified
into substitute frames (Sub-frame) or continuous beams as shown in figure 9.4.

Figure 9.1: 3D view of reinforced concrete building structure

185

186

Frame Analysis

(b)

(a)
Figure 9.2: 3D frame of building structure

(a)

(b)
Figure 9.3: 2D frame of building structure

Sub-frame:
Roof level

Sub-frame:
Floor level

Figure 9.4: Substitute frames

Frame Analysis

9.2

Types of Frames

Reinforced concrete frames which consist of columns and beams can be divided into two types:
i.

Braced frames
Frames that not contribute to the overall stability of the structure. None of the lateral actions,
including wind, are transmitted to the columns and beams but carries by bracing members such
as shear walls. This type of frame support vertical actions only.

Shear walls as
bracing members
ii.

Figure 9.5:
Braced frame

Unraced frames
Unbraced frames are frames that contribute to the overall stability of the structure. All lateral
actions, including wind, are transmitted to the columns and beams since there are no bracing
members such as shear walls are provided. These types of frames have to support vertical and
lateral actions.

Figure 9.6:
Unbraced frame
9.3

Method of Analysis

The primary objective of structural analysis is to obtain a set of internal forces and moments
throughout the structure that are in equilibrium with the design loads for the required loading
combinations. The general provisions relating to analysis of the structure are set out in EN 1992-1-1,

187

188

Frame Analysis

Section 5. Generally it will be satisfactory to determine envelopes of forces and moments by linear
elastic analysis of all or parts of the structure and allow for redistribution.
Code of practices permit the use of approximate analysis techniques in which the structure can be
considered as a series of sub-frames. EC 2 does not specifically describe the extent to which various
columns and beams are included in the sub-frames. The methods of sub-frames analysis discussed here
are based on BS 8110.
i.

One-level Sub-frame
Each sub-frame may be taken to consist of the beams at one level together with the columns
above and below. The ends of the columns remote from the beams may generally be assumed
to be fixed unless the assumption of a pinned end is clearly more reasonable (for example,
where a foundation detail is considered unable to develop moment restraint)

Figure 9.7: Sub-frame for analysis of beams and columns


ii.

Two-points Sub-frame
The moments and forces in certain individual beam may be found by considering a simplified
sub-frame consisting only of that beam, the columns attached to the end of that beam and the
beams on either side, is any. The column and beam ends remote from the beam under
consideration may generally be assumed to be fixed unless the assumption of pinned is clearly
more reasonable. The stiffness of the beams on either side of the beam considered should be
taken as half their actual values if they are taken to be fixed at their outer ends.

Kb1

0.5Kb2

0.5Kb1

Kb2

0.5Kb3

Figure 9.8: Sub-frame for analysis of individual beam


iii.

Continuous beam and one-point sub-frame


The moments and forces in the beams at one level may also be obtained by considering
the beams as a continuous beam over supports providing no restraint to rotation.

Figure 9.9: Continuous beam for analysis of beams

Frame Analysis

The ultimate moments for column may be calculated by simple moment distribution
procedures, on the assumption that the column and beam ends remote from the junction
under consideration are fixed and that the beams posses half their actual stiffness. The
arrangement of the design ultimate variable loads should be such as to cause the
maximum moment the column.

0.5Kb

0.5Kb

0.5Kb

0.5Kb

Figure 9.10: One-point sub-frames for analysis of columns

9.4

Actions and Combination of Actions

The actions on buildings is due to permanent (dead load), variable (imposed, wind, dynamic, seismic
loads) and accidental load. In most cases, multistory buildings for office or residential purpose are
design for dead, imposed and wind loads.
Separate actions or loads must be applied to the structure in appropriate directions and various
types of actions combined with partial safety factors selected to cause the most severe design condition
for the member under consideration. In general the combination of actions discussed in section 6.4.1 of
this module should be investigated.

Example 9.1
The framing plans for a multistorey building are shown in Figure E9.1. The main dimensions,
structural features, loads, materials etc. are also set out in the figure. Analyse subframe 3/A-D, Level 1
to determine shear forces and bending moments of corresponding beams and columns. Use all the three
methods of analysis that discussed in section 9.3 of this module.

189

2@4m
= 8m

Frame Analysis

Data:
Permanent office building
(Design life = 50 years).

7 @ 5 m = 35 m

Location :
Near sub-urban
Zone 1 of Malaysia wind
speed mapping
Topography :
Flat area slope < 0.05
Buildings around within
one- kilometers radius.
Beams in grid line
1,2,3,12 : 250 x 600 mm.
Beams in grid line A, B, C
& D: 250 x 500mm.
Slab thickness: 150 mm.

6m

6m

6m

1m

2@4m
= 8m

Columns: 300 x 400 mm.


Imposed load: 4.0 kN/m2.
Finishes, ceiling, services
etc.: 0.75 kN/m2.
Partitions : 0.5 kN/m2

Level 7

Level 5
Level 4
Level 3

6 @ 3.5 m = 21 m

Level 6

Level 2

Figure E9.1

Level 1
4m

190

Frame Analysis

9.5

Analysis of Frame for Lateral Loads

Building frames are subjected to lateral loads as well as vertical loads. The necessity for careful
attention to these forces increases for tall buildings. Buildings must not only have sufficient lateral
resistance to prevent failure but also must have sufficient resistance to deflection to prevent damage to
their various parts. Rigid frame buildings are highly indeterminate; their analysis by exact methods
(unless computers are used) is so lengthy as to make the approximate methods very popular. The two
popular approximate method of analysis for lateral loads are portal method and cantilever method.
In the portal method, the frame is theoretically divided into independent portals. The shear in each
storey is assumed to be divided between the bays in proportion to their spans. The shear in each bay is
then divided equally between the columns. The column end moments are the column shear multiplied
by one-half the column height. Beam moments balance the column moments. The external column
only resist axial load which is found by dividing the overturning moment at any level by the width of
the building.
In cantilever method the axial loads in column are assumed to be proportional to the distance from
the centre of gravity of the frame. It is also usual to assume that all the column in a storey are of equal
cross-sectional area and the point of contraflexures are located at the mid-points of all columns and
beams.
It should be emphasized that these approximate methods may give quite inaccurate results for
irregular or high-rise structures. Application of cantilever method is illustrated by example 9.2.
9.6

Calculation of Wind Load

Wind forces are variable loads which act directly on the internal and external surfaces of structures.
The intensity of wind load on a structure is related to the square of the wind velocity and the dimension
of the members that are resisting the wind. Wind velocity is dependent on geographical location, the
height of the structure, the topography of the area and the roughness of the surrounding terrain.
The response of a structure to the variable action of wind can be separated into two components, a
background component and a resonant component. The background component involves static
deflection of the structure under the wind pressure. The resonant component, on the other hand,
involves dynamic vibration of the structure in response to changes in wind pressure. In most structures,
the resonant component is relatively small and structural response to wind forces is usually treated
using static methods of analysis only.
Wind creates pressure on the windward side of a building and suction on its other three sides.
Wind also produces suction on flat roofs, on the leeward side of sloping roofs, and even on the
windward side of roofs with a pitch less than 30 o (Figure 9.11).

Figure 9.11: Effect of wind on buildings

191

192

Frame Analysis

Three procedures are specified in MS 1553: 2002 for the calculation of wind pressures on buildings:
the simplified procedure, limited in application to buildings of rectangular in plan and not greater than
15.0 m high; analytical procedure, limited to regular buildings that are not more than 200 m high and
structure with roof spans less than 100 m; and the wind tunnel procedure, used for complex buildings.
(a) Simplified Procedure
The steps of simplified procedure, described in MS 1553 Appendix A, are as follows:
1.

Determined the basic wind speed, Vs in accordance with MS 1553 Figure A1 assuming the wind
can come from any direction.

2.

Determine the terrain/height multiplier, Mz,cat as given in Table A1 MS 1553.

3.

Determine the external pressure coefficient, Cp,e for surface of enclose building as given in A2.3
and A2.4

4.

Determine the internal pressure coefficient, Cp,i for surface of enclose building which shall be
taken as +0.6 or -0.3. The two cases shall be considered to determine the critical load
requirements for the appropriate condition.

5.

The design wind pressure, p in Pa, shall be taken as:


p =

0.613(Vs)2 (Mz,cat)2 (Cpe Cpi)

(b) Analytical Procedure


In the analytical procedure, the design wind pressure, shall be determined using the following equation
as mentioned in Section 2 of MS 1553:
p

0.613 [Vdes]2 Cfig Cdyn

Pa

where
Vdes

=
=
l
Vsit

design wind speed


Vsit l
= importance factor given in Table 3.2 MS 1553
= site wind speed
= Vs Md Mz,cat Ms Mh
Vs = basic wind speed 33.5 m/s zone I and 32.5 m/s zone II respectively
as given in Figure 3.1 MS 1553
Md = wind directional multiplier = 1.0
Mz,cat = terrain/height multiplier, given in Table 4.1 MS 1553
Ms = shielding multiplier, given in Table 4.3 MS 1553. Shall be taken as
1.0 if the effects of shielding are ignored or not applicable.
Mh = hill shape multiplier. Shall be taken as 1.0 except that for particular
cardinal direction in the local topographic zones.

Cfig.

=
aerodynamic shape factor
=
Cp,e KaKcKlKp
for external pressure
Cp,e = external pressure coefficient given Tables 5.2(a) and Table 5.2(b)

Frame Analysis

MS 1553 for windward and leeward walls respectively for rectangular


enclosed buildings.
Ka, Kc, Kl, and Kp are area reduction factor, combination factor, local pressure factor
and porous cladding reduction factor respectively. All shall be taken as 1.0 in most
cases.
Cdyn

dynamic response factor. Shall be taken as 1.0 unless the structure


is wind sensitive

Example 9.2
For the multistorey building in Example 9.1,
(a) Calculate the wind load on the building.
(b) Calculate the bending moments for all beams and columns, due to wind load from (a).
(c) Analyse the subframe consisting of Beam 3/A-D, Level 1 with the columns above and below
them, subjected to vertical load only.
(d) Sketch the bending moment diagrams for each loading (b) & (c) and the combined loadings.

