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ABBREVIATION

1
2

NHNN
NHCT
(VIETINBANK)

Ngn hng Nh Nc

The State Bank of Vietnam

Vietnam Joint Stock Commercial Bank for Industry and Trade

NHTM

Ngn hng Thng mi

Commercial Bank

TMCP

Thng mi C phn

Joint Stock Commercial

TSB

Ti sn bo m

Guarantee Asset

TS

Ti sn

Asset

CBTD

Cn b tn dng

Credit Oficers

CB-NV

Cn b nhn vin

Officers

CBQHKH

Cn b quan h khch hng

Customer Relationship Officer

10

CBQLRR

Cn b qun l ri ro

Risk Management Officer

11

LDPKH

Lnh o phng khch hng

Leader of customer department

12

LDPQLRR

13

PKH

Phng khch hng

Office Customers

14

PQLRR

Phng qun l ri ro

Risk Management Department

15

HDCTD

Hp ng cp tn dng

Credit Contract

16

TTT

T trnh thm nh

Appraisal Report

17

BCDX

Bo co xut

Report Proposed

18

DSCV

Doanh s cho vay

Loan sales

19

DSTN

Doanh s thu n

Debt collection

20

CVTD

Cho vay tiu dng

Consumer loans

21

XD SCN

Xy dng v sa cha nh

Lnh o phng qun l ri


ro

The leader of risk management

House construction and repair


loan

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Undergraduate thesis is essay summarizing the knowledge of four-year universities, is
the crystallization of the theory in books and practices. Completion of this thesis is, I
would like to thank sincerely to the teacher, the teacher training Faculty, Duy Tan
University has dedicated teaching rooms, equipped with the necessary knowledge to
help me go into practice. In particular, I send thank sincerely and profoundly to Master.
Nguyen Thi Tuyen Ngon was enthusiastically telling, instructions to help me complete
this thesis.
Through this, I aslo thank to the credit officer working in Consumer Banking
Department a Vietnam Joint Stock Commercial bank for Industry and Trade Danang
branch has created conditions to I good practice, provided the necessary documents,
data, help me complete the thesis, the valuable practical experience during practice at
the Bank.
Although there have been many attempts, but due to limited knowledge, so I've
inevitably make mistakes. So, the children are looking forward to receiving sympathy
and the opinion of the teacher to the thesis is complete.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
ABBREVIATION
TABLE OF CONTENTS ................................................................................................... iii
LIST OF TABLE AND CHART ........................................................................................x
ABSTRACT ....................................................................................................................... xii
INTRODUCTION
Chapter 1: THE BASICS THEORY OF LENDING OPERATION TO HOUSE
CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR IN COMMERCIAL BANK .....................................1
1.1. Overview of lending at commercial banks ..................................................................1
1.1.1. The concept of lending .............................................................................................1
1.1.2. Basic principles of a loan ..........................................................................................1
1.1.3. Classification of loans ...............................................................................................4
1.2. The operation of house construction and repair loan in commercial bank .............8
1.2.1. The concept of house construction and repair loan ..................................................8
1.2.2. Characteristics loan for house construction and repair loan .....................................9
1.2.3. The role of house construction and repair loan ......................................................10
1.2.3.1. To the bank ......................................................................................................10
1.2.3.2. To borrower .....................................................................................................11
1.2.3.3. To soicety .........................................................................................................11
1.2.1. Factors affecting on house construction and repair loan ........................................11
1.2.4.1. Objective factors ..............................................................................................11
1.2.4.2. Subjective factors .............................................................................................13
1.2.5. A number of criteria used to analyze ......................................................................15
1.2.5.1. Sales of loan .....................................................................................................15
1.2.5.2. Debt collection .................................................................................................16
1.2.5.3. Outstanding loans.............................................................................................16
1.2.5.4. NPL (Non performing loan) ............................................................................17
1.2.5.5. NPL ratio (Non performing loan ratio) ............................................................19

iii

Chapter 2: THE STATE OF LENDING OPERATION TO HOUSE


CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR AT VIETNAM JOINT STOCK
COMMERCIAL BANK FOR INDUSTRY AND TRADE (VIETINBANK)
DANANG BRANCH ..........................................................................................................20
2.1. Overview of Vietnam Joint Stock Commercial Bank for Industry and Trade
Danang branch ...................................................................................................................20
2.1.1. The establishment and development of Vietinbank - Da Nang branch ..................21
2.1.2. Organizational chart ................................................................................................22
2.1.3. The function and tasks of the department ...............................................................22
2.1.4. Network operations the Vietnam Joint Stock Commercial Bank of Industry and
Trade Danang branch .....................................................................................................24
2.1.5. The Bank's business activities ................................................................................25
2.1.6. Business result at Vietinbank - Da Nang branch over 3 years (2010-2012) ..........27
2.1.6.1. Mobilizing capital result at Vietinbank - Da Nang branch over 3 years
(2010-2012) ...................................................................................................................27
2.1.6.2. The result of lending at Vietinbank-Danang branch over 3 years (20102012) ..............................................................................................................................30
2.1.6.3. Business operations result at Vietinbank - Da Nang branch over 3 years
(2010-2012) ...................................................................................................................35
2.2. The state of lending operation construction and house repair in Vietnam Joint
Stock bank of Industry and Trade Danang branch over 3 years (2010 2012) .......38
2.2.1. The regulation of loan products to house construction and repair in Vietnam
Joint Stock Bank of Industry and Trade Danang branch ...............................................38
2.2.1.1. The subject of lending ......................................................................................38
2.2.1.2. Loan applications .............................................................................................38
2.2.1.3. Loan payment method ......................................................................................39
2.2.1.4. Loan term.........................................................................................................40
2.2.1.5. Guaranteed loans form .....................................................................................40
2.2.1.6. The maximum loan ..........................................................................................41
2.2.1.7. Loan applications .............................................................................................41
2.2.1.8. The regulation on time to finish loan procedures .............................................42
2.2.1.9. Loan process .....................................................................................................42

iv

2.2.2. The state of lending operation construction and house repair at Vietinbank
Da Nang branch over 3 years (2010 2012) ....................................................................48
2.2.2.1. The state of lending general operation construction and house repair at
Vietinbank Da Nang branch over 3 years (2010 2012) ...........................................48
2.2.2.2. The state of lending operation construction and house repair according to
the term loan at Vietinbank Da Nang branch over 3 years (2010 2012).................52
2.2.2.3. The state of lending operation construction and house repair according to
the guarantee at Vietinbank Da Nang branch over 3 years (2010 2012) ................56
2.2.2.4. The state of lending operation construction and house repair according to
the purpose of loan at Vietinbank Da Nang branch over 3 years (2010 2012) .......60
2.2.2.5. The state of lending operation construction and house repair according to
the borrowers at Vietinbank Da Nang branch over 3 years (2010 2012)................64
2.2.3. General comment of lending operation construction and house repair at
Vietinbank Danang brach over 3 years (2010 2012) ..................................................69
2.2.3.1. The results achieved .........................................................................................69
2.2.3.2. The limitations ..................................................................................................71
Chapter 3: SOLUTIONS AND SOME RECOMMENDATIONS TO PROMOTE
LENDING OPERATIONS TO HOUSE CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR AT
VIETNAM JOINT STOCK COMMERCIAL BANK FOR INDUSTRY AND
TRADE (VIEINBANK) DANANG BRANCH .............................................................73
3.1 The advantages and disadvantages for the lending operations of construction
and house repair. ................................................................................................................73
3.1.1. Advantages. .............................................................................................................73
3.1.2. Disadvantage ...........................................................................................................75
3.2. Development plan of the Vietnam Joint Stock Commercial Bank of Industry
and Trade (Vietinbank) - Da Nang branch......................................................................76
3.3. Solutions to promote lending activity to construction and repair housing in
Vietnam Joint Stock Commercial Bank for Industry and Trade Danang branch
in the near future. ...............................................................................................................78
3.3.1. Main Solution .........................................................................................................78
3.3.1.1. Simplify procedures of loans ............................................................................78
3.3.1.2. Diversification of products for lending construction and house repair ............80
3.3.2 The solution supports ...............................................................................................82

3.3.2.1 Human Resouce Solutions.................................................................................82


3.3.2.2. Solutions to marketing......................................................................................85
3.4. Some recommendations ..............................................................................................87
3.4.1 To the State Bank of Vietnam..................................................................................87
CONFERENCES ................................................................................................................90
APPENDIX 1: Process for lending construction and house repair at Vietinbank
Danang branch ...................................................................................................................91
LI M U
Chng 1: C S L LUN V HOT NG CHO VAY XY DNG V
SA CHA NH TI NGN HNG THNG MI ............................................93
1.1. Khi qut chung v hot ng cho vay ti Ngn hng Thng mi ......................93
1.1.1. Khi nim cho vay ..................................................................................................93
1.1.2. Nguyn tc cho vay.................................................................................................93
1.1.3. Phn loi cho vay ....................................................................................................96
1.2. Hot ng cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh ti Ngn hng Thng mi.....101
1.2.1. Khi nim cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh ..................................................101
1.2.2. c im cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh ...................................................101
1.2.4. Vai tr cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh ........................................................102
1.2.4.1. i vi ngn hng ..........................................................................................102
1.2.4.2. i vi ngi i vay ......................................................................................103
1.2.4.3. i vi x hi ................................................................................................103
1.2.5. Nhn t nh hng n cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh .............................104
1.2.5.1. Nhn t khch quan .......................................................................................104
1.2.5.2. Nhn t ch quan ...........................................................................................106
1.2.6. Ri ro trong hot ng cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh ..............................107
1.2.6. Mt s ch tiu s dng phn tch ....................................................................108
1.2.6.1. Doanh s cho vay (DSCV) ............................................................................108
1.2.6.2. Doanh s thu n (DSTN) ...............................................................................108
1.2.6.3. D n cho vay (DNCV) .................................................................................109
1.2.6.4. N qu hn (N xu) .....................................................................................109

vi

1.2.6.5. T l n qu hn (%) .....................................................................................111


Chng 2: THC TRNG HOT NG CHO VAY XY DNG V SA
CHA NH TI NGN HNG TMCP CNG THNG VIT NAM
(VIETINBANK) CHI NHNH NNG ................................................................113
2.1. Tng quan v Ngn hng TMCP Cng Thng Vit Nam (Vietinbank) chi
nhnh Nng .................................................................................................................113
2.1.1. S hnh thnh v pht trin ca Ngn hng Vietinbank chi nhnh Nng ....114
2.1.2. S c cu t chc .............................................................................................115
2.1.3. Chc nng v nhim v cc phng ban ................................................................116
2.1.4. Mng li hot ng ca Ngn hng TMCP Cng Thng Vit Nam chi
nhnh Nng ...............................................................................................................117
2.1.5. Cc hot ng kinh doanh ngn hng cung cp ...................................................118
2.1.6. Tnh hnh kinh doanh ca Ngn hng Vietinbank chi nhnh Nng qua 3
nm (2010 2012) ..........................................................................................................120
2.1.6.1. Tnh hnh huy ng vn ti Ngn hng Vietinbank chi nhnh Nng
qua 3 nm (2010 2012) .............................................................................................120
2.1.6.2. Tnh hnh cho vay ti Ngn hng Vietinbank chi nhnh Nng qua 3
nm (2010 2012).......................................................................................................123
2.1.6.3. Kt qu hot ng kinh doanh ti Ngn hng Vietinbank chi nhnh
Nng qua 3 nm ( 2010 2012 ) .................................................................................127
2.2. Thc trng hot ng cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh ti Ngn hng
TMCP Cng Thng Vit Nam chi nhnh Nng qua 3 nm (2010 2012) ......131
2.2.1. Cc qui nh v sn phm cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh ti Ngn hng
TMCP Cng Thng Vit Nam chi nhnh Nng ..................................................131
2.2.1.1. i tng vay vn ..........................................................................................131
2.2.1.2. iu kin vay vn...........................................................................................131
2.2.1.3. Phng thc cho vay ......................................................................................132
2.2.1.4. Thi hn cho vay ...........................................................................................133
2.2.1.5. Hnh thc m bo vn vay ...........................................................................133
2.2.1.6. Mc cho vay ti a ........................................................................................134
2.2.1.7. H s vay vn .................................................................................................134
2.2.1.8. Qui nh v thi gian gii quyt th tc vay vn ...........................................134

vii

2.2.1.9. Qui trnh cho vay ............................................................................................135


2.2.2. Thc trng hot ng cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh ti Ngn hng
TMCP Cng Thng Vit Nam chi nhnh Nng qua 3 nm ( 2010 2012 ) .......140
2.2.2.1. Thc trng hot ng chung cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh ti Ngn
hng TMCP Cng Thng Vit Nam chi nhnh Nng qua 3 nm ( 2010
2012 ) ...........................................................................................................................140
2.2.2.2. Thc trng hot ng cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh theo thi hn
vay ti Ngn hng TMCP Cng Thng Vit Nam chi nhnh Nng qua 3
nm ( 2010 2012 ).....................................................................................................144
2.2.2.3. Thc trng hot ng cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh theo hnh thc
m bo ti Ngn hng TMCP Cng Thng Vit Nam chi nhnh Nng qua
3 nm ( 2010 2012)...................................................................................................147
2.2.2.4. Thc trng hot ng cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh theo mc ch
vay ti Ngn hng TMCP Cng Thng Vit Nam chi nhnh Nng qua 3
nm (2010 2012).......................................................................................................151
2.2.2.5. Thc trng hot ng cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh theo i tng
vay ti Ngn hng TMCP Cng Thng Vit Nam chi nhnh Nng qua 3
nm (2010 2012).......................................................................................................155
2.2.3. Nhn xt chung v hot ng cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh ti Ngn
hng TMCP Cng Thng Vit Nam chi nhnh Nng qua 3 nm (2010 2012) 160
2.2.3.1. Nhng kt qu t c .................................................................................160
2.2.3.2. Nhng hn ch ................................................................................................162
Chng 3: GII PHP V MT S KIN NGH Y MNH HOT NG
CHO VAY XY DNG V SA CHA NH TI NGN HNG TMCP
CNG THNG VIT NAM CHI NHNH NNG ........................................164
3.1.Thun li v kh khn i vi hot ng cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh .164
3.1.1. Thun li ...............................................................................................................164
3.1.2. Kh khn ...............................................................................................................166
3.2. nh hng pht trin ca Ngn hng TMCP Cng Thng Vit Nam chi
nhnh Nng .................................................................................................................167
3.3. Gii php y mnh hot ng cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh ti Ngn
hng TMCP Cng Thng Vit Nam chi nhnh Nng trong thi gian ti .......169
3.3.1.Gii php chnh ......................................................................................................169
3.3.1.1. n gin ha th tc vay vn.........................................................................169

viii

3.3.1.2. a dng ha sn phm cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh ...........................172


3.3.2.Gii php h tr .....................................................................................................174
3.3.2.1. Gii php v nhn s ......................................................................................174
3.3.2.2. Gii php v Marketing ..................................................................................176
3.4. Mt s kin ngh ........................................................................................................178
3.4.1. i vi Ngn hng Nh Nc Vit Nam .............................................................178
3.4.2. i vi hi s chnh Ngn hng TMCP Cng Thng Vit Nam .......................179
KT LUN .......................................................................................................................181
TI LIU THAM KHO ...............................................................................................182
PH LC 01: Quy trnh cho vay xy dng sa cha nh ti Ngn hng
Vietinbank Nng. .....................................................................................................183

ix

LIST OF TABLE AND CHART

Table

Mobilizing capital situation in Vietinbank - Da Nang branch over 3

2.1

years (2010-2012)

Table

The situation of lending at Vietinbank-Danang branch over 3 years

2.2

(2010-2012)

Table

Business operations results at Vietinbank - Da Nang branch over 3

2.3

years (2010-2012)

Table

The general situation of lending at Vietinbank - Danang branch over 3

2.4

years (2010-2012)

Table

The situation of lending operation construction and house repair

2.5

according to the term loan at Vietinbank Da Nang branch over 3


years (2010 2012)

Table

The situation of lending operation construction and house repair

2.6

according to the guarantee at Vietinbank Da Nang branch over 3


years (2010 2012)

Table

The situation of lending operation construction and house repair

2.7

according to the purpose of loan at Vietinbank Da Nang branch


over 3 years (2010 2012)

Table

The situation of lending operation construction and house repair

2.8

according to the borrowers at Vietinbank Da Nang branch over 3


years (2010 2012)

10

Chart

Mobilizing capital result at Vietinbank - Da Nang branch over 3 years

2.1

(2010-2012)

Chart

The result of lending operation at Vietinbank-Danang branch over 3

2.2

years (2010-2012)

11

12

13

Chart

Business operations result at Vietinbank - Da Nang branch over 3

2.3

years (2010-2012)

Chart

The situation of NPL ratio lending operation at Vietinbank-Danang

2.4

branch over 3 years (2010-2012)

Chart

The situation of outstanding construction and house repair loan

2.5

according to the term loan at Vietinbank Da Nang branch over 3


years (2010 2012)

14

Chart

The situation of NPL of construction and house repair according to

2.6

the guarantee at Vietinbank Da Nang branch over 3 years (2010


2012)

15

Chart

The situation of outstanding construction and house repair loan

2.7

according to the purpose of loan at Vietinbank Da Nang branch


over 3 years (2010 2012)

16

Chart

The situation of NPL construction and house repair according to the

2.8

officers at Vietinbank Da Nang branch over 3 years (2010 2012)

xi

ABSTRACT
Through the process of understanding and researching, I realized demand for loans for
new construction, remodeling of the people in the area is very large. So, I chose the
topic The state of lending operation construction and house repair at Vietnam Joint
Stock Commercial Bank for Industry and Trade Da Nang branch. With this topic,
the goal is to understand the overall lending activity to build and repair houses in the
bank based on data provided by the bank. From there, stated the he advantages and
disadvantages of bank current, proposed a number of solutions for the construction
loan, home repair based on the overall assessment of the bank. The process of analyze
is using the method: synthesis, comparison, interpretation, induction to inductive
system of lending activities to build and repair houses in the bank. Thereby, the
expected result is to evaluate the current status of lending construction and repairing.
Proposed some methods to the bank possible develop and improve product, while
improving profitability of bank. In addition, this topic provides references for students.

xii

INTRODUCTION
1. Reason for choosing the topic
In recent years, Vietnam's economy has made the change, income people are improved,
improved standards of living. Da Nang is also not out of that development. Danang city
are on the rise with growing population. Under the city's policy impact on the
architectural planning of the city, many people have and are being removed or
renovated housing. In addition, the city of Danang is ideally located near the sea, the
River should be more of the bad influence of the natural environment and the weather.
Therefore, the construction and house repair of people across the city become
necessary.
In addition to the support, promotion and financial issues of the city but the people that
needs the loan to construct or repair spacious house. Catching these factors,
commercial banks gave out loans to construct and repair housing to meet the needs of
the people.
So, I choose topic: The state of lending operation construction and house repair at
Vietnam Joint Stock Commercial Bank for Industry and Trade (Vietinbank)
Danang branch
Project structure includes three chapters:
Chapter 1:The basis theory of lending operations to house construction and
repair in commercial banks
Chapter 2: The state of lending operation construction and house repair at
Vietnam Joint Stock Commercial Bank for Industry and Trade (Vietinbank) Danang
branch
Chapter 3: Solutions and some recommendations to promote lending operations
to house construction and repair at Vietnam Joint Stock Commercial Bank for Industry
and Trade (Vietinbank) Danang branch
Research Objective:

The system is the general theory of constructing and repairing houses in the
commercial banks.
Assessment of the state of the loan operations to build and repair housing at
Vietnam Joint Stock Commercial Bank for Industry and Trade (Vietinbank) Danang
branch
Proposes some solutions to the Bank can execute in order to develop and
improve the product house construction and repair in banks, at the same time
enhancing the Bank's trading profits.
Provide documents to consult on the construction and repair of houses.
1. Object and research time:
Research Subjects: Industrial and Commercial Bank Vietnam - Da Nang
branch
Research time: The data of the branch from 2010 to 2012
2. Scope of the study: the state of lending operation construction and house repair
3. Research method: topic is based on methods:
Statistical methods
Comparative methods
Inductive method and interpretation.

Chapter 1: THE BASICS THEORY OF LENDING OPERATION TO HOUSE


CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR IN COMMERCIAL BANK
1.1. Overview of lending at commercial banks
1.1.1. The concept of lending
In the economy there is a difference in the areas of production and business activities,
the differences in scale and duration of the use of capital economic organization. In the
circulation and flow that occurred surplus or shortage of capital in the economy
temporarily. Lack of capital is not only a demand for businesses operating in the field
of production, circulation but also needs additional temporary shortfall between
revenues and expenditures of other organizations and individuals in society, including
the state budget. Therefore, the role of the bank is financial intermediary institutions
regulate cash flow in the economy. Bank focus temporarily idle funds in the economy
brought distribute capital shortfall based on the principle of return to be balanced and
timely response to the needs of capital for individuals and economic organization.
Therefore, pursuant to Item 16 of Article 14 of the Credit Institutions Act 2010 (Act
No: 47/2010/QH12) regulations.
"Lending is a form of credit, under which a lender or delivery commitments to
customers an amount to be used for identification purposes in a certain period of time
as agreed with the principle of repayment of principal and interest"
1.1.2. Basic principles of a loan

Principle number 1: principal and interest of a loan must be paid back.

Borrowers need to pay the loans back on time with an amount certain of interest
included. This is because loan capital of banks is primarily gathered or called capital
from all of the business sectors in society. Thus, borrowers of the bank after a certain
amount of time have to pay back principal and interest. Borrowing entity after a fixed
length of time have to pay the banks an agreed income because this is the mainly
income sources of a bank and this is the basic for banks to post in the accounts and to
perform duties to government budgets. If a borrowing entity does not pay back its debt

to the bank on the due date, the bank will mark that debt as an overdue debt and the
entity has to pay a greater interest rate than normal interest rate. Simultaneously, it
ensures the unity between the movement of materials, goods and the monetary
movement within the economy; it also contributes to monetary as well as price
stablizing.
Based on this principle, banks are able to preserve their capital and put their capital to
business activities timely. So banks can generate revenue to cover expenses and make
profit in order to maintain and improve activities of banks.

Principle number 2: loan capital must be guaranteed by an asset.

This principle is to maintain the balance of the relationship between money-product,


and to respect to the rules of currency circulation and reduce the risk for the Bank.
When customers do not have the ability to repay the secured loan is the debt collection
resources of the Bank.
The Bank loans are to present the full documents, invoices, goods purchase contracts.
On that basis, the Bank conducted a review of lending is equivalent to the value of
supplies of goods have to be indicated on the voucher, invoice, contract, this applies to
State enterprises. The business enterprise want the Bank's loans are mortgages with
assets, bank lenders typically by 60-70% of the mortgage value. When a customer is
not able to pay back the loan, guaranteed loan will be the secondary source for the bank
to collect debts. Guaranteed assets must be legally possessed by the borrower and that
asset must have usable value and is accepted by the market. Guaranteed assets can be:
Products and expenses of the process of products producing and circulating.
Jewelry
Certificate of Deposit, bonds, shares banking bills, bills of exchange...
Real estates must include the certificate of the owner (original copy); the
certificate must be notarized. If the asset is owned by a group of people, the agreement
of that group to put the asset as guarantee must be included.

Besides these mentioned guarantees, banks are also able to make a loan base on:
Credit guarantee: only available to customers who have been doing business
with the banks in a long-time and high credit. Related financial information
must be carefully analyzed.
Sponsor guarantee: in this case, borrower can ask another people to be sponsor
for their loan. Sponsor must be a legal entity. Necessary documents and guaranteed
assets from sponsor are required in this case. Sponsorship must be conducted by
documents which are signed by jurisdictional offices. Sponsor must be responsible for
the loan if the borrower cannot pay it back.
During the use of loans, loan units are valuable materials to ensure equal. This
principle makes the unit a loan used effectively. Bank lending safely avoid unnecessary
risks in the business of banking. In addition, this rule ensure balance relations between
commodity money in circulation and to stabilize prices.

Principle number 3: loan capital must be used legally and effectively.

The customer needs are loan banks to plan, apply for bank loans to complete the
following: loan amount, time limit use of capital, purpose and use of loans
effectiveness of bank loans. On that basis, consider checking the bank, if the bank
loans bring economic benefits and debt service, the loan decision. On the other hand on
the basis of the plan for a loan of the borrower, the banks themselves have to plan for
their loans to be active in credit investments. Principles to ensure borrowers have
enough capital and borrowing plans. At the same time this principle in order to save
capital, capital investment is key and economically efficient. If customers have demand
for loans incurred outside the plan, the bank deems it necessary and appropriate, in
balance with its resources, can lend additional borrowers.
Ensure proper use of loan agreements aim to ensure effective use of loans and loan
recovery capacity later. On the bank side, the use of loan funds for the purpose of

contributing to improving efficiency loans while helping customers ensure solvency for
banks.
Three basic principles which are discussed above have a close-knit relationship.
Together, they form an overall unity which has a strong impact on credit relationship
between banks with other business sectors. They help banks to prevent risky factors in
order to maintain credit security and to create premise and make some pressures to
force business sectors to improve their efficiency. Credit businesses of banks need to
change its trend fast and correctly to real business processing, promptly impulse
reorganize the objective economy of credit bank services according to market
mechanism under the macro adjusted management of socialist oriented government.
1.1.3. Classification of loans
In the market economy, lending activity of commercial banks is very diverse and rich
with various types of credit different.The application form for the loan will depend on
the economic characteristics of the object used to use credit capital and manage credit
capital effectively and consistent with the movement as well as different economic
characteristics of credit subjects. The following are the criteria for loan classification
Classified according to lending term
+ Short-term loans: the form of a term loan of up to 12 months. The loan is used to
supplement or offset the shortage of working capital of the business, the short-term
spending needs of the individual.
+ Medium-term: the form of a term loan from 12 months to 60 months. The purpose is
investment purchase of fixed assets, improvements and equipment innovation,
technology, business expansion, new construction projects are small and quick payback
time. Besides, it can also be used to invest in regular assets of the business, especially
start-up businesses.
+ Long-term loans: the form of a term loan of 60 months or more. Purpose is to meet
the long-term investment demand as housing construction, equipment and vehicles
have large-scale, large construction firms.