193

194

Frame Analysis

EXAMPLES
Example 9.1(a) : Actions on beam
Example 9.1(b) : Analysis of one level sub-frame
Example 9.1(c) : Analysis of two-point sub-frame
Example 9.1(d) : Continuous beam + one-point sub-frame
Example 9.2(a) : Calculation of wind load
Example 9.2(b) : Lateral load analysis : Cantilever method
Example 9.2(c) : Analysis of one level sub-frame - Vertical load only

Frame Analysis

Example 9.1(a) : Action on beams


Ref.

page 1/2
Calculations

Output

SPECIFICATION
Loading:
Finishes, ceiling, services etc.
Density of concrete
Imposed load
Partition

=
=
=
=

Dimension:
Slab thickness, h
Beam size, b x h
Column size, b x h

=
150 mm
250 x 600 mm
300 x 400 mm

=
=

0.75
25
4.00
0.50

kN/m2
kN/m3
kN/m2
kN/m2

Loading distribution:
2

4.0m
0.47
0.42

0.45
0.39

0.47
0.42
5.0m

4
A

6.0m

Slab 2-3/A-B :
Slab 3-4/A-B :
Slab 2-3/B-C :
Slab 3-4/B-C :
Slab 2-3/C-D :
Slab 3-4/C-D :

L y/L x
L y/L x
L y/L x
L y/L x
L y/L x
L y/L x

6.0m
=
=
=
=
=
=

6.0m

6.0 /
6.0 /
6.0 /
6.0 /
6.0 /
6.0 /

ACTIONS
Loads on slab, n kN/m2 :
Slab selfweight =
0.15 x 25
Finishes, ceiling etc. =
Characteristic permanent load, g k =
Imposed load =
Partition =
Characteristic variable load, q k =

4.0
5.0
4.0
5.0
4.0
5.0

=
=
=
=
=
=

1.50
1.20
1.50
1.20
1.50
1.20

3.75
0.75
4.50
4.00
0.50
4.50

Case
Case
Case
Case
Case
Case

2
2
1
1
2
2

kN/m2
kN/m2
kN/m2
kN/m2
kN/m2
kN/m2

msy '11

195

196

Frame Analysis

Example 9.1(a) : Action on beams


Ref.

page 2/2
Calculations

Output

Loads on beam, w kN/m :


w2

w1

6.0 m
A

6.0 m

w3

Span 1 (A-B) : w 1
Perm. load from slab = 0.47 x 4.50 x
Perm. load from slab = 0.42 x 4.50 x
Beam selfweight =
0.45 x 0.25 x
Characteristic permanent load, G k
Variable load fr.slab = 0.47 x 4.50 x
Variable load fr. slab = 0.42 x 4.50 x
Chacracteristic variable load, Q k =
Design load,
1.35G k + 1.5Q k
1.35G k
Span 2 (B-C) : w 2
Perm. load from slab = 0.45 x 4.50 x
Perm. load from slab = 0.39 x 4.50 x
Beam selfweight =
0.45 x 0.25 x
Characteristic permanent load, g k
Variable load fr. slab = 0.45 x 4.50 x
Variable load fr. slab = 0.39 x 4.50 x
Chacracteristic variable load, Q k =
Design load,
1.35G k + 1.5Q k
1.35G k
Span 3 (C-D) : w 3
Perm. load from slab = 0.47 x 4.50 x
Perm. load from slab = 0.42 x 4.50 x
Beam selfweight =
0.45 x 0.25 x
Characteristic permanent load, g k
Variable load from slab =0.47 x 4.50 x
Variable load from slab =0.42 x 4.50 x
Chacracteristic variable load, Q k =
1.35G k + 1.5Q k
Design load,
1.35G k

6.0 m

4.0 =
5.0 =
25 =
=
4.0 =
5.0 =
=
=

4.0 =
5.0 =
25 =
=
4.0 =
5.0 =
=
=

4.0 =
5.0 =
25 =
=
4.0 =
5.0 =
=
=

8.46
9.45
2.81
20.72
8.46
9.45
17.91
54.84
27.98

kN/m
kN/m
kN/m
kN/m
kN/m
kN/m
kN/m
kN/m
kN/m

8.10
8.78
2.81
19.69
8.10
8.78
16.88
51.89
26.58

kN/m
kN/m
kN/m
kN/m
kN/m
kN/m
kN/m
kN/m
kN/m

8.46
9.45
2.81
20.72
8.46
9.45
17.91
54.84
27.98

kN/m
kN/m
kN/m
kN/m
kN/m
kN/m
kN/m
kN/m
kN/m

msy '11

Frame Analysis

Example 9.1(b) : Analysis of one level sub-frame


Ref.

page 1/10

Calculations

Output

Data:

w 1 kN/m

6.0 m
A

Size :
Beam : b x h =

Column : b x h =

Actions:
w1 :
w 2 kN/m
w 3 kN/m 3.5 m 1.35Gk =
1.35Gk+1.5Qk=
w2 :
4.0 m 1.35Gk =
6.0 m
6.0 m
1.35Gk+1.5Qk=
w3 :
D
C
1.35Gk =
250 x 600 mm
1.35Gk+1.5Qk=
300 x 400 mm

Momen of Inertia : I = bh 3/12


3
Beam : I =
250 x 600 /12 =
3
Column: I =
300 x 400 /12 =

9
4
4.5 x 10 mm
9
4
1.6 x 10 mm

Stiffness : K = I /L
Column: K cu= 1.6 x
K cl = 1.6 x
Beam: K AB = 4.5 x
K BC = 4.5 x
K CD = 4.5 x

4.6 x
4.0 x
7.5 x
7.5 x
7.5 x

109 /
109 /
109 /
109 /
109 /

3500 =
4000 =
6000 =
6000 =
6000 =

Distribution factor : F = K / K
Joint A: F AB = K AB/(K AB + K cu + K cl) =
F cu = K cu/(K AB + K cu + K cl) =
F cl = K cl/(K AB + K cu + K cl) =
Joint B: F BA = K AB/(K AB+K BC+K cu+K cl) =
F BC = K BC/(K AB+K BC+K cu+K cl) =
F cu = Kcu/(K AB+K BC+K cu+K cl) =
F cl = K cl/(K AB+K BC+K cu+K cl) =
Joint C: F CB = K BC/(K BC+K CD+K cu+K cl) =
F CD = K CD/(K BC+K CD+K cu+K cl) =
F cu = K cu/(K BC+K CD+K cu+K cl) =
F cl = K cl/(K BC+K CD+K cu+K cl) =
Joint D: F DC = K CD/(K CD+K cu+K cl) =
F cu = K cu/(K CD+K cu+K cl) =
F cl = K cl/(K CD+K cu+K cl)

kN/m
28.0
54.8
26.6
51.9
28.0
54.8

105 mm3
105 mm3
105 mm3
105 mm3
105 mm3

0.47
0.28
0.25
0.32
0.32
0.19
0.17
0.32
0.32
0.19
0.17
0.47
0.28
0.25

msy '11

197

198

Frame Analysis

Example 9.1(b) : Analysis of one level sub-frame


Ref.

page 2/10

Calculations

Output

Case 1:: Span 1 & 2 design permanent & variable loads 1.35G k + 1.5Q k
Span 3 design permanent loads 1.35G k
Fixed end moment :
-M AB = M BA = w 1L 12/12
2
54.8 kN/m
51.9 kN/m
28.0 kN/m 3.5m
=
54.8 x 6.0 /12
= 164.5 kNm
-M BC = M CB = w 2L 22/12
2
4.0m
=
51.9 x 6.0 /12
6.0 m
6.0 m
6.0 m
= 155.7 kNm
-M CD = M DC = w1L 12/12
A
D
B
C
2
=
28.0 x 6.0 /12
=
83.9 kNm
Moment distribution

48.58
0.17
1.22
0.40
46.80
0.28 A
0.25
0.47
-164.5
40.9
76.8
-1.4
0.4
0.7
-4.3
1.1
2.0
-0.6
0.1
0.3
42.5 -91.1

-7.90
-0.24
-0.71
-5.23
-1.72
B 0.19
0.32
0.17
0.32
164.5
-155.7
-2.8
-1.5
-2.8
38.4
-11.4
-8.6
-4.6
-8.6
0.3
3.3
-1.2
-0.6
-1.2
1.0
0.3
-0.4
-0.2
-0.4
191.3 -6.9 -176.5

-9.26
0.26
0.32
4.07
-13.91
C 0.19
0.32
0.17
155.7
-22.8 -12.2
-1.4
6.7
3.6
-4.3
0.5
0.3
-0.6
0.4
0.2
134.2 -8.1

0.32
-83.9
-22.8
-19.6
6.7
2.7
0.5
-0.8
0.4
-116.8

-21.65
-0.07
-0.95
3.25
-23.87
D 0.28
0.47
0.25
83.9
-39.2 -20.9
-11.4
5.3
2.8
3.3
-1.6
-0.8
0.3
-0.1
-0.1
40.6 -18.9

msy '11

Frame Analysis

Example 9.1(b) : Analysis of one level sub-frame


Ref.

page 3/10

Calculations

Output

Shear force :
91.1

54.8

191.3 176.5

6.0
V AB

51.9

134.2 116.8

6.0
V BA

V BC

40.6

6.0
V CB

M @ B = 0
6.0 V AB - (54.8 x 6.0 x 3.0) + 191.3
V AB = ( 987.13 - 191.3 +91.1 ) / 6.0
V BA = ( 54.8 x 6.0) - 147.8

28.0

V CD

V DC

- 91.1 = 0
=
147.8 kN
=
181.2 kN

M @ C = 0
6.0 V BC - (51.9 x 6.0 x 3.0) + 134.2 - 176.5 = 0
V BC = ( 934.03 - 134.2 +176.5 ) / 6.0
=
162.7 kN
V CB = ( 51.9 x 6.0) - 162.7
=
148.6 kN
M @ D = 0
6.0 V CD - (28.0 x 6.0 x 3.0) - 116.8
V CD = ( 503.56 +116.8 - 40.6 ) / 6.0
V DC = ( 28.0 x 6.0) - 96.6

+ 40.6 = 0
=
96.6 kN
=
71.2 kN

Shear force and bending moment diagrams


147.8

162.7
2.7

96.6
3.1

3.5

181.2

148.6

191.3
91.1
42.5

71.2

134.2
176.5

116.8

48.6

40.6
7.9

6.9

9.3

8.1

21.6

18.9

50.1
78.7
108.1
21.3

3.5

4.1

9.5

msy '11

199

200

Frame Analysis

Example 9.1(b) : Analysis of one level sub-frame


Ref.

page 4/10

Calculations

Output

Case 2:: Span 2 & 3 design permanent & variable loads 1.35G k + 1.5Q k
Span 1 design permanent loads 1.35G k
Fixed end moment :
-M AB = M BA = w 1L 12/12
2
28.0 kN/m
51.9 kN/m
54.8 kN/m 3.5m
=
28.0 x 6.0 /12
=
83.9 kNm
-M BC = M CB = w 2L 22/12
2
4.0m
=
51.9 x 6.0 /12
6.0 m
6.0 m
6.0 m
= 155.7 kNm
-M
= M DC = w1L 12/12
CD
A
D
B
C
2
=
54.8 x 6.0 /12
=

164.5 kNm

Moment distribution

21.65
0.07
0.95
-3.25
23.87
0.28 A
0.25
0.47
-83.9
20.9
39.2
11.4
-2.8
-5.3
-3.3
0.8
1.6
-0.3
0.1
0.1
18.9 -40.6

9.26
-0.26
-0.32
-4.07
13.91
B 0.19
0.32
0.17
0.32
83.9
-155.7
22.8
12.2
22.8
19.6
1.4
-6.7
-3.6
-6.7
-2.7
4.3
-0.5
-0.3
-0.5
0.8
0.6
-0.4
-0.2
-0.4
116.8
8.1 -134.2

7.90
0.24
0.71
5.23
1.72
C 0.19
0.32
0.17
155.7
2.8
1.5
11.4
8.6
4.6
-3.3
1.2
0.6
-0.3
0.4
0.2
176.5
6.9

0.32
-164.5
2.8
-38.4
8.6
-0.3
1.2
-1.0
0.4
-191.3

-48.58
-0.17
-1.22
-0.40
-46.80
D 0.28
0.47
0.25
164.5
-76.8 -40.9
1.4
-0.7
-0.4
4.3
-2.0
-1.1
0.6
-0.3
-0.1
91.1 -42.5

msy '11

Frame Analysis

Example 9.1(b) : Analysis of one level sub-frame


Ref.

page 5/10

Calculations

Output

Shear force :
40.6

28.0

116.8 134.2

6.0
V AB

51.9

176.5 191.3

6.0
V BA

V BC

91.1

6.0
V CB

M @ B = 0
6.0 V AB - (28.0 x 6.0 x 3.0) + 116.8
V AB = ( 503.56 - 116.8 +40.6 ) / 6.0
V BA = ( 28.0 x 6.0) - 71.2

54.8

V CD

V DC

- 40.6 = 0
=
71.2 kN
=
96.6 kN

M @ C = 0
6.0 V BC - (51.9 x 6.0 x 3.0) + 176.5 - 134.2 = 0
V BC = ( 934.03 - 176.5 +134.2 ) / 6.0
=
148.6 kN
V CB = ( 51.9 x 6.0) - 148.6
=
162.7 kN
M @ D = 0
6.0 V CD - (54.8 x 6.0 x 3.0) - 191.3
V CD = ( 987.13 +191.3 - 91.1 ) / 6.0
V DC = ( 54.8 x 6.0) - 181.2

+91.1 = 0
=
181.2 kN
=
147.8 kN

Shear force and bending moment diagrams


71.2

148.6

181.2

2.5

2.9

3.3

96.6

162.7

176.5
40.6
18.9

116.8

147.8

191.3

134.2

91.1

21.6

48.6
8.1

9.3

6.9

7.9

42.5

50.1
78.7
108.1
9.5

4.6

4.0

21.3

msy '09

201

202

Frame Analysis

Example 9.1(b) : Analysis of one level sub-frame


Ref.

page 6/10

Calculations

Output

Case 3:: Span 1 & 3 design permanent & variable loads 1.35G k + 1.5Q k
Span 2 design permanent loads 1.35G k
Fixed end moment :
-M AB = M BA = w 1L 12/12
54.8 kN/m
26.6 kN/m
54.8 kN/m 3.5m
=
54.8 x 6.0 2/12
= 164.5 kNm
-M BC = M CB = w 2L 22/12
4.0m
=
26.6 x 6.0 2/12
6.0 m
6.0 m
6.0 m
=
79.7 kNm
-M CD = M DC = w1L 12/12
A
D
B
C
2
=
54.8 x 6.0 /12
=

164.5 kNm

Moment distribution

53.50
0.52
2.35
3.84
46.80
0.28 A
0.25
0.47
-164.5
40.9
76.8
-13.5
3.4
6.3
-8.3
2.1
3.9
-1.8
0.5
0.8
46.8 -100.3

-29.44
-0.73
-2.21
-10.06
-16.44
B 0.19
0.32
0.17
164.5
-27.0 -14.4
38.4
-16.5 -8.8
3.1
-3.6
-1.9
1.9
-1.2
-0.6
159.7 -25.8

0.32
-79.7
-27.0
13.5
-16.5
8.3
-3.6
1.8
-1.2
-104.5

29.44
0.73
2.21
10.06
16.44
C 0.19
0.32
0.17
0.32
79.7
-164.5
27.0
14.4
27.0
-13.5
-38.4
16.5
8.8
16.5
-8.3
-3.1
3.6
1.9
3.6
-1.8
-1.9
1.2
0.6
1.2
104.5 25.8 -159.7

-53.50
-0.52
-2.35
-3.84
-46.80
D 0.28
0.47
0.25
164.5
-76.8 -40.9
13.5
-6.3
-3.4
8.3
-3.9
-2.1
1.8
-0.8
-0.5
100.3 -46.8

msy '11

Frame Analysis

Example 9.1(b) : Analysis of one level sub-frame


Ref.

page 7/10

Calculations

Output

Shear force :
100.3

54.8

159.7 104.5

6.0
V AB

26.6

104.5 159.7

6.0
V BA

V BC

54.8

100.3

6.0
V CB

V CD

V DC

M @ B = 0
6.0 V AB - (54.8 x 6.0 x 3.0) + 159.7 - 100.3 = 0
V AB = ( 987.13 - 159.7 +100.3 ) / 6.0
=
154.6 kN
V BA = ( 54.8 x 6.0) - 154.6
=
174.4 kN
M @ C = 0
6.0 V BC - (26.6 x 6.0 x 3.0) + 104.5 - 104.5 = 0
V BC = ( 478.41 - 104.5 +104.5 ) / 6.0
=
79.7 kN
V CB = ( 26.6 x 6.0) - 79.7
=
79.7 kN
M @ D = 0
6.0 V CD - (54.8 x 6.0 x 3.0) - 159.7 +100.3 = 0
V CD = ( 987.13 +159.7 - 100.3 ) / 6.0
=
174.4 kN
V DC = ( 54.8 x 6.0) - 174.4
=
154.6 kN
Shear force and bending moment diagrams
154.6

79.7
2.8

174.4
3.0

3.2

174.4

79.7

154.6

159.7
100.3
46.8

159.7

104.5

104.5

100.3

53.5

53.5
29.4

25.8

29.4

25.8

46.8

15.1
117.7
23.4

117.7
12.9

12.9

23.4

msy '09

203

204

Frame Analysis

Example 9.1(b) : Analysis of one level sub-frame


Ref.

page 8/10

Calculations

Output

Case 4:: Span 2 design permanent & variable loads 1.35G k + 1.5Q k
Span 1 & 3 design permanent loads 1.35G k
Fixed end moment :
-M AB = M BA = w 1L 12/12
2
28.0 kN/m
51.9 kN/m
28.0 kN/m 3.5m
=
28.0 x 6.0 /12
=
83.9 kNm
-M BC = M CB = w 2L 22/12
2
4.0m
=
51.9 x 6.0 /12
6.0 m
6.0 m
6.0 m
= 155.7 kNm
-M CD = M DC = w1L 12/12
A
D
B
C
2
=
28.0 x 6.0 /12
=

83.9 kNm

Moment distribution

20.93
-0.06
0.37
-3.25
23.87
0.28 A
0.25
0.47
20.9
-2.8
0.3
-0.1
18.3

-83.9
39.2
11.4
-5.3
-1.3
0.6
0.2
-0.1
-39.3

12.58
-0.02
0.26
-1.58
13.91
B 0.19
0.32
0.17
83.9
22.8
19.6
-2.6
-2.7
0.4
0.3
0.0
121.8

12.2
-1.4
0.2
0.0
11.0

0.32
-155.7
22.8
-11.4
-2.6
1.3
0.4
-0.2
0.0
-145.4

-12.58
0.02
-0.26
1.58
-13.91
C 0.19
0.32
0.17
155.7
-22.8
11.4
2.6
-1.3
-0.4
0.2
0.0
145.4

0.32

-83.9
-12.2 -22.8
-19.6
1.4
2.6
2.7
-0.2
-0.4
-0.3
0.0
0.0
-11.0 -121.8

-20.93
0.06
-0.37
3.25
-23.87
D 0.28
0.47
0.25
83.9
-39.2
-11.4
5.3
1.3
-0.6
-0.2
0.1
39.3

-20.9
2.8
-0.3
0.1
-18.3

msy '11

Frame Analysis

Example 9.1(b) : Analysis of one level sub-frame


Ref.

page 9/10

Calculations

Output

Shear force :
39.3

28.0

121.8 145.4

6.0
V AB

51.9

145.4 121.8

6.0
V BA

V BC

39.3

6.0
V CB

M @ B = 0
6.0 V AB - (28.0 x 6.0 x 3.0) + 121.8
V AB = ( 503.56 - 121.8 +39.3 ) / 6.0
V BA = ( 28.0 x 6.0) - 70.2

28.0

V CD

V DC

- 39.3 = 0
=
70.2 kN
=
97.7 kN

M @ C = 0
6.0 V BC - (51.9 x 6.0 x 3.0) + 145.4 - 145.4 = 0
V BC = ( 934.03 - 145.4 +145.4 ) / 6.0
=
155.7 kN
V CB = ( 51.9 x 6.0) - 155.7
=
155.7 kN
M @ D = 0
6.0 V CD - (28.0 x 6.0 x 3.0) - 121.8
V CD = ( 503.56 +121.8 - 39.3 ) / 6.0
V DC = ( 28.0 x 6.0) - 97.7

+39.3 = 0
=
97.7 kN
=
70.2 kN

Shear force and bending moment diagrams


70.2

155.7

97.7

2.5

3.0

3.5

97.7

155.7

145.4
39.3
18.3

70.2

145.4

121.8

121.8

39.3

20.9

20.9
12.6

11.0

12.6

48.8

11.0

18.3
48.8

88.1

9.2

5.5

5.5

9.2

msy '09

205

206

Frame Analysis

Example 9.1(b) : Analysis of one level sub-frame


Ref.

page 10/10

Calculations

Output

Shear Force Envelop


154.6

162.7

181.2

181.2

162.7

154.6

Bending Moment Envelop

191.3

176.5

176.5

191.3

100.3
46.8

100.3
53.5
29.4

25.8

48.8

29.4

25.8

15.1

46.8
48.8

88.1
117.7
23.4

117.7
12.9

5.5

5.5

12.9

23.4

msy '09

Frame Analysis

Example 9.1(c) : Analysis of two free-joint sub-frame


Ref.

page 1/6

Calculations

Output

Beam A-B (Beam C-D similar)


Case 1:: Span 1 design permanent & variable loads 1.35G k + 1.5Q k
: Span 2 design permanent & variable loads 1.35G k + 1.5Q k

4.6

54.84 kN/m

51.89 kN/m

7.5

3.75

6.0 m

6.0 m

4.0
A

Distribution factor:
Joint A: F AB = 7.5 /
F cu = 4.6 /
F cl = 4.0 /
Joint B: F BA = 7.5 /
F BC = 3.8 /
F cu = 4.0 /
F cl = 4.6 /

Fixed end moment :


-M AB = M BA = w 1L 12/12
2
=
54.8 x 6.0 /12
= 164.5 kNm
-M BC = M CB = w 2L 22/12
2
=
51.9 x 6.0 /12
= 155.7 kNm

(7.5 + 4.6 + 4.0)


(7.5 + 4.6 + 4.0)
(7.5 + 4.6 + 4.0)
(7.5 + 3.75 + 4.0 +
(7.5 + 3.75 + 4.0 +
(7.5 + 3.8 + 4.0 +
(7.5 + 3.8 + 4.0 +

=
=
=
4.6) =
4.6) =
4.6) =
4.6) =

0.47
0.28
0.25
0.38
0.19
0.20
0.23

Moment distribution
49.36
0.02
2.07
0.48
46.80
0.28 A
0.25
0.47
-164.5
40.9
76.8
-1.7
0.4
0.8
-7.3
1.8
3.4
-0.1
0.0
0.0
43.2 -92.6

-9.95
-0.34
-0.08
-7.75
-1.79
B 0.20
0.38
0.23
0.19
164.5
-155.7
-3.3
-2.0
-1.7
38.4
0.0
-14.5 -8.9
-7.3
0.4
0.0
-0.1
-0.1
-0.1
1.7
0.0
-0.6
-0.4
-0.3
186.3 -11.4 -165.0

msy '11

207

208

Frame Analysis

Example 9.1(c) : Analysis of two free-joint sub-frame


Ref.