How to split over time help to calculate the resource bank loans, providing loan level in
a certain time period. Media businesses of banks is to borrow short-term, but from
about the 70s back, banks have switched to general business, which often seek to
increase density for long-term loans.
Classified according to loan purpose
+ Real estate loans: the types of loans related to the purchase and construction of
housing, land or property. Loans are put into production, the first rise, creating income
for the borrower.
+ Industrial and commercial loans: short-term loan is to supplement the working
capital of the business activities in the field of industry, trade and services.
Loans are an asset class with low liquidity can not sell, transfer or mortgage and highrisk, but they bring more of income for banks. Therefore the loan industry and
commerce accounted for most of the total assets of the bank.
Industrial and commercial loans, including short-term loans for working capital
(budget support loans) and loans to medium and long-term fixed capital. The shortterm loans for working capital includes current loans (loans in the current account),
discounting commercial paper and mortgage credit. Medium and long-term loans for
investment in fixed assets such as land leasing, building factories, warehouses and
yards, equipment procurement means business ...
+ Agricultural Loans: lending is to cover the cost of agricultural production, such as
buying fertilizer, pesticides, plant seeds, feed, labor, fuel, agricultural lending ...
facilitate help farmers restructure production, specialized production of agricultural
export value, restoration and development of traditional industries, develop rural
infrastructure ...
+ Consumer loans: a form of short-and medium-term loans at an interest rate agreed
between the bank and the customer, the form of loans to meet the individual needs as
consumers purchase household items, buy automotive, construction and repair of

dwelling houses, student, medical, .... The borrower must have a legitimate need, and
must demonstrate a reasonable source of steady income to pay debts.
+ Loans export business: lending is to support business activities of the import and
export business. This support contributed to promote import and export business
development, attract potential customers.
Classified according to the nature guarantee
+ Loans guaranteed by assets: the form of loans secured on the basis of such mortgage
loan, mortgage or guarantee of third party assets, capital assets acquired assets used
on.The guaranteed loan must meet the conditions of the market and stable. The form of
unsecured loans as secured by securities (valuable papers), by contract farming, with
supplies and goods, with real estate
+ Non-loans guarantee by assets: the loan without collateral pledging or without the
guarantee of a third party. In this case, Bank lending based on the client's reputation.
Loans guarantee by properties is the relative form of adventure of the Bank should
have to comply with the conditions of the loans are as follows:
Firstly, the law has required that credit institutions only lend to customers who
have enough capacity in the subject, i.e. the qualified law of capabilities and behaviors.
Second, the reputation of borrowers as a condition of the loan, is the most
important condition for the subject is the borrower without collateral.
Third, to the Bank's loans in the form of loan guarantee by the property,
borrowers must have a healthy financial situatio.
Classified by the method of refund
+ Installment loans: loan type is that the repayment and interest rate periodically. This
type of loan apply for these loans are long time as real estate lending, consumer loans
for those high-value assets. In addition, this form is also used for some types of loans
have little value as loans for small entrepreneurs (market lenders), loan fund for
agricultural equipment.Usually there are 4 installment methods:

Additional methods.
Methods of pay equal principal and interest according to the balance at the end
of each period.
Methods of pay equal principal and interest calculated on the return of the
original capital.
Methods of pay which principal and interest are equal in all periodically
(methods).
+ Non-loan installment: is a one-time payment for the agreed term.
+ Loans repaid on demand: the types of loans to repay many times but there is no
specific term that depends on the financial ability of borrowers who can repay at any
time, apply for buying used transactional account.
Classified according to origin of credit
+ Direct loans: Bank of direct financing to customers. Complete direct borrowers to
repay the loan to the Bank.
+ Indirect loans: loans are made through the acquisition of the escrow, certificate from
the debt was incurred and remaining in the billing period as negotiable discount, buy
the votes to sell consumer goods, farm equipment or purchase installment debt.
Classified according to the method of lending
+ Single lending (lending according to the menu): the method that each loan needs
arise forcing the borrower must conduct the procedures apply for loans (loans to profile
customers, Bank loan review, ... ) and signed the credit contract.
This method is applicable to customers who need occasional loans, irregular in nature,
do not assign the credit limit.
+ Lines of credit loan: is the loan that the bank allows maintaining maximum loans
outstanding levels are maintained within a given time limit for customers. Maximum
amount of a loan is the credit limit

The Bank based on the purpose of your loan needs, the maximum lending rate
compared to the collateral, the Bank's capital ability to calculate and deal a credit limit
for the given time limit. Customers are disbursed and repaid several times over a
certain limit so that the total outstanding is higher credit limit.This method is
applicable to the customer is borrowing needs and debt service regularly, has a
reputation for the Bank.
+ Syndicated loan: according to the regulation of credit institutions customers (issued
decision No. 1627/2001/decision-State Bank on 31/12/2001 of the Governor (the State
Bank) is: "for the syndicated loan type is composed of a group of credit institutions and
loans for a project loan or loan schemes. In particular, a credit organization as focal
point arrangements, in cooperation with the other institutions. The syndicated loan
made under the provisions of this regulation and the regulation on co-financing of the
credit institution by the Governor of the State Bank issued ".
+ Overdraft Loan: loan form is associated with the use of current accounts of
individuals or businesses through the use of a balance over the limit allowed to the
deadline stipulated by the Bank and fees. Right to overdrafts is divided into two
categories:
Overdraft Privilege: is the most common form for the spectacle. This right is
granted to the customer and specified in the conditions of use of the account. The
customer has the right to withdraw a balance allowed without prior notice to the Bank.
Overdraft Privilege agreement: when the client wants to withdraw the balance
then the customer must ask permission.
1.2. The operation of house construction and repair loan in commercial bank
1.2.1. The concept of house construction and repair loan
Loan for house construction and repair is a form of credit Bank. In particular, the Bank
gives the client a sum of money under a certain level. Customer borrow money to build
and repair housing and is responsible for full repayment of principal and interest on
capital as required.

This is the type of lending banks for individual clients, families. The produce to build
and repair housing help to diversify the Bank's products, expand customer market
share. Moreover, construction loans and home repairs helps banks increase
competitiveness in comparison with other banks in the market economy. The trend of
the Bank focused on exploring and developing the consumer sector is increasingly
powerful.
1.2.2. Characteristics loan for house construction and repair loan
Loan demand is dependent on economic cycles. As the economy develops, raise the
living standard, improve the income, raising the need to meet on the housing
Therefore, the customer's loan demand is also increasing. Conversely, when the
economy recession, difficult lives, income is not high, people will have no need to
borrow in order to improve your life because they worry will not have the ability to
repay.
Lending operations with small or large scale, the Bank must give out the costs to
credit appraisal, disbursement, monitoring, debt collection, etc.Therefore, costs for the
lending operations are usually higher.
Loan demand also depends on the education level and income level. Individuals
who have high and stable income usually need a loan because they have the ability to
pay the loan.
Individual borrowers should proof of financial capacity is difficult because they
are easily concealed, or provide false information. Therefore, the quality of the
financial information of borrowers is usually not high.
Long-term loan, source of repayment customers can large fluctuations,
depending on the work, skill, experience, healths ...
Personality, qualities of clients is difficult to determine, based mainly on the
ability to assess the experience of credit evaluation but is very important in deciding
the loan's repayment.

1.2.3. The role of house construction and repair loan


1.2.3.1.

To the bank

Increase profit

For the Bank, when it decided to put off any one of the products, the Bank shall
calculate the expected and products that will help to increase Bank profits. Besides, the
level of competition among banks increasingly fierce not only among commercial
banks in the country but also in competition with foreign banks requires the bank to
expand the client objects. Vietnam is developing rapidly should the demand for a loan
for consumption is also increasing. Therefore, the Bank is constantly developing new
products to meet the needs of the market potential and increase profits. But today, in
fierce competition with other financial institutions, banks are forced to expand
customer and product diversification to reduce risk and increase profits.Thus, the
individual is increasingly interested in more attention. Especially in countries with
developing economies or is growing strongly, the need for a loan for the consumer
sector is also growing rapidly. Therefore, the bank is constantly developing new
products to meet the needs of the market potential.

Diversification of the Bank's products.

Previously, most of the commercial banks are restricting consumer credit because that
it is the small loans and high risk. Today, the Bank has focused on implementing and
delivering the product to individual customers in order to increase the competitive
position on the market. Loans for house construction and repair is a product available
for individual clients so it contributed to implementing to diversify the products of
commercial banks

The bank has established a relationship with the customer.

By the time relatively long lending operations should the relationship between the
customer and the bank can be stretched for years, creating intimate relationships. The
clients become the best advertisement for the bank, helped the bank raise the credibility
in the market and increase the number of new customers in the future.

10

Acilitate expanded market share, raise the image of the Bank.

Through the use of loan products to build and repair housing, clients will know and use
the products and services of the bank, raise market share. This also contributed to the
increase in competitiveness and raising the Bank's good image in the minds of
customers.
1.2.3.2.

To borrower

Helping to solve difficult customer financial

If as before, to repair or build houses, people must save perennial borrowers through
acquaintances, or borrowers. So, owning house, must undergo a long time living in
temporary houses or house to rent. The born of loan for house construction and repair
promptly solved the customer's financial difficulties.

Ensure professional life to settle

Former residents living in temporary homes by devastating natural disasters, house rent
or do not have the influence to unstable jobs. Through this form of lending to
contruction and repair housing contributed to the people living in these homes,
spacious. From there, the people peace of mind at work, job stability, improved
standards of living.
1.2.3.3.

To soicety

Contributing to the solution the demand for social housing

This type of loan to build and repair housing problems contributed to the housing needs
of the people. Not only help them stabilize their lives, but also the peace of mind to
improve the living standards of the people. From temporary homes, house or no house
rent is through lending activities help people to live in a spacious house, fully.

Contribute to promoting economic development

Lending operations building and repairing houses make capital flow and revolving
speed faster than generating profits, contributing to economic development
1.2.1. Factors affecting on house construction and repair loan
1.2.4.1.

Objective factors

11

Economic environment

The economic environment comprises all activities all economic sectors that
characterized the level of economic development, national income, average per capita
income, population. Economic factors influence to the income, spending by
individuals, households and will affect their needs for banking services. As the
economy developed and stable, the variable prices, inflation, exchange rate stability,
currency import, personal spending, households increased, so their need for banking
services also arose, as a result, consumer credit is extended. Conversely, when the
economy is unstable and stagnant, falling demand, reduce borrowing needs of the
people, because the people for the difficult situation that continue to occur in the future.
Therefore, the information on economy, per capita income, economic growth and
economic stability are all factors that need attention to bank lending activities
effectively

Social-cultural environment

Social-cultural environment including specific factors such as customs, the habit of


using Bank services, the savings rate, education level, the tastes of home, work, ...
People's consumer culture affect the behaviour and needs of banking services.
Specifically, in an environment where people have the habit of spending more saves or
tend to consume the high-value goods, consumer lending services can expand. Or in a
society of farmers, the people easy access to banking technology, easily received the
services of the Bank. For these workers the limb they desire to have stable lives, at
least when thinking about spending, improve, or enhance the standard of living,
thereby affecting the use of the Bank's products. Study on the social and cultural
factors, not only clearly define the impact behavior using the banking services and the
choice of the Bank's customers, but also help the bank officers have behaved in ways
consistent in communicating with clients.

Legal environment

12

The legal environmental , including the legal system, the system measures to ensure the
law is implemented and strictly observe the laws of the participants in business and
related disciplines. The banking business is one of the sectors subject to the close
scrutiny of the law and the relevant authorities of the Government. Thus, lending
operations to build and repair housing of the banks also do not fall outside the legal
environment. The advocates, the State's policy impact on lending works to build and
repair housing. The legal environment to give the Bank a series of new opportunities
and new challenges, such as the change in interest rate policy, regulation, ...

Competitive environment

Since the WTO so far, the banking industry has made fundamental changes to the
foreign financial institutions may hold shares of the Bank and the arrival of the foreignowned banks. Therefore, the degree of banking competition is increasing, not only
among the commercial banks in the country, but also to compete with the bank group
100% foreign capital. Foreign banks often have a private customer segments, the
majority of business is coming from their countries. They served the clients for so long
in the other markets and when customer open market to Vietnam, the Bank also opened
a representative office. Foreign banks are also not struck the barriers that now many
commercial banks in the country are made, such as stock lending limit, bad debt in
property lending. In particular, foreign banks have the ability to connect with a wide
network across the country. Therefore, the commercial banks in the country to innovate
products and services, have to weigh and calculate before making the appropriate
policies, create new competitive advantage of the Bank.
1.2.4.2.

Subjective factors

The bank's reputation

At present, the number of banks operating many of the borrowers who need care that is
the choice of the Bank would have the credibility to believe. The banks reputation
have very important role in the introduction of the image of the bank to the customer. It
is the first factor, which helps the bank confirms the name, location in the heart, giving

13

customers firm emotional support in sending asset and loan demand, thereby attracting
many customers.

Credit policy

Credit policy including loan limits with customers, interest rate, term loans, fee,
payment method, the ability of customers to repay debts. ... All the elements that make
up the product characteristics for building and repairing houses of banking, creating
differences in lending products to build and repair houses of this bank in comparison to
other banks, expanding lending activity of the Bank to the customer. In addition, the
lending rate is an important factor affecting lending operations and the Bank's income,
is the broth. If the interest rate reduction increases the borrowing needs of the
customer. However, interest rates fell too low, the banks could not offset the costs,
prevention of risks, making a profit. If the interest rate is too high reduce the borrowing
needs of the customer. So banks need to identify short term goals and long term credit
policy, in line with the goals set out

The credit process

The credit evaluation process was also a factor in the decision to the Bank's lending
activities. The evaluation process with a system scale evaluation criteria, scientifically
but sensible, no-frills credit quality shows. In addition, the evaluation of customer
information are also equally important, including: the capacity, the capacity of human
behavior, the financial capacity of the client, ethical customer, collateral ... Currently,
Vietnam has only credit information center CIC (Credit) of the State Bank of Vietnam
to help commercial banks seek customer information but much of this data is not
updated in time and incomplete information. Therefore, the evaluation of client nhnti
their banks were difficult and risky.

The quality credit officers and facilities

Bank officers are factors that contribute to the success of the bank, is the image of the
Bank to the customer. Due to the products of the bank with non-material, should
employees need to have high professional level, flexible communication capabilities

14

and increased competitiveness, attract more customers to the bank, the represents the
effect of credit quality.
The facilities, the equipment is another advantage of the bank about lending operations
to house contruction and repair. Science and technology development, modern
equipment to facilitate banks in the storage, search, and manage customer information.
Therefore reduce costs, reduce risk, increase profits from lending operations to house
contruction and repair in the bank.

Risk of lending operations to house construction and repair

Lending operations to house construction and repair often contain many risks because
there are many problems that occurred during the period of borrowing as on interest
rates, the economy, health, natural environment.
The risk in lending operations to house construction and repair mainly credit risk, is the
risk of repayment ability of clients as the original non-repayment, the interest rate paid
on time ....Source of repayment for the Bank is essentially a regular income of client.
Your income depends on work, health status. Long term causes the underlying risk of
repayment by the client. When customers encounter events in life are likely to fail to
pay the customer's debt is huge. Therefore, the remedy to avoid this risk occurring as
banks buy insurance, or the Bank is forced to liquidate collateral of the borrower and
the collateral is property the client build or repair. However, troubled banks in the
liquidation of the secured property because the property is real property, the property
type is not liquidity high and volatile price swings. Therefore, before the loan, the Bank
must assess carefully and accurately. Moreover, factors such as natural disasters,
floods, typhoons ... also causes risks for lending operations to build and repair housing.
In addition, the Bank encountered ethical risks. The client configuration with the seller
to make false papers or customer document with credit officers false asset appraisal in
order to seize the capital of the Bank.
1.2.5. A number of criteria used to analyze
1.2.5.1.

Sales of loan

15

Loan sales are the total amount the Bank has disbursed in the form of cash or wire
transfer in a given time. This indicator refers to the scale of the Bank's activities in a
period and capital supply situation for the economy, the relationship between the Bank
and the customer. In addition, the speed increase is loan target reflects the ability to
extend loans to constraction and repair housing of the Bank. This increase
demonstrates that bank lending this year more than the previous year, lending
operations to house construction and repair is open. In contrast, the index is down then
the Bank for borrowers at least. Formula:
The level of absolute growth in loan sales = (loan sales) n (loan sales) n-1
Growth rate of loan sales (%) =

loansalesn loansalesn1
100
loansalesn1

n: the moment in n
n-1: the moment in (n-1)
1.2.5.2.

Debt collection

Sales of debt collection is the total amount the Bank had recovered from the loans in a
given time. It reflects the Bank's debt situation. The higher the debt collection with
increasing loan guarantees the quality of loans. If sales of debt overdue outstanding
loans showed low, the possibility of lower interest rates and payback the credit quality
is poor. This indicator represents the capacity of the staff of credit through the debt
collection and quality evaluation of the credit staff. Formula
The level of absolute growth in debt collection
= (debt collection) n (debt collection)n-1
The growth rate of debt collection sales (%) =

n: the moment in n
n-1: the moment in (n-1)
1.2.5.3.

Outstanding loans

time. It is the amount of money the Bank has not yet recovered, the amount remaining

16

after taking loans minus the amount the customer paid for the Bank. If high loan rate
demonstrates the banks have yet to recover debts, should promote the work of
collecting the debt. Also, the higher the debit balance demonstrates the scale of the
Bank's activities in the greater but also reflects the huge risk the Bank faces the
problem of overdue debt. Formula:
The level of absolute growth in outstanding loans
= (outstanding loans) n ( outstanding loan) n-1
Growth rate of outstanding loans (%) =
n: the moment in n
n-1: the moment in (n-1)
1.2.5.4.

NPL (Non performing loan)

NPL is an indicator reflects the ability to manage and withdrawal of bank debt, the debt
is from group 3 onwards: Substandard, Doubtful, or Loss debt. There are many causes
that lead to bad debts such as: the instability of the economy, economic policy change
....The cause may also be derived from the reviews, analysis of credit officers when
analysing the loan does not have the ability to repay the credit review, ethics.
Circular No. 02/2013/circular-the State Bank on 21/01/2013 in article 10 have
regulations on classification of debt, set up contingency risks of credit institutions. This
is the basis for the Bank reviews, customer credit ratings. The debts are defined as
follows:
Group 1: (Current) includes:
-

The term debts and credit institutions can assess the recoverability of the full

principal and interest on time.


-

The bad debt less than 10 days and credit assessment institutions capable of full

recovery of principal and interest were expired, the full recovery of principal and
interest on time.
-

Borrowings are classified in Group 1 under paragraph 2 of this Article.

17

Group 2: (the debt notes) include:


-

Bad debts from 10 days up to 90 days.

The debt repayment term adjustment (for business clients, the Organization, the

credit institution must have customer reviews about the possibility of full repayment of
debt principal and interest time be adjusted first).
-

The debts are classified in Group 2 as defined in paragraph 3 of this article.


Group 3: (Debt under standard) include:

Bad debts from 91 days to 180 days.

Debt rescheduling.

The debt is interest rate or by the customer was unable to pay the full interest

under the credit agreement.


-

The debt is recovered by the Inspector concluded.

Debt is classified into 3 groups, as defined in paragraph 2 and paragraph 3 of

this article.
Group 4: (doubtful Debt) include:
-

Bad debts from 181 to 360 days.

The debt restructuring deadline to repay the overdue under 90 days according to

the repayment deadline was restructuring


-

The debt restructuring the repayment period for the second time.

The debts specified in point c of paragraph 1 of this article the term from 30

days to 60 days which has not yet recovered.


-

The debts are classified into 4 groups according to the provisions in paragraph 3

of this article.
Group 5: (the debt is likely to lose the capital) includes:
-

Bad debts on the 360 days.

The debt restructuring deadline to repay the overdue from 91 days or more

according to the repayment deadline was first restructuring.

18

The debt restructuring deadline to repay the overdue second term of repayment

is restructuring for the second time.


-

The debt restructuring the repayment term of the third over, including the not

yet expired or has expired.


-

The debts specified in point c of paragraph 1 of this article is out of date on the

60 days of the decision to recover.


-

The debt is recovered by the Inspector concluded but already too time

recovering over 60 days and haven't recovered.


Customer's Debt is credit institutions are the State Bank announced the latest in
exclusive control of foreign bank branches, with the blockade of capital and assets.
-

The debts are categorized into 5 groups according to the provisions in paragraph

3 of this article.
1.2.5.5.

NPL ratio (Non performing loan ratio)

NPL ratio is the ratio of bad debt and the total outstanding loans. This clearly reflects
the criteria for the quality of the Bank's lending to customers and risks for loans ...
NPL ratio (%) = (NPL / Total outstanding loan) * 100
Any bank would also have bad debt but at the level of the rate is different. Bad higher
rates reflect the risk of loss of capital of the Bank, as well as the risk of reducing the
Bank's income, could even lead to the risk of liquidity loss if this rate is too high. When
the Bank has a high rate of bad debt will be rated as low loan quality. When low bad
debt rate, can the Bank is pursuing the policy of lending, less risk with customers
should not extend loans for many with this type of outstanding growth rate and sales
will be lower. As required by the State Bank, the rate of bad debt on total outstanding
is greater than 7% is weak, this ratio at a level less than or equal to 5% of the assessed
banks have good credit quality.

19

Chapter

2:

THE

CONSTRUCTION

STATE
AND

OF

LENDING

REPAIR

AT

OPERATION

VIETNAM

TO

JOINT

HOUSE
STOCK

COMMERCIAL BANK FOR INDUSTRY AND TRADE (VIETINBANK)


DANANG BRANCH
2.1. Overview of Vietnam Joint Stock Commercial Bank for Industry and
Trade Danang branch
Vietnam Joint Stock Commercial Bank for Industry and Trade Danang branch is
headquartered at 172 Nguyen Van Linh - Thanh Khe District - Da Nang.
Trade name: Vietinbank.
English name: Vietnam Joint Stock Commercial Bank for Industry and Trade.

Logo:
Sologan: Improving the values of life
Website: www.vietinbank.vn
Mission
To become the leading fnancial and banking corporation in Vietnam that operates in
diverse areas, as well as provides products and services that conform to international
standards, aiming to improve the values of life.
Vision
To become one of the most modern and efective fnancial and banking group in and
outside the country.
Core Values
Customer-oriented operations;
Dynamic, innovative, professional, devoted, transparent, modern;
Workers have the right to make their best efort and contribution they
have the right to receive rightful compensation they have the right to pay homage to
outstanding individuals and workers.

20

Business Philosophy
Safe, efective, sustainable, and in compliance with international
standards;
United, ready to cooperate, share, and be socially responsible;
Your prosperity is our success.
2.1.1. The establishment and development of Vietinbank - Da Nang branch
Industrial and Commercial Bank of Vietnam was established in 1988 after separating
from the State Bank of Vietnam. As one of four commercial banks in Vietnam's
largest, Industrial and Commercial Bank had total assets of more than 25% market
share of Vietnam's banking system. Bank sales network spread throughout the country
with Exchange, 130 branches and 700 transaction offices.
In November 1988, according to the decree 53/HBT the banking system conversion
level 1 to level 2 bank system, the separation of the two functions of the banking
business specializing in business and management of the State Bank of Central.
Therefore, the Industrial and Commercial Bank branch in Quang Nam - Da Nang was
born and ordinances operation in banking, the credit institutions and the Finance
Company. Industrial and Commercial Bank headquarters located in Da Nang, the
branches: Hoi An, Tam Ky, Khanh Hoa, Ngu Hanh Son.
After the separation of the province in 1997, Industrial and Commercial Bank of
Quang Nam - Da Nang split into two branches is Industrial and Commercial Bank of
Quangnam and Industrial and Commercial Bank of Da Nang. Danang Industrial and
Commercial Bank lived in 172 Nguyen Van Linh - Hai Chau District - Da Nang city,
officially put into operation on 01/01/1997 Decision 14 Industrial and Commercial
Bank - Decision 17/12/1996 director General of the Industrial and Commercial Bank of
Vietnam. In July 2009, Industrial and Commercial Bank - Da Nang branch renamed
Vietnam Joint Stock Commercial Bank for Industry and Trade - Da Nang branch,
operating as a joint-stock commercial banks. Vietnam Bank for Industry and Trade -

21

Da Nang branch from its inception until now, closely targeted economic development
industry, services, import and export of the city. Branch has continuously grow in
many ways, including funding increased on average 12% per year, loans and
investments increased by an average of 15% per year.
Vietinbank Danang brach had the growth in all aspects: the growing number of
customer, there are many forms of mobilization make mobilized a total of branch
increased, large loan, the loan quality. Every year the Bank set aside hundreds of
billions in short-term loan capital to meet loan demands of customers. Besides the
Bank's capital to meet hundreds of billion to the project limits, the key projects of the
Da Nang City contribute to promoting the economy of Danang city and region.
2.1.2. Organizational chart
After 16 years of operation and development Vietinbank - Danang branch has a staff of
experienced, skilled organization with many different departments. Organizational
Chart Vietinbank - Danang branch:
2.1.3. The function and tasks of the department
Board of directors: This is the highest level of management, is
responsible for the headquarters of the business activities in the unit. The Board of
Directors consists of one director and two deputy directors.
Director branch: is the legal representative of the business, responsible
for the entire previous General Director Vietnam Bank for Industry and Trade, the
general

executive

branch

operations,

direct

the

department,

administrative

organizations and corporate client room.


Deputy Director branch: on behalf of the Director direct the business
activities of the specialized departments of treasury currency, trading transtraction
office, residential deposit management, accounting administration, is responsible for
operations of the branch manager authorization.
The departments:

22

Board of Directors
Enterprise Banking
Department

Cash and Vault


Department

Consumer Banking
Department

Accounting
Transaction
Department

First class trade office


(5 offices)
Second class trade
office (9 offices)

Organizational
administrative
office
General Department

Risk and npl


management
rtment
Internal control
office
Computing
information office

Line Relationship
Functional Relationship

(Personal and Administration Department Vietinbank Danang)


Consumer Banking Department and Enterprise Banking Department:
These are two important rooms and the largest of the unit, specializing in monetary
transactions, credit, international payment ... This is the place to bring the main source
of income for banks. The main feature of the room is the mobilization of capital and
research, considering the level of credit for clients in various forms, depending on the
capacity and ability to repay.
Transaction Office: is the unit, perform the function of banking business
such as loans, savings, money transfers and other services.
General Department: the synthetic statistics, balance of business capital,
business strategy, market development, marketing program development banks,
research and development services card.

23

Accounting Transaction Department: perform accounting tasks, notes


based on the business operation of currency, credit, payment ... processing transactions
related to financial management, internal criteria at the branch.
General Department: perform function check reasonableness, legitimate,
honest and level of caution in management, business operations, controlling the
activities of the Bank.

.Cash

and Vault Department: perform banking operation on the vault,

cash income and expenditure for the customers.


Organization Administrative: perform functions in support of the
operations of the branch, shopping tools, equipment, arrange, organizing conferences,
meetings, receptions, domestic and foreign relations, management, asset protection
Bank. Implementation of the policy of the regime and the benefits for employees,
advised the Board on planning, promotions, appointment, training, personnel
movement, organization branch network.
Risk and npl management Department: performing credit risk
management branch, the parts inspection, monitoring, evaluation and re-evaluation of
the loan application, proposed provision, handling risks.
Computing Information Department: updated, data storage operations
branch developed the electronic program of network management system and related
applications to customers
2.1.4. Network operations the Vietnam Joint Stock Commercial Bank of
Industry and Trade Danang branch
Branch Headquarters at 172 Nguyen Van Linh, Thanh Khe District, Da Nang
The transaction type 1 of the branch include:
+ Hai Chau transtaction counter, 36 Tran Quoc Toan, Danang, Tel: 05113.821.333
+ Hung Vuong transtaction counter, 123 Hung Vuong, Danang, Tel: 05113.891.875
+ Hung Vuong transtaction counter, 374 Hung Vuong, Danang, Tel: 05113.828.151

24

+ Transtaction counter number 04 Dien Bien Phu, 46 Dien Bien Phu, Danang, Tel:
05113.646.538
+ Transtaction counter number 05 Dien Bien Phu, 344 Dien Bien Phu,, Danang, Tel:
05113.648.929
+ Phan Chau Trinh transtaction counter, 12 Phan Chau Trinh, Danang, Tel:
05113.843.109
The transaction type 2 of the consumer banking department include:
+ Hung Vuong transtaction counter, 324 Hung Vuong, Danang, Tel: 05113.893.257
+ Transtaction counters at 215 Ong Ich Duong Street, Danang, Tel: 05113.696.661
+ Nui Thanh transtaction counter, 407 Nui Thanh, Danang, Tel: 05113.643.786
+ Le Duan transtaction counter, 163 Le Duan, Danang, Tel: 05113. 867.016
+ Tran Cao Van transtaction counter, 189 Tran Cao Van, Danang, Tel: 05113.714.515
+ Trung Nu Vuong transtaction counter
+ Cam Le transtaction counter
+ Son Tra transtaction counter
+ Lotte Mart transtaction counter
2.1.5. The Bank's business activities
Capital mobilization
Non-term deposits account and term by USD and exchange of economic
institutions and the general population.
Get savings account with diverse form and attractive: non-term savings and term
by VND and foreign exchange, savings plan, the accrued savings account
Issuing notes, bonds,
Loan, Investment
Short term loan by USD and Exchange
Medium-and long-term lending in foreign currency and USD
Net export financing; the discount vouchers

25

Co-financing and syndicated loans for large projects, long payback period.
Finance loans, authorized under the program: Taiwan (SMEDF); Free Germany
(DEG, KFW) credit agreements and frameworks.
Consumer loans, overdrafts.
Joint ventures, associated with the credit institutions, financial institutions in
domestic and international
Investment in capital markets, money market in domestic and international
Guarantee
Guarantee, re-guarantee (domestic and international): The tender guarantee;
Guarantee implementation contract; Guarantee of payment.
Payment and Trade financing

Issuing, payment letters of credit; notification, confirmation,

Collection of net export (Collection); documents again payment (D/P) and


documenst again acceptance (D/A).
Domestic and international money transfers.
Express money transfer Western Union
Making payment to pay orders, receive orders, cheque.

Pay wages for business through your account, via ATM

Pay remittances ...


Funding
Purchase, sell foreign currency (Spot, Forward, Swap, etc.)
Purchase, sell the vouchers (Government bonds, Treasury bills, stocks ...)
Currency, cash foreign currency and USD household ...
Rental of safes; store a store of gold, silver, gems, valuable papers, patents.
Cards and electric banking
Release and domestic credit card payment, international credit cards (VISA,
MASTER CARD...)

26

ATM cards, cash cards (Cash cards).


Internet Banking, Phone Banking, SMS Banking
Other operating
Exploitation of life insurance, property-casualty insurance.
Investment consultant and Financial.
Financial leasing.
Brokerage, proprietary trading, underwriting, portfolio management, consulting,
depository.
To receive, manage and exploit the properties you'll debt through debt
management companies and mining assets.

To improve the existing services in order to meet the increasing demand of

customers, create momentum for development and integration with countries in the
region and internationally, VietinBank always visionary in investment and
development, concentrated in three areas:
human resources development
developing technology
developing distribution channels
2.1.6. Business result at Vietinbank - Da Nang branch over 3 years (20102012)
2.1.6.1. Mobilizing capital result at Vietinbank - Da Nang branch over 3
years (2010-2012)
Over three years, the economy and the banking system continues to be difficult and
challenging. However, under the leadership of the Central Bank and the supervision of
the Management Board, the Executive Committee, the determination of staff systemwide; Viettinbank Da Nang have actively taken the appropriate policy and achieve the
business results relatively satisfactory.
Comment:

27

From table 2.2, the total capital mobilization Vietinbank Danang steadily increasing
over the three years. Specifically, mobilized in 2011 is 2,128,858 millions dong, an
increase of 531,420 millions dong compared to the year 2010, corresponding to the
proportion of 33.27%. In 2012 the total capital mobilization was 2,206,906 millions
dong increased 78,048 millions dong compared to 2011, respectively percentage of
3.67%. This shows that the situation of financing of the Branch performs well. In
which, the individual deposits are funds mobilized the highest proportion and stability.
In 2010 is the year that the proportion of individual deposits accounted for the highest
individual in mobilizing resources accounted for 56.16% The main cause is due to the
world economic crisis, rising inflation drag on the economy was back. Real estate
market froze, stock investment is no longer exciting, difficult business situation should
the client wish to deposit savings in the Bank. At the same time, the period of interest
deposite rate is quite high; in 2010 ranged between 17%-18% per year by 2012 about
10%-12% per year and send the savings is a method of conservation of capital, profits,
low risks for customers. On the other hand, the volume of deposits increased due to the
efforts of Bank staff in the orientation, product development, enhance the quality of
service.The second capital mobilization sources are economic deposits held relatively
high proportion of total mobilization, accounting for an average of approximately 46%.
How high is because the branch had a long term relationship and with the business in
the city of Da Nang as joint stock company Hoa Tho ... However, the amount of
corporate deposits in 2012 plunged compare to 2011. This notice, the pace of economic
growth slowed, rising public spending, raising taxes, increasing unemployment status
... leading to the business of the business. On the other hand, during this time the
people focus of resources saving deposit because this is the benefit, less risk, in the
current economic situation. In addition, the mobilization contribute specialize capital
deposit. This deposit sources is representing the small average approximately 0.8%, but
this

deposit

sources

contributing

to

28

the

increase

in

capital

resources.

Table 2.1 Mobilizing capital result at Vietinbank - Da Nang branch over 3 years (2010-2012)
Unit: millions dong
2010 year
CRITERIA

1.Individual
deposits.
2. Economic
deposits
3. Releasing
valuable papers
4.Specialized
capital deposit

Amount

897,158

2011 year

Percentage
of (%)

Amount

20102 year

Percentage
of (%)

Amount

Difference 11/10

Percentage
of (%)

Amount

Percentage
of (%)

Difference 12/11
Amount

Percentage
of (%)

56.16

1,011,157

47.50

1,186,034

53.74

113,999

12.71

174,877

17.29

685,714

42.93

1,102,407

51.78

1,003,743

45.48

416,693

60.77

-98,664

-8.95

14,566

0.91

1,294

0..72

17,129

0.78

728

1,835

12

1,597,438

100

2,128,858

100

2,206,906

100

531,420

33.27

78,048

3.67

5. The total
capital
mobilization

(General Department Vietinbank Danang)

29

Chart 2.1 Mobilizing capital result at Vietinbank - Da Nang branch over 3 years
(2010-2012)

2.1.6.2. The result of lending at Vietinbank-Danang branch over 3 years


(2010-2012)
Vietnam Joint stock commercial bank for industry and trade is a State-owned company
operating in the field of currency, Bank focus mission Vietinbank-Danang branch is
mobilized and lending. The lender's branches need to be effective, in order to repay the
loan due to the mobilization of capital for credit operations. Here is the use of the
Bank's capital Vietinbank-Danang branch over three years.
Comment:
The credit situation in the branch has difficulty due to credit tightening policies
aimed at tackling soaring bad debt situation. Through it, many conditions bound within
the credit woes before, during and after the disbursement is applied through the
promulgation of professional writing. Positive activities, the initiative of the Board of
Directors and credit officers were searching, touted prospect, improving the quality of
customer service. So the affiliate's lending operations have achieved encouraging
results as: sales of loan and debt collection growth through three years, outstanding
stability and growth, achieving the plan, meeting the needs of customers.
Sales of loan:

30

Overall sales for the past three years has increased borrowing. Sales of loan was
397,603 millions dong in 2011 increased compare to 2010 , respectively percentage of
8.98%. Sales of loan increased 723,868 millions dong in 2012 compare to 2011,
respectively percentage of 15%. Achieving growth rate for such loans require dynamic
sensitivity and flexibility in customer policies, policy interest rates and lending limits
of industry capture economic information timely market, the Bank has launched
measures and specific business direction consistent with each period, the time to
achieve a high growth rate and attract more customers. In addition, the total amount of
the loans short term loan sales accounted for the highest proportion, specific short-term
loan sales accounted for average approximately 80.04%. Thus, we see the trend
changing lenders, long-term loans from the switch to short-term loans. The reason is
that the economy has not recovered, inflation signs "cool" but still high 18.58%, the
transactions on real estate markets nearly frozen, businesses hard towel and continue to
bankruptcy, bad debt ratio increases at the commercial banks .... Therefore, bank
lending short-term focus to recover the debt faster, reduce risk, avoid bad debt
increase.
Debt collection:
In credit operations, the recovery of the capital and the interest rate is important.
Guideline in credit operations the Bank's "more loan, more debt collection", does this
then the bank credit operations effective as copper dropped out to be lucrative and fast
turnaround. Therefore, the amount of debt steadily over three years and of short-term
debt accounted for a higher proportion of medium and long-term debt, in particular
sales of short-term debt collection accounted for average approximately 71.77%. 2011
sales of debt collection is 4,591,508 millions dong, respectively increased 16.3%
compare to the year 2010. 2012 year of debt is 5,226,951 millions dong, an increase of
635,443 millions dong compare to the year 2011, respectively up 13.84% in 2011. We
see a high growth rate in the recovery of the debt but generally of lower debt loan sales
demonstrate the recovery of outstanding debt. The Bank should coordinate provincial

31

Table 2.2.The result of lending operation at Vietinbank-Danang branch over 3 years (2010-2012)
Unit: millions dong
2010 year
CRITERIA

Percentage

Amount

of (%)

2011 year

Amount

20102 year

Percentage
of (%)

Percentage

Amount

of (%)

Difference 11/10
Percentage

Amount

of (%)

Difference 12/11

Amount

Percentage
of (%)

1. Sales of loan

4,428,187

100

4,825,790

100

5,549,658

100

397,603

8.98

723,868

15

1.1.Short term

2,630,450

59.4

3,862,072

80.03

4,444,832

80.09

1,231,622

46.82

582,760

15.09

1.2. Medium- long term

1,797,737

40.6

963,718

19.97

1,104,826

19.91

-834,019

-46.39

141,108

14.64

2. Debt collection

3,947,932

100

4,591,508

100

5,226,951

100

643,576

16.30

635,443

13.84

2.1. Short term

2,209,761

55.97

3,666,333

79.85

4,155,419

79.5

1,456,572

65.92

489,086

13.34

2.2.. Medium- long term

1,738,171

44.03

925,125

20.15

1,071,532

20.5

-813,046

-46.78

146,407

15.83

3. Outstanding loan

1,893,314

100

2,127,596

10

2,450,303

100

234,282

12.37

322,707

15.17

3.1. Short term

1,167,870

61.68

1,363,609

64.09

1,653,022

67.46

195,739

16.76

289,413

21.22

725,444

38.32

763,987

35.9

797,281

32.54

38,543

531

33,294

4.36

1,407

100

1,259

100

2,450

100

-148

-10.52

1,191

94.6

4.1. Short term

803

57.04

738

58.6

1,348

55

-65

8.07

610

82.5

4.2. Medium- long term

604

42.96

521

41.4

1,103

45

-83

13.77

581

111.5

3.2. Medium- long term


4. NPL

5. NPL ratio

0.07

0.06

0.10

-0.01

0.04

5.1. Short term

0.0687

0.0541

0.082

-0.0146

0.03

5.2. Medium- long term

0.083

0.0682

0.001

-0.0151

-0.07

(General Department Vietinbank Danang)

32

Chart 2.2.The result of lending operation at Vietinbank-Danang branch over 3


years (2010-2012)

authority to urge withdrawal of the customer's indebtedness upon maturity.


Outstanding loan:
Outstanding loans one of two criteria credit assessment activities. Because
outstanding loans is the criteria time should it fluctuate and reflect on the account
balance of the bank loans at a point of time. In general, outstanding loans are
increasing year by year. Closing balance in 2011 was 2,127,596 million, an increase of
234,282 millions dong compare to 2010, respectively percentage of 12.37% . Closing
balance in 2012 was 2,450,303 millions dong, an increase of 322,707 millions dong
compare to 2011, corresponding to a rate of 15.17%. In particular, the proportion of
short-term outstanding loans accounted for over 60% share of total loans. The reason is
that loan sales and increased revenue collection is accompanied by increased
outstanding loans, proved active bank credit growth.

33

NPL:
In 2011, NPL decreased 148 millions dong, decreased 10.52% respectively
compare to 2010. However, in 2012 NPL increased 1,191 millions dong, respectively,
up 94% compare to 2011. In particular, short-term loans accounted for approximately
57% on average, long-term outstanding loans accounted for average approximately
43% The reason is that in the 2008-2010 period, the real estate sector is vibrant, most
investors because real estate is a profitable business field, purchasing land to resell then
enjoy profit from the differences. For the money invested, the investors bank
borrowing in the short term because it is a form of profitable business in a short time.
However, in early 2011, the economic situation changes, particularly the real estate
bubble deflated after the financial crisis has made borrowing more debt in the state
does not pay. Moreover, the current credit rate remains high, ranging from 17% - 18% /
year. Therefore, increasing bank interest but investors do not have the ability to repay
loans, so increase NPL.
NPL ratio:
In addition, the NPL increase, reduce drag by changing the rate of NPL. In 2010
NPL ratio was 0.07% and in 2011, NPL ratio was 0.01%, decreased 0.06% compare to
2010. In 2012 NPL ratio was 0.04% to 0.1% increase compare to 2011, but NPL ratio
in the range allowed by state banks (under 5%). In particular, the rate of long-term
loans decreased over the years. In 2012 NPL ratio was 0.001% long-term decreased of
0.07% compare to 2011.
Overall, Vietinbank - Danang make lending operation quite effectively. Over
three years, the increase in NPL provisions, although in allowing the state banks (under
5%). However, Vietinbank - Danang should provide measures to decreased bad debt.
In addition, the branch need effective credit appraisal, urging debt, financial
monitoring clients to make effective plans and loan customers have the ability to repay,
reduce risk of lending operations to meet customer needs.

34

2.1.6.3. Business operations result at Vietinbank - Da Nang branch over


3 years (2010-2012)
In the banking business, the result of operation is of the most interest. It determines the
success of your business. Commercial banks are a business organization especially in
the field of monetary doesnt fall outside the rule. Therefore, analysis of business
performance is necessary for banks, assessing the situation objectively activities. So
banks need to set strategic directions to improve business performance.
Comment:
The Bank's objective is looking for profit, banks have to find ways of maximizing the
profit increase to the highest income and reduce costs to the lowest level. In which the
Bank's revenues include revenues from credit operations, banking, currency and other
activities ... The Bank's expenses include expenses for interest on deposits, other
business expenses: operating cost, service cost In general, the business of Da Nang
Vietinbank pretty good. Specially, the results achieved in finance are as follows:
Total income:
Overall, the total income of the branch increased over the years. Income in 2011
reached 486,536 millions dong compare to 2010, respectively the rate of 52.66%. In
2012, income achieved 618.712 millions dong compare to 2011, the proportion of
27.17%, respectively. In which, revenues from credit operations accounted for the
highest proportion of the average is approximately 66%. Revenues from credit
operations, such as interest income, income from home purchase loans, home repair,
buy cars, student loans, consumer loans. The reason is that as the economy develops
people's demands and needs capital to operate its business production also
increased. So the bank has continuously expanded its operations and ongoing efforts to
develop business strategies, and allocating of branch staff resources that must be
mobilized to increase revenue in three years more. Besides, because interest rates have
decreased over three years (from 17% / year in 2010 down to 9% / year in 2012), but
economic

crisis

still

no

signs

of

recovery, inflation

35

is

relatively

high

Table 2.3 Business operations result at Vietinbank - Da Nang branch over 3 years (2010-2012)
Unit: millions dong

2010 year
CRITERIA
Amount

1. Total income
1.1. Income form
credit activities
1.2. Income form
services
1.3. Income form
other activities
2. Total expense
2.1 Interest
deposit expense
2.2 Other
expense
3. Income
before tax

Percentage
of (%)

2011 year

Amount

Percentage
of (%)

20102 year

Amount

Difference 11/10

Percentage
of (%)

Amount

Percentage
of (%)

Difference 12/11

Amount

Percentage
of (%)

318,711

100

486,536

100

618,712

100

167,825

52.66

132,176

27.17

201,457

63.21

318,195

65.4

426,911

69

116,737

57.95

108,717

34.17

63,742

20

102,173

21

148,491

24

38,430

60.29

46,318

45.33

53,512

16.79

66,169

13.6

43,310

12,657

23.65

- 22,859

-34.55

263,718

100

427,743

100

572,380

100

164,025

62.20

144,637

33.81

174,260

66.08

279,744

65.4

394,770

68.97

105,484

60.53

115,027

41.12

89,458

33.92

147,999

34.6

177,610

31.03

58,541

65.44

29,610

20.01

3,800

691

-12,461

-21.19

54,993

58,793

46,332

(General Department Vietinbank Danang)

36

Chart 2.3 Business operations result at Vietinbank - Da Nang branch over 3 years
(2010-2012)

business investment situation difficult ... so most of the money from residential to
secure savings and profit
Total expense:
Through Table 2.3, total expense increased over the years. In 2011, the cost was
427,743 millions, an increase of 164,025 millions dong compare to 2010, respectively
percentage of 62.2%. In 2012, the cost was 572,380 millions dong, an increase of
144,637 millions dong in 2011 compare to respectively percentage 33.81%. In
particular, the cost of paying interest on deposits accounted for the highest percentage
of approximately 67% on average. The reason that in 2011, the deposit interest rate is
14% / year, an increase of 2% compare to 2010, attracting more customers to send
money. Therefore, increasing interest, and branch left to pay for other expenses to
serve business activities such as staff salary costs, tax ...
Income before tax:

37

In 2010, income before tax was 54,993 millions dong but income before tax in 2011
was 58,793 millions dong, an increase of 3,800 millions dong compare to 2010,
respectively percentage of 6.91%. The season that income is higher than the cost, so
branch of business has still profitability. However, increased income by 2012, income
reached 618,712 millions dong, respectively up 27.17% by 2012 but due to the cost
increase too quickly, rising 33.81% compare to 2011, the total income before
tax Branch fell to 46,332 millions dong, respectively dropped 21.19% compare to
2011.
Through the analysis, the total revenue and total cost of increased Bank but does
not result in profits have the volatility. However, the growth rate of earnings is higher
than the growth rate of costs should the affiliate's profits rise. The result is that thanks
to the proper policies, diversification of products and services, the efforts of the leaders
and staffs helped Vietinbank Danang will always maintain the ratio of bad debt to
under 1%. However, in the coming years the Bank should take measures to increase
funding to meet the needs of expanding credit and other services revenue. Besides, the
Bank improved lending, debt treatment efficacy to reduce the related expenditure,
thereby increasing profits.
2.2. The state of lending operation construction and house repair in Vietnam
Joint Stock bank of Industry and Trade Danang branch over 3 years (2010
2012)
2.2.1. The regulation of loan products to house construction and repair in
Vietnam Joint Stock Bank of Industry and Trade Danang branch
2.2.1.1. The subject of lending
Individuals, households and includes the cost of construction, house repair with the
construction and repair of buildings identified in the loan scheme.
2.2.1.2. Loan applications
Customers are guaranteed by the assets

38

+ Individuals have the legal capacity and individual capacity and take responsibility
before the law on the use of loans.
+ Permanent residence or KT3 in Danang city.
+ At the time of loan evaluations, the customers do not have bad loans at any other
credit organizations.
+ Have full collateral for the loan;
Customers are officials, employees
+ Individuals have the legal capacity and individual capacity and take responsibility
before the law on the use of loans.
+ As employees, officers and employees take full social insurance and are working in
payroll or employment contract does not define the term at: State agencies
(administrative and career), political organizations, political organizations - social
activities by the state budget, a joint stock company with state capital.
+ The age at the end of the lending period not exceeding 60 years for men and 55 years
for women, or the retirement age prescribed by law.
+ Permanent residence or KT3 in Danang city.
+ Monthly income from 3 million or over and the authorities work to confirm income,
deduct income committed to debt repayment.
+ Customers repayment plan, can afford to pay principal, interest within commitment.
Equity capital is the minimum 30% of the total capital needs of loan plan.
2.2.1.3. Loan payment method
Individual loan method
+ Term of repayment of principal and interest futures can match or do not match. The
repayment term of principal and/or interest rates can be 1 month or 3 months, or a
repayment at maturity if the short-term loans.
+ Apply for customers qualify loans, proved steady income to repay principal and
interest.

39

+ Every borrower, banks and customers conducting loan procedures and contracting
credit.
+ Each of the credit contract can be disbursed once or several times in line with the
requirement to use the actual capital of the client. The money was paid directly to the
beneficiaries. The disbursement of cash must be comform with the status and purpose
of use of loans recorded in due bills.
Installment payment
+ Amount payable (both principal and interest) is divided into different time periods
are regular and are redeemable at 1 month or 3 months. Interest is calculated on the
outstanding principal and the actual date of the repayment period.
+ Apply for customers qualify borrower, prove steady income to repay principal and
interest.
+ Customers can pay ahead of time, but still have to repay the full amount of principal
and interest has been identified by the term agreement. If overdue debt incurre, the
customer must pay the overdue interest on the total amount of any debt limit prescribed
by the State Bank and Bank for industry and trade.
2.2.1.4. Loan term
The grounds for determining duration include: demand for loans, repayment ability,
time use of the guarantee asset. Thus:
For house construction: up to 10 years.
For house repair: up to 5 years.
The loan term to purchase house, land use rights with the construction and
repair: up to 15 years.
2.2.1.5. Guaranteed loans form
Guaranteed customer property (pledge/ mortgage)
+ Asset is owned, use (for land) of ensuring the regulations.
+ Asset transaction is allowed; no dispute of ownership, rights of use at the time of
signing and throughout the lending process.

40

+ Pledge/mortgage must be insured during secured loan with the money secured not
less than the loan amount including interest rate, interest rates, penalties, and costs (if
any).
Guaranteed by the assets of the loan::
+ Asset to determine ownership, land use
+ Asset to determine the value, allowed the transaction, to sell, to transfer, less loss.
+ Credit staff manager and supervise the secured property in the process of completion
and upon completion
+ The assets formed from the loan in the types of assets to mortgage as collateral as
required.
2.2.1.6. The maximum loan
Based on: the total demand for loans, the repayment capacity of the customer, the value
of assets to ensure maximum loan amount relative to the value collateral and funding
capacity of the commercial banks. Bank lending level determined in accordance with
the following:
+ Short-term loans: 80% of total demand of customer loans.
+ Medium and long-term: 70% of total demand of customer loans.
+ 70% loan collateral value
2.2.1.7. Loan applications
Legal documents:
National ID Card/ valid Passport, legal residence book of customers (copies);
household registration or KT3, marriage certificate (if any).
Loan documents:
+ Paper request/ credit limit increase, loan proposal for consumer plans, appraisal
report.
+ Papers valid, lawful: home repair plans, construction (certificate of ownership
housing / land use rights.
+ Proven record loan use: home purchase contracts, contracts for construction, repair ..

41

+ Building permit (for the purpose of housing construction)


+ Proven record of repayment: the employment contract/wage confirm/ table income
from production and business activities ... or documents to prove income for repayment
of the loan and contributor income to debt repayment.
+ Other revelant document (if any)
2.2.1.8. The regulation on time to finish loan procedures
+ No more than 5 days for short-term loans.
+ Not more than 10 days for the medium and long term loans.
When employees receive credit profile and valid information needed from customers,
banks have about lending or not lending to customers (if the lender does not have to
state the reason). However, the complicated loan, the bank can deal with customers in
order to extend the period of resolve documents
2.2.1.9. Loan process
Loan process diagram (see Appendix 1)
Explainning
Step 1: Receiving and procedures guide loan application.
For first-time customers for loans, customer relationship officers:
+ Receiving customer needs, advises the customer of the product line.
+ Provides guidance to regulatory dossiers; setting; complete the loan application:

Update the change of legal documents;

Records relating to specific loan plan: Application for loans and loan

repayment plans; Papers evidencing loan demand;

Papers evidencing payment source (payroll statements, proof of regular

source of repayment ...)


Check the completeness, legality, of providing customer records and compare them
with the collected information.

42

Scan all record by the customer provides delivered to risk management division
through iCdoc.
For customers who have used loans, customer relationhips officers guide
complete the loan application.
Step 2: Analysis - evaluating loan applications, and prepare reports.
+ Based on the proposed loan records, customer relationship officers appraisal for loan
decisions, including:
Collecting information:
Customer information through channels such as interviewing
clients, the actual survey
Information about loan plan use / purpose loans, collateral,
Customer evaluation:
Reviews as client.
Classification, customer ratings (old / new borrowers / lenders
limit / stop lending), the relationship of customer credit (credit scale, the number of
credit institutions relations, ... )
Appraisal borrowing needs of customers.
Assess the level of stability, career development, job position, income customer
base resource assessment repayment, repayment ability.
Evaluation of the collateral as required, minimum required 2 officers, or hire the
Agency function if the collateral in excess of the officer's authority to credit
assessment.
Determine the lending method must coform the client's financial characteristics.
Determine interest rate:
Lending rates are not lower than the floor rate of consumption of
commercial banks in each period.

43

The interest rate is determined on the date of the first drawdown and
adjusted periodically but not exceeding 6 months dependent fluctuations in market
interest rates.
Overdue interest rate: 50% interest rate was adjusted signed or agreed in
the credit agreement.
+ Reporting proposed which stated the loan proposal, not lending, loan amount, the
expected interest rates, cost (if any), submit to the lender of room
+ The leader of customer department control information on proposals and reports
customer records, ensuring full, honest, accurate, signed on each page the customer's
loan proposal to have control over the information. At the same time, The leader of
customer department comments agree/disagree, if agree must specify proposed level of
loans, interest rates, fees,
+ Customer relationship officers prepare reports evaluating state clearly the proposed
lending non-lending, if the loans are clearly the loan, interest rates, fees (if any), signed
and submitted to The leader of risk management.
+ The leader of risk management documentation control process by the customer
relationship officer made comments, agree/disagree, if lenders agree to specify
proposed level of loans, interest rates, fees ... Then, The leader of risk management on
each sheet of the evaluation and the approval authority.
Step 3: Approval of loans to customers and inform the customer
+ The authority to review, approve the process and suggested the decision to borrow
(appraisal report).
+ After the approval by the authorized officer, risk management Scan process on iCdoc
program, then switch to the customer relationship officer.
+ Customer relationship officers notice in writing to the customer agreeing / not agree
to lend customers after approval of the competent authorities (if any).
Step 4: Drafting the credit contract, signed the contract. Enter the data of the
secured property and customer loans in stock profile.

44

+ After the customer relationship officer, informed consent via text, the guest relations
officers
+ Drafting contracts on the basis of credit available form of contract Vietinbank has
been approved by the Director
+ After the drafting of the contract transfer to the client signed and authorized the
contract.
+ Procedures for delivery of papers and collateral, notary and registration of security
transactions, scan the credit contract iCdoc program, transfer 1 credit contracts to make
transactions counter disbursed to the client.
+ Enter, create asset records, print and sign the listing guarantee asset records and store
votes secured property, transfer transaction control department and the authority.
+ Transfer listing collateral documents (after approval) to Storekeeper enter collateral
record. Storekeeper/Treasurer: Updated program information on collateral management
and sign listing collateral record plus receipt for collateral.
Step 5: Disbursement.
Transactions counter create account disbursements and make disbursement to customer
Step 6: Checking and monitoring using the loan account
Based on the level of disbursement, customer department coordinate risk management
to check loan of use, update loan records to evaluate the loan collateral, assets from the
loan.
Step 7: Recovery of principal, interest and debt resolution arises.
+ Customer relationship officers to monitor payment of principal, interest and fees
within 7 calendar days before the repayment date, inform customer. Then, urging
customers to repay in full and on time.
+ Transaction department based on agreement time in the credit agreement contract,
made in accordance with debt collection, case:

45

If the transaction parts werent collected loan, the transaction parts would
inform the customer relationship officers manage loans to continue urging debt
collection.
If the debt incurred is not recoverable, customer relationship officers to
consider the impact of debt problems arise. Then, reporting and transfer of records
relating to the risk management department to take measures to handle the debt incurre
such as:
Adjusting debt maturities.
If the debt is due but unpaid, debts move overdue
When the due date, the client does not pay the debt due to
objective reason, Vietinbank will review conditions to renewal of debt. If the grace
period exceed, the bank has legal right to sue and recover overdue debts.
Step 8: Liquidation of contract credit grade, release the guarantee asset.
+ Clients request for the settlement guarantee asset.
+ Customer relationship officer checking information, setting interrupt request
associated collateral (debt customers paid to risk management department through
iCdoc program.
+ After testing, the risk management department implemented:
The customer has to pay off secured debt loans:

Disconnected links collateral on the system, based on the

information on paper interrupt the link of the customer room.

Inform customer department to move the state of export collateral

and print listings collateral record and import / export inventory collateral, and transfer
transactions signed, the authority for approval to resume export storekeeper collateral.
Case, customer suggest withdraw the guarantee asset, withdrawal records
collateral for debt resolution:

46

Reviews the repayment ability of clients, the liquidity of the asset,


the value of the collateral against outstanding loans, write proposals in the process of
evaluating proposed to withdraw or remove the guarantee asset/asset/withdraw records
collateral to handle debt, submitted to the authority to consider, decide

Informs the customer relations officers perform similar work by

the customer has to pay off the loan debt.