page 2/6

Calculations

Output

Case 2:: Span 1 design permanent & variable loads 1.35G k + 1.5Q k
: Span 2 design permanent loads 1.35G k

4.6

54.84 kN/m

26.58 kN/m

7.5

3.75

6.0 m

6.0 m

4.0
A

Fixed end moment :


-M AB = M BA = w 1L 12/12
2
=
54.8 x 6.0 /12
= 164.5 kNm
-M BC = M CB = w 2L 22/12
2
=
26.6 x 6.0 /12
=
79.7 kNm

Distribution factor:
Joint A: F AB = 7.5 /
F cu = 4.6 /
F cl = 4.0 /
Joint B: F BA = 7.5 /
F BC = 3.8 /
F cu = 4.0 /
F cl = 4.6 /

(7.5 + 4.6 + 4.0)


(7.5 + 4.6 + 4.0)
(7.5 + 4.6 + 4.0)
(7.5 + 3.75 + 4.0 +
(7.5 + 3.75 + 4.0 +
(7.5 + 3.8 + 4.0 +
(7.5 + 3.8 + 4.0 +

=
=
=
4.6) =
4.6) =
4.6) =
4.6) =

0.47
0.28
0.25
0.38
0.19
0.20
0.23

Moment distribution
53.63
0.20
2.07
4.56
46.80
0.28 A
0.25
0.47
-164.5
40.9
76.8
-16.0
4.0
7.5
1.8
0.2
46.9

-7.3
3.4
-0.7
0.3
-100.6

-25.95
-0.34
-0.76
-7.75
-17.11
B 0.20
0.38
0.23
0.19
164.5
-79.7
-32.1 -19.6 -16.0
38.4
0.0
-14.5 -8.9
-7.3
3.7
-1.4
1.7
-0.6
159.7

0.0
-0.7
0.0
-0.4
-0.3
-29.7 -104.1
-0.9

msy '11

Frame Analysis

Example 9.1(c) : Analysis of two free-joint sub-frame


Ref.

page 3/6

Calculations
Shear force :
Case 1
92.6

54.8

Output

186.3

6.0
V AB

V BA

M @ B = 0
6.0 V AB - (54.8 x 6.0 x 3.0) + 186.3
V AB = ( 987.13 - 186.3 +92.6 ) / 6.0
V BA = ( 54.8 x 6.0) - 148.9

- 92.6 = 0
=
148.9 kN
=
180.2 kN

Case 2
100.6

54.8

159.7

6.0
V AB

V BA

M @ B = 0
6.0 V AB - (54.8 x 6.0 x 3.0) + 159.7 - 100.6 = 0
V AB = ( 987.13 - 159.7 +100.6 ) / 6.0
=
154.7 kN
V BA = ( 54.8 x 6.0) - 154.7
=
174.4 kN
Shear force and bending moment diagram
154.7
148.9
2.7

174.4

2.8

180.2

100.6

186.3

92.6

159.7

46.9

53.6
26.0

29.7

109.6
117.6
23.5

14.8

msy '11

209

210

Frame Analysis

Example 9.1(c) : Analysis of two free-joint sub-frame


Ref.

page 4/6

Calculations

Output

Beam B-C
Case 1:: Span 1 and 2 design permanent & variable loads 1.35 G k + 1.5Q k
: Span 3 design permanent load 1.35G k
Fixed end moment :
4.6
-M AB = M BA = w 1L 12/12
2
54.84 kN/m
51.89 kN/m
27.98 kN/m
=
54.8 x 6.0 /12
= 164.5 kNm
3.75
7.50
3.75
-M BC = M CB = w 2L 22/12
A
D
2
4.0
=
51.9 x 6.0 /12
= 155.7 kNm
2
6.0 m
6.0
m
6.0
m
-M
B
CD = M DC = w 3L 3 /12
C
=
28.0 x 6.0 2/12
=
83.9 kNm
Distribution factor:
Joint B: F BA = 3.75 / (3.75 + 4.57 + 4.0 + 7.5) = 0.19
F BC = 7.50 / (3.75 + 4.57 + 4.0 + 7.5) = 0.38
F cu = 4.57 / (3.75 + 4.57 + 4.0 + 7.5) = 0.23
F cl = 4.00 / (3.75 + 4.57 + 4.0 + 7.5) = 0.20
Joint C: F CB = 7.50 / (3.75 + 7.50 + 4.0 + 4.6) = 0.38
F CD = 3.75 / (3.75 + 7.50 + 4.0 + 4.6) = 0.19
F cu = 4.57 / (3.75 + 7.50 + 4.0 + 4.6) = 0.23
F cl = 4.00 / (3.75 + 7.50 + 4.0 + 4.6) = 0.20
Moment distribution
1.13
0.11
-0.07
3.13
-2.04
B 0.23
0.19
0.20
0.38
164.5
-155.7
-1.7
-1.8
-3.3

-16.74
0.01
-0.59
0.39
-16.55
C 0.23
0.38
0.20
0.19
155.7
-83.9
-27.1 -14.5 -13.6

0.0
2.6
0.0
-0.1
0.0
0.1
165.4

-1.7
0.6
2.6
-1.0
-0.1
0.0
129.0

2.7
-0.1
0.1
1.0

-13.6
5.1
0.3
-0.1
-0.5
0.2
-167.6

0.3
-0.5
0.0
-14.6

0.0
0.3
0.0
-0.5
0.0
0.0
-97.7

msy '11

Frame Analysis

Example 9.1(c) : Analysis of two free-joint sub-frame


Ref.

Calculations

page 5/6
Output

Case 2:: Span 2 design permanent & variable loads 1.35G k + 1.5Q k
: Span 1 and 3 design permanent load 1.35G k
Fixed end moment :
4.6
-M AB = M BA = w 1L 12/12
27.98 kN/m
51.89 kN/m
27.98 kN/m
=
28.0 x 6.0 2/12
=
83.9 kNm
3.75
7.50
3.75
-M BC = M CB = w 2L 22/12
A
D
2
4.0
=
51.9 x 6.0 /12
= 155.7 kNm
6.0 m
6.0 m
6.0 m
-M CD = M DC = w 3L 32/12
B
C
=
28.0 x 6.0 2/12
=
83.9 kNm
Distribution factor:
Joint B: F BA = 3.75 / (3.75 + 4.57 + 4.0 + 7.5) = 0.19
F BC = 7.50 / (3.75 + 4.57 + 4.0 + 7.5) = 0.38
F cu = 4.57 / (3.75 + 4.57 + 4.0 + 7.5) = 0.23
F cl = 4.00 / (3.75 + 4.57 + 4.0 + 7.5) = 0.20
Joint C: F CB = 7.50 / (3.75 + 7.50 + 4.0 + 4.6) = 0.38
F CD = 3.75 / (3.75 + 7.50 + 4.0 + 4.6) = 0.19
F cu = 4.57 / (3.75 + 7.50 + 4.0 + 4.6) = 0.23
F cl = 4.00 / (3.75 + 7.50 + 4.0 + 4.6) = 0.20
Moment distribution
20.38
0.11
0.59
3.13
16.55
B 0.23
0.19
0.20
0.38
83.9
-155.7
13.6
14.5
27.1
0.0
-13.6
2.6
2.7
5.1
0.0
-2.6
0.5
0.5
1.0
0.0
-0.5
0.1
0.1
0.2
100.6 17.8 -138.9

-20.38
-0.11
-0.59
-3.13
-16.55
C 0.23
0.38
0.20
0.19
155.7
-83.9
-27.1 -14.5 -13.6
13.6
0.0
-5.1
-2.7
-2.6
2.6
0.0
-1.0
-0.5
-0.5
0.5
0.0
-0.2
-0.1
-0.1
138.9 -17.8 -100.6

msy '11

211

212

Frame Analysis

Example 9.1(c) : Analysis of two free-joint sub-frame


Ref.

Calculations
Shear force :
Case 1
167.6

51.9

page 6/6
Output

129.0

6.0
V BC

V CB

M @ C = 0
6.0 V BC - (51.9 x 6.0 x 3.0) + 129.0 - 167.6 = 0
V BC = ( 934.03 - 129.0 +167.6 ) / 6.0
=
162.1 kN
V CB = ( 51.9 x 6.0) - 162.1
=
149.3 kN
Case 2
138.9

51.9

138.9

6.0
V BC

V CB

M @ C = 0
6.0 V BC - (51.9 x 6.0 x 3.0) + 138.9 - 138.9 = 0
V AB = ( 934.03 - 138.9 +138.9 ) / 6.0
=
155.7 kN
V BA = ( 51.9 x 6.0) - 155.7
=
155.7 kN
Shear force and bending moment diagram
162.1
155.7
3.1

149.3

3.0

155.7

167.6

138.9

138.9

129.0
20.4

20.4

17.8

17.8

85.6
94.6
8.9

8.9

msy '11

Frame Analysis

Example 9.1(d) : Continuous beam + one free-joint sub-frame


Ref.

page 1/9

Calculations

Output

Continuous Beam :
Bending moment and shear force in beam.

6.0 m
A

6.0 m

Moment of Inertia :
I = bh 3/12 =
250 x 600 3/12 =
Stiffness :
AB : k AB = 0.75 I /L =
BC : k BC = I /L =
CD: k CD = 0.75 I /L =

6.0 m

4.50 x 109 mm4

9
5
3
3.38 x 10 / 6000 = 5.63 x 10 mm
9
5
3
4.50 x 10 / 6000 = 7.5 x 10 mm
9
5
3
3.38 x 10 / 6000 = 5.63 x 10 mm

Distribution factor:
Joint A: F AB = k BA/(k AB+ 0 )
= 5.63 / (5.63 + 0.00)
Joint B: F BA = k AB/(k AB+ k BC)
= 5.63 / (5.63 + 7.50)
F BC = k BC/(k AB+ k BC)
= 7.50 / (5.63 + 7.50)
Joint C: F BC = k BC/(k BC+ k CD)
= 7.50 / (7.5 +
5.63)
F CD = k CD/(k BC+ k CD)
= 5.63 / (7.5 +
5.63)
Joint D: F DC = k CD/(k CD+ 0 )
= 5.63 / (5.63 + 0.00)

1.00

0.43

0.57

0.57

0.43

1.00

msy '11

213

214

Frame Analysis

Example 9.1(d) : Continuous beam + one free-joint sub-frame


Ref.

page 2/9

Calculations

Output

Case 1:: Span 1 & 2 design permanent & variable loads 1.35G k + 1.5Q k
Span 3 design permanent loads 1.35G k
54.8 kN/m
51.9 kN/m
28.0 kN/m
6.0 m

6.0 m

Fixed End Moment :


-M AB = M BA = w 1 L 12/12 =
-M BC = M CB = w 2 L 22/12 =
-M CD = M DC = w 3 L 32/12 =
Moment Distribution :
0.00
1.00
0.43
-164.5
164.5
164.5
-3.8
82.3
-26.5

54.84
51.89
27.98

6.0 m

2
x 6.0 / 12
2
x 6.0 / 12
2
x 6.0 / 12

0.57
-155.7
-5.1
-20.5
-35.3
12.7
-5.4
-7.3
5.0
-2.2
-2.9
1.0
-0.4
-0.6
208.5 -208.5

0.0

=
=
=

164.5 kNm
155.7 kNm
83.9 kNm

0.57
0.43
155.7 -83.9
-41.0 -30.7
-2.5 -42.0
25.4
19.1
-17.6
10.1
7.6
-3.6
2.1
1.6
-1.4
0.8
0.6
127.8 -127.8

1.00
83.9
-83.9

0.00

0.0

Shear force :
54.8

208.5 208.5

6.0
V AB
M @ B = 0
6.0 V AB - (54.8
V AB = ( 987.13
V BA = ( 54.8 x
M @ C = 0
6.0 V BC - (51.9
V BC = ( 934.03
V CB = ( 51.9 x
M @ D = 0
6.0 V CD - (28.0
V CD = ( 503.56
V DC = ( 28.0 x

51.9

127.8 127.8

6.0
V BA

V BC

x 6.0 x 3.0) + 208.5


- 208.5 ) / 6.0
=
6.0) - 129.8
=

28.0
6.0

V CB

V CD

V DC

= 0
129.8 kN
199.3 kN

x 6.0 x 3.0) + 127.8 - 208.5 = 0


- 127.8 +208.5 )/6.0 = 169.1 kN
6.0) - 169.1
=
142.2 kN
x 6.0 x 3.0) - 127.8
+127.8 ) / 6.0
=
6.0) - 105.2
=

= 0
105.2 kN
62.6 kN
msy '11

Frame Analysis

Example 9.1(d) : Continuous beam + one free-joint sub-frame


Ref.

page 3/9

Calculations

Output

Case 2:: Span 2 & 3 design permanent & variable loads 1.35G k + 1.5Q k
Span 1 design permanent loads 1.35G k
28.0 kN/m
51.9 kN/m
54.8 kN/m
6.0 m

6.0 m

6.0 m
D

Fixed End Moment :


-M AB = M BA = w 1 L 12/12 =
-M BC = M CB = w 2 L 22/12 =
-M CD = M DC = w 3 L 32/12 =
Moment Distribution :
0.00
1.00
0.43
-83.9
83.9
83.9
30.7
42.0
-19.1

27.98
51.89
54.84

2
x 6.0 / 12
2
x 6.0 / 12
2
x 6.0 / 12

0.57
-155.7
41.0
2.5
-25.4
17.6
-7.6 -10.1
3.6
-1.6
-2.1
1.4
-0.6
-0.8
127.8 -127.8

0.0

=
=
=

83.9 kNm
155.7 kNm
164.5 kNm

0.57
0.43
155.7 -164.5
5.1
3.8
20.5 -82.3
35.3
26.5
-12.7
7.3
5.4
-5.0
2.9
2.2
-1.0
0.6
0.4
208.5 -208.5

1.00
164.5
-164.5

0.00

0.0

Shear force :
28.0

127.8 127.8

6.0
V AB
M @ B = 0
6.0 V AB - (28.0
V AB = ( 503.56
V BA = ( 28.0 x
M @ C = 0
6.0 V BC - (51.9
V BC = ( 934.03
V CB = ( 51.9 x
M @ D = 0
6.0 V CD - (54.8
V CD = ( 987.13
V DC = ( 54.8 x

51.9

208.5 208.5

6.0
V BA

V BC

x 6.0 x 3.0) + 127.8


- 127.8 ) / 6.0
=
6.0) - 62.6
=

54.8
6.0

V CB

V CD

V DC

= 0
62.6 kN
105.2 kN

x 6.0 x 3.0) + 208.5 - 127.8 = 0


- 208.5 +127.8 )/6.0 = 142.2 kN
6.0) - 142.2
=
169.1 kN
x 6.0 x 3.0) - 208.5
+208.5 ) / 6.0
=
6.0) - 199.3
=

= 0
199.3 kN
129.8 kN
msy '11

215

216

Frame Analysis

Example 9.1(d) : Continuous beam + one free-joint sub-frame


Ref.

page 4/9

Calculations

Output

Case 3:: Span 1 & 3 design permanent & variable loads 1.35G k + 1.5Q k
Span 2 design permanent loads 1.35G k
54.8 kN/m
26.6 kN/m
54.8 kN/m
6.0 m

6.0 m
B

Fixed End Moment :


-M AB = M BA = w 1 L 12/12 =
-M BC = M CB = w 2 L 22/12 =
-M CD = M DC = w 3 L 32/12 =
Moment Distribution :
0.00
1.00
0.43
-164.5
164.5
164.5
-36.3
82.3
-45.6

54.84
26.58
54.84

6.0 m

2
x 6.0 / 12
2
x 6.0 / 12
2
x 6.0 / 12

0.57
-79.7
-48.4
24.2
-60.8
30.4
-13.0 -17.4
8.7
-3.7
-5.0
2.5
-1.1
-1.4
147.0 -147.0

0.0

=
=
=

164.5 kNm
79.7 kNm
164.5 kNm

0.57
0.43
79.7 -164.5
48.4
36.3
-24.2 -82.3
60.8
45.6
-30.4
17.4
13.0
-8.7
5.0
3.7
-2.5
1.4
1.1
147.0 -147.0

1.00
164.5
-164.5

0.00

0.0

Shear force :
54.8
6.0
V AB
M @ B = 0
6.0 V AB - (54.8
V AB = ( 987.13
V BA = ( 54.8 x
M @ C = 0
6.0 V BC - (26.6
V BC = ( 478.41
V CB = ( 26.6 x
M @ D = 0
6.0 V CD - (54.8
V CD = ( 987.13
V DC = ( 54.8 x

147.0 147.0

26.6

147.0 147.0

6.0
V BA

V BC

x 6.0 x 3.0) + 147.0


- 147.0 ) / 6.0
=
6.0) - 140.0
=

54.8
6.0

V CB

V CD

V DC

= 0
140.0 kN
189.0 kN

x 6.0 x 3.0) + 147.0 - 147.0 = 0


- 147.0 +147.0 )/6.0 =
79.7 kN
6.0) - 79.7
=
79.7 kN
x 6.0 x 3.0) - 147.0
+147.0 ) / 6.0
=
6.0) - 189.0
=

= 0
189.0 kN
140.0 kN
msy '11

Frame Analysis

Example 9.1(d) : Continuous beam + one free-joint sub-frame


Ref.

page 5/9

Calculations

Output

Case 4:: Span 2 design permanent & variable loads 1.35G k + 1.5Q k
Span 1 & 3 design permanent loads 1.35G k
28.0 kN/m
51.9 kN/m
28.0 kN/m
6.0 m
A

6.0 m

Fixed End Moment :


-M AB = M BA = w 1 L 12/12 =
-M BC = M CB = w 2 L 22/12 =
-M CD = M DC = w 3 L 32/12 =
Moment Distribution :
0.00
1.00
0.43
-83.9
83.9
83.9
30.7
42.0
-9.2

27.98
51.89
27.98

6.0 m

2
x 6.0 / 12
2
x 6.0 / 12
2
x 6.0 / 12

0.57
-155.7
41.0
-20.5
-12.3
6.1
-2.6
-3.5
1.8
-0.8
-1.0
0.5
-0.2
-0.3
143.8 -143.8

0.0

=
=
=

83.9 kNm
155.7 kNm
83.9 kNm

0.57
0.43
155.7 -83.9
-41.0 -30.7
20.5 -42.0
12.3
9.2
-6.1
3.5
2.6
-1.8
1.0
0.8
-0.5
0.3
0.2
143.8 -143.8

1.00
83.9
-83.9

0.00

0.0

Shear force :
28.0
6.0
V AB
M @ B = 0
6.0 V AB - (28.0
V AB = ( 503.56
V BA = ( 28.0 x
M @ C = 0
6.0 V BC - (51.9
V BC = ( 934.03
V CB = ( 51.9 x
M @ D = 0
6.0 V CD - (28.0
V CD = ( 503.56
V DC = ( 28.0 x

143.8 143.8

51.9

143.8 143.8

6.0
V BA

V BC

x 6.0 x 3.0) + 143.8


- 143.8 ) / 6.0
=
6.0) - 60.0
=

28.0
6.0

V CB

V CD

V DC

= 0
60.0 kN
107.9 kN

x 6.0 x 3.0) + 143.8 - 143.8 = 0


- 143.8 +143.8 )/6.0 = 155.7 kN
6.0) - 155.7
=
155.7 kN
x 6.0 x 3.0) - 143.8
+143.8 ) / 6.0
=
6.0) - 107.9
=

= 0
107.9 kN
60.0 kN
msy '11

217

218

Frame Analysis

Example 9.1(d) : Continuous beam + one free-joint sub-frame


Ref.

page 6/9

Calculations

Output

Shear Force Diagram

140.0
129.8
62.6
60.0

169.1
155.7
142.2
79.7
105.2
107.9
189.0
199.3

x1
x2
x3

x4
Distance
Span 1
x 1 = 129.8 /
x 2 = 62.6 /
x 3 = 140.0 /
x 4 = 60.0 /
Span 2
x 1 = 169.1 /
x 2 = 142.2 /
x 3 = 79.7 /
x 4 = 155.7 /
Span 3
x 1 = 105.2 /
x 2 = 199.3 /
x 3 = 189.0 /
x 4 = 107.9 /

199.3
189.0
107.9
105.2

54.8 =
28.0 =
54.8 =
28.0 =

2.4 m
2.2 m
2.6 m
2.1 m

51.9 =
51.9 =
26.6 =
51.9 =

3.3 m
2.7 m
3.0 m
3.0 m

28.0 =
54.8 =
54.8 =
28.0 =

3.8 m
3.6 m
3.4 m
3.9 m

79.7
142.2
155.7
169.1
Mid-span moment
Span 1
M 1 = 129.8x 2.4 / 2
M 2 = 62.6x 2.2 / 2
M 3 = 140.0x 2.6 / 2
M 4 = 60.0x 2.1 / 2
Span 2
M 1 = (169.1 x3.3/2)
M 2 = (142.2 x2.7/2)
M3 =
(79.7 x3.0/2)
M 4 = (155.7 x3.0/2)
Span 3
M 1 = (105.2 x3.8/2)
M 2 = (199.3 x3.6/2)
M 3 = (189.0 x3.4/2)
M 4 = (107.9 x3.9/2)

60.0
62.6
129.8
140.0

=
=
=
=

153.6
70.1
178.8
64.2

kNm
kNm
kNm
kNm

-208.5
-127.8
-147.0
-143.8

= 67.1
= 67.1
-= 27.4
= 89.7

kNm
kNm
kNm
kNm

- 127.8
- 208.5
- 147.0
- 143.8

=70.1
=153.6
=178.8
=64.2

kNm
kNm
kNm
kNm

Bending Moment Diagram


Case 1

208.5

208.5

Case 2
Case 3
Case 4

127.8

127.8
-27.4

64.2

64.2
89.7

178.8

178.8

msy '11

Frame Analysis

Example 9.1(d) : Continuous beam + one free-joint sub-frame


Ref.

page 7/9

Calculations

Output

Sub-frame: Bending Moment in Columns


Momen of Inertia : I = bh 3/12
Column: I =
300 x 400 3 /12 =
Beam : I =
250 x 600 3 /12 =
Stiffness :
K = I /L
Columnlower : K cl =
Columnupper : K cu =
Beam:
K AB =
K BC =
K CD =