Step 9: Save credit contract.
+ Credit officers save all records related to the loan
+ Accountant save records of credit contracts, debentures, related paperwork, sign debt
rescheduling and debt maturities (original).
Commenting on the loan process
At branch, loan process instructions are very detailed and clear responsibilities
assigned to each member. Steps sequence, logic by credit officers perform, besides the
control and supervies of credit manager and approved by the competent authority
(Director/Deputy Director), participation evaluation of risk management. Binding
process involving many errors should be limited, and avoiding personal relationships
affect loan appraisal results. Compared with the loan process in banks such as ACB,
Techcombank, Agribank, East Asia is mostly similar in content and tasks assigned
different responsibilities but divided into many small steps or gross a big step.
However, in the ACB, the analysis appraisal internal client has the specialization each
stage, such as: group will assign to contact customer support, group will

make

assessment and control, debt collection, etc. As such, the Bank is limiting errors and
the process will resume processing quickly. While banks are currently receiving,
processing and tracking of customer records by the credit officer, when appraising the
credit officers often have to go to collect the document, so the loan review process is
still slow, caused many errors requires professional level credit officers is high.
Besides, the number of credit officer at consumer banking department is limited,

47

including: three professional officers, 1 Deputy Director of consumer banking


department, 1 Director of consumer banking department, so the pressure is enormous.
2.2.2. The state of lending operation construction and house repair at
Vietinbank Da Nang branch over 3 years (2010 2012)
2.2.2.1. The state of lending general operation construction and house
repair at Vietinbank Da Nang branch over 3 years (2010 2012)
Currently, the economy market is constantly developing. Group banking
industry competition is increasingly fierce competition not only domestic banks but
also to compete with foreign banks. Thus, the Bank introduced the new products and
services, an effective operations aimed to attract customers and increase profits. Loan
products to construct and repair housing is kind of traditional lending by the Bank but
currently this product still attract customers because it meets the customer's needs for
housing, raise the standard of living. Over the years, the types of loans do not stop
growth is demonstrated through the following data tables:
Comment:
Sales of loan
Through table 2.4, we see that sales of loan to construction and house repair
increased over the years. Specifically, sales of contruction and house repair loan
accounted for an average of approximately 24.2% of total sales of consumer loans. In
2012, sales of construction and house repair loan significantly increased, reached
71,456 millions dong, an increase of 15,707 millions dong compare to 2011,
respectively percentage of 28.17%, indicating a shift branch operations business. The
reason is the current expansion of the commercial banks in the area made many
different products and services in various fields (housing, education, health, ...) in order
to attract customers and increase competition among commercial banks together, so
Vietinbank Danang also expand lending products, especially, in recent years the real
estate market, buying and selling land is not exciting, so activities for business real
estate loans decreased. Danang City is implementing urban planning, clearance so

48

construction demand repair of houses of people increased, but the amount of the
compensation is not enough for people to construct or repair houses, customer demand
at the bank borrowing increase. Recognizing, the branch has expanded its business into
lending operation to construction and house repair to improve profitability.
Debt collection
In credit operations, the recovery of the debt principal and interest is important. It
affects the operations of the Bank. In 2011, debt collection construction was 48,394
millions dong, up 441 millions dong compare to the year 2010, respectively percentage
of 0.92%. In 2012, debt collection construction was 70,570 millions dong, up 22,176
millions dong compare to the year 2011, respectively percentage of 45.82%. Thus,
sales of debt collection to construction and house repair grow over the years
demonstrates the loan sales increased lead to debt collection increased, showing the
work of promoting customer debt collection quite well.
Outstanding loan
From analysis data, outstanding construction and house repair loan and the percentage
of it is lower than the total outstanding consumer loans. While many other banks
considered the flagship product of credit, the majority of outstanding consumer loans.
Over three years, the construction of outstanding home representing an average
estimate was 14.5%. In 2011 outstanding construction and house repair loan reached
30,744 millions dong, up 13.55% compare to 2010, respectively rising 117 millions
dong. In 2012 the outstanding construction and house repair loan increased 6,060
millions dong compare to 2011, respectively percentage of 19.71%. The cause is
currently strengthening Branch expanded business activities in various fields, including
extending consumer loans, particularly loans for home repair constructed's aim
towards. However, the proportion of the outstanding loans to construction and house
repair accounted for under 16% in total outstanding consumer loans in part also
because branches have diverse business areas and a lot of products and services

49

offered, such as export financing loans, lenders funded projects, loan production
support, student loans, financial leasing, guarantee loans, credit-card services. ...
NPL
In addition, the increase in outstanding construction and house repair loan over three
years, the NPL to construction and house repair also increased. In particular, in 2011
NPL was 88 millions dong, an increase of 17 millions dong compare to 2011,
respectively percentage of 24.11%. In 2012, NPL was 157 millions dong, up 69
millions dong compare to the year 2011, respectively up 77.97%, the NPL ratio
increased 0.1% compared to 2011. This was due to the economic situation to happen to
inflation, works of local business virtually trouble affecting the possibility of repaying.
In addition, from 2010 to 2012 the Government introduced legal changes, more
volatility in the market, causing much hardship and song wind for banks and
businesses. Early in 2010, the loan interest rate VND around 12% per year but last year
increased 18% per year, many at the interest rate increased to 20% per year. By 2012,
the lending rate gradually decreased but remains high (16%-18% / per year) to affect
the recovery of the Bank's debt. Furthermore, the customer due diligence and
monitoring clients use loans not close.
NPL ratio
Over the years, NPL ratio of consumer loans rise. In particular, in 2011, the NPL ratio
of house construction loan was 0.29%, increase 0.01% compare to the year 2010. By
2012, the NPL ratio of construction and house repair was 0.43% increased 0.1%
compare to 2010.
Summary, bad debt and NPL ratio increases but the need to maintain national branch
of the State Bank allowed (under 5%), reduce risks and ensure the safety of the Bank's
capital

50

Table 2.4 The general situation of lending operation at Vietinbank-Danang branch over 3 years (2010-2012)
Unit: millions dong
2010 year
CRITERIA
Amount

Percentage
of (%)

2011 year
Amount

20102 year

Percentage
of (%)

Amount

Percentage
of (%)

Difference 11/10
Amount

Percentage
of (%)

Difference 12/11
Amount

Percentage
of (%)

1. Sales of consumer loan

226,460

100

226,621

100

277,498

100

161

0.07

50,877

22.45

1.1. Construct and repair

50,501

22.3

55,749

24.6

71,456

25.75

5,248

10.39

15,707

28.17

1.2. Others

175,959

77.7

170872

75.4

206,042

74.25

-5,087

-2.89

35,170

20.58

198,152

100

185,417

100

256,152

100

-12,735

-6.43

70,735

38.15

2.1. Construct and repair

47,953

24.2

48,394

26.1

70,570

27.55

441

0.92

22,176

45.82

2.2. Others

150,199

75.8

137,023

73.9

185,582

72.45

-13,176

-8.77

48,559

35.44

189,331

100

212,760

100

245,030

100

23,428

12.37

32,271

15.17

3.1. Construct and repair

27,074

14.30

30,744

14.45

36,804

15.02

3,669

13.55

6,060

19.71

3.2. Others

162,257

85.70

182,016

85.55

208,227

84.98

19,759

12.18

26,211

14.40

4. NPL of consumer loan

239

100

290

100

613

100

50

21.06

323

111.52

4.1. Construct and repair

71

29.76

88

30.51

157

25.67

17

24.11

69

77.97

4.2. Others

168

70.24

201

69.49

455

74.33

33

19.77

254

126.25

2. Debt collection of
consumer loan

3. Outstanding consumer
loan

5. NPL ratio of consumer

0.13

0.14

0.25

0.01

0.11

5.1. Construct and repair

0.26

0.29

0.43

0.02

0.1

5.2. Others

0.10

0.11

0.22

0.007

0.11

loan (%)

(General Department Vietinbank Danang)

51

Chart 2.4 The situation of NPL ratio lending operation at Vietinbank-Danang


branch over 3 years (2010-2012)

2.2.2.2. The state of lending operation construction and house repair


according to the term loan at Vietinbank Da Nang branch over 3 years (2010
2012)
The choice of the term is also an important factor decision to select the loan and
banking selection. If the duration is too short the clients have trouble repaying. In
contrast, the term is too long the banks face risks irrecoverable arrears or delinquent
loans. Therefore, based on borrowing needs, the possibility of repayment and the rest
of the secured property, the Bank and the customer may agree with each other give a
reasonable time limit. The analysis term to help banks manage the debt situation
effectively, both limit bank risk and customer satisfaction.
Comment:
Sales of loan
Through the table 2.5, the sales of construction and house repair loan is mainly forcus
medium-long term and growing. In 2011, sales of medium-long term loans reached
50,040 millions dong, increase 4,211 millions dong compare to 2010, respectively
percentage of 9.19%. In 2012, sales of medium-long term loans reached 63,474 million

52

Table 2.5 The situation of lending operation construction and house repair according to the term loan at
Vietinbank Da Nang branch over 3 years (2010 2012)
Unit: millions dong
2010 year
CRITERIA

Amount

Percentage
of (%)

2011 year
Amount

Percentage
of (%)

20102 year
Amount

Percentage
of (%)

Difference 11/10
Amount

Percentage
of (%)

Difference 12/11
Amount

Percentage
of (%)

1.Sales of construction and repair loan

50,501

100

55,749

100

71,456

100

5,248

10.39

15,707

28.17

1.1. Short term

4,671

9.25

5,709

10.24

7,982

11.17

1,037

22.21

2,273

39.82

1.2. Medium - long term

45,829

90.75

50,040

8.7

63,474

88.83

4,211

9,19

13.434

26.85

2.Debt collection of construction and repair

47,953

100

48,394

100

70,570

100

441

0.92

22,176

45.82

2.1. Short term

4,584

9.56

4.,912

10.15

7,946

11.26

328

7.15

3,034

61.77

2.2 Medium - long term

43,368

90.44

43,482

89.85

62,624

88.74

113

0.26

19,142

44.02

3.Outstanding construction and repair loan

27,074

100

30,744

100

36,804

100

3,669

13.55

6,060

19.71

3.1. Short term

2,347

8.67

2,798

9.10

3,625

9.85

450

19.18

827

29.58

3.2 Medium - long term

24,727

91.33

27,946

90.90

33,178

90.15

3,219

13.02

5,232

18.72

4. NPL of construction and repair

71

100

88

100

157

100

17

24.11

69

77.97

4.1. Short term

7.05

8.04

12

7.60

41.54

68.23

4.2 Medium - long term

66

92.95

81

91.96

145

92.40

15

22.79

64

78.82

5. NPL ratio of construction and repair (%)

0.26

0.29

0.43

9.3

48.7

5.1. Short term

0.21

0.25

0.33

18.8

29.8

5.2 Medium - long term

0.27

0.29

0.44

8.6

50.6

(General Department Vietinbank Danang)

53

dong, up 13,343 millions dong compare to 2011, respectively percentage of 26.85%.


The reason is due to an increase in the young city of Danang, the center of economic
development in the central region to attract more people to neighboring provinces to
live and work here, the problem needs in essential, thus lending operation to construct
and house repair

make to reduce the financial burden on the people's housing

problems, moreover, to customers long-term loans mainly new construction home,


upgrade, medium-long term period usually lasts 5-15 years should customers choose to
ensure long-term repayment capability. In addition, short-term loan sales also
accounted for a small portion (about 10%) because customers usually short-term loans
to kitchen remodeling, works
Debt collection
About the collections, sales of medium and long-term debt collection still dominate
and the rise. By 2011, sales of medium and long-term debt collection reached 43,482
millions dong, up 113 millions dong compare to 2010, respectively percentage of
0.265%, specially in 2012 sales of medium and long-term debt collection reached
62,624 millions dong, up 19,142 millions dong compare to 2011, respectively
percentage of 44.02%. This demonstrates the ability of repayment of the stable, urging
debt collection.
Outstanding loan
From data table 2.5, medium and long-term outstading has increased over the year but
the increase was still low compared to many other banks because real medium and
long-term lending branch applies the method of installment loans. It has not really
made a convenient for customers as not up to the trend of increasing customer's income
over time, customers can expect to pay off the debt but do not yet have the discounted
interest rates during the first year of financial stability for customers or pay only the
interest rate in the original unpaid... that just made the original divided interest and
repaid according to the definition. Therefore, the outstanding loan grows. In 2011, the
outstanding loan to construct and house repair was 27,946 millions dong, increase

54

3,219 millions dong compare to 2010, respectively percentage of 13.02%. In 2012, the
outstanding loan to construct and house repair was 33,178 millions dong, increase
5,232 millions dong compare to 2011, respectively percentage of 18.72%.
Chart 2.5 The situation of outstanding construction and house repair loan
according to the term loan at Vietinbank Da Nang branch over 3 years (2010
2012)

NPL and NPL ratio


NPL and NPL ratio are falling to medium and long-term. Medium and long-term bad
debt increased through the years. In particular, in 2012, NPL increase significantly, an
increase of 69 millions dong compare to 2011, respectively percentage of 77.97% and
bad debt rate is 0.37%. Explain this problem is due to operate medium and long-term
debt collection of convenient branch should branch has been eased in the evaluation of
loan conditions. Besides, the number of credit officers is limited, assigning the task to
check closely monitoring all loan records are limited and due to the customer's
business situation is difficult to affect the debt or repayment do not lead to increased
bad debt.
In summary, the term, the percentage of medium and long-term loans in the majority of
branches and growing, the development of this type of building in the area.The
percentage of bad debt primarily falls into the medium and long-term team due to

55

financial problems the customer has many variables influence the economy. Therefore,
the branch should debt collection measures aimed at creating more convenient for
customers, improving the quality of evaluation, re-evaluation; tracking, monitoring
debt collection; expand short term loan aimed at limiting the risks and losses of the
Bank.
2.2.2.3. The state of lending operation construction and house repair
according to the guarantee at Vietinbank Da Nang branch over 3 years (2010
2012)
In lending activity, the bank interest for the profitability and risk problem. Two issues
are directly proportional to each other, if the high profit incentive to high risk and vice
versa. So banks need to consider thoroughly before lending to make sure loans can
recover the principal and interest. Home construction loan is a loan in the form of
higher profits but a high level of risk, because the price of land and construction
material is always fluctuating. Therefore, the Bank performs limitation of risk lowest
probability of occurrence condition of borrowers are secured by property, banks only
lend a certain level on the value of the secured property and prescribed two forms of
guarantee: guaranteed by collateral and guarantees a form of loan. Because each form
to ensure various risks in nature should give bank loan rate that still ensures the profit
target and ensure safety of capital. Below is a table of data in the form of guarantee
over the years.
Comment:
Sales of loan
Through the table 2.6, sales of loan with collateral forms representing high,
representing an average of 86% and a form of collateral is on the rise. In 2011 sales of
collateral loan reached 47,398 millions dong, increased 6,608 millions dong compare
to 2010, respectively percentage of 16.2%, but in 2012 sales collateral lending reached
63,996 millions dong, up 16,598 millions dong compare to 2012,
percentage

of

35.02%.

Reason:

essentially,

56

the

customer

respectively

must

transfer

Table 2.6 The situation of lending operation construction and house repair according to the guarantee at
Vietinbank Da Nang branch over 3 years (2010 2012)
Unit: millions dong
2010 year
CRITERIA
Amount

Percentage
of (%)

2011 year
Amount

Percentage
of (%)

20102 year
Amount

Percentage
of (%)

Difference 11/10
Amount

Percentage
of (%)

Difference 12/11
Amount

Percentage
of (%)

1.Sales of construction and repair loan

50.501

100

55.749

100

71.456

100

5.248

10,39

15.707

28,17

1.1 Collateral

40.789

80,77

47.398

85,02

63.996

89,56

6.608

16,2

16.598

35,02

1.2 Asset formed the loan

9.711

19,23

8.351

14,98

7.460

10,44

-1.360

-14,01

-891

-10,67

47.953

100

48.394

100

70.570

100

441

0,92

22.176

45,82

2.1 Collateral

36.420

75,95

37.626

77,75

60,161

85,25

1.206

3,31

22.535

59,89

2.2 Asset formed the loan

11.533

24,1

10.768

22,25

10.409

14,75

-765

-6,63

-359

-3,33

27.074

100

30.744

100

36.804

100

3.669

13,55

6.060

19,71

3.1Collateral

12.026

44,42

12.740

41,44

14.563

39,57

714

5,94

1.823

14,31

3.2 Asset formed the loan

15.048

55,58

18.004

58,56

22.240

60,43

2.956

19,64

4.237

23,53

4. NPL of construction and repair

71

100

89

100

157

100

17

24,11

69

77,97

4.1Collateral

29

40,2

40

45,65

65

41,25

12

40,94

25

60,81

4.2 Asset formed the loan

43

59,8

48

54,35

92

58,75

12,8

44

92,37

2.Debt collection of construction and


repair

3.Outstanding construction and repair


loan

5. NPL ratio of construction and repair

0,26

0,29

0,43

0,02

0,14

5.1Collateral

0,19

0,22

0,29

0,03

0,07

5.2Asset formed the loan

0,35

0,38

0,63

0,03

0,26

(General Department Vietinbank Danang)

57

the proof of ownership of the property to the Bank) so the Bank has discretion with
respect to the property. On the other hand, the form of lending construction and house
repair is the loan type of more risky banks should focus in the form of guarantees,
mainly use this form in order to minimize risk, loss occurs, so borrowers are bound to
have greater responsibility, the management of mortgage papers in direct property also
has many legal provisions strictly. In contrast, the assets form the loan off over the
years. In 2011 reduced 1,360 millions dong compare to 2010 respectively percentage
of 14.01%, in 2012 reduced 891 millions dong compare to 2011, respectively
percentage of 10.67%. Causes: in essence, the assets form the loan is the property that
forms in the future, property not carried at the time of signing the contract, however
value assets be create should a part or the whole loans of customers. The facts, rolled
the hard credit valuation of assets formed the loan to ensure repayment obligations of
the customer, in particular credit officers to determine the loan amount must match the
specified loan amount (less than the value of the guarantee assets). As a result, banks
often tighten lending items secured loan form property.
Debt collection
About debt collection, sales of debt collection for mortgage higher sales of debt collection
for assets form the loan. Specifically, in 2011 sales of debt collection increased 1,206
millions dong compare to 2010, respectively percentage of 3.31%, in 2012 sales of debt
collection reached 60,161 millions dong, an increase of 22,535 millions dong compare to
2011, respectively percentage of 59, 89%, proving that the customer is responsible for the
loan and the value of collateral, helps banks reduce risk. Besides, the sales of debt
collection to assets form the loan decreased over the years. Specifically, in 2012 sales of
debt collection decreased 359 millions dong compare to 2011, respectively percentage of
3.33%. Cause: The client uses the form to ensure assets are mainly loans to housing
market fluctuations, operating difficulties, the impact of weather ... to the affected
customer payment. Moreover, customer assets formed from the loan should the inspection
and supervision of loan officers during construction and after construction is ineffective.

58

Outstanding loan
Outstanding secured by mortgage is lower than the outstanding guaranteed assets form the
loan. Specifically, in 2011 outstanding increased 714 millions dong compare to 2010,
respectively percentage of 5.94%, in 2012 outstanding increased 1,823 millions dong
compare to 2011, respectively percentage of 14.31%.The reason: because this method
offers less risk compared to banks in the form of secured assets financed by the loan, the
customer does not have the ability to repay the bank that sales collateral to debt recovery.
NPL
Chart 2.6 The situation of NPL of construction and house repair according to the
guarantee at Vietinbank Da Nang branch over 3 years (2010 2012)

Through the years, NPL by mortgage and assets formed the loans increased but the
percentage of assets formed the loans accounted for the higher percentage of the
collateral, the percentage of average approximately 58%. In 2012, the NPL was 65
millions dong, an increase of 25 millions dong compare to 2011, respectively
percentage of 60.81% Because the evaluation process evaluating collateral branches
often give the maximum loan 70% of the property value, but many cases branches give
loans for less than 70% of the property value, partly due to the effects of the economy,

59

environmental factors, limiting the risk should reduce the value of the secured
property.
For the form of assets formed the loans, NPL is increasing, especially in 2012 NPL is
92 millions dong, an increase of 44 millions dong compare to 2011, respectively
percentage of 92.37%. This is because the property was not formed from the loan or
construction of assets having events so difficult in the recovery of the debt. On the
other hand, when the handle property is not subject to cooperation (escape) or credit
officer do not determine the true value of assets forming the loan leads to difficulties in
the property forever, many cases enough bank debt processing properties.
NPL ratio
Through the years, the NPL ratio of mortgage higher than NPL ratio of collateral.
Specifically, in 2011 the two forms were up 0.03% compare to 2010. In 2012, NPL ratio
of asset formed the loan reached 0.63%, increase 0.26% compare to 2011, while the NPL
ratio of mortgage is 0.29% increase 0.07% compare to 2011.
In summary, the form of loans secured by collateral is still the number one priority when
approving loans, but due to collateral mainly land use rights, revelant papers should
complex, diversity and number of credit officers are limited. Therefore, the branch should
be oriented organizations to improve the quality of credit appraisal risk reduction and loss.
2.2.2.4. The state of lending operation construction and house repair
according to the purpose of loan at Vietinbank Da Nang branch over 3 years
(2010 2012)
Based on the purpose of use of the customer loan products, constructing and repairing
houses are divided: construction and home repairs. The purpose of the division is how
the allocation bank fund, which loans are growing, the loan would also limit and its
causes. Since then, banks capture customer demand trends to provide planning and
operational projects aimed at overcoming the limitations and the best business results.
Comment:
Sales of loan

60

Through the table 2.7, the percentage of sales of construction loan accounted for a
higher percentage of sales of house repair loans, sales of construction loan accounted
for average approximately 53.8%. In 2012, sales of construction loan reached 38,836
millions dong, up 8,855 millions dong compare to 2011, respectively percentage of
29.53%. Although branches that form the riskier loans for home repair loans because
the lending needs of clients big and long repayment period, but most customers are
construction loans with loan large capital plus high interest rates (17% - 18% per year),
the high-interest revenue increased profits. So sales of construction loan increased over
the years. However, sales of house repair loansalso contributed to increased loan sales.
In 2012, sales of home repairing loans reached 32,620 millions dong, up 6,852 millions
dong, respectively percentage of 26.59%. Cause: the client needs repair, the level of
house repair loan is often lower the level of loan construction, the average of 100
millions dong. As low loan, credit officers are not interested in finding customers
operate home repair loans, thus, sales of house repair loan lower than sales of
contruction loan.
Debt collection
Through the years, the percentage of debt collection construction is higher than the
percentage of house repair. The percentage of debt collection construction, on average
51.8%, in 2012 sale os debt collection construction reached 37,134 millions dong, an
increase of 12,192 millions dong compare to 2011, respectively percentage of 48.88%.
The percentage of average debt collection house repair 48.3%, in 2012 sales of debt
collection house repair reached 33,436 millions dong, an increase of 9984 millions
dong compare to 2011 respectively percentage of 42.57%. Cause: The client uses the
form of loans, mostly home repair repair rooms, repair fences, floors, kitchen ... so the
customer loans and short term low (under 1 year). Therefore, customers have the
ability to pay on time, if the customer delays the repayment period exceeded only 1 to
2 days from payment. Therefore, the collection of debt from loans quite effective
repairs.

61

Table 2.7 The situation of lending operation construction and house repair according to the purpose of loan at
Vietinbank Da Nang branch over 3 years (2010 2012)
Unit: millions dong
2010 year
CRITERIA

Amount

Percentage
of (%)

2011 year
Amount

Percentage
of (%)

20102 year
Amount

Percentage
of (%)

Difference 11/10
Amount

Percentage
of (%)

Difference 12/11
Percentage

Amount

of (%)

1. Sales of construction and repair loan

50,501

100

55,749

100

71,456

100

5,248

10.39

15,707

28.17

1.1. Construct

26,927

53.32

29,982

53.78

38,836

54.35

3,055

11.34

8,855

29.53

1.2 House repair

23,574

46.68

25,767

46.22

32,620

45.65

2,193

9.30

6,852

26.59

47,953

100

48,394

100

70,570

100

441

0.92

22,176

45.82

2.1. Construct

24,552

51.2

24,942

51.54

37,134

52.62

390

1.59

12,192

48.88

2.2. House repair

23,401

48.8

23,452

48.46

33,436

47.38

51

0.22

9,984

42.57

27,074

100

30,744

100

36,804

100

3,669

13.55

6,060

19.71

3.1. Construct

13,876

51.25

15,870

51.62

19,046

51.75

1,994

14.37

3,176

20.01

3.2. House repair

13,199

48.75

14,874

48.38

17,758

48.25

1,675

12.69

2,884

19.39

4. NPL of construction and repair

71

100

88

100

157

100

17

24.11

69

77.97

4.1. Construct

40

56.47

52

58.54

99

63.2

12

28.66

48

92.13

4.2. House repair

31

43.53

37

41.46

58

36.8

18.21

21

57.96

2.Debt collection of construction and


repair

2.Outstanding construction and repair


loan

5. NPL ratio of construction and repair

0.26

0.29

0.43

0.03

0.14

5.1. Construct

0.29

0.33

0.52

0.04

0.2

5.2. House repair

0.23

0.25

0.33

0.02

0.08

(General Department Vietinbank Danang)

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Outstanding loan
Chart 2.7 The situation of outstanding construction and house repair loan
according to the purpose of loan at Vietinbank Da Nang branch over 3 years
(2010 2012)

Outstanding construction and house repair loan accounted for approximately equal.
Specifically, outstanding construction accounted for approximately average 51%, while
the percentage of house repair is approximately average 49%. The reason that the
geographical location of the city of Da Nang is located near the sea influenced the
weather such as storms, floods ... damage to residential homes, so people have to
rebuild the doors, remodeling for permanent homes for flood prevention. On the other
hand, due to the migration of people to study, work, live, the demand for housing is
necessary, so many customers come to the bank to apply for housing loans. Therefore,
the construction loan is higher than the proportion of home repair loans.
Furthermore, customer demand is high but the level of loan still lower because there
are still some limitations. Specifically, in 2012 outstanding construction loan reached
19,046 millions dong, an increase of 3,176 millions dong compare to 2011,
respectively percentage of 20.01%. In 2012 outstanding house repair loan reached
17,758 millions dong, an increase of 2,884 millions dong compare to 2011,

63

respectively percentage of 19.39%. In the form of loans for housing construction, if the
loan at 300 millions dong with an average interest rate of 17% per year for a period of
5 years, clients have monthly principal and interest payment of not less than 10
millions dong, so people with average income 4 millions dong per month are unlikely
to meet. Therefore, priority branch also kind to the longer term to reduce the burden on
the customer to pay the debt, but attract loans under 500 millions dong (according to
the powers of the head of of branches), the loan is greater than 500 millions dong
waiting to head office for approval.
NPL
Through the years, NPL is increasing. NPL are mainly construction loans. In 2012
NPL of construction of 99 millions dong, an increase of 48 millions dong compare to
2011 respectively percentage of 92.13%. Explaining this: construct demand loan is
usually of great value (greater than 500 millions dong) with an average duration of 10
years should the monitoring and debt collection problems occur. If the customer can
not pay the debt, branch to withdraw collateral and sold the collateral to recover the
secured debt. However, in many cases branches encountered situations: when the
property development sales proceeds do not cover the principal and interest of debt
clients because property values were reduced compared with initial evaluation the
property. Thus, deficiency payments, NPL is increased .
NPL ratio
The NPL ratio of construction and house repair increased over the years.
Specifically, in 2012 the NPL of construction loans was 0.52%, up 0.2% compare to
2011. The reason is that debt and NPL of construction should increase, so the bad debt
rate increases. In 2012 the NPL ratio of house repair loan was 0.33%, up 0.08%
comperae to 2011.
2.2.2.5. The state of lending operation construction and house repair
according to the borrowers at Vietinbank Da Nang branch over 3 years (2010
2012)

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The Bank has a lot of subjects in social participation loans, the lending sector
potential risks should be categorized to help clients see the bank customers would
typically need loan, loan relationships which with most banks, which customers often
have good credit history, and so the Bank can find a good direction in selecting types
of client credit relationships, determine the method of repayment, as well as determine
the type of collateral in order to limit risks and increase profits.Usually, due to the
characteristics of the object, the method of repayment by the Bank the client split into
two groups: officers, non-officers. Below is a table of the loan situation in building and
repairing house.
Comment:
Sales of loam
From table 2.8, the percentage of sales of officer loan accounted for dominate and tend
to increase gradually, the average percentage of approximately 62.5%. In 2012 loan
sales to officers reached 45,946 millions dong, an increase of 11,131 millions dong
compare to 2011, respectively percentage of 31.97%. Because officers are the people
who work in State agencies have steady income, bank lending in the form of
underwriting agency work or based on ability to pay and the financial collateral. On the
other hand, interest rates for lending construction and house repair is incentive, for
officer Vietinbank, generally lower lending rate from 1% to 2% per year compared
with interest rates on Vietinbank lending rules and maximum is 300 millions dong, so
operating the home construction loans attract borrowers employees.
In addition, sales of non-officer loan are quite low. In 2012, sales of loan reached
25,510 millions dong, an increase of 4,576 millions dong compare to 2011,
respectively percentage of 21.86%. Cause: due to components non-officers are usually
retrospectively individual companies, small traders, the staff working in private
enterprises, shops ... so the issue of personal financial assessment is difficult, because
their income is dependent on the business situation.

65

Table 2.8 The situation of lending operation construction and house repair according to the officers at
Vietinbank Da Nang branch over 3 years (2010 2012)
Unit: millions dong
2010 year
CRITERIA

Amount

Percentage
of (%)

2011 year
Amount

Percentage
of (%)

20102 year
Amount

Percentage
of (%)

Difference 11/10
Amount

Percentage
of (%)

Difference 12/11
Amount

Percentage
of (%)

1. Sales of construction and repair loan

50,501

100

55,749

100

71,456

100

5,248

10.39

15,707

28.17

1.1 Officers

30,553

60.5

34,815

62.45

45,946

64.3

4,262

13.95

11,131

31.97

1.2 Non-officers

19,948

39.5

20,934

37.55

25,510

35.7

986

4.94

4,576

21.86

47,953

100

48,394

100

70,570

100

441

0.92

22,176

45.82

2.1 Officers

28,546

59.53

30,996

64.05

54,092

76.65

2,450

8.58

23,096

74.51

2.2 Non-officers

19,406

40.47

17,398

35.925

16,478

23.35

-2,009

-10.35

-920

-5.29

27,074

100

30,744

100

36,804

100

3,669

13.55

6,060

19.71

3.1 Officers

7,670

28.33

9,085

29.55

11,354

30.85

1,415

18.44

2,269

24.98

3.2 Non-officers

19,404

71.67

21,659

70.45

25,450

69.15

2,255

11.62

3,791

17.5

4. NPL of construction and repair

71

100

88

100

157

100

17

24.11

69

77.97

4.1 Officers

23

32.55

22

25.45

21

13.45

-1

-2.96

-1

-5.95

4.2 Non-officers

48

67.45

66

74.55

136

86.55

11

20.81

70

106.61

2.Debt collection of construction and


repair

2.Outstanding of construction and


repair loan

5. NPL ratio of construction and repair

0.26

0.29

0.43

0.02

0.14

5.1 Officers

0.34

0.23

0.18

-0.11

-0.05

5.2 Non-officers

0.24

0.31

0.55

0.08

0.23

(General Department Vietinbank Danang)

66

Debt collection
Regarding debt collection, sales of debt collection officers over the years accounted for
the majorty, the percentage of debt collection is not officers, accounting for an average
of 60%. Over the years, the debt collection officers are increase. In 2012, debt
collection officers reached 23,096 54,092 millions dong increase 23,096 millions dong
compare to 2011, respectively percentage of 74.51%. The reason is that officers have a
stable income, debt payments are calculated as a percentage of monthly income
through credit card. On the other hand, the evaluation of the credit officer is good,
financial assessment of the ability of the client to implement effective debt collection.
Sales of debt collection non-officers are quite low and continuously declining.
Specifically, in 2011 sales of debt collection reached 17,398 millions dong, down
2,009 millions dong compare to 2010, respectively percentage of 10.35%. In 2012
sales of debt collection reached 16,478 millions dong, down 920 millions dong
compare to 2011, respectively percentage of 5.29%. Cause: Operating situation of this
group fall into a difficult situation due to the impact of the economy makes the
repayment capacity of the customer group is unstable compared with officers. On the
other hand, the urge to collect debts ineffective, sometimes distracted. In many cases,
the loans exceed the repayment period, credit officers constantly urging the customers
owe but do not pay impact of the debt collection branch.
Outstanding loan
Because debt collection non-officers should reduce, so the outstanding amount of the
recovery of this group increased. Specifically, in 2011 outstanding non-officers loan
reached 21,659 millions dong, increasing 2,255 millions dong compare to 2010,
respectively percentage of 11.62%. In 2012, outstanding non-officers loan reached
25,450 millions dong, up 3,791 millions dong compare to 2011, respectively
percentage of 17.5%. In addition, the percentage of outstanding officers loan accounted
for small, increased over the years. In 2011, the outstanding loans of officers up 1,415
millions dong compare to 2010, the respectively percentage of 18.44%. In 2012, the

67

outstanding loans of officers increases 2,269 millions dong compare to 2011, the
respectively percentage of 24.98%.
NPL
Chart 2.8 The situation of NPL construction and house repair according to the
officers at Vietinbank Da Nang branch over 3 years (2010 2012)

NPL non-officers was the majority, the average percentage of approximately 75% and
increased over the years. In 2012, the NPL was 136 millions dong, an increase of 70
millions dong compare to 2011, respectively percentage of 106.61%. Cause: the
difficult economic situation over the years, the dismal business of business profits
should drop, therefore the credit officers have to urge debt collection but still not
obtained the debt. So, the money collected is not subject to the accumulated bad debt.
Branch need to urge debt collection, the emphasis in the work of evaluation,
inspection, monitoring the situation of regular customers and often ask about property
security is very tight in order to limit the risks. However, this client group is many
banks shifted loans but depending on the situation of the economy and the business
sector that banks limit lending rates. Besides, the Bank also considers the overall
relationship with the other interests as they can use other services in banking, deposit

68

account maintained with high balances, Bank ... should also seek to outreach and
enhance this customer type because of their ability to bring profit is huge.
In addition, the NPL officers decreased over the years. In 2011, the NPL officers was
decreased 2.96% compare to 2010. In 2012 the NPL officers was decreased 5.95%
compare to 2011
NPL ratio
Over the years, the percentage of NPL ratio of non-officers was majorty. In 2010, the
NPL ratio was 0.31%, up 0.08% compare to 2011. The year 2012, NPL ratio was
0.55%, up 0.23% compare to 2011. The reason that outstanding loans and NPL nonofficers increase drag by increasing NPL ratio.
NPL ratio of officers is reduced. In 2011, the NPL ratio increased 0.11% compare to
2010. By 2012, the NPL ratio was 0.18%, down 0.05% compare to 2011. Therefore,
the development of the services of the local banks are directed to target groups, such as
officers payroll service through the card, loans through the card via the overdraft limit,
... to increase audience appeal officers, especially new construction lending activities
and house repairs are more preference for officers such as interest rate, time, method of
repayment, ... so they are easy to learn and the most recent problem loans with the
Bank when in need.
2.2.3. General comment of lending operation construction and house repair
at Vietinbank Danang brach over 3 years (2010 2012)
2.2.3.1. The results achieved
In the difficult business environment, construction lending and repairing the small
accounting for of consumer loans, but lending activity also contribute to increase the
profitability of banks. Results achieved thanks to the efforts of the branch.
The scale of construction loans and house repairs increasing through the years
The scale of construction loans and house repairs increasing manifested through
increased lending revenue over time. In 2012, sales of loan reached 71,456 millions

69

dong, up 28.17% compare to 2011. This demonstrates the lending operations


construction and houses repair attract the attention of customers.
The loan process in branch instructions are specific, detailed
The loan process in branch instructions are detailed and explicit responsibilities
assigned to each Member. The steps in logical order by credit officers make, besides
there is the supervision of the credit manager and approved by the authority, for the
new loan and the remaining large-scale participatory appraisal of risk management
Scope of transaction counter throughout the city
Affiliates interested in customer convenience through the opening of more transaction
counter to customers when transactions may need to Bank safely and quickly.
Transaction counter are scattered on the road Hung Vuong, Tran Cao van, Nui Thanh,
Phan Chu Trinh, supermarket Lotte Mart, Ong Ich Duong ... Specially, An appreciation
of the area are planned, the number of households in need of new construction is great,
besides being the low sunken should severely affected by flooding, demand for repair
of housing is also very high. Therefore, customers need to go to the new construction,
remodeling houses. Establishment of Cam Le transaction counter demonstrates the
branch very effort in understanding market needs with the housing trends, increase
competitiveness in the area.
In recent years, the rate of bad debt is low at branch
In recent years, the rate of bad debt is low. Bad debt ratios remain below 1% and
lowest 0.05% in 2011. This rate is completely in the bad debt rate levels allowed by the
State Bank. Demonstrates the Bank focuses on the work of evaluation, test and monitor
the loans with the goal of ensuring secure sources of capital, to show a spirit of
responsibility and competence of our staff in the branch in General and credit officers
in particular. In the past, we see very cautious credit officers in the receiving
application for the loan, the customer's property. Because construction loans and home
repairs with guaranteed form mainly of land use right and property affixed to the land,
but this is the kind of diverse and complex assets; multiple profiles when into bad debt,

70

the play was not collateral may not recover the debt or debt collection insufficient
capital base.
Lending policies consistent with customer needs
The bank has raised the maximum loan on the collateral value from 50% to 70%. The
loan is relatively consistent with the customer's borrowing needs. In addition, many
banks accept different forms of security, lending time to build up to 15 years.
Strong financial position
Because Vietinbank come from the state of bank is shared. Therefore, Vietinbank
always maintain the relationship and get the support of the units held as treasury,
deposit accounts of state enterprises, aid, government funding of the program, project
2.2.3.2. The limitations
Although lending for building and fixing gains some achievements, this activity still
has some limits to be overcome.
Debt collection method, loan application procedures, processing time of
records are not competitive compare to other banks.
+ According to regulations of Vietinbank, there are two debt recovery methods for
branch. They are installment and one time payments. However, the main method is
installment because Credit officers always advise customers to make installment
payments in order to avoid risks and to facilitate the collection urge. Meanwhile, many
commercial banks in the city (such as ACB, Techcombank, Sacombank ) find out
customers debt payment demand. Therefore, they vary debt payment methods such as
installment payments. However, the amount of repayment can be obtained at home or
online payment through account.
+ Loan application procedures are redundant through many profile, such as legal
documents, guarantee records, loan records.
+ Follow to regulations, processing maximum time of records is 5 days for the short term loan and 10 days for the medium and long term loans. Actually, the time from
receipt to disbursement records takes maximum 3 days . Meanwhile, other commercial

71

banks resolve the dossier in 1 2 days. If the loan is large, the branch must consult
head office to be approved. In this case, the time takes much more 3 days.
Collateral which is real estate has to have certificate of house ownership and
land using rights
Currently, as the result of considering customer evaluating panel there are many
customers who have good personal and financial ability for repayment but do not get a
loan. The reason is their ineligible collateral. Some customers who are land owner has
not rename the land owner in certificate of land using rights so that the land using
right still is under the old owners. Therefore, the number of customers is a bank loan is
restricted.
Construction lending period is relatively short
The maximum building loan period is 10 years but for customers who borrow more
than 500 millions dong 10-year period is not long enough for customers to repay. That
could be put pressure interest paid monthly too high.
Type of officer that can get construct and house repair loan is limited
The analysis of the lending construction and house repair for the staff, the subject of
this loan is for the staff in the state institutions, associations, joint stock companies
with state capital. Oficers have stable wage and entitled to insurrance and union under
the States regulations, Vietinbank staffs, thus lending activities were narrow and not
towards staffs of big group, the foreign company and private companies ...
There is no credit support
Currently, individual customer room has 4 credit officers who undertake legal
documents works, legal professionals, credit appraisal. Therefore, credit officers
responsible too much leding so that it influences assessing record time and process. In
addition, the approval record process is still manua one. The customers must go to the
bank, apply the submission and the results so do cost much customers time and effort.

72

Chapter 3: SOLUTIONS AND SOME RECOMMENDATIONS TO PROMOTE


LENDING OPERATIONS TO HOUSE CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR AT
VIETNAM JOINT STOCK COMMERCIAL BANK FOR INDUSTRY AND
TRADE (VIEINBANK) DANANG BRANCH
3.1 The advantages and disadvantages for the lending operations of
construction and house repair.
3.1.1. Advantages.
The city attracts many people to live, the demand for housing increases
Average GDP growth in 2012 reached 12.16%. The economic structure of the city
shifted towards "services - industry - agriculture" service sector 50.46%; the industryconstruction accounts for the proportion of 46.5%, agriculture, forestry, seafood
3.04%. Currently there are more than 10,000 businesses of all economic sectors
operating in the city. The system of roads in the city is constancy being expanded and
new construction. Many great works put to use as: Dragon Bridge, Tran Thi Ly Bridge,
Nguyen Tri Phuong Bridge, Ba Na cable glands ... Much of the area clearance,
planning to build the system and works for the city's projects aimed at economic
development-social-cultural areas.
So, the city attracts more and more investors, workers and students, students
everywhere found, living and learning, so the demand for housing is increasingly
urgent activities. According to the data of the Statistical Office Da Nang city in 2010,
on the geographical areas with 70,000 people workers, in which about 50,000 people
have needed of house. Thats not to mention have 45,000 out of a total 100,000
students, students from other provinces have demand for accommodation to study for a
long time. These objects are really in need of house.
With urban planning diagram, the city made clearance, land resettlement housing for
people with low price. Pursuant to Decision No. 7344/Q UBND on September 10,
2008 on the allocation land and debit 100% use of land. Land use paid time is extended
to 10 years. People are debit and deferred within 10 years, without interest, the amount

73

can paid in lump sum or installments. This helps to reduced debt burden of the people,
contribute to removing difficulty for the people whose land recovered, stable new life
after release. People can take the initiative to approach the home building loan capital
of the Bank, from which the people with homes in both balanced source of income,
living expenses in your family to ensure the ability to repay.
Schedule certificate of house ownership and residential land use in the city
quickly.
Office of the People's Committee of Da Nang City issue a document 71/TB - UBND
announced the certification period of right to use land for up to 15 days work. In many
cases, people are full valid papers, the time can shortened from 5 to 10 days. This is an
important step in solving procedure quickly, so reduced procedure time borrowing
The situation prices of construction materials decrease
In 2010, the material market scrambling increase prices , particularly the first month
4/2010, the price of many types of materials tend to start rising from 10-20%,
especially steel and cement prices. Prices of cement in a row several times price
adjustments, with increase of about from 3,000-5,000 VND/per bag compared to
March 2010. Steel prices increased to about 15,000 VND/ per kg compared to March
2010. The reason is the increase in response costs (electricity, water, raw materials ...),
the construction materials increased to shore production costs. However, from 2011 to
2012, due to the economic situation the country has many difficulties negatively
affected the operations of the business in general and the business in general building
materials industry in particular. Implement policies to curb inflation of the
Government: cut public investment, real estate projects suspended or prolong their
execution schedules, many buildings haven't deploy capital has led to consumer
demand Building Material the first six months of 2012 decreased. Therefore, many
enterprises make incentive programs to stimulate consumer products, such as lower
prices, free shipping, if the customer buy amount large then business decrease prices ...

74

So , it is advantage for people to carry out construction and repair of houses during
this period.
3.1.2. Disadvantage
Real estate market volatility.
Because in the form of loans, collateral mainly real estate assets. As a rule, the branch
receives only collateral is the house, the land has been issued a certificate of house
ownership and land use rights. Moreover, in recent years, the real estate market
continuously volatility and no signs of growth. Therefore, the loan review process also
meet many inadequacies in the stage of evaluation of the value of the collateral, when
the credit officer must rely on the frame housing prices due to the city peoples
committee launched. Therefore, the value of the collaterals is usually does not match
with real value, especially of land use. By the value of land use in which the province
or city put out just to apply tax calculation and not to sell and exchange on the market
causing much trouble for staff in appraisal, if incorrectly can cause damage to the
Bank.
On the client side: The most of immigrants to the city haven't a steady job, no
income and no household should the difficulty borrowers. In addition, ratio of lowincome people in the area is high and the demand for housing is very large, but in fact
they can hardly access loans from banks due to loan procedure. Therefore, the active of
lending low-income people still haven't really changed.
Increased competition
Due to the economic development, the city is not the competition between banks
compete with each other but also with the non-bank financial institution (insurance and
finance companies ...) and foreign bank. These organizations are direct competitors in
the personal credit as payments, transfer money... Da Nang city have a lot banks with a
strong competitive advantage in each area such as Vietcombank best management
areas including trade finance and international payments; ACB, Sacombank and
Techcombank very strong in the field of lending to individual customer, East Asia

75

considered the most active bank in the private bank blocks, ATM cards is used strong
with the latest technology, facilities most useful and has the advantage of providing
services related to remittances.
Currently, some personal business collective as traders in the market, the women, ...
exist very popular form of apparent brightness. This is a form of savings in nationals,
can a source of capital for the purpose supporting construction new and housing repair
very effective. They claim that this method more favorable forms of lending trouble
with complex procedure and overcoming the psychological apprehension as to bank.
3.2. Development plan of the Vietnam Joint Stock Commercial Bank of
Industry and Trade (Vietinbank) - Da Nang branch
In 2013, in the context of the world economy and in the country, is forecasting
difficult, challenging, prices fluctuate and continue to change. On the basis of the
guidelines for the Commercial Bank of Vietnam, the branch focuses on implementing
the objective major:

The Branch continued to placed solidly in the as one of the leading banks

in the system of Joint Stock commercial bank in Da Nang, with the motto "the
customer's business performance is the goal of the Bank's activity

Improving mobilization of all resources, special emphasis mobilizing

capital from stable and cheap from residential deposit in economic organizations. In
2013, the capital is reaching 3,070 billions dong.

The end of 2013, strive to outstanding loans economy is 3,100 billions

dong. Enhancing the quality of credit analysis, classification and screening clients,
resolutely cut with outstanding customer weak financial capacity, the potential risks.
Focus overdue debt, NPL recovery reached 213.014 billions dong, bad debt under 3%
of total outstanding loans.

76

Continue to keep the relationship intimacy with strategic customers,

traditional, actively seek new customers, focusing on the development capital markets,
not to far behind capital reduction, ensure enhanced market share Vietinbank Da Nang.

Perform the conversion granted model driven credit risk management

focuses on of the State Bank of Viet Nam Base II, capacity building and governance
analyst forecasts, credit-oriented clear for each customer group. Enhance the
management of risks; improve the quality project appraisal, loan plan; strengthen the
control of lending to limit bad debt incurred.

Mining search options and feasibility projects, actively lending to

customers with strong financial strength, with the Guarantee Asset, Business
Production bring efficiency with the ability to repay the bank promptly and fully.
Loans for credit programs target: agricultural lending, exporting, small and medium
enterprises, promoting short-term credit.

In 2013, income is reaching 363.230 billions dong, in which income from

the business operation is reaching 92.140 billions dong. Striving to banking revenue
reaches 35.3 billions dong. Enhancing expand import and export payments, guarantees,
trade finance, foreign exchange, ATM card released to salaried subjects and schools
released International Credit Card for VIP customers, travelers students, ...

Organization of short-term training to enhance leadership skills of key

staff, enhance professional knowledge worker. Evaluation of employees, employers


and promote additional departments lack staff, make a reasonable wage policy.

Continue the work of media activities, information technology, safety

system. Strengthen the brand, the product, the new utility services in a variety of ways
to the public, its customers.
3.3. Solutions to promote lending activity to construction and repair housing in
Vietnam Joint Stock Commercial Bank for Industry and Trade Danang branch
in the near future.

77

3.3.1. Main Solution


3.3.1.1. Simplify procedures of loans
Loans term suitable and shorten resolution time profiles to increase competition
Diversifying the loan term to make sure the principle of credit, such as the ability to
repay, the purpose ensuring use of capital and ensuring conditions as well as creating
conditions track inspection. Branch may consider reviews of diversifying the loan term
consistent with demands and subjects such as:
For the home repair loan branch should also consider raise the maximum loan term
from 5 years to 8 years, thus competitiveness increasing compared with other banks in
city. On the other hand, can lower the pressure on any payment made for demand of
large loans. During the loan, family customers can get stuck, events, thus increasing
loan term, clients to financial stability and the repayment arrangement.
In particular, the low income audience due to the interest rate, if the interest rate can't
lower, the bank should take measures to extend the repayment time. Because if in a
short time, then the amount of money is too large with monthly income, so they won't
ability to pay for other expenses.
In addition, one of the factors that affect the lending operations is resolve time loan
record. Time resoved record show the degree approval of the bank loan fast or slow.
Currently, the resolution time profile in the branch up to 3 days , but the large loans
they must wait for approval by the headquarters should extended time 4-5 days.
Meanwhile, other banks such as BIDV, Agribank, East Asian, ACB resolution time
document in 1 day. Therefore, transaction was shorted, approve loans branch should
have changes as: changing assignments towards specialization, personal credit
department should divide several groups including: sitting group, completed profiles;
the evaluation team; group supervision debt collection. In addition, organizations
should establish credit support (support for finalizing legal documents, market research
...). Each group was train direction of his professional expertise. As such, the profile
wasn't resolve quickly but also more exactly risk limited. Therefore, the branch can

78

increase customer appeal, especially the amount of potential customers, contribute to


increasing the level of competition.
Flexibility in the method repayment of principal and interest, at the same time
branch and the customer a reasonable interest rate agreement
In the branch, the method of repayment in the long-term can cause difficulties for
customers, so the contract agreement process Credit Officers need to contact with the
customer to learn desired to repay the customer's. Example the installment taking
income customer, consistent with the average collection period, customers can
shouldn't repay principal during the first year, which can reduced the interest rate for
the first 2 months and the months after the return rate procedure of Vietinbank,
Besides, credit officers should also be flexible to adjust the level of pay, payment
schedule to suit the repayment capacity of the customer. At present, the interest rate
applicable to branch quite reasonable, comply with The State Bank of Vietnam, but
also problem to concern about it because this is often a great influence on the decision
customer loans. Bank is construct about interest rates level not only attractive
reasonable but also to offset costs and increase profits for the Bank. Therefore, the
branch should agree interest rate as: at any given time, the lending rate will not exceed
mobilization rates 12 months, plus a certain oscillation amplitude depending on the
duration and level of risk of each loan specifically, if interest rates increase beyond
possibility, a branch can transfer to original part pay period following or may extend a
period, thus creating the harmonious balance between the Bank and customer benefits.
With the traditional customer, the prestigious branch can apply a preferential interest
rate, in order to consolidate long-term relationships with customers and to enhance
customer relationships with branch has actively do business efficiently, to repay
interest and principal in a timely manner for the Bank. With new customers, the
assessment of risk of the loan, the Bank can lower the lending rate but increase the
magnitude of interest rate with adjustable 3 months, 6 months to avoid the risk.
Raise the valuation of the collateral to prevent overdue debt.

79

At present, the branch regulates the method of determining collateral is value of land
use rights to help people have opportunity borrow much capital as: determination of
land value does not exceed the price land by the provincial people's Committee city of
regulation; or maximum of 70% of the actual transfer of land on the market but also
very difficult to decide the real value of transfer on local.
Due to differences in the price bracket of the state land and land prices of real fluctuate
a lot, the complex nature of this type of assets is difficult to assess the value of
the collateral for consistent. Besides, now the city has not a real estate Centre would
have capacity, qualifications and prestige to provide the market price of housing types
that bank can refer the active of credit bank. When appraising property of the client,
the credit officer often go to collect documents, real survey, this causes no small
difficulties for the work of the credit officer, so branch should set up a nest of
information real estate, activities aimed for providing information to house, land
valuations, housing, capture information real estate markets volatility, ... to help the
valuation collateral be more authentic, reduce risks in credit operations as well as
guarantee and satisfy the needs of our customers.
However, the valuation of collateral helps prevent the risk for loan. If the customer
leads signs to risks, the credit officer must urge the client to pay the debt or the Bank
requires customer requests to give add collateral make sure the safe of the bank capital
in the event of reduced collateral value. For overdue debts, the Bank needs to check
the problems in the process of assessing financial capacity problem, process of the
client uses the loan.
When conducting recovery of overdue debt, if the customer has a good faith payment,
the Bank can adjust the repayment period, allowing customers to overcome financial
difficulties to repay early. If the client does not have the good will to repay the Bank
liquidate the collateral to recover the debt.
3.3.1.2. Diversification of products for lending construction and house
repair

80

Flexibility in accepting collateral profiles


While waiting for the customer is granted a certificate of home ownership and land
use, the banks need flexibility to accept these assets as collateral, then adding the
certificate of ownership. Thus, when it deems the owner have personal good, proven
financial capacity and if the local Government confirmed the long-term residence and
authenticated legal base of ownership as are the people's committees of districts
confirmed "the land is used by the client does not dispute" the city people's Committee
and endorsed "the decision right land use "flexible should accept as collateral when the
Bank loans. In this case, there should be tho between banks with bodies in charge of
the certification of land use in city level is the completion of paperwork will be
announced and go straight to the Bank or by the owner to receive but must have the
certificate of the Bank, additional time land use right certificates is maximum within 30
days. In addition, banks need accept flexibility loans with other collateral conditions
(except: collateral is land or house construction plan).
Expansion for borrowers
Subjects lending operations for officer is officer in the state institutions, associations,
joint stock companies with state capital. Staff had a steady salary and entitlements such
as social security, trade unions in accordance with the officer of Vietinbank. So
affiliates can expand the audience loans companies invested abroad, limited liability
companies, private businesses, ... Currently, the business is growing very fast in the
area, attracting a large number of workers involved, mostly young people, people from
other places, and relatively high income and stable. To ensure safety branch should
offer a number of conditions, evaluate the criteria stable operation for businesses like
to do business with interest in time periods 3 years back, with some staffs of over 200
people and capital from 7 billion or more ... the officer of the business or company
must have a permanent residence confirmation, household registration in the city, there
is confirmation officer of the company or business, financial declaration.
Established consulting department to support customer

81

Currently, the banks are competing for quality of service, to the extent, potential
sources of capital, network systems, science and technology. Practice has also shown
that: maintain high service quality can make a profit, reduce cost and increase market
share. Distribution systems and processes, time efficient and convenient transaction
such as loan documents clear, easy to understand, providing products for a quick loan
is an expression of good service.
Due to travel conditions so customers can not access to banking products and services
counselor should be able to take the customer to consult lending conditions. Make offer
products and services to each home, each client households to have access to loans.
Consultant must design the questionnaire to survey, assess customer satisfaction on the
quality of the products and services of the unit in order to provide direction to adjust
accordingly. This is also the basis of reviews categorized officers annually to perform
paid according to location and quality, efficient.
Besides, the bank customer to borrow, the consultant will learn loan demand and loan
customers. From there, the consultant will calculate the financial resources to repay
customers have reasonable or unreasonable. If the financial customer resources to
repay is limited, the consultant brought out a loan and term loan in accordance with the
repayment capacity of the customer, Next, the consultant will calculate reasonable
amount to pay monthly or periodic. Finally, the consultant will present the collection to
the way customers can pay a most convenient way, such as bank customers to pay
periodical payment via bank transfer repayment through credit card account, home
collection, ...
This consulting helps employees can access, understand customer needs now and in the
future, employees and customers become close, creating good relationships. From
there, the first time the borrower can borrow again later or potential customer is in the
mobilization of the branch.
3.3.2 The solution supports
3.3.2.1 Human Resouce Solutions

82

Implement policies to attract talent


Currently, the staff of credit in consumer banking department in the branch is still thin,
so would like to extend model this loan, the branch should also consider careers attract
new credit officer to work but must make sure quality. The measures can applied are:
Building policy of salary, bonus and benefits fairly and clearly in line with this
form of work. In addition to salary levels of education are also bonuses to work
according to the yield in a month. Every month, the customer will personally pick out
credit officers work for the highest productivity based on the mobilization of capital
and loans, officials credit that is salary plus bonus. In one year, credit officers are
seeking funding for the highest loan and then be rewarded with holiday travel, or gift
shops on new year, ...
Recruitment of labor staff done well, the right industry regulations and have absolute
fairness in the recruitment stage. The new standard requires the new credit officer
recruitment is: moral standards, as (incorruptible, honest, confident) professional
standards (education, professional qualifications, skill) physical standards (health,
form, height).
A dynamic work environment, not confined space, including equipment support
work, recognize achievements and opinions of employees, the commitment and
collaboration of employees; professional nature and the clear, transparent ...working in
an environment where leaders always attach importance to human values, the workers
will certainly consider bank is house and will devote themselves the highest attitude
and responsibility.
Construction career progression and widely available to employees can define
career development and promotion opportunities in the future.
Include: clear work plan, the level of appeal and challenge of jobs, training
opportunities and job development. Factor career development and promotion
opportunities are one of the key factors to decide deciding the staff a strong attachment

83

or not. Especially, the talent and potential that the bank would like to keep. The stock
helped the Bank develop best in the current period, so the branches get the strength
from within to keep talented people. It is a professional working environment; oriented
development strategy clearly, take advantage of opportunities and communication
information is essential, to help talented people are found driven development , the
chance that they may hold in the future when banks conduct modernization.
Advanced the officers of credit officer on ethics and professional expertise
Human is the most important resource for any organization or business. The success of
any organization depends on element of the capacity and performance of the workers,
thus the Bank is also located this rule. Banks need implement a scientific way training,
arranging, using reasonable force credit officer. Construction the qualities of the new
credit officer ensure Bank operations ongoing development and continuous. Moreover,
the Bank has a positive, proactive measures to educate credit officer, the credit officer
does to the negative issues of society , attraction of money that lowered the dignity,
lowering credit standards, harmful to yourself as well as harmful to the economy and
reputation of the industry.
The training is ongoing often and continuously. Additional training for the credit
officer: knowledge, skills, information, tools and techniques, meet current job better;
boost pride ourselves; behave promotion opportunities; have a positive attitude and
high motivated to work. With new employees and employees already working in
banking need to be retrained and often improve their professional expertise. In addition
to the officer at the training centers of the Bank, need facilitate the employees can join
the short course by the ministries, training centers and other banking institutions.
Employees learn work skills through observing peers or superiors, they take the form
of mentoring, mentor, advisor to many experienced people share their experiences to
help others develop career goals long. At the same time, the officer can be linked
together, the regular exchange of experiences will save costs for the Bank but highly
efficiency.