1.6 x
1.6 x
4.5 x
4.5 x
4.5 x

109 /
109 /
109 /
109 /
109 /

1.6 x 109 mm4


4.5 x 109 mm4

3500 =
4000 =
6000 =
6000 =
6000 =

4.6 x
4.0 x
7.5 x
7.5 x
7.5 x

105 mm3
105 mm3
105 mm3
105 mm3
105 mm3

Column A
Kcu

Kcl

FEM = wL 2/12
54.8 kN/m
=
54.8 x 6.0 2 /12
= 164.52 kNm
0.5KAB

6.0m
Moment in upper column,
M = FEM x K cu /(K cu + K cl + K b/2)
= 164.5 x 4.0 / (4.0 + 4.6 + 3.8)
= 53.4 kNm

53.4
61.0

Moment in lowercColumn,
M = FEM x K cl /(K cu + K cl + K b/2)
= 164.5 x 4.6 / (4.0 + 4.6 + 3.8)
= 61.0 kNm

msy '11

219

220

Frame Analysis

Example 9.1(d) : Continuous beam + one free-joint sub-frame


Ref.

page 8/9

Calculations

Output

Column B
FEM 1 =
26.6 kN/m
=
=
FEM
=
2
0.5KBC
Kcl
=
6.0 m
=
Kcu

54.8 kN/m
0.5KAB

6.0 m
M

wL 2/12
2
54.8 x 6.0 /12
164.5 kNm
wL 2/12
2
26.6 x 6.0 /12
79.7 kNm

= FEM 1 - FEM 2 = 164.5 - 79.7 =

84.8 kNm

Moment in upper column,


M =
M x K cu /(K cu + K cl + 0.5K AB + 0.5K BC)
= 84.8 x 4.0 / (4.0 + 4.6 + 3.75 + 3.75)
= 21.1 kNm

21.1
24.1

Moment in lower column,


M =
M x K cl /(K cu + K cl + 0.5K AB + 0.5K BC)
= 84.8 x 4.6 / (4.0 + 4.6 + 3.75 + 3.75)
= 24.1 kNm
Column C
FEM 1 =
54.8 kN/m
=
=
0.5K BC FEM 2 =
Kcl
=
6.0 m
=
Kcu

26.6 kN/m
0.5K AB

6.0 m
M

wL 2/12
2
26.6 x 6.0 /12
79.7 kNm
wL 2/12
2
54.8 x 6.0 /12
164.5 kNm

= FEM 1 - FEM 2 = 164.5 - 79.7 =

84.8 kNm

Moment in upper column,


M =
M x K cu /(K cu + K cl + 0.5K BC + 0.5K CD)
= 84.8 x 4.0 / (4.0 + 4.6 + 3.75 + 3.75)
= 21.1 kNm

21.1
24.1

Moment in lower column,


M =
M x K cl /(K cu + K cl + 0.5K BC + 0.5K CD)
= 84.8 x 4.6 / (4.0 + 4.6 + 3.75 + 3.75)
= 24.1 kNm

msy '11

Frame Analysis

Example 9.1(d) : Continuous beam + one free-joint sub-frame


Ref.

page 9/9

Calculations

Output

Column D
K cu

54.8 kN/m
0.5K CD

FEM = wL 2/12
=
54.8 x 6.0 2 /12
= 164.52 kNm

Kcl

6.0 m
Moment in upper column,
M = FEM x K cu /(K cu + K cl + 0.5K CD)
= 164.5 x 4.0 / (4.0 + 4.6 + 3.8)
= 53.4 kNm

53.4
61.0

Moment in lowercColumn,
M = FEM x K cl /(K cu + K cl + 0.5K CD)
= 164.5 x 4.6 / (4.0 + 4.6 + 3.8)
= 61.0 kNm

msy '11

221

222

Frame Analysis

Example 9.2(a) : Calculation of wind load


Ref.

page 1/2

Calculations
Specification
b

Output

Wind

Building dimensions,
Height, h =
30 m
Width, b =
18 m
Length, d =
51 m
b Building usage & location,
Permanent office
Sub-urban, Zone 1
Flat area, building around

Wind

h
d
Side elevation

Plan

Calculation of wind load based on MS 1553:2002


Design wind pressure
p
=
0.613 [V des]2 C fig Cdyn
V des
Table 3.2

=
=
l =
V sit =

Fig. 3.1
2.2
Table 4.1
4.3.1
4.4
V sit
V des
C fig.
Table 5.2(a)
Table 5.2(b)
5.4.2
5.4.3
5.4.4
5.4.5
6.1
Cdyn

Pa

2.8333

design wind speed


V sit l

importance factor =
1.0
V s M d M z,cat M s M h
V s = basic wind speed =
33.5
M d = wind directional multiplier =
M z,cat= terrain/height multiplier =
M s = shielding multiplier =
M h = hill shape multiplier =
=
33.5 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00
= 33.50 m/s
= 33.50 x 1.0 = 33.50 m/s

aerodynamic shape factor


C p,e K aK cK lK p for external pressure
C p,e = external pressure coefficient =
: windward wall = 0.70
: leeward wall = -0.25
K a = area reduction factor =
K c = combination factor =
K l = local pressure factor =
K p = porous cladding reduction factor =
C fig = (0.70 - -0.25) x 1.00 x 1.00 x 1.00
= = 0.95
=
dynamic response factor =
1.00

m/s
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00

=
=

1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
x 1.00

msy '11

Frame Analysis

Example 9.2(a) : Calculation of wind load


Ref.

page 2/2

Calculations

Output

Design wind pressure


2
p
=
0.613 x 33.5 x 0.95 x 1.00
=
653.54 N/m2
=
0.654 kN/m2

Characteristic wind load for


each sub-frame,
=
0.65 +(4.0 x 5.00) /2
=
2.94 kN/m height

4m

5m

msy '11

223

224

Frame Analysis

Example 9.2(b) : Lateral load analysis : Cantilever method


Ref.

page 1/10

Calculations

Output

Characteristic wind load, W k =


Design wind load, W d = 1.20 W k =

2.94 kN/m height


3.53 kN/m height

Point load for each floor level :


Roof level :
3.5 (1.00 + 1.75)
Level 2 - 6 : 4.5 (3.5)
3.5 (1.75
= + 1.75)
Level 1 :
3.5 (1.75 + 2.00)

=
=
=

9.70 kN
12.35 kN
13.23 kN

9.7

1.0

* Assumptions,
1.Point of contraflexure

K
12.3

3.5

L
12.3

3.5

M
12.3

3.5

N
12.3

3.5

P
12.3

3.5

Q
13.2

3.5

4.0

are located at the


mid-points of all
columns and beams.
2.The direct axial loads
in the columns are in
propotion to their
distances from the
centre of gravity of
the frame.
3. All the column in a
storey are of equal
cross-sectional area.

6m

6m

6m

x
Centre of gravity of the structure,
x = (6.0N + 12N + 18N) / 4 N
=
9m
Column :
A : B :
C :
D
Distance from centroid: 9.00 : 3.00 : 3.00 : 9.00
Column axial load:
3.0P : 1.0P : 1.0P : 3.0P :

msy '11

Frame Analysis

Example 9.2(b) : Lateral load analysis : Cantilever method


Ref.

page 2/10

Calculations

Output

Level K and above


9.7

H1
6m

3.0P

H2
6m
1.0P

1.75m
H4

H3
6m
1.0P

3.0P

Axial force in columns,


M @K= 0
(9.7 x 1.75) + (1.0P x 6.0) - (1.0P x 12.0)
-(3.0P x 18.0)
=
0
60.0P
=
17.0 kN
P = 17.0 / 60.0 =
0.28 kN
Shear force in beams and columns,
F1
F2
K

H1
6m

0.85 kN

H2
6m
0.28 kN

3.0P
1.0P
1.0P
3.0P

=
=
=
=

0.85
0.28
0.28
0.85

kN
kN
kN
kN

F3
1.75m
H4

H3
6m
0.28 kN

Consider sub-frame to the left of F 1 :


Fv = 0 :
F 1 - 0.85 = 0
M @F 1 = 0: (H 1 x 1.75) - (0.85 x 3.00) =
Consider sub-frame to the left of F 2 :
Fv = 0 :
FF
0.85
- 1.3P
- 0.28
= 0= 0
2 -2 -4.7P
M @F 2 = 0 : (H 1 + H 2) x 1.75 (0.85
- (0.28 x 3.0) = 0
Consider sub-frame to the left of F 3 :
Fv = 0 :
FF
0.85
- 1.3P
- 0.28
= 0 + 0.28
2 -3 -4.7P
M @F 2 = 0 : (H 1 + H 2 + H3) 1x.75 - (0.85 x

0.85 kN

F1 =
H1 =

0.85 kN
1.46 kN

x 9.0)

F2 =
H2 =

1.13 kN
3.40 kN

=0
15.00)

F3 =
H3 =

0.85 kN
3.40 kN

H4 =

1.46 kN

- (0.28 x 9.0) + (0.28 x 3.0) = 0


FH = 0

14.8
9.7- -HH1 1- -HH
-H
=0
2 2- -HH
3 -3 H
4 =
4 0

msy '11

225

226

Frame Analysis

Example 9.2(b) : Lateral load analysis : Cantilever method


Ref.

page 3/10

Calculations

Output

Level L and above


9.7
3.5m
12.3
L

H1
6m

3.0P

H2
6m
1.0P

1.75m
H4

H3
6m
1.0P

3.0P

Axial force in columns,


M @L= 0
(9.7 x 5.25) + (12.3 x 1.75) + (1.0P x 6.0)
- (1.0P x 12.0) -(3.0P x 18.0)
=
0
60.0P
=
72.5 kN
P = 72.5 / 60.0 =
1.21 kN

3.0P
1.0P
1.0P
3.0P

=
=
=
=

3.63
1.21
1.21
3.63

kN
kN
kN
kN

Shear force in beams and columns,


0.85 kN
1.46

0.28 kN

F1

3.40

F2

H1
6m
3.63 kN

0.28 kN
3.40

F3

H2
6m
1.21 kN

0.85 kN

1.75
1.75
H4

H3
6m
1.21 kN

Consider sub-frame to the left of F 1 :


Fv = 0 :
F 1 - 3.63 + 0.85 = 0
M @F 1 = 0: (H 1 + 1.46) x 1.75 - (2.78 x
Consider sub-frame to the left of F 2 :
Fv = 0 :
FF
2.78
- 1.3P
- 0.93
= 0= 0
2 -2 -4.7P
M @F 2 = 0 : (H 1 + H 2) x 1.75 + (4.85 x
- (2.78 x 9.0) - (0.93 x 3.0)
Consider sub-frame to the left of F 3 :
Fv = 0 :
FF
2.78
- 1.3P
- 0.93
= 0 + 0.93
2 -3 -4.7P
M @F 2 = 0 : (H 1 + H 2 + H3) 1x.75 +
(8.25
- (2.78 x 15.00) - (0.93 x 9.0) + (0.93
FH = 0

1.46

3.63 kN

3.00) = 0

1.75)
= 0
=0
x 1.75)
x 3.0) = 0

14.8
22.1- -HH1 1- -HH
-H
=0
2 2- -HH
3 -3 H
4 =
4 0

F1 =
H1 =

2.78 kN
3.31 kN

F2 =
H2 =

3.70 kN
7.72 kN

F3 =
H3 =

2.78 kN
7.72 kN

H4 =

3.31 kN

msy '11

Frame Analysis

Example 9.2(b) : Lateral load analysis : Cantilever method


Ref.