84

3.3.2.2. Solutions to marketing


Today, banks operating in the constant volatility of the business environment and
market share competition. This requires banks to choose structure and adjusted to suit
the way, improve the competitive position, perform dynamic marketing solutions in the
right direction.
Promoting marketing strategies bank
Building image and awareness of banking will impact customer feedback, increase
brand value, create positive feedback in psychology of customers. However, the brand
advertising Vietinbank present mainly on the internet, also in the mass media such as
television, newspaper is limited. Therefore, the branch should promote activities.
Bank leadership to create a good relationship with the press, enlist the sympathy good,
banks should get up press conferences and exchanges with the press. The
advertisement banks in newspapers not only increase brand value but also reduce costs.
In addition, the promote on the media to highlight Vietinbank to impress in the
customers mind. Branch proactive approach each client, selecting appropriate
customer groups, continues to communicate to each customer in order to bring the
trust, the trust of the client with the bank. In addition, branches usually participate in
local activities such as participating arts organizations, sponsor a number event, social
work to improve images bank in public.
Price competition, established distribution channels, advertising, media, product
improvement has an impact on development of personal loans. However, all the
activities is surface, the activities decided to success in Marketing:
Clarify that customers want to focus branches, which offer specific products,
suit customer needs. The determination of the desired audience towards also help the
bank to conduct an accurate evaluation of the product to the market segments in which
they are brought to the user, as well as channels distribution product and other forms of
advertising and marketing that achieve the highest efficiency.

85

Understanding the needs and the desire of the customer is also very important,
customers always choose the products close to their needs most, easy to use and has
many utilities included. Banks can study independently or through organizations other
market research to objectively assess the needs of the customer.
There is a financial investment, man. Marketing is a process and a result of
investment in marketing brings is huge. Limitations of commercial banks in Vietnam
compared with foreign commercial banks in the marketing is a financial investment,
people are limited so bring results without expectation set by the bank.
So, marketing strategies that help promote products and services of the banks suit
actual customer demand. Moreover, banks can evaluate, measure the effect of
marketing activities, not only help the bank can mighty make effective marketing
campaigns in the future but also help banks eliminate the unsuitable marketing
activities, are not effective for banks.
Perform customer care policy
In the severe competition environment between banks to provide services, client is the
decisive factor the existence of bank, so, active customer care is very important. The
customer is including: consolidate current clients, attract new customers. This activity
is becoming effective business with the amount of the costs is not too large but highly
effective. So, a number of customer care solution such as:
+ Organize regular scientific conferences, promotion, introduce new products and new
services at the branch to build personal relationships with customers close, attract new
customers and promote the image of Danang Vietinbank in the customers mind.
+ For first-time borrowers, set up parts specialist lending consultant, staff advising
customers should choose the loan term and loan limits are appropriate, calculate the
monthly repayment amount.
+ Perform incentive policies by assessing customer relationship evaluation, the level of
customer credit rating. If the plan has a high credibility they may branch preferential

86

interest rates, increasing the loan term, no loan evaluation records, increased lending
limits.
+ For large customers, VIP, branch always keep customer relationships by sending
flowers or greeting cards birthday guest, on occasion, preferred exchange of Lunar
New Year, encouragement or share when customers have difficulty, to increase
customer loyalty to the branch.
+ Make use of the waiting time of customers in each transaction, branches needs to do
some simple survey of customers through the opinions questionnaire, from which
assess customer satisfaction, then staff also updated the information collected in the
database for customer relationship activities in the right direction.
3.4. Some recommendations
3.4.1 To the State Bank of Vietnam
+ The State bank of Vietnam should support, create conditions development of
commercial banking business activities through measures such as: increase ability
autonomy, self-responsibility in business. Moreover, the State bank of Vietnam need to
regularly organize seminars, courses, concerts to hear from commercial bank about
policy The State bank of Vietnam launched.
+ In the near future, the State bank of Vietnam need to reduce interest rates for
consumer loans, especially the preferential policies for those individuals have demand
to build housing repair to clients can stabilize housing and have the ability to repay.
+ Complete documents specified activities for consumer lending in a transparent and
fair. The provisions in the legal framework to be implemented strictly, clearly, to avoid
multiple commercial banking legal risk to increase competition.
+ The State bank of Vietnam should enact mechanism operator of interest rate
ceilings, interest rate ceilings prescribed for the product lending particular, from that
restrict commercial bank self to lower interest rates to attract borrowers.
3.4.2 To the headquarter Vietnam Joint Stock Commercial Bank for
Industry and Trade

87

For the whole banking system Vietinbank, lending operations to construct and repair
housing is one of lending operation potential when more and more people have higher
living standards and improved demand for housing, so Vietinbank - Da Nang branch
need to continue expand and develop this loan type. Vietnam Joint Stock Commercial
Bank for ndustry and Trade need to support solutions of Vietinbank - Danang branch,
so it should have some recommendations:
+ Affiliates need additional values to increase the value of the product. For example,
reception style, serving the customer to the bank or the customer get a gifts, join the
lucky draw program, the reward is valuable prizes such as cars, travel , concert tickets,
scholarships, ... Bank expand this form not only depositors but also borrowers to
attract customers. For loyal customers, banks made policy incentives interest rate or the
products utilities accompanying when customers make lending operations.
+ Reduce the charge for lending activity in housing construction to attract customers,
increasing the competition for other banks in the area.
+ Banks need regulation time tackling document lending, reduced resolution time
from 5 days to 1-2 days to increase competition of banks with other, at the same time
promoting the flexibility, the progress of work of the employees.
+ Banks need to increase powers the lending rate construct house repair for branch,
thereby branch increase initiative lending rates when customers have high loan
demand.
+ Banks need to set up the credit support. The credit support execute appraisal of
assets, legal documents, notary. .In addition, the credit support execute financial advice
to customers through direct dialogue, telephone, online.
+ Bank to improve credit scoring internal system to implement controls entire credit
portfolio and customer evaluation system on the information gathered base. Credit
grading internal system also allows quantifying both the credit risks, given the
warnings and taken up the credit risk prevention

88

CONCLUSION
Over the years, our country's economic situation has complicated movements:
slowed down growth, increasing prices of some commodities, financial and currency
fluctuations effects to peoples business, production and life. Currently, Vietnam's
financial market has many difficulties due to the influences of the world economy. The
banking system is facing many difficulties and challenges to development,
empowering in competition. Through the process of finding out on the area, Da Nang
is a potential business market in the field of consumer loans and loans in general and in
the field of construction and home repair in particular. Da Nang is the central region to
attract many organizations, financial corporations, investors for business development.
With quite some history on the area, Vietinbank - Da Nang also gained many
significant achievements in terms of customer numbers as large enterprises, the number
of individual client growth, international payment services, banking services combined
with modern technology. However, as the result of analysis process, lending activity to
build and repair houses in branches takes low proportion in consumer loans. This
activity is not really attractive to customers because of the lengthy process of funding
and tight credit conditions. Therefore, Vietinbank Da Nangs the leadership, credit
officers need to make efforts to find out changing the lending operation to construct
and repair housing to suit each client's needs and develop this activity in the future.

89

CONFERENCES
1. References book:
+ Associate Professor Ph.D.Nguyen Thi Mui, Nghip v Ngn hng Thng mi,
Finance, Hanoi, 2008.
+ Ph.D Le Thi Man, Nghip v Ngn hng Thng mi, Social Worker, Hanoi,
2010
2. Internal documents:
+ Report on the results of operations of Vietinbank; 2010-2012
+ Annual report of Vietinbank from 2010-2012
3. References from the Internet:
+ Web http://www.vietinbank.vn, Vietnam Joint Stock Commercial Bank for Industry
and Trade (Vietinbank)
+ Web http://www.tapchitaichinh.vn, The financial magazine of the Ministry of
Finance of Vietnam.
+ Web http://ctk.danang.gov.vn, Bureau of Statistics Danang.
+ Web http://taichinh.vnexpress.net, Finance category of the online newspaper
VnExpress.
+ Web http://www.sbv.gov.vn , The State Bank of Vietnam.
+ Web http://www.danangcity.gov.vn, Danang Portal

90

APPENDIX 1: Process for lending construction and house repair at Vietinbank


Danang branch
Bank credit available.
Competent
Workstation

Customer

Transaction/Customer

Risk management

authorities

Department

department

(director/ deputy

Related
department

director)
Step 1:
Receiving and
procedures guide
loan application

Proposed
loans

Step 2:
Analysis evaluating loan
applications, and
prepare reports.

Interviewing, customer guide


created and perfected the loan
proposal documents

Evaluation of
lending decisions

Preceiving
prolife

Appraising of
established credit
record

Appr
oval

Step 3:
Approval of loans
to customers and
inform the
customer.

Step 4:
Drafting the credit
contract, signed
the contract. Enter
the data of the
secured property
and customer
loans in stock
profile.

Receive
notices of
banks

Signed
contract

Valuation of
collateral
(group
valuation)

Receive the
approval result

Notice in writing for


customers (if needed)

Drafting the credit


contracts and
guarantee contract
Signed

Notary, registration of
transactions warrant

Enter collateral
information, print
profile import / export
warehouse collateral

Appro
val

91

enter the
profile
collateral
(storekee
per)

Step 5:
Create Account
disbursements

Disbursement.

Step 6:
Checking and
monitoring using
the loan account.

Check the use of loans,


update loan profile.

Step 7:
Collection of
principal, interest,
fees

Urge debt
collection

Step 8:
Liquidation of
contract credit

Suggest
released

grade, release the


guarantee asset.

Check the information,


make written requests to
disconnect collateral /
withdraw appraisal report
collateral / collateral
transformation

Dbursement
(Transaction
parts)

Coordinate check
loan

Collecting

Check the
customer has paid
off debt

Disconnect
collateral

Export collateral, print


listing profile plus the
import / export
collateral

Get back the


collateral
profile

Step 9:
Save credit
contract

Evaluate and
comment proposal
to withdraw
appraisal report
collateral /
collateral
transformation

Appr
oval

Receive, transfer the


collateral profile

Save credit
contract

Approval,
disconnect
collateral

Save credit
contract

92

Export
collateral
record
(storekeeper)

LI M U
1. L do chn ti
Trong nhng nm gn y, nn kinh t Vit Nam c nhng thay i, thu nhp ngi
dn c nng cao, mc sng c ci thin. Thnh ph Nng cng khng nm
ngoi s pht trin . Nng l thnh ph tr ang trn pht trin vi dn s
ngy cng gia tng. Di s tc ng ch trng thnh ph v vic quy hoch kin
trc thnh ph nn c nhiu ngi dn v ang b gii ta nh hoc tu sa li nh
. Ngoi ra, Thnh ph Nng nm v tr gn bin, sng nn chu nhiu nh hng
xu v mi trng thin nhin v thi tit. Do , vic xy dng v sa cha nh ca
ngi dn trn a bn thnh ph tr nn cn thit.
Bn cnh s h tr, u i vn nh v ti chnh ca thnh ph nhng ngi dn c
nhu cu vay vn xy dng hoc sa cha ngi nh khang trang. Nm bt c yu
t ny, Ngn hng Thng mi cho ra sn phm cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh
p ng nhu cu ca ngi dn.
V vy, em chn ti : THC TRNG HOT NG CHO VAY XY DNG
V SA CHA NH TI NGN HNG TMCP CNG THNG VIT NAM
CHI NHNH NNG
Kt cu ti gm c 3 chng:
Chng 1: C s l lun v hot ng cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh ti Ngn
hng Thng mi
Chng 2: Thc trng hot ng cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh ti Ngn hng
TMCP Cng Thng Vit Nam (Vietinbank) - chi nhnh Nng.
Chng 3: Gii php v mt s kin ngh y mnh hot ng cho vay xy dng v
sa cha nh ti Ngn hng TMCP Cng Thng Vit Nam chi nhnh Nng
2. Mc tiu nghin cu:
H thng ha c nhng l lun chung v xy dng v sa cha nh ti cc
Ngn hng Thng Mi.

nh gi thc trng ca hot ng cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh ti


Ngn hang TMCP Cng Thng Vit Nam chi nhnh Nng.
xut mt s gii php ngn hng c th thc thi nhm pht trin v hon
thin hn sn phm xy dng v sa cha nh ti ngn hng, ng thi nng cao li
nhun kinh doanh ca ngn hng.
Cung cp ti liu cho sinh vin tham kho v hot ng xy dng v sa cha
nh .
3. i tng v phm vi nghin cu:
i tng nghin cu: Ngn hng TMCP Cng thng Vit Nam chi nhnh
Nng
Thi gian nghin cu: Cc s liu v d liu ca chi nhnh t nm 2010 n
nm 2012
4. Phm vi nghin cu: Thc trng hot ng cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh
5. Phng php nghin cu: ti c thc hin da trn cc phng php:
Phng php thng k tng hp
Phng php so snh
Phng php di n dch v quy np.

Chng 1: C S L LUN V HOT NG CHO VAY XY DNG V


SA CHA NH TI NGN HNG THNG MI
1.1. Khi qut chung v hot ng cho vay ti Ngn hng Thng mi
1.1.1. Khi nim cho vay
Trong nn kinh t c s khc nhau v cc lnh vc hot ng sn xut kinh doanh, s
khc nhau v quy m v thi hn s dng vn ca cc t chc kinh t.Trong qu trnh
tun hon v lun chuyn vn xy ra tnh trng tha hoc thiu ngun vn tm thi
trong nn kinh t. Thiu vn khng ch l nhu cu i vi cc doanh nghip hot ng
trong lnh vc sn xut, lu thng m cn l nhu cu b sung thiu ht tm thi gia
thu v chi ca cc t chc c nhn khc trong x hi, k c ngn sch nh nc. Do ,
ngn hng ng vai tr l mt t chc trung gian ti chnh iu ha dng tin t trong
nn kinh t. Ngn hng tp trung ngun vn tm thi nhn ri trong nn kinh t em
phn phi cc ngun vn thiu ht da trn nguyn tc hon tr nhm c s cn i v
p ng kp thi nhu cu vn cho cc c nhn, t chc kinh t.
V vy, cn c vo khon 16 iu 14 Lut cc t chc tn dng nm 2010 (Lut s:
47/2010/QH12) qui nh.
Cho vay l hnh thc cp tn dng, theo bn cho vay hoc cam kt giao cho khch
hng mt khon tin s dng vo mc ch xc nh trong mt thi gian nht nh
theo tha thun vi nguyn tc c hon tr gc v li
1.1.2. Nguyn tc cho vay

Nguyn tc 1:Vn cho vay phi c hon tr c gc ln li

Ngun vn cho vay ca ngn hng ch yu l ngun vn tp trung v huy ng t cc


thnh phn kinh t trong x hi. Do vy, nhng ngi vay vn ca ngn hng sau mt
k hn nht nh no u phi hon tr y c gc v li cho ngn hng. n v
vay vn sau mt thi gian nht nh phi tr cho ngn hng mt khon li tc tho
thun, v l mt trong nhng ngun thu ch yu ca ngn hng v l mt c s cho
ngn hng tin hnh hch ton kinh doanh v thc hin ngha v vi ngn sch nh
nc, n thi k tr n m n v vay vn khng tr cho ngn hng th ngn hng s

93

chuyn sang n qu hn v n v phi chu li sut cao hn li sut thng thng.


ng thi n m bo s thng nht gia vn ng ca vt t, hng ho v s vn
ng ca tin t trong nn kinh t, gp phn n nh tin t v n nh gi c. Vi
nguyn tc ny ngn hng bo ton c vn, kp thi a vn vo hot ng kinh
doanh ca mnh, c thu b p chi v c li nhm duy tr v pht trin hot ng
ca bn thn ngn hng.

Nguyn tc 2: Vay vn phi c bo m nhm gim thiu ri ro cho

ngn hng trong qu trnh kinh doanh


Nguyn tc ny c a ra nhm m bo quan h cn i tin hng, tn trng qui
lut lu thng tin t v gim bt ri ro cho ngn hng. Khi khch hng khng c kh
nng tr n th bo m tin vay l ngun thu hi n th hai ca ngn hng.
Cc n v mun vay vn ca ngn hng u phi xut trnh y chng t, ho n,
hp ng mua bn hng ho. Trn c s , cn b ngn hng tin hnh xt cho vay
tng ng vi gi tr vt t hng ho c ghi trn chng t, ho n hp ng,
iu ny p dng vi doanh nghip Nh nc. Cc doanh nghip ngoi quc doanh
mun vay vn ca ngn hng u phi th chp bng TS, ngn hng xt cho vay thng
thng bng 60-70% gi tr th chp .Cc TSB tn dng phi l s hu hp php ca
bn vay, phi c gi tr v gi tr s dng, c th trng chp nhn. TSB c th l
cc loi sau:
Hng ha v chi ph trong qu trnh sn xut v lu thng sn phm.
Vng, bc, qu .
Cc chng ch tin gi, th tit kim tri phiu, c phiu, k phiu ngn hng,
hi phiu...
Bt ng sn vi giy t chng minh thc quyn s hu (bn gc) v c xc
nhn ca ca cng chng. Nu l TS thuc v quyn s hu tp th phi c thm bn
ngh quyt tp th nht tr a ti sn ra th chp.
Ngoi cc loi m bo trn, ngn hng cn c th cho vay da trn cc m bo sau:

94

Tn chp: ch p dng i vi khch hng c quan h lu di, uy tn ln v phi


thm nh k cc s liu ti chnh c lin quan.
Bn bo lnh phi l ch th c y t cch php nhn, xut trnh cc giy t
cn thit v em ti sn ra th chp. Khi nhn bo lnh phi thc hin bng vn bn c
k xc nhn ca c quan c thm quyn. Ngi bo lnh phi chu trch nhim v
khon n nu bn vay khng tr c n.
Trong sut qu trnh s dng vn vay, cc n v vay vn lun c gi tr vt t tng
ng lm bo m. Nguyn tc ny gip cho cc n v s dng vn vay mt cch c
hiu qu. Ngn hng cho vay vn an ton trnh nhng ri ro khng ng c trong hot
ng kinh doanh ca ngn hng. Bn cnh, nguyn tc ny bo m quan h cn i
gia tin t v hng ho trong lu thng gp phn bnh n gi c.

Nguyn tc 3: Vay vn phi c mc ch v m bo s dng ng mc

ch
Cc khch hng c nhu cu vay vn ca ngn hng u phi c k hoch, n xin vay
gi ngn hng vi y cc ni dung sau: s tin vay, thi hn s dng vn vay, mc
ch s dng vn vay v tnh hiu qu ca vn vay ngn hng. Trn c s , ngn
hng kim tra xem xt, nu thy ng vn vay ngn hng em li hiu qu kinh t v
tr n ng hn th quyt nh cho vay. Mt khc trn c s k hoch xin vay vn ca
ngi xin vay, bn thn ngn hng phi xy dng k hoch cho vay vn ca mnh
ch ng trong vic u t tn dng. Nguyn tc m bo cho khch hng vay vn c
vn v vay vn c k hoch. ng thi nguyn tc ny nhm tit kim ng vn,
u t vn c trng im v c hiu qu kinh t cao. Trng hp khch hng c nhu
cu vay vn pht sinh ngoi k hoch, ngn hng xt thy cn thit v hp l, cn i
vi ngun vn ca mnh, c th cho vay b sung cho ngi vay.
m bo s dng vn vay ng mc ch tha thun nhm bo m hiu qu s dng
vn vay v kh nng thu hi n vay sau ny. V pha ngn hng, vic s dng vn vay

95

ng mc ch gp phn nng cao hiu qu s dng vn vay ng thi gip khch


hng m bo kh nng tr n cho ngn hng.
Ba nguyn tc c bn ni trn c quan h mt thit, gn b vi nhau thnh mt tng th
thng nht, c nh hng rt ln n quan h tn dng gia ngn hng vi cc thnh
phn kinh t, phng nga c cc yu t ri ro m bo an ton tn dng. V cng l
"Va to tin , va gy sc p buc cc n v kinh t tm mi bin php nng
cao hiu qu kinh t", hot ng tn dng ngn hng cn chuyn mnh v ng hng
sang hch ton kinh doanh thc s, thc y t chc sp xp li nn kinh t ca tn
dng ngn hng, ph hp vi c ch th trng c s qun l iu tit v m ca Nh
nc theo nh hng x hi ch ngha.
1.1.3. Phn loi cho vay
Trong nn kinh t th trng, hot ng cho vay ca NHTM rt a dng v phong ph
vi nhiu loi hnh tn dng khc nhau.Vic p dng hnh thc cho vay no l ty
thuc vo c im kinh t ca i tng s dng vn tn dng nhm s dng v qun
l vn tn dng c hiu qu v ph hp vi s vn ng cng nh c im kinh t
khc nhau ca i tng tn dng. Sau y l cc tiu thc phn loi cho vay.

Phn loi theo thi hn cho vay

+ Cho vay ngn hn: l hnh thc cho vay vi thi hn khon vay n 12 thng. Khon
vay c s dng b sung, b p thiu ht vn lu ng ca cc doanh nghip, cc
nhu cu chi tiu ngn hn ca cc c nhn.
+ Cho vay trung hn: l hnh thc cho vay vi thi hn khon vay t 12 thng n 60
thng. Mc ch l u t mua sm ti sn c nh, ci tin i mi thit b, cng ngh,
m rng kinh doanh, xy dng cc d n mi c qui m nh v thi gian thu hi vn
nhanh. Bn cnh , n cn c dng u t vo ti sn lu ng thng xuyn
ca doanh nghip, nht l doanh nghip mi thnh lp.
+ Cho vay di hn: l hnh thc cho vay vi thi hn khon vay t 60 thng tr ln.
Mc ch l dng p ng cc nhu cu u t di hn nh xy dng nh , cc thit
b, phng tin vn ti c quy m ln, xy dng cc doanh nghip ln.

96

Cch phn chia theo thi gian gip cho ngn hng tnh ton cc lung cho vay, mc
cung cho vay trong mt khong thi gian nht nh. Nghip v truyn thng ca cc
ngn hng l cho vay ngn hn nhng t khong thp nin 70 tr li y, cc ngn
hng chuyn sang kinh doanh tng hp, trong thng tm cch nng t trng cho
vay trung di hn.

Phn loi theo mc ch s dng vn vay

+ Cho vay bt ng sn: l loi cho vay lin quan n vic mua sm v xy dng nh
, t ai hay bt ng sn. Ngun vn vay c a vo sn xut kinh doanh, u c
tng gi, to ngun thu nhp cho ngi i vay.
+ Cho vay cng thng nghip: l loi cho vay ngn hn b sung vn lu ng cho
cc doanh nghip hot ng trong lnh vc cng nghip, thng mi, dch v.
Cc khon cho vay ny l mt loi ti sn c thanh khon k m khng th bn, chuyn
nhng hoc th chp c v c mc ri ro cao, nhng chng em li nhiu li tc
cho ngn hng. V vy cc khon cho vay cng nghip v thng mi chim phn ln
trong tng ti sn C ca Ngn hng.
Cho vay cng thng nghip bao gm cc khon cho vay ngn hn v vn lu ng
(cho vay h tr ngn qu ) v cc khon cho vay trung, di hn v vn c nh. Cc
khon cho vay ngn hn v vn lu ng gm c cho vay vng lai (cho vay theo ti
khon vng lai), chit khu thng phiu v tn dng th chp. Cho vay trung v di
hn u t vo ti sn c nh nh thu mua t, xy dng nh xng, kho, bn bi,
mua sm my mc thit b phng tin sn xut kinh doanh
+ Cho vay nng nghip: l loi cho vay trang tri cc chi ph sn xut nng nghip
nh mua phn bn, thuc tr su, ging cy trng, thc n gia sc, lao ng, nhin
liu,...Cho vay nng nghip to iu kin gip nng dn chuyn dch c cu sn
xut, chuyn mn ha sn xut cc nng sn c gi tr xut khu, khi phc v pht
trin ngnh ngh truyn thng, pht trin c s h tng nng thn...
+ Cho vay tiu dng: l hnh thc cho vay ngn v trung hn vi li sut tha thun
gia ngn hng v khch hng, l hnh thc cho vay p ng cc nhu cu tiu dng

97

c nhn nh mua sm vt dng gia nh, mua t, xy dng v sa cha nh , du


hc, y t,.... Ngi i vay phi c nhu cu chnh ng, hp l v phi chng minh
ngun thu nhp n nh tr n.
+ Cho vay kinh doanh xut nhp khu: l loi cho vay h tr hot ng sn xut
kinh doanh ca cc doanh nghip xut nhp khu. Vic h tr ny gp phn thc y
hot ng kinh doanh xut nhp khu pht trin, thu ht lng khch hng tim nng.

Phn loi theo tnh cht m bo

+ Cho vay c m bo bng TS: l hnh thc cho vay da trn c s bo m tin vay
nh th chp, cm c, bo lnh bng TS ca bn th ba, ti sn hnh thnh vn vay.Cc
TS dng m bo n vay phi hi cc iu kin v tnh th trng, n nh. Cc
hnh thc cho vay c bo m nh m bo bng cc chng khon (giy t c gi),
bng hp ng thu khon, bng vt t hng ha, bng bt ng sn.
+ Cho vay khng m bo bng TS: l hnh thc cho vay khng c TS th chp cm c
hoc khng c s bo lnh ca bn th ba. Trong trng hp ny, ngn hng cho vay
da trn uy tn ca khch hng.
Cho vay c m bo khng bng TS l hnh thc tng i mo him ca ngn hng
nn cn tun th cc iu kin v vay vn nh sau:
Th nht, lut php u qui nh rng cc t chc tn dng ch cho vay i vi
nhng khch hng c nng lc ch th, ngha l c nng lc php lut v nng
lc hnh vi.
Th hai, uy tn ca ngi i vay l iu kin vay vn, l iu kin quan trng
nht i vi ch th l bn vay khng c TSB.
Th ba, vay vn ca ngn hng theo hnh thc cho vay m bo khng bng
TS th ngi i vay phi c tnh hnh ti chnh lnh mnh.

Phn loi theo phng php hon tr

+ Cho vay tr gp: l loi cho vay m vic hon tr vn v li theo nh k. Loi cho
vay ny thng p dng cho cc khon vay c thi gian di nh cho vay bt ng sn,

98

cho vay tiu dng i vi nhng ti sn c gi tr cao. Ngoi ra, hnh thc ny cn p
dng cho mt s loi cho vay c gi tr nh nh cho vay i vi nhng nh kinh doanh
nh (cho vay ch), cho vay ti tr trang thit b nng nghip.Thng thng c 4
phng php tr gp sau y:
Phng php cng thm.
Phng php tr vn gc bng nhau v tr li theo s d vo cui mi nh k.
Phng php tr vn gc bng nhau v tr li tnh trn mc hon tr ca vn
gc.
Phng php tr vn gc v li bng nhau trong tt c cc nh k (phng
php hin gi).
+ Cho vay phi tr gp: l loi cho vay thanh ton mt ln theo k hn tha thun.
+ Cho vay hon tr theo yu cu: l loi cho vay tr n nhiu ln nhng khng c k
hn c th m ph thuc vo kh nng ti chnh ca ngi i vay c th tr n bt c
lc no, p dng gii ngn s dng ti khon vng lai.

Phn loi theo xut x tn dng

+ Cho vay trc tip: ngn hng cp vn trc tip cho khch hng. Ngi i vay trc
tip hon tr n vay cho ngn hng.
+ Cho vay gin tip: l khon cho vay c thc hin thng qua vic mua li cc kh
c, chng t n pht sinh v cn trong thi hn thanh ton nh chit khu thng
phiu, mua cc phiu bn hng tiu dng, my mc nng nghip tr gp hay mua n.

Phn loi theo phng thc cho vay

+ Cho vay tng ln (cho vay theo mn): l phng thc cho vay m mi ln pht sinh
nhu cu vay vn bt buc bn vay phi tin hnh cc th tc lm n xin vay (khch
hng lp h s vay vn, ngn hng xt duyt cho vay ... ) v k hp ng tn dng.
Phng thc ny p dng i vi nhng khch hng c nhu cu vay vn khng thng
xuyn, c tnh cht t xut, khng n nh hn mc tn dng.

99

+ Cho vay theo hn mc tn dng: l hnh thc cho vay m ngn hng cho php duy tr
mc d n vay ti a c duy tr trong mt thi hn nht nh i vi khch hng.
Mc d n vay ti a l hn mc tn dng.
Ngn hng cn c vo mc ch nhu cu vay vn ca khch hng, t l cho vay ti a
so vi ti sn m bo, kh nng ngun vn ca ngn hng tnh ton v tha thun
mt hn mc tn dng duy tr trong thi hn nht nh. Khch hng c gii ngn v
hon tr nhiu ln trong mt gii hn nht inh sao cho tng d n khng c cao
hn hn mc tn dng. Phng thc ny p dng i vi cc khch hng c nhu cu
vay vn v tr n thng xuyn, c uy tn i vi ngn hng.
+ Cho vay hp vn: Theo quy ch cho vay ca t chc tn dng i vi khch hng
(Ban hnh theo Quyt nh s 1627 2001 Q-NHNN ngy 31 12 2001 ca Thng c
NHNN) th: Cho vay hp vn l loi cho vay gm mt nhm t chc tn dng cng
cho vay i vi mt d n vay vn hoc phng n vay vn ca khch hng. Trong ,
mt t chc tn dng lm u mi dn xp, phi hp vi cc t chc tn dng khc.
Vic cho vay hp vn thc hin theo quy nh ca Quy ch ny v Quy ch ng ti
tr ca cc t chc tn dng do Thng c Ngn hng Nh nc ban hnh.
+ Cho vay thu chi: l hnh thc cho vay gn lin vi vic s dng ti khon tin gi
vng lai ca c nhn hoc doanh nghip thng qua vic s dng qua s d trong mt
hn mc cho php vi thi hn v ph do ngn hng qui nh. Quyn c thu chi
c chia thnh hai loi:
Quyn thu chi mc nh: l hnh thc thu cho ph bin nht. Quyn ny c
ngn hng cp cho khch hng v ghi r trong iu kin s dng ti khon. Khch
hng c quyn rt qu s d mt mc cho php m khng cn phi bo trc cho ngn
hng.
Quyn thu chi tha thun: khi khch hng mun rt qu s d th khch hng
phi xin php ngn hng.

100

1.2. Hot ng cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh ti Ngn hng Thng


mi
1.2.1. Khi nim cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh
Cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh l mt hnh thc tn dng ca ngn hng.
Trong , ngn hng cp cho khch hng mt khon tin theo mt mc nht nh.
Khch hng s dng tin vay xy dng, sa cha nh v c trch nhim hon tr
y vn gc v li theo qui nh.
y l loi hnh cho vay ca ngn hng i vi khch hng c nhn, h gia nh. Vic
ra i sn phm cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh gip a dng ha sn phm ca
ngn hng, m rng th phn khch hng. Hn na, cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh
gip ngn hng tng kh nng cnh tranh so vi cc ngn hng khc trong nn kinh t
th trng. Xu th cc ngn hng ch trng khai thc v pht trin vo lnh vc tiu
dng ngy cng mnh m.
1.2.2. c im cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh
+ Nhu cu vay ph thuc vo chu k kinh t. Khi nn kinh t pht trin, mc sng
ngi dn nng cao, thu nhp tng th nhu cu p ng v nh nng cao. Do , nhu
cu vay ca khch hng cng tng. Ngc li, khi nn kinh t suy thoi, i sng kh
khn, thu nhp khng cao, ngi dn s khng c nhu cu vay ci thin cuc sng
v h lo lng s khng c kh nng tr n.
+ i vi hot ng cho vay vi quy m ln hoc nh th ngn hng phi b ra chi ph
thm nh tn dng, gii ngn, gim st, thu hi n ... .Do , chi ph dnh cho hot
ng cho vay thng cao.
+ Nhu cu vay cn ph thuc vo trnh hc vn v mc thu nhp. Nhng c nhn c
thu nhp cao v n nh thng c nhu cu vay v h c kh nng thanh ton khon
vay.
+ Khch hng vay l c nhn nn vic chng minh nng lc ti chnh l kh khn bi
v h d dng giu kn hoc cung cp thng tin sai lch. Do , cht lng thng tin ti
chnh ca khch hng vay thng khng cao.

101

+ Thi hn cho vay di, ngun tr n ca khch hng c th bin ng ln, ph thuc
vo qu trnh lm vic, k nng, kinh nghim, sc khe ...
+ T cch, phm cht ca khch hng l yu t kh xc nh, ch yu da vo kh
nng nh gi, kinh nghim ca cn b thm nh tn dng nhng l rt quan trong
quyt nh s hon tr ca khon vay.
1.2.4. Vai tr cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh
1.2.4.1.

i vi ngn hng

To ngun thu nhp cho ngn hng.

i vi ngn hng, khi quyt nh a ra bt k mt sn phm no, ngn hng u tnh


ton k l ng v k vng sn phm s gip cho ngn hng gia tng li nhun. Bn
cnh , mc canh tranh gia cc ngn hng ngy cng gay gt khng nhng gia
cc NHTM trong nc m cn cnh tranh vi cc ngn hng nc ngoi i hi cc
ngn hng phi m rng i tng khch hng. Vit Nam l nc ang pht trin
nhanh chng nn nhu cu vay tin phc v cho mc ch tiu dng cng gia tng. Do
, cc ngn hng khng ngng trin khai cc sn phm mi p ng nhu cu ca th
trng giu tim nng ny v gia tng li nhun. Ngy nay, trong cuc cnh tranh khc
lit vi cc t chc ti chnh, cc ngn hng buc phi m rng i tng khch hng
v a dng ho sn phm hn ch ri ro v tng li nhun.V th, khch hng c
nhn ngy cng c quan tm ch nhiu hn. c bit cc quc gia c nn kinh t
pht trin hoc ang tng trng mnh m, nhu cu vay tin phc v cho lnh vc tiu
dng cng tng ln nhanh chng. Do , cc ngn hng khng ngng trin khai cc sn
phm mi p ng nhu cu ca th trng giu tim nng ny.

a dng ha cc sn phm ca ngn hng.

Trc y, a s cc ngn hng thng mi u hn ch tn dng tiu dng v cho rng


y l cc khon vay nh l v ri ro cao. Ngy nay, ngn hng ch trng trin khai
v cung cp cc sn phm n i tng khch hng c nhn nhm gia tng v th cnh
tranh trn th trng. Cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh l mt sn phm phc v
cho i tng khch hng c nhn cho nn n gp phn thc hin ch trng a

102

dng ho cc sn phm ca NHTM.

Ngn hng c iu kin thit lp mi quan h mt thit vi khch hng.

Do thi gian hot ng cho vay tng i di nn mi quan h gia khch hng v
ngn hng c th c ko di trong nhiu nm, to mi quan h mt thit. Nhng
khch hng ny tr thnh ngi qung co tt nht cho ngn hng, gip ngn hng
nng cao uy tn trn th trng v gia tng s lng khch hng mi trong tng lai.

To thun li m rng th phn, nng cao hnh nh ngn hng.

Thng qua vic s dng sn phm cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh khch hng s
bit n v s dng cc sn phm v dch v khc ca ngn hng, m rng c th
phn. iu ny cng gp phn lm tng thm kh nng cnh tranh cng nh nng cao
hnh nh tt p ca ngn hng trong tm tr khch hng.
1.2.4.2.

i vi ngi i vay

Gp phn gii quyt kh khn ti chnh khch hng

Nu nh trc y, sa cha hoc xy dng nh th ngi dn phi tit kim lu


nm, i vay thng qua ngi quen bit, hoc i vay nng. V vy, s hu mt cn nh
ca mnh th phi tri qua mt thi gian di sng trong nhng ngi nh tm b hoc
nh thu. Vic ra i hnh thc cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh kp thi gii
quyt c kh khn ti chnh ca khch hng.

m bo cuc sng an c lp nghip

Cuc sng ngi dn trc y phi nhng cn nh tm b do thin tai tn ph, nh


thu hoc khng c nh gy nh hng n cng n vic lm khng n nh. Thng
qua hnh thc cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh gp phn ngi dn sng trong
nhng ngi nh kin c, khang trang. T , ngi dn an tm trong cng vic, n
nh vic lm, mc sng c ci thin.
1.2.4.3.

i vi x hi

Gp phn gii quyt nhu cu nh cho x hi

Hnh thc cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh gp phn khng nh vn nhu cu


nh ca ngi dn. Khng nhng gip h n nh cuc sng, an tm lm vic m cn

103

ci thin mc sng ca ngi dn. T nhng cn nh tm b, nh thu hoc khng c


nh th thng qua hot ng cho vay gip cho ngi dn c sng trong cn nh
khang trang, y .

Gp phn thc y kinh t pht trin

Hot ng cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh lm cho ngun vn lu thng v tc


quay vng vn nhanh hn to ra li nhun, gp phn thc y kinh t pht trin.
1.2.5. Nhn t nh hng n cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh
1.2.5.1.

Nhn t khch quan

Mi trng kinh t

Mi trng kinh t bao gm mi hot ng tt c thnh phn kinh t m c trng l


trnh pht trin kinh t, thu nhp quc dn, thu nhp bnh qun trn u ngi, mc
sng dn c. Yu t kinh t nh hng rt ln ti thu nhp, chi tiu ca khch hng c
nhn, h gia nh v s nh hng ti nhu cu ca h i vi dch v ngn hng. Khi
nn kinh t pht trin v n nh, cc bin s gi c, lm pht, t gi n nh, thu nhp,
chi tiu ca c nhn, h gia nh tng ln, do vy nhu cu ca h v dch v ngn hng
cng pht sinh nhiu hn, nh , tn dng tiu dng c m rng. Ngc li, khi nn
kinh t khng n nh v tr tr th nhu cu chi tiu gim i, ng thi nhu cu vay ca
ngi dn cng gim theo v ngi dn cho rng tnh trng kh khn tip tc xy ra
trong tng lai. V vy, cc thng tin v c cu kinh t, thu nhp bnh qun u ngi,
tc tng trng kinh t v s n nh kinh t l nhng yu t m ngn hng cn
quan tm hot ng cho vay c hiu qu.

Mi trng vn ha x hi:

Mi trng vn ha x hi bao gm c trng cc yu t nh phong tc tp qun,


thi quen s dng cc dch v ngn hng, t l tit kim, trnh dn tr, th hiu ca
dn c, ni , ni lm vic,... Vn ha tiu dng ca ngi dn s nh hng ti hnh
vi v nhu cu cc dch v ngn hng. C th, trong mt mi trng m ngi dn c
thi quen chi tiu nhiu hn tit kim hay c xu hng tiu dng cc hng ha gi tr
cao, dch v CVTD c iu kin c m rng. Hoc trong mt x hi c trnh dn

104

tr cao, ngi dn d dng tip cn vi cng ngh ngn hng, d dng n nhn cc
dch v ca ngn hng. i vi nhng ngi lao ng chn tay th h mong mun c
cuc sng n nh, t khi ngh ti chuyn chi tiu, ci thin, hoc nng cao mc sng,
t nh hng n vic s dng sn phm ca ngn hng. Nghin cu cc yu t vn
ha x hi khng nhng xc nh r cc tc ng ti hnh vi s dng dch v ngn
hng v la chn ngn hng ca khch hng m cn gip cc cn b ngn hng c cch
thc hnh x ph hp trong giao tip vi khch hng.

Mi trng php lut

Mi trng php lut bao gm h thng lut, h thng cc bin php bo m cho lut
c thc thi v s chp hnh nghim chnh php lut ca cc ch th tham gia hot
ng kinh doanh v cc ngnh c lin quan. Kinh doanh ngn hng l mt trong nhng
ngnh chu s gim st cht ch ca lut php v cc c quan chc nng ca Chnh
ph. Do , hot ng cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh ca ngn hng cng khng
nm ngoi mi trng php lut. Cc ch trng, chnh sch ca Nh nc tc ng
n hot ng cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh . Mi trng php lut em n cho
ngn hng mt lot cc c hi mi v c nhng thch thc mi, nh vic thay i
chnh sch v li sut, quy ch cho vay,...

Mi trng cnh tranh

T khi gia nhp WTO cho n nay, ngnh ngn hng c nhng thay i c bn khi
cc t chc ti chnh nc ngoi c th nm gi c phn ca cc ngn hng Vit Nam
v s xut hin ca cc ngn hng 100% vn nc ngoi. Do , mc canh tranh
cc ngn hng ngy cng tng cao khng nhng gia cc NHTM trong nc m cn
cnh tranh vi nhm ngn hng 100% vn nc ngoi. Ngn hng nc ngoi thng
sn c mt phn khc khch hng ring, a s l doanh nghip n t nc h. H
phc v nhng khch hng ny t rt lu nhng th trng khc v khi khch hng
m rng th trng sang Vit Nam th ngn hng cng m vn phng i din. Ngn
hng nc ngoi cng khng vng phi nhng ro cn m hin nay nhiu NHTM
trong nc ang mc phi, in hnh l hn mc cho vay chng khon, n xu trong

105

cho vay bt ng sn. c bit, ngn hng nc ngoi c kh nng kt ni vi mng


li rng khp trn nhiu nc. Do , NHTM trong nc phi i mi sn phm dch
v, phi cn nhc v tnh ton trc khi a ra nhng chnh sch ph hp, to li th
cnh tranh mi ca ngn hng.
1.2.5.2.

Nhn t ch quan

S uy tn ca ngn hng

Hin nay, s lng ngn hng hot ng rt nhiu th ngi c nhu cu i vay quan
tm l la chn ngn hng no c uy tn tin tng. S uy tn ca ngn hng c
vai tr rt quan trng trong vic gii thiu hnh nh ca ngn hng n vi khch hng.
N l nhn t tin phong, gip ngn hng khng nh tn tui, v tr trong lng khch
hng, to cho khch hng ch da tinh thn vng chc trong vic gi gm ti sn, v
nhu cu vay vn, nh thu ht c nhiu khch hng.

Chnh sch tn dng

Chnh sch tn dng bao gm cc yu t hn mc cho vay i vi khch hng, li sut


cho vay, k hn khon tn dng, mc l ph, phng thc thanh ton, kh nng thanh
ton n ca khch hng . Tt c cc yu t to nn c tnh sn phm cho vay xy
dng v sa cha nh ca ngn hng, to ra s khc bit v sn phm cho vay xy
dng v sa cha nh ca ngn hng ny so vi ngn hng khc, m rng hot ng
cho vay ca ngn hng i vi khch hng. Ngoi ra, li sut cho vay l yu t quan
trng nh hng n hot ng cho vay v thu nhp ca ngn hng, l yu t canh
tranh trn th trng. Nu li sut gim lm tng nhu cu vay ca khch hng. Tuy
nhin, li sut gim qu thp th ngn hng khng th b p chi ph, phng nga ri
ro, to ra li nhun. Nu li sut qu cao lm gim nhu cu vay ca khch hng. Do ,
ngn hng cn phi xc nh mc tiu ngn hn v di hn, xy dng chnh sch tn
dng ph hp vi mc tiu t ra.

Qu trnh tn dng

Qu trnh thm nh tn dng cng l mt yu t quyt nh n hot ng cho vay ca


ngn hng. Qu trnh thm nh vi mt h thng thang im, ch tiu nh gi mt

106

cch khoa hc nhng hp l , khng rm r th hin cht lng tn dng hiu qu.
Ngoi ra, vic thm nh thng tin khch hng cng k m phn quan trng, bao gm:
nng lc php l , nng lc hnh vi nhn s, kh nng ti chnh ca khch hng, o
c khch hng, TSB ... Hin nay, ti Vit Nam ch c trung tm thng tin tn dng
CIC (Credit Information Center) ca NHNN Vit Nam gip NHTM tm thng tin
khch hng nhng phn ln d liu trung tm ny cp nht khng kp thi v cha y
thng tin khch hng c nhn. Do , vic thm nh khch hng c nhn ti cc
ngn hng gp nhiu kh khn v ri ro.

Cht lng i ng nhn vin tn dng v c s vt cht

Nhn vin ngn hng l yu t gp phn thnh cng ca ngn hng, l hnh nh ca
ngn hng i vi khch hng. Do sn phm ca ngn hng mang tnh phi vt cht, nn
nhn vin cn c trnh nghip v chuyn mn cao, kh nng giao tip linh hot lm
gia tng kh nng cnh tranh, thu ht nhiu khch hng n vi ngn hng, ng thi
th hin cht lng tn dng hiu qu.
C s vt cht, trang thit b l mt li th ca ngn hng v hot ng cho vay xy
dng v sa cha nh . Khoa hc cng ngh pht trin, trang thit b hin i to
thun li ngn hng trong vic lu tr, tm kim, qun l thng tin khch hng. Do
gim chi ph, gim ri ro, tng li nhun t hot ng cho vay xy dng v sa cha
nh ti ngn hng.
1.2.6. Ri ro trong hot ng cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh
Hot ng cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh thng cha nhiu ri ro bi v
c nhiu vn xy ra trong khong thi gian vay nh v li sut, nn kinh t bin
ng, sc khe ngi i vay, mi trng thin nhin.
Ri ro trong hot ng cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh ch yu l ri ro tn dng,
l ri ro kh nng tr n ca khch hng nh khng tr n gc, tr li ng
hn....Ngun tr n cho ngn hng ch yu l thu nhp thng xuyn ca khch hng.
Thu nhp ca khch hng ph thuc vo cng vic, tnh trng sc khe. Thi hn cho
vay di cng gy nn ri ro tim n tr n ca khch hng. Khi khch hng gp bin c

107

trong cuc sng th kh nng khng tr n ca khch hng l rt ln. Do , bin php
khc phc trnh tnh trng xy ra ri ro ny l ngn hng mua bo him, hoc ngn
hng buc phi thanh l TSB ca ngi vay v TSB chnh l cn nh khch hng
xy dng hoc sa cha. Tuy nhin, ngn hng gp kh khn trong vic thanh l ti
sn bo m v ti sn l bt ng sn, l loi ti sn c tnh thanh khon khng cao v
gi bin ng tht thng. Do , trc cho vay, ngn hng buc phi thm nh thn
trng v chnh xc. Hn na, yu t thin nhin nh thin tai, l lt, bo ... cng gy
ri ro i vi hot ng cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh .
Ngoi ra, ngn hng gp phi ri ro o c. Tc l khch hng cu kt vi ngi bn
lm cc giy t gi hoc khch hng cu kt vi cn b tn dng thm nh TS sai lch
nhm chim ot vn ca ngn hng.
1.2.6.

Mt s ch tiu s dng phn tch

1.2.6.1.

Doanh s cho vay (DSCV)

Doanh s cho vay (DSCV) l tng s tin m ngn hng gii ngn di hnh
thc tin mt hoc chuyn khon trong mt thi gian nht nh. Ch tiu ny ni ln
quy m hot ng ca ngn hng trong mt thi k v tnh hnh cung ng vn cho nn
kinh t, mi quan h gia ngn hng v khch hng. Ngoi ra, tc tng doanh s
cho vay l ch tiu phn nh kh nng m rng cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh
ca ngn hng. Ch s ny tng chng t ngn hng cho vay nm nay nhiu hn nm
trc, tc l hot ng cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh c m rng. Ngc li,
ch s ny gim th ngn hng cho khch hng vay t. Cng thc:
Mc tng trng tuyt i DSCV = DSCVn DSCVn1
T l tng trng DSCV (%)=

DSCVn DSCVn1
100
DSCVn1

n: thi im nm n
n-1: thi im nm n-1
1.2.6.2.

Doanh s thu n (DSTN)

108

Doanh s thu n (DSTN) l tng s tin m ngn hng thu hi t cc khon


cho vay trong mt thi gian nht nh. N phn nh tnh hnh thu n ca ngn hng.
Doanh s thu n cng cao km vi doanh s cho vay cng ln th mi m bo cht
lng cho vay. Nu doanh s thu n thp th hin d n qu hn ln, kh nng thu hi
vn v li thp th cht lng tn dng l km. Ch tiu ny th hin nng lc lm vic
ca CBTD thng qua vic thu hi n v cht lng thm nh xt duyt ca CBTD.
Cng thc:
Mc tng trng tuyt i DSTN = DSTN n DSTN n1
T l tng trng DSTN (%) =

DSTN n DSTN n1
100
DSTN n1

n: thi im nm n
n-1: thi im nm n-1
1.2.6.3.

D n cho vay (DNCV)

D n cho vay l ch tiu phn nh s vn cho vay ca ngn hng i vi khch


hng trong thi gian nht nh. N l khon tin m ngn hng cha thu hi c,
tng s tin cn li sau khi ly doanh s cho vay tr i s tin m khch hng tr
cho ngn hng. Nu tc d n cho vay cao chng t ngn hng cha thu hi khon
n, cn thc y cng tc thu n ca khch hng. Ngoi ra, d n cng cao th hin
quy m hot ng ca ngn hng cng ln nhng ng thi cng phn nh ri ro rt
ln ngn hng phi i mt l vn n qu hn. Do Cng thc:
Mc tng trng tuyt i DNCV = DNCVn DNCVn1
T l tng trng DNCV (%)=

DNCVn DNCVn1
100
DNCVn1

n: thi im nm n
n-1: thi im nm n-1
1.2.6.4.

N qu hn (N xu)

109

N qu hn l ch tiu phn nh kh nng qun l v thu hi n ca ngn hng,


l cc khon n t nhm 3 tr i: n di tiu chun, n nghi ngi, n c kh nng mt
vn. C nhiu nguyn nhn dn n cc khon n qu hn nh: s bt n ca nn kinh
t, s thay i chnh sch kinh t....Nguyn nhn cng c th xut pht t trnh nh
gi, phn tch yu km ca cn b tn dng khi phn tch cc khon vay khng c kh
nng hon tr ngay t khi xt h s tn dng, o c khch hng.
Thng t s 02/2013/TT-NHNN ngy 21/01/2013ti iu 10 quy nh v phn loi
n, trch lp d phng ri ro ca cc t chc tn dng. y l c s cho ngn hng
nh gi, xp hng tn dng khch hng. Cc khon n c qui nh gm c:

Nhm 1: (N tiu chun) bao gm:

- Cc khon n trong hn v t chc tn dng nh gi l c kh nng thu hi y


c gc v li ng hn.
- Cc khon n qu hn di 10 ngy v t chc tn dng nh gi l c kh nng
thu hi y gc v li b qu hn v thu hi y gc v li ng thi hn cn li.
-

Cc khon n c phn loi vo nhm 1 theo quy nh ti Khon 2 iu ny.

Nhm 2: (N cn ch ) bao gm:

Cc khon n qu hn t 10 ngy n 90 ngy.

Cc khon n iu chnh k hn tr n ln u (i vi khch hng l doanh

nghip, t chc th t chc tn dng phi c h s nh gi khch hng v kh nng tr


n y n gc v li ng k hn c iu chnh ln u).
Cc khon n c phn loi vo nhm 2 theo quy nh ti Khon 3 iu ny.

Nhm 3: (N di tiu chun) bao gm:

Cc khon n qu hn t 91 ngy n 180 ngy.

N gia hn n ln u.

Cc khon n c mi n hoc gim li do khch hng khng kh nng tr li

y theo hp ng tn dng.
-

N ang thu hi theo kt lun thanh tra.

110

N c phn loi vo nhm 3 theo qui nh ti khon 2 v khon 3 iu ny.

Nhm 4: (N nghi ng) bao gm:

Cc khon n qu hn t 181 ngy n 360 ngy.

Cc khon n c cu li thi hn tr n ln u qu hn di 90 ngy theo thi

hn tr n c c cu li ln u
-

Cc khon n c cu li thi hn tr n ln th hai.

Cc khon n quy nh ti im c khon 1 iu ny qu hn t 30 ngy n 60

ngy m vn cha thu hi c.


-

Cc khon n c phn loi vo nhm 4 theo quy nh ti Khon 3 iu ny.

Nhm 5: (N c kh nng mt vn) bao gm:

Cc khon n qu hn trn 360 ngy.

- Cc khon n c cu li thi hn tr n ln u qu hn t 90 ngy tr ln theo


thi hn tr n c c cu li ln u.
- Cc khon n c cu li thi hn tr n ln th hai qu hn theo thi hn tr n
c c cu li ln th hai.
- Cc khon n c cu li thi hn tr n ln th ba tr ln, k c cha b qu hn
hoc qu hn.
- Cc khon n qui nh ti im c khon 1 iu ny qu hn trn 60 ngy k t
ngy c quyt nh thu hi.
- N phi thu hi theo kt lun thanh tra nhng qu thi hn thu hi trn 60
ngy m vn cha thu hi c.
- N ca khch hng l t chc tn dng c Ngn hng Nh Nc cng b t
vo tnh trng kim sot c bit, chi nhnh Ngn hng nc ngoi b phong ta vn v
ti sn.
-

Cc khon n c phn loi vo nhm 5 theo quy nh ti Khon 3 iu ny.


1.2.6.5.

T l n qu hn (%)

111

T l n qu hn l t l gia n qu hn v tng d n cho vay. Ch tiu ny


phn nh r nht v cht lng cho vay ca ngn hng i vi khch hng v ri ro i
vi khon vay. Cng thc:
T l n qu hn (%) = (N qu hn / Tng d n cho vay) * 100
Bt k ngn hng no cng c n qu hn nhng mc t l l khc nhau. T l n
qu hn cao phn nh nguy c mt vn ca ngn hng, ng thi l nguy c gim thu
nhp ca ngn hng, thm ch c th dn n nguy c mt kh nng thanh khon nu t
l ny qu cao. Khi ngn hng c t l n qu hn cao s c nh gi l cht lng
cho vay thp. Khi t l n qu hn thp, c th ngn hng ang theo ui chnh sch
cho vay an ton, t ri ro vi khch hng nn khng m rng cho vay nhiu vi loi
hnh ny nn t l tng trng d n v doanh s s thp. Theo qui nh ca Ngn
hng Nh nc, t l n qu hn trn tng d n ln hn 7% l yu km, t l ny
mc nh hn hoc bng 5% c nh gi ngn hng c cht lng tn dng tt.

112

Chng 2: THC TRNG HOT NG CHO VAY XY DNG V SA


CHA NH TI NGN HNG TMCP CNG THNG VIT NAM
(VIETINBANK) CHI NHNH NNG
2.1. Tng quan v Ngn hng TMCP Cng Thng Vit Nam (Vietinbank) chi
nhnh Nng
NHTMCP Cng Thng Vit Nam chi nhnh Nng c tr s chnh ti 172
Nguy nVn Linh Qun Thanh Kh Thnh ph Nng
Tn php l : Ngn hng Thng mi C phn Cng Thng Vit Nam.
Tn giao dch: Vietinbank.
Tn ting anh: Vietnam Joint Stock Bank for Industry and Trade.

Logo:
Sologan: Nng cao gi tr cuc sng.
Website: www.vietinbank.vn
S mnh
L Tp on ti chnh hng u ca Vit Nam, hot ng a nng, cung cp sn
phm v dch v theo chun mc quc t, nhm nng cao gi tr cuc sng.
Tm nhn
Tr thnh Tp on ti chnh ngn hng hin i, hiu qu hng u trong nc
v quc t.
Gi tr ct li
+ Mi hot ng hng ti khch hng.
+ Nng ng, sng to, chuyn nghip, tn tm, minh bch, hin i.
+ Ngi lao ng c quyn phn u, cng hin lm vic ht mnh c
quyn hng th ng vi cht lng, kt qu, hiu qu ca c nhn ng gp c
quyn tn vinh c nhn xut sc, lao ng gii.
Trit l kinh doanh

113

+ An ton, hiu qu, bn vng v chun mc quc t.