page 4/10

Calculations

Output

Level M and above


9.7
12.3
12.3
M
L

H1
6m

3.0P

H2
6m
1.0P

3.5m
3.5m
1.75m
H4

H3
6m
1.0P

3.0P

Axial force in columns,


M @M= 0
(9.7 x 8.75) + (12.3 x 5.25) + (12.3 x 1.75) +
(1.0P x 6.0) - (1.0P x 12.0) -(3.0P x 18.0)
60.0P
=
171.3 kN
P = 171.3 / 60.0 =
2.86 kN

3.0P
1.0P
1.0P
3.0P

=
=
=
=

8.57
2.86
2.86
8.57

kN
kN
kN
kN

Shear force in beams and columns,


3.63 kN
3.31

1.21 kN

F1

7.72

F2

H1

7.72

3.31
1.75
1.75
H4

H3

6m
2.86 kN

3.63 kN

F3

H2

6m
8.57 kN

1.21 kN

6m
2.86 kN

8.57 kN

Consider sub-frame to the left of F 1 :


Fv = 0 :
F 1 - 8.57 + 3.63 = 0
M @F 1 = 0: (H 1 + 3.31) x 1.75 - (4.94 x 3.00) = 0
Consider sub-frame to the left of F 2 :
Fv = 0 :
FF
4.94
- 1.3P
- 1.65
= 0= 0
2 -2 -4.7P
M @F 2 = 0 : (H 1 + H 2) x 1.75 + (11.03 x 1.75)
- (4.94 x 9.0) - (1.65 x 3.0)
Consider sub-frame to the left of F 3 :
Fv = 0 :
FF
4.94
- 1.3P
- 1.65
= 0 + 1.65
2 -3 -4.7P
M @F 2 = 0 : (H 1 + H 2 + H3) 1x.75 + (18.74
- (4.94 x 15.00) - (1.65 x 9.0) + (1.65
FH = 0

F1 =
H1 =

4.94 kN
5.16 kN

F2 =
H2 =

6.59 kN
12.04 kN

F3 =
H3 =

4.94 kN
12.04 kN

H4 =

5.16 kN

= 0
=0
x 1.75)
x 3.0) = 0

14.8
-H
=0
34.4- -HH1 1- -HH
2 2- -HH
3 -3 H
4 =
4 0

msy '11

227

228

Frame Analysis

Example 9.2(b) : Lateral load analysis : Cantilever method


Ref.

page 5/10

Calculations

Output

Level N and above


9.7
12.3
12.3
12.3
N
L

H1
6m

H2
6m

3.5m
3.5m
3.5m
1.75m
H4

H3
6m

3.0P
1.0P
1.0P
3.0P
Axial force in columns,
M @M= 0
(9.7 x 12.3)+ (12.3 x 8.75) + (12.3 x 5.25) + (12.3 x 1.75) +
(1.0P x 6.0) - (1.0P x 12.0) -(3.0P x 18.0)
=
0
60.0P
=
313.3 kN
P = 313.3 / 60.0 =
5.22 kN

3.0P
1.0P
1.0P
3.0P

=
=
=
=

15.67
5.22
5.22
15.67

kN
kN
kN
kN

Shear force in beams and columns,


8.57 kN
5.16

2.86 kN

F1

12.04

F2

H1
6m
15.67 kN

2.86 kN
12.04

H2
6m
5.22 kN

F3

5.16
1.75
1.75
H4

H3
6m
5.22 kN
15.67 kN

Consider sub-frame to the left of F 1 :


Fv = 0 :
F 1 - 15.67 +8.57 = 0
M @F 1 = 0: (H 1 + 5.16) x 1.75 - (7.10 x
Consider sub-frame to the left of F 2 :
Fv = 0 :
FF
7.10
- 1.3P
- 2.37
= 0= 0
2 -2 -4.7P
M @F 2 = 0 : (H 1 + H 2) x 1.75 + (17.20
- (7.10 x 9.0) - (2.37 x 3.0)
Consider sub-frame to the left of F 3 :
Fv = 0 :
FF
7.10
- 1.3P
- 2.37
= 0 + 2.37
2 -3 -4.7P
M @F 2 = 0 : (H 1 + H 2 + H3) 1x.75 + (29.24
- (7.10 x 15.00) - (2.37 x 9.0) + (2.37
FH = 0

8.57 kN

3.00) = 0

x 1.75)
= 0
=0
x 1.75)
x 3.0) = 0

14.8
46.7- -HH1 1- -HH
-H
=0
2 2- -HH
3 -3 H
4 =
4 0

F1 =
H1 =

7.10 kN
7.01 kN

F2 =
H2 =

9.47 kN
16.36 kN

F3 =
H3 =

7.10 kN
16.36 kN

H4 =

7.01 kN

msy '11

Frame Analysis

Example 9.2(b) : Lateral load analysis : Cantilever method


Ref.

page 6/10

Calculations

Output

Level P and above


9.7
12.3
12.3
12.3
12.3

P
L

H1
6m

H2
6m

H3
6m

3.5m
3.5m
3.5m
3.5m
1.75m
H4

3.0P
1.0P
1.0P
3.0P
Axial force in columns,
M @P= 0
(9.7 x 15.8)+ (12.3 x 12.3)+ (12.3 x 8.75) + (12.3 x 5.25) +
(12.3 x 1.75)+ (1.0P x 6.0) - (1.0P x 12.0) -(3.0P x 18.0)
=
0
60.0P
=
498.6 kN
P = 498.6 / 60.0 =
8.31 kN
Shear force in beams and columns,
15.67 kN
5.22 kN
5.22 kN
15.67 kN
7.01

F1

16.36

F2

H1
6m
24.93 kN

16.36

H2
6m
8.31 kN

F3

=
=
=
=

24.9
8.3
8.3
24.9

kN
kN
kN
kN

7.01
1.75
1.75
H4

H3
6m
8.31 kN
24.93 kN

Consider sub-frame to the left of F 1 :


Fv = 0 :
F 1 - 24.93 +15.67 = 0
M @F 1 = 0: (H 1 + 7.01) x 1.75 (9.3x
Consider sub-frame to the left of F 2 :
Fv = 0 :
FF
9.26
- 1.3P
- 3.09
= 0= 0
2 -2 -4.7P
M @F 2 = 0 : (H 1 + H 2) x 1.75 + (23.37
- (9.3 x 9.0) - (3.09 x 3.0)
Consider sub-frame to the left of F 3 :
Fv = 0 :
FF
9.26
- 1.3P
- 3.09
= 0 + 3.09
2 -3 -4.7P
M @F 2 = 0 : (H 1 + H 2 + H3) 1x.75 + (39.73
- (9.3 x 15.00) - (3.09 x 9.0) + (3.09
FH = 0

3.0P
1.0P
1.0P
3.0P

3.00) = 0

x 1.75)
= 0
=0
x 1.75)
x 3.0) = 0

14.8
59.1- -HH1 1- -HH
-H
=0
2 2- -HH
3 -3 H
4 =
4 0

F1 =
H1 =

9.3 kN
8.9 kN

F2 =
H2 =

12.3 kN
20.7 kN

F3 =
H3 =

9.3 kN
20.7 kN

H4 =

8.9 kN

msy '11

229

230

Frame Analysis

Example 9.2(b) : Lateral load analysis : Cantilever method


Ref.

page 7/10

Calculations

Output

Level Q and above


9.7
12.3
12.3
12.3
12.3
12.3
Q
L

H1
6m

H2
6m

3.5m
3.5m
3.5m
3.5m
3.5m
1.75m
H4

H3
6m

3.0P
1.0P
1.0P
3.0P
Axial force in columns,
M @P= 0
(9.7 x 19.3)+ (12.3 x 15.8)+ (12.3 x 12.3) + (12.3 x 8.75) +
(12.3 x 5.25)+ (12.3 x 1.75)+ (1.0P x 6.0) - (1.0P x 12.0)
-(3.0P x 18.0)
=
0
60.0P
=
727.0 kN
P = 727.0 / 60.0 = 12.12 kN
Shear force in beams and columns,
24.9 kN
8.3 kN
8.3 kN
24.9 kN
8.9

F1

20.7

H1
6m

F2

20.7

H2
6m

F3

FH = 0

=
=
=
=

36.3
12.1
12.1
36.3

kN
kN
kN
kN

8.9
1.75
1.75
H4

H3
6m

36.3 kN
12.1 kN
12.1 kN
Consider sub-frame to the left of F 1 :
Fv = 0 :
F 1 - 36.35 +24.93 = 0
M @F 1 = 0: (H 1 + 8.9) x 1.75 - (11.4x
Consider sub-frame to the left of F 2 :
Fv = 0 :
FF
11.42
- 1.3P
- 3.81
= 0= 0
2 -2 -4.7P
M @F 2 = 0 : (H 1 + H 2) x 1.75 + (29.55
- (11.4 x 9.0) - (3.81 x 3.0)
Consider sub-frame to the left of F 3 :
Fv = 0 :
FF
11.42
- 1.3P
- 3.81
= 0 + 3.81
2 -3 -4.7P
M @F 2 = 0 : (H 1 + H 2 + H3) 1x.75 + (50.23
- (11.4 x 15.00) - (3.81 x 9.0) + (3.81

3.0P
1.0P
1.0P
3.0P

36.3 kN

3.00) = 0

x 1.75)
= 0
=0
x 1.75)
x 3.0) = 0

14.8
71.4- -HH1 1- -HH
-H
=0
2 2- -HH
3 -3 H
4 =
4 0

F1 =
H1 =

11.4 kN
10.7 kN

F2 =
H2 =

15.2 kN
25.0 kN

F3 =
H3 =

11.4 kN
25.0 kN

H4 =

10.7 kN

msy '11

Frame Analysis

Example 9.2(b) : Lateral load analysis : Cantilever method


Ref.

page 8/10

Calculations

Output

Level R and above


9.7
12.3
12.3
12.3
12.3
12.3
13.2

R
L

H1
6m

H2
6m

3.0P
1.0P
1.0P
Axial force in columns,
M @P= 0
(9.7 x 23.0)+ (12.3 x 19.5)+ (12.3 x
(12.3 x 9.00)+ (12.3 x 5.50)+ (13.2 x
- (1.0P x 12.0) -(3.0P x 18.0)
=
60.0P
=
1021.4 kN
P = 1021 / 60.0 = 17.02 kN
Shear force in beams and columns,
36.3 kN
12.1 kN
12.1
10.7

F1

25.0

H1
6m

F2

25.0

H2
6m

H3
6m
3.0P

16.0) + (12.3 x 12.5) + 3.0P =


2.00)+ (1.0P x 6.0) 1.0P =
0
1.0P =
3.0P =

kN

51.1
17.0
17.0
51.1

kN
kN
kN
kN

36.3 kN

F3

10.7
1.75
2.00
H4

H3
6m

51.1 kN
17.0 kN
17.0 kN
Consider sub-frame to the left of F 1 :
Fv = 0 :
F 1 - 51.07 +36.35 = 0
M @F 1 = 0: (H 1x 2.00) + (10.7 x 1.75) Consider sub-frame to the left of F 2 :
Fv = 0 :
FF
14.72
- 1.3P
- 4.91
= 0= 0
2 -2 -4.7P
M @F 2 = 0 : (H 1 + H 2) x 2.00 + (35.72
- (14.7 x 9.0) - (4.91 x 3.0)
Consider sub-frame to the left of F 3 :
Fv = 0 :
FF
14.72
- 1.3P
- 4.91
= 0 + 4.91
2 -3 -4.7P
M @F 2 = 0 : (H 1 + H 2 + H3) 2x.00 + (60.73
- (14.7 x 15.00) - (4.91 x 9.0) + (4.91
FH = 0

3.5m
3.5m
3.5m
3.5m
3.5m
3.5m
2.0m
H4

51.1 kN

(14.7x 3.0)=0

x 1.75)
= 0
=0
x 1.75)
x 3.0) = 0

14.8
84.7- -HH1 1- -HH
-H
=0
2 2- -HH
3 -3 H
4 =
4 0

F1 =
H1 =

14.7 kN
12.7 kN

F2 =
H2 =

19.6 kN
29.6 kN

F3 =
H3 =

14.7 kN
29.6 kN

H4 =

12.7 kN
msy '11

231

232

Frame Analysis

Example 9.2(b) : Lateral load analysis : Cantilever method


Ref.

page 9/10

Calculations

Output

Shear Force in Beams and Columns


0.85

1.46

1.13

3.40

3.40

2.78

3.31

12.04

12.04

20.7

9.3

20.7

8.9

14.7

29.6

B
6m

3.5m

10.7

19.6

29.6

3.5m

11.4

25.0

14.7

3.5m

7.01

15.2

25.0

12.7

5.16

12.3

11.4

3.5m

7.10

16.36

9.3

10.7

4.94

9.47

16.36

3.5m

3.31

6.59

7.10

8.9

2.78

7.72

4.94

7.01

1.46

3.70

7.72

5.16

0.85

3.5m

12.7

C
6m

4.0m

D
6m

Unless otherwise stated all units in kN

msy '11

Frame Analysis

Example 9.2(b) : Lateral load analysis : Cantilever method


Ref.

page 10/10

Calculations

Output

Bending Moments in Beams and Columns

2.5
2.5

2.5

5.8

9.0
14.8

9.0

12.3
21.3

15.5
12.3

27.8

18.8
15.5

34.3

25.4
18.8

25.4

3.4 5.9

3.4

2.5

8.3 13.5

8.3

5.8

2.5 5.9

44.2

5.9

11.1

2.5 2.5

11.1 13.5
5.9

8.3

14.8 21.1

19.8 21.1

13.5

13.5

19.8

14.8

21.3 28.6

28.4 28.6

21.1

21.1

28.4

21.3

8.3 5.8
2.5

14.8 9.0
5.8

21.3 12.3
9.0

27.8 36.2

37.0 36.2

27.8 15.5

28.6

28.6

12.3

37.0

27.8

34.3 43.8

45.7 43.8

34.3 18.8

36.2

36.2 34.3

15.5

44.2 59.3

58.9 59.3

44.2 25.4

43.8

43.8

18.8

59.3

45.7

58.9

59.3

44.2

25.4

Unless otherwise stated all units in kNm

msy '11

233

234

Frame Analysis

Example 9.2(c) : Analysis of one level sub-frame - Vertical load only


Ref.

Calculations

page 1/2
Output

Case 1:: All spans design permanent & variable loads 1.2G k + 1.2Q k

46.4 kN/m

43.9 kN/m

46.4 kN/m 3.5m

4.0m
6.0 m
A

6.0 m
B

6.0 m
C

Fixed end moment :


-M AB = M BA = w 1L 12/12
2
=
46.4 x 6.0 /12
= 139.1 kNm
-M BC = M CB = w 2L 22/12
2
=
43.9 x 6.0 /12
= 131.6 kNm
-M CD = M DC = w1L 12/12
2
=
46.4 x 6.0 /12
= 139.1 kNm

Moment distribution

41.67
0.25
1.52
0.34
39.56
0.28 A
0.25
0.47
-139.1
34.6
64.9
-1.2
0.3
0.6
-5.4
1.3
2.5
-0.9
0.2
0.4
36.5 -78.1

-9.48
-0.42
-1.09
-6.52
-1.45
B 0.19
0.32
0.17
0.32
139.1
-131.6
-2.4
-1.3
-2.4
32.5
1.2
-10.7 -5.7 -10.7
0.3
5.4
-1.8
-1.0
-1.8
1.2
0.9
-0.7
-0.4
-0.7
157.5 -8.3 -139.7

9.48
0.42
1.09
6.52
1.45
C 0.19
0.32
0.17
131.6
2.4
1.3
-1.2
10.7
5.7
-5.4
1.8
1.0
-0.9
0.7
0.4
139.7
8.3

0.32
-139.1
2.4
-32.5
10.7
-0.3
1.8
-1.2
0.7
-157.5

-41.67
-0.25
-1.52
-0.34
-39.56
D 0.28
0.47
0.25
139.1
-64.9 -34.6
1.2
-0.6
-0.3
5.4
-2.5
-1.3
0.9
-0.4
-0.2
78.1 -36.5

msy '11

Frame Analysis

Example 9.2(c) : Analysis of one level sub-frame - Vertical load only


Ref.

page 2/2

Calculations

Output

Shear force :
78.1

46.4

157.5 139.7

6.0
V AB

43.9

139.7 157.5

6.0
V BA

V BC

78.1

6.0
V CB

M @ B = 0
6.0 V AB - (46.4 x 6.0 x 3.0) + 157.5
V AB = ( 834.46 - 157.5 +78.1 ) / 6.0
V BA = ( 46.4 x 6.0) - 125.8

46.4

V CD

V DC

- 78.1 = 0
=
125.8 kN
=
152.3 kN

M @ C = 0
6.0 V BC - (43.9 x 6.0 x 3.0) + 139.7 - 139.7 = 0
V BC = ( 789.75 - 139.7 +139.7 ) / 6.0
=
131.6 kN
V CB = ( 43.9 x 6.0) - 131.6
=
131.6 kN
M @ D = 0
6.0 V CD - (46.4 x 6.0 x 3.0) - 157.5
V CD = ( 834.46 +157.5 - 78.1 ) / 6.0
V DC = ( 46.4 x 6.0) - 152.3

+ 78.1 = 0
=
152.3 kN
=
125.8 kN

Shear force and bending moment diagrams


125.8

131.6
2.7

152.3
3.0

3.3

152.3

131.6

157.5
78.1

125.8

139.7 157.5
139.7

78.1

41.7
36.5

9.5

8.3

9.5

8.3

41.7

36.5

57.7
92.7
18.2

92.7
4.1

4.1

18.2

msy '11

235

236

Frame Analysis

Example 9.2(d) :Combination of vertical load and lateral load


Ref.

page 1/1

Calculations
Bending moment due to wind load
18.8

1.2 W k

43.8

25.4
18.8

Output

43.8

44.2 59.3

44.2

43.8

25.4

58.9 59.3

58.9

43.8

59.3

44.2 25.4

44.2

18.8

59.3

Bending moment due to vertical load

25.4

1.2 (G k + Q k)

157.5
78.1

18.8

157.5
139.7

139.7

78.1

41.7
36.5

9.5

8.3

9.5

8.3

41.7

36.5

57.7

92.7

92.7
18.2

4.1

4.1

1.2 (G k + Q k + Wk)

Combination of vertical and wind load

201.7
34.0

18.2

198.6
80.9

113.4

122.3

67.6

60.4

22.9
11.1

53.2

67.6

53.2
57.7

96.9

7.2

88.5
63.4

63.4

43.6

61.9

Frame Analysis

Problems
9.1 The typical arrangements of an eight storey concrete office building are as shown in Figure P9.1.
The building, 21 m wide by 40 m long is situated on an exposed site in the outskirts of a large
town.
(a)

If the building is to be designed as a braced structure using shear wall as the bracing
elements, show on the plan the suitable positions of these walls that should be provided to
resist the horizontal forces in both longitudinal and transverse directions.

(b)

Briefly outline the advantages and/or disadvantages of the braced building against the
unbraced building in terms of member sizing, forces, costs and design parameters with
reference to the given size of building.

3@7m
= 21 m

3
4

8 @ 5 m = 40
m
Figure P9.1

9.2 Part of the plan of a four storey reinforced concrete building and the front view of its substitute
frame are shown in Figure P9.2. The lateral forces on the building in both directions are to be
resisted by shear walls. The transverse beams with a cross-section of 300 x 700 mm, are
continuous over two spans of 8.75 m each. The continuous beams in the longitudinal direction of
the building have a cross-section of 250 x 600 mm and a span of 5.0 m. The columns, with a crosssection 300 x 400 mm, are 4.8 m high for the first lift, and 3.6 m for the successive lifts, and for
the purpose of analysis the bottom end of the first lift of the column may be assumed fixed to the
ground beams / footings. The overall thickness of the slab is 175 mm. Other relevant dimensions
and detailing are also shown in the figure. The building is to be designed to carry the vertical loads
as follows:
Characteristic live load
Characteristic dead load from finishes
and services only

=
=

4.0 kN/m2
1.5 kN/m2

(a) Analyse Beam 6/A-C, Level 1 using the continuous beam and subframe methods, with loading
arrangements suggested in EC2, and draw their respective bending moment envelopes (for
beams only) showing all the important values. (The maximum span moments should be
determined from shear force diagrams).
(b) Comment on the two sets of the bending moment values obtained in (a). What effect will these
bending moment envelopes have on the amount and detailing of the reinforcement to be
provided in Beam 6/A-C.

237

Frame Analysis

5000

250 x 600

250 x 600

300 x 700

300
Section A-A

5000

700

300 x 700

175

5000

250 x 600

300 x 700

8750

8750

3600

Roof

3600

Level 3

3600

Level 2

Level 1
4800

238

Ground
All units in mm
8750

8750

B
Figure P9.2

Frame Analysis

9.3 Figure P9.3 shows a substitute frame of a seven storey reinforced concrete building which is to be
built without any bracing members. The dimensions and section properties of all beams and
columns are given in the same figure. The first floor beams supported a characteristic dead load
(including selfweight) and a characteristic live load of 20 kN/m and 15 kN/m respectively. The
characteristic horizontal load due to wind pressure is 4.0 kN/m applied through the whole height of
the frame. The lower end of the first lift of the column may be assumed to be fixed to the
foundation.
(a) Using Cantilever method analyse the frame considering the horizontal load only and draw
the bending moment diagram for all columns and beams.
(b) Analyse the sub-frame which consists of the first floor beams and all columns associated with
the beams considering the vertical loads only.
(c) Draw the bending moment diagram of the sub-frame mentioned in (b) for the combination of
vertical and horizontal loads.
(d) Explain the significance and the usage of the bending moments drawn in (c) for the purpose of
structural design.

3400

3400

4.0 kN/m

3400

3400

3400

Column:
300 x 400 mm
Ixx = 16.0 x 108 mm4
K4.0m = 4.00 x 105 mm3
K3.4m = 4.71 x 105 mm3

3400

400

4000
6000

Beam:
250 x 600 mm
Ixx = 45.0 x 108 mm4
Kxx = 7.50 x 105 mm3

6000

Figure P9.3

Unless otherwise
stated all units
are in mm

239

240

Frame Analysis

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