+ on kt, hp tc, chia s v trch nhim x hi.
+ S thnh vng ca khch hng l s thnh cng ca Vietinbank.
2.1.1. S hnh thnh v pht trin ca Ngn hng Vietinbank chi nhnh
Nng
NHCT Vit Nam c thnh lp nm 1988 sau khi tch ra t NHNN Vit Nam. L
mt trong bn NHTM Nh nc ln nht ti Vit Nam, NHCT c tng TS chim hn
25% th phn ton b h thng ngn hng Vit Nam. Ngn hng c mng li kinh
doanh tri rng ton quc vi S giao dch, 130 chi nhnh v 700 im giao dch.
Thng 11/1988, theo Ngh nh 53 HBT v chuyn i h thng ngn hng cp 1
sang h thng ngn hng cp 2, tch ri gia hai chc nng kinh doanh ca ngn hng
chuyn doanh v qun l Nh nc ca NHTW. Do , chi nhnh NHCT Qung Nam
Nng ra i v hot ng theo php lnh hot ng ngn hng, cc TCTD v
Cng ty Ti Chnh. NHCT t hi s chnh Nng, cc chi nhnh trc thuc: Hi
An, Tam K, Ha Khnh, Ng Hnh Sn.
Sau s kin tch tnh nm 1997, NHCT Qung Nam Nng tch thnh hai chi
nhnh trc thuc Trung ng l NCTH Qung Nam v NHCT Nng ng ti 172
Nguy n Vn Linh Qun Thanh Kh thnh ph Nng. NHCT Nng chnh
thc i vo hot ng ngy 01/01/1997 theo Quyt nh 14 NH Cng Thng - Q
ngy 17/12/1996 ca Tng gim c NHCT Vit Nam. Thng 7 nm 2009, chi nhnh
NHCT Nng i tn thnh Ngn hng TMCP Cng Thng Vit Nam chi nhnh
Nng, hot ng vi t cch l Ngn hng TMCP. Ngn hng TMCP Cng Thng
Vit Nam chi nhnh Nng t khi thnh lp cho ti nay bm st mc tiu pht
trin kinh t cng nghip, dch v, xut nhp khu ca Thnh ph. Chi nhnh khng
ngng pht trin ln mnh v nhiu mt, trong ngun vn tng bnh qun 12% nm,
cho vay v u t tng bnh qun 15% nm.
NHCT Nng c s ln mnh v mi mt: s lng khch hng ngy cng tng,
c nhiu hnh thc huy ng lm cho tng ngun vn huy ng ca chi nhnh tng,

114

doanh s cho vay ln, cht lng cho vay cao. Hng nm ngn hng dnh hng trm t
ng vn cho vay ngn hn p ng nhu cu vay vn ca khch hng . bn cnh
vn ca Ngn hng cng p ng hng trm t ng cho cc hn mc d n, nhng
cng trnh trng im ca thnh ph Nng gp phn thc y pht trin nn kinh t
ca thnh ph Nng ni ring v ton min Trung ni chung.
2.1.2. S c cu t chc
Sau 16 nm hot ng v pht trin Ngn hng Vietinbank - chi nhnh Nng c
mt i ng cn b dy dn kinh nghim, lnh ngh mt t chc vi nhiu phng ban
khc nhau. S t chc Ngn hng Vietinbank- chi nhnh Nng nh sau:
BAN GIM C

Phng tin t kho


qu

Phng k ton giao


dch

Phng khch hng


doanh nghip

Phng t chc hnh


chnh

Phng khch hng c


nhn

Phng tng hp

Phng giao dch loi 1


(5 phng)

Phng qun l ri ro
tc nghip

Phng giao dch loi 2


(9 phng)

Phng kim sot ni


b

Quan h trc tuyn

Phng thng tin in


ton

Quan h chc nng

(Ngun phng tng hp Ngn hng Vietinbank Nng)

115

2.1.3. Chc nng v nhim v cc phng ban

Ban gim c: y l cp qun l cao nht, chu trch nhim vi hi s

chnhv vic iu hnh hot ng kinh doanh ti n v. Ban gim c bao gm mt


gim c vhai ph gim c.
Gim c chi nhnh: l ngi i din cho php nhn ca doanh nghip,
chu trch nhim ton b trc Tng gim c ngn hng TMCP Cng thng Vit
Nam, iu hnh chung ton b hot ng ca chi nhnh, trc tip ch o cc phng
ban, t chc hnh chnh v phng khch hng doanh nghip.
Ph gim c chi nhnh: thay mt gim c ch o iu hnh mt kinh
doanh, cc hot ng ca cc phng ban chuyn v tin t kho qu , iu hnh cc
phng giao dch, qun l tin gi dn c, k ton hnh chnh, chu trch nhim iu
hnh hot ng ca chi nhnh khi gim c y quyn.

Cc phng ban:
Phng khch hng c nhn v phng khch hng doanh nghip: y l

hai phng quan trng v ln nht ca n v, chuyn su v nghip v tin t, tn dng,


thanh ton quc t y l ni mang li ngun thu nhp chnh cho ngn hng. Chc
nng chnh ca phng l huy ng vn v nghin cu, xem xt cp tn dng cho khch
hng di nhiu hnh thc, ty theo nng lc v kh nng tr n ca khch hng.
Phng giao dch: l n v trc thuc, thc hin chc nng kinh doanh
ca ngn hng nh cho vay, tit kim, chuyn tin v cc dch v khc
Phng tng hp: tng hp nhng s liu thng k, cn i vn kinh
doanh , xy dng chin lc kinh doanh, khai thc th trng, xy dng chng trnh
marketing ngn hng, nghin cu pht trin cc dch v th...
Phng k ton giao dch: thc hin nhim v hch ton, ghi ch p trn c
s hot ng ca cc nghip v tin t, tn dng, thanh ton,, x l cc nghip v
lin quan n qun l ti chnh, ch tiu ni b ti chi nhnh.

116

Phng kim sot ni b: thc hin chc nng kim tra tnh hp l , hp
php, trung thc v mc cn trng trong qun l , iu hnh hot ng kinh doanh,
kim sot cc hot ng ca ni b ngn hng.
Phng tin t kho qu: thc hin cc nghip v v kho qu ngn hng,
thu chi tin cho khch hng.
Phng t chc hnh chnh: thc hin chc nng h tr cho hot ng
kinh doanh ca chi nhnh, mua sm dng c, trang thit b, sp xp, t chc hi ngh,
hi hp, tip khch, quan h i ni v i ngoi, qun l , bo v ti sn ngn hng.
Thc hin cc chnh sch ch v cc quyn li cho ngi lao ng, tham mu cho
ban gim c v quy hoch, bt, b nhim, o to, iu ng cn b, t chc b
my mng li chi nhnh.
Phng qun l ri ro v n xu: thc hin chc nng qun l cc ri ro
tn dng chi nhnh, l b phn kim tra, gim st, thm nh v ti thm nh cc h s
vay vn, xut trch lp d phng, x l cc ri ro.
Phng thng tin in ton: cp nht, lu tr s liu hot ng ca chi
nhnh trin khai cc chng trnh in t qun l trn mng ca h thng v chng
trnh ng dng c lin quan n khch hng.
2.1.4. Mng li hot ng ca Ngn hng TMCP Cng Thng Vit Nam
chi nhnh Nng

Tr s chi nhnh ti 172 Nguy n Vn Linh, qun Thanh Kh, Thnh ph

Nng

Cc phng giao dch loi 1 trc thuc chi nhnh gm:

+ Phng giao dch Hi Chu, 36 Trn Quc Ton, TP N, T: 05113.821.333


+ Phng giao dch Hng Vng, 123 Hng Vng, TP N, T: 05113.891.875
+ Phng giao dch Hng Vng, 374 Hng Vng, TP N, T: 05113.828.151
+ Phng giao dch s 04 in Bin Ph, 46 in Bin Ph,TP N, T: 05113.646.538

117

+ Phng giao dch s 05 in Bin Ph, 344 in Bin Ph, TP N, T:


05113.648.929
+ Phng giao dch Phan Chu Trinh, 12 Phan Chu Trinh, TP N, T: 05113.843.109

Cc phng giao dch loi 2 trc thuc khch hng c nhn gm:

+ Phng giao dch Hng Vng, 324 Hng Vng, TP N, T: 05113.893.257


+ Phng giao dch 215 ng ch ng, TP N, T: 05113.696.661
+ Phng giao dch Ni Thnh, 407 Ni Thnh, TP N, T: 05113.643.786
+ Phng giao dch L Dun, 163 L Dun. TP N, T: 05113. 867.016
+ Phng giao dch Trn Cao Vn, 189 Trn Cao Vn, TP N, T: 05113.714.515
+ Phng giao dch Trng N Vng
+ Phng giao dch Cm L
+ Phng giao dch Sn Tr
+ Phng giao dch Lotte Mart.
2.1.5. Cc hot ng kinh doanh ngn hng cung cp
Huy ng vn
Nhn tin gi khng k hn v c k hn bng VN v ngoi t ca cc t chc
kinh t v dn c.
Nhn tin gi tit kim vi nhiu hnh thc phong ph v hp dn: Tit kim
khng k hn v c k hn bng VN v ngoi t, tit kim d thng, tit kim tch
lu ...
Pht hnh k phiu, tri phiu...
Cho vay, u t
Cho vay ngn hn bng VN v ngoi t
Cho vay trung, di hn bng VN v ngoi t
Ti tr xut, nhp khu; chit khu b chng t hng xut.
ng ti tr v cho vay hp vn i vi nhng d n ln, thi gian hon vn
di

118

Cho vay ti tr, u thc theo chng trnh: i Loan (SMEDF); Vit c
(DEG, KFW) v cc hip nh tn dng khung
Thu chi, cho vay tiu dng.
Hn vn lin doanh, lin kt vi cc t chc tn dng v cc nh ch ti chnh
trong nc v quc t
u t trn th trng vn, th trng tin t trong nc v quc t
Bo lnh
Bo lnh, ti bo lnh (trong nc v quc t): Bo lnh d thu; Bo lnh thc
hin hp ng; Bo lnh thanh ton.
Thanh ton v Ti tr thng mi
Pht hnh, thanh ton th tn dng nhp khu; thng bo, xc nhn, thanh ton
th tn dng nhp khu.
Nh thu xut, nhp khu (Collection); Nh thu hi phiu tr ngay (D/P) v nh
thu chp nhn hi phiu (D/A).
Chuyn tin trong nc v quc t
Chuyn tin nhanh Western Union
Thanh ton u nhim thu, u nhim chi, sc.
Chi tr lng cho doanh nghip qua ti khon, qua ATM
Chi tr Kiu hi
Ngn qu
Mua, bn ngoi t (Spot, Forward, Swap)
Mua, bn cc chng t c gi (tri phiu chnh ph, tn phiu kho bc, thng
phiu)
Thu, chi h tin mt VN v ngoi t...
Cho thu kt st; ct gi bo qun vng, bc, qu , giy t c gi, bng pht
minh sng ch.
Th v ngn hng in t

119

Pht hnh v thanh ton th tn dng ni a, th tn dng quc t (VISA,


MASTER CARD)
Dch v th ATM, th tin mt (Cash card).
Internet Banking, Phone Banking, SMS Banking
Hot ng khc
Khai thc bo him nhn th, phi nhn th
T vn u t v ti chnh
Cho thu ti chnh
Mi gii, t doanh, bo lnh pht hnh, qun l danh mc u t, t vn, lu k
chng khon
Tip nhn, qun l v khai thc cc ti sn xit n qua Cng ty Qun l n v
khai thc ti sn.
hon thin cc dch v lin quan hin c nhm p ng nhu cu ngy cng cao ca
khch hng, ng thi to cho s pht trin v hi nhp vi cc nc trong khu vc
v quc t, VietinBank lun c tm nhn chin lc trong u t v pht trin, tp
trung 3 lnh vc:
Pht trin ngun nhn lc
Pht trin cng ngh
Pht trin knh phn phi
2.1.6. Tnh hnh kinh doanh ca Ngn hng Vietinbank chi nhnh Nng
qua 3 nm (2010 2012)

2.1.6.1. Tnh hnh huy ng vn ti Ngn hng Vietinbank chi


nhnh Nng qua 3 nm (2010 2012)
Qua ba nm, nn kinh t v h thng Ngn hng tip tc kh khn v thch thc. Tuy
nhin, di s lnh o ca Ngn hng Nh nc v s gim st ca Hi ng qun tr,
Ban iu hnh, quyt tm ca cn b nhn vin ton h thng; Viettinbank Nng

120

ch ng a ra nhng chnh sch ph hp v t kt qu kinh doanh tng i kh


quan..
Nhn xt:
T bng 2.2, tng ngun huy ng vn ca Vietinbank Nng u tng qua ba nm.
C th, ngun vn huy ng nm 2011 l 2.128.858 triu ng, tng 531.420 triu
ng so vi nm 2010, tng ng vi t l 33,27%. Nm 2012 tng ngun vn huy
ng c l 2.206.906 triu ng tng 78.048 triu ng so vi nm 2011, tng ng
vi t l 3.67%. iu ny cho thy tnh hnh huy ng vn ca Chi nhnh thc hin
tt. Trong , ngun tin gi dn c l ngun tin huy ng chim t trng cao nht v
n nh. Nm 2010 l nm m t trng tin gi c nhn chim cao nht trong cc
ngun huy ng chim 56,16%. Nguyn nhn chnh l do nn kinh t th gii khng
hong, lm pht tng cao k o theo nn kinh t Vit Nam ng li. Th trng bt ng
sn ng bng, u t chng khon khng cn si ng, tnh hnh kinh doanh kh
khn nn khch hng mun gi tin tit kim ti ngn hng. ng thi, thi k li sut
tin gi kh cao, nm 2010 dao ng khong 17% - 18% nm, nm 2012 khong 9% 12% nm v gi tin tit kim l mt phng php bo ton vn, em li li nhun, t
ri ro cho khch hng. Mt khc, lng tin gi dn c tng do nhng n lc lm vic
ca nhn vin ngn hng trong vic nh hng, pht trin sn phm, nng cao cht
lng dch v.
Ngun huy ng vn chim th 2 l tin gi t chc kinh t chim t trng tng i
cao trong tng ngun vn huy ng, chim t trng bnh qun xp x 46%. Mc t
trng cao l do Chi nhnh c mi quan h lu di v tt p vi cc doanh nghip trn
thnh ph Nng nh Tng cng ty c phn Dt may Ha Th,Tuy nhin, lng
tin gi doanh nghip nm 2012 st gim so vi nm 2011. iu ny nhn thy, tc
tng trng kinh t chng li, gim chi tiu cng, tng thu, tnh trng tht nghip gia
tng, dn n cng vic kinh doanh ca cc doanh nghip kh khn. Mt khc, trong
thi gian ny ngi dn tp trung ngun vn gi tin tit kim v y l phng thc
em li li ch, an ton, t chu ri ro trong tnh hnh kinh t hin nay.

121

Bng 2.1 Tnh hnh huy ng vn ti Ngn hng Vietinbank chi nhnh Nng
qua 3 nm ( 2010 2012 )
VT: triu ng
Nm 2010
CH TIU
S tin
1.Tin gi dnc.
2. Tin gi
TCKT
3. Pht hnh
GTCG
4. Tin gi vn
chuyn dng
5. Tng ngun
vn huy ng

897.158

Nm 2011

TT

S tin

(%)

Nm 2012

TT
(%)

S tin

TT
(%)

Chnh lch

Chnh lch

11/10

12/11

S tin

T l
(%)

S tin

T l
(%)

56,16

1.011.157

47,50

1.186.034

53,74

113.999

12,71

174.877

17,29

685.714

42,93

1.102.407

51,78

1.003.743

45,48

416.693

60,77

-98.664

-8,95

14.566

0,91

1.294

0,72

17.129

0,78

728

1.835

12

1.597.438

100

2.128.858

100

2.206.906

100

531.420

33.27

78.048

3,67

(Ngun phng Tng hp Ngn hng Vietinbank Nng)


Biu 2.1 Tnh hnh huy ng vn ti Ngn hng Vietinbank chi nhnh
Nng qua 3 nm ( 2010 2012 )

122

Ngoi ra, ngun vn huy ng c s ng gp ca tin gi vn chuyn dng. Ngun


tin gi ny chim t trng bnh qun nh xp x 0,8%, nhng ngun tin gi ny gp
phn gia tng ngun vn huy ng.

2.1.6.2. Tnh hnh cho vay ti Ngn hng Vietinbank chi nhnh
Nng qua 3 nm (2010 2012)
Ngn hng TMCP Cng Thng Vit Nam l mt doanh nghip nh nc hot ng
trong lnh vc tin t, nhim v trng tm Ngn hng Vietinbank chi nhnh Nng
l huy ng v cho vay. Vic cho vay ca Chi nhnh cn phi c hiu qu, nhm m
bo tr n vay do huy ng vn phc v cho hot ng tn dng. Di y l tnh
hnh s dng vn ca Ngn hng Vietinbank chi nhnh Nng qua ba nm.
Nhn xt:
Tnh hnh tn dng ti Chi nhnh gp kh khn do chnh sch tht cht tn dng nhm
gii quyt tnh hnh n xu tng cao. Thng qua , nhiu iu kin rng buc trong
cng tc tn dng trc, trong v sau khi gii ngn c p dng thng qua vic ban
hnh vn bn nghip v. Hot ng tch cc, ch ng ca Ban lnh o v CBTD
tm kim, mi cho khch hng tim nng, nng cao cht lng phc v khch hng.
V vy, hot ng cho vay ca Chi nhnh t c kt qu khch l nh: DSCV v
DSTN tng trng qua ba nm, d n n nh v tng trng, t c k hoch ra,
p ng nhu cu vn ca khch hng.
Doanh s cho vay:
Nhn chung DSCV qua ba nm u tng. DSCV nm 2011 tng 397.603 triu ng so
vi nm 2010 tng ng vi t l 8,98%. DSCV nm 2012 tng 723.868 triu ng so
vi nm 2011, tng ng vi t l 15%. t c mc tng trng cho vay nh vy
i hi s nng ng nhy bn v linh hot trong c ch chnh sch khch hng, chnh
sch li sut huy ng v cho vay trong gii hn cho php ca ngnh nm bt thng tin
kinh t th trng kp thi, ngn hng a ra bin php v phng hng kinh
doanh c th ph hp vi tng thi k, thi im t c t l tng trng cao, thu
ht ngy cng nhiu khch hng.

123

Bng 2.2 Tnh hnh cho vay ti Ngn hng Vietinbank chi nhnh Nng qua 3
nm (2010 2012)
VT: triu ng
Nm 2010
CH TIU

S tin

Nm 2011

TT

S tin

(%)

Nm 2012

TT
(%)

S tin

Chnh lch 11/10

TT
(%)

S tin

T
l(%)

Chnh lch 12/11

S tin

T
l(%)

1. DSCV

4.428.187

100

4.825.790

100

5.549.658

100

397.603

8,98

723.868

15

1.1.Ngn hn

2.630.450

59,4

3.862.072

80,03

4.444.832

80,09

1.231.622

46,82

582.760

15,09

1.797.737

40,6

963.718

19,97

1.104.826

19,91

-834.019

-46,39

141.108

14,64

2. DSTN

3.947.932

100

4.591.508

100

5.226.951

100

643.576

16,30

635.443

13,84

2.1.Ngn hn

2.209.761

55,97

3.666.333

79,85

4.155.419

79,5

1.456.572

65,92

489.086

13,34

1.738.171

44,03

925.125

20,15

1.071.532

20,5

-813,046

-46,78

146.407

15,83

1.893.314

100

2.127.596

10

2.450.303

100

234.282

12,37

322.707

15,17

1.167.870

61,68

1.363.609

64,09

1.653.022

67,46

195.739

16,76

289.413

21,22

725.444

38,32

763.987

35,9

797.281

32,54

38.543

531

33.294

4,36

1.407

100

1.259

100

2.450

100

-148

-10,52

1.191

94,6

803

57,04

738

58,6

1.348

55

-65

8,07

610

82,5

604

42,96

521

41,4

1.103

45

-83

13,77

581

111,5

1.2. Trung di
hn

2.2. Trung di
hn
3. D n cui
k
3.1.Ngn hn
3.2. Trung di
hn
4. N xu
4.1. Ngn hn
4.2. Trung di
hn
5.T l n xu
(%)
5.1. Ngn hn
5.2. Trung di
hn

0,07

0,06

0,10

-0,01

0,04

0,0687

0,0541

0,082

-0,0146

0,03

0,083

0,0682

0,001

-0,0151

-0,07

(Ngun phng Tng hp Ngn hng Vietinbank Nng)


Biu 2.2 Tnh hnh cho vay ti Ngn hng Vietinbank chi nhnh Nng
qua 3 nm (2010 2012)

124

Ngoi ra, trong tng DSCV th DSCV ngn hn chim t trng cao nht, c th DSCV
ngn hn chim t trng bnh qun xp x 80,04%. Do , ta thy xu hng cho vay
thay i, t cho vay trung di hn chuyn sang cho vay ngn hn. Nguyn nhn l do
nn kinh t vn cha phc hi, lm pht c du hiu h nhit nhng vn mc cao
18,58%, cc giao dch trn th trng bt ng sn gn nh ng bng, doanh nghip
kinh doanh kh khn v tip tc ph sn, t l n xu gia tng ti cc NHTM,.... Do ,
ngn hng tp trung cho vay ngn hn thu hi n nhanh, gim thiu ri ro, trnh gia
tng n xu.
Doanh s thu n:
Trong hot ng tn dng th vic thu hi vn v li l quan trng. Kim ch nam
trong hot ng tn dng ngn hng l cho vay nhiu v thu hi n nhiu, thc hin
iu ny th hot ng tn dng ngn hng hiu qu v ng vn b ra c quay vng

125

nhanh v sinh li. Do , DSTN tng u qua ba nm v DSTN ngn hn chim t


trng cao hn DSTN trung di hn, c th DSTN ngn hn chim t trng bnh qun
xp x 71,77%. Nm 2011 DSTN l 4.591.508 triu ng, tng ng tng 16,3% so vi
nm 2010. Nm 2012 DSTN l 5.226.951 triu ng, tng 635.443 triu ng so vi
nm 2011, tng ng tng 13,84% so vi nm 2011. Ta thy mt t l tng trng cao
trong vic thu hi n nhng nhn chung DSTN thp hn DSCV chng t vic thu hi
n cha hiu qu. Ngn hng cn phi hp c quan thm quyn n c thu hi n
ca khch hng khi n hn.
D n:
D n l mt trong 2 ch tiu nh gi hot ng tn dng. Bi v d n l ch
tiu thi im nn n lun lun bin ng v phn nh s d n trn ti khon cho vay
ca ngn hng ti mt mc thi gian. Nhn chung, d n u tng qua cc nm. Nm
2011 d n cui k l 2.127.596 triu ng, tng 234.282 triu ng so vi nm 2010,
tng ng vi t l 12,37%. Nm 2012 d n cui k l 2.450.303 triu ng, tng
322.707 triu ng so vi nm 2011, tng ng vi t l 15,17%. Trong , t trng
d n ngn hn vn chim hn 60% t trng tng d n. Nguyn nhn l do DSCV v
DSTN u tng th k o theo d n tng, chng t hot ng tn dng ngn hng tng
trng.
N xu:
Nm 2011 n xu gim 148 triu ng, tng ng gim 10,52% so vi nm
2010. Tuy nhin, nm 2012 n xu li tng 1.191 triu ng, tng ng tng 94,6% so
vi nm 2011. Trong , n xu ngn hn chim t trng bnh qun xp x 57%, n
xu trung di hn chim t trng bnh qun xp x 43%. Nguyn nhn l: trong thi
im 2008-2010, lnh vc bt ng sn ang si ng, hu ht nh u t u kinh
doanh bt ng sn v y l lnh vc kinh doanh c li, t ai mua i bn li sau
hng li nhun t khon tin chnh lch. c tin u t th nh u t i vay ngn
hng trong ngn hn v y l hnh thc kinh doanh sinh li trong thi gian ngn. Tuy
nhin, vo u nm 2011, tnh hnh kinh t bin ng, c bit bong bng bt ng sn

126

x hi sau cuc khng hong ti chnh khin nhiu mn n vay lm vo tnh trng
khng tr n. Hn na, li sut tn dng hin nay vn cao, dao ng trong khong
17% - 18% nm. Do , tin li ngn hng gia tng nhng nh u t khng c kh
nng tr n nn gia tng n xu.
T l n xu:
Ngoi ra, vic n xu tng, gim ko theo t l n xu thay i. T l n xu
nm 2010 l 0,07% v nm 2011 t l n xu l 0,06% gim 0,01% so vi nm 2010.
Nm 2012 t l n xu l 0,1% tng 0,04% so vi nm 2011 nhng t l n xu nm
trong khong cho php ca NHNN (di 5%). Trong , t l n xu trung di hn
gim dn qua cc nm. Nm 2012 t l n xu trung di hn l 0,001% gim 0,07% so
vi nm 2011.
Nhn chung, Vietinbank Nng thc hin hot ng cho vay kh hiu qu. Qua ba
nm, mc n xu gia tng mc d nm trong qui nh cho php ca NHNN (di 5%).
Tuy nhin, Vietinbank Nng cn a ra nhng bin php gim n xu. Ngoi ra,
Chi nhnh cn phi thm nh tn dng hiu qu, n c tr n, theo di tnh hnh ti
chnh khch hng a ra phng n cho vay hiu qu v khch hng c kh nng tr
n, gim thiu ri ro trong hot ng cho vay, p ng nhu cu ca khch hng.

2.1.6.3. Kt qu hot ng kinh doanh ti Ngn hng Vietinbank


chi nhnh Nng qua 3 nm ( 2010 2012 )
Trong hot ng kinh doanh ngn hng th kt qu hot ng kinh doanh l iu quan
tm nht. N quyt nh n s thnh cng ca doanh nghip. NHTM l mt t chc
kinh doanh c bit trong lnh vc tin t cng khng nm ngoi quy lut. Do , phn
tch kt qu hot ng kinh doanh l vic lm cn thit cho ngn hng, nh gi thc
trng hot ng mt cch khch quan. V vy, ngn hng cn ra phng hng
chin lc nhm nng cao hiu qu kinh doanh.
Nhn xt:
Mc tiu ca ngn hng l tm kim li nhun, ngn hng tm mi cch ti a
ha li nhun nng thu nhp n mc cao nht v gim chi ph n mc thp nht.

127

Trong ngun thu ca ngn hng bao gm thu t hot ng tn dng, dch v ngn
hng, thu cc hot ng khc ... Chi ph ca ngn hng bao gm chi v li tin gi, chi
ph kinh doanh khc: chi ph iu hnh, chi ph dch v..... Nhn chung, tnh hnh kinh
doanh ca Vietinbank Nng kh tt. C th, kt qu t c v ti chnh nh sau:
Tng thu nhp:
Nhn chung, tng thu nhp ca Chi nhnh gia tng qua cc nm. Thu nhp nm
2011 t 486.536 triu ng so vi nm 2010, tng ng t l 52,66%. Nm 2012 thu
nhp t c 618.712 triu ng so vi nm 2011, tng ng t l 27,17%. Trong ,
Ngun thu t hot ng tn dng chim t trng cao nht, t trng bnh qun xp x l
66%. Ngun thu t hot ng tn dng nh: thu li, thu t cc mn vay mua nh, sa
cha nh, mua t, cho vay du hc, cho vay tiu dng. Nguyn nhn l khi nn kinh t
pht trin th nhu cu ca con ngi v nhu cu vn cho hot ng sn xut kinh doanh
ca mnh cng tng ln.V vy, ngn hng khng ngng m rng quy m hot ng
ca mnh v n lc khng ngng pht trin chin lc kinh doanh, ng thi Chi
nhnh giao ch tiu ngun vn m nhn vin phi huy ng nn doanh thu trong ba
nm tng ln. Bn cnh , do li sut huy ng qua ba nm c gim (t 17%/nm vo
nm 2010 gim xung cn 9% nm vo nm 2012) nhng nn kinh t vn tnh trng
khng hong cha c du hiu phc hi, mc lm pht tng i cao, tnh hnh u
t kinh doanh kh khn, nn phn ln lng tin t dn c tp trung gi tit kim
cho an ton v sinh li
Tng thu nhp:
Nhn chung, tng thu nhp ca Chi nhnh gia tng qua cc nm. Thu nhp nm
2011 t 486.536 triu ng so vi nm 2010, tng ng t l 52,66%. Nm 2012 thu
nhp t c 618.712 triu ng so vi nm 2011, tng ng t l 27,17%. Trong ,
Ngun thu t hot ng tn dng chim t trng cao nht, t trng bnh qun xp x l
66%. Ngun thu t hot ng tn dng nh: thu li, thu t cc mn vay mua nh, sa
cha nh, mua t, cho vay du hc, cho vay tiu dng. Nguyn nhn l khi nn kinh t

128

Bng 2.3 Kt qu hot ng kinh doanh ti Ngn hng Vietinbank chi nhnh
Nng qua 3 nm ( 2010 2012 )
VT: triu ng
Nm 2010
CH TIU
S tin
1. Tng thu
nhp
1.1. Thu t hot
ng tn dng
1.2. Thu t dch
v
1.3. Thu t hot
ng khc
2. Tng chi ph
2.1 Chi ph tr li
tin gi
2.2 Chi ph khc
3. i nhun
trc thu

Nm 2011

TT
(%)

S tin

Nm 2012

TT
(%)

S tin

TT
(%)

Chnh lch 11/10


S tin

T l
(%)

Chnh lch 12/11


T l

S tin

(%)

318.711

100

486.536

100

618.712

100

167.825

52,66

132.176

27,17

201.457

63,21

318.195

65,4

426.911

69

116.737

57,95

108.717

34,17

63.742

20

102.173

21

148.491

24

38.430

60,29

46.318

45,33

53.512

16,79

66.169

13,6

43.310

12.657

23,65

263.718

100

427.743

100

572.380

100

164.025

62,20

144.637

33,81

174.260

66,08

279.744

65,4

394.770

68,97

105.484

60,53

115.027

41,12

89.458

33,92

147.999

34,6

177.610

31,03

58.541

65,44

29.610

20,01

3.800

691

-12.461

-21,19

54.993

58.793

46.332

22.859

-34,55

(Ngun phng Tng hp Ngn hng Vietinbank Nng)


Biu 2.3 Kt qu hot ng kinh doanh ti Ngn hng Vietinbank chi nhnh
Nng qua 3 nm ( 2010 2012 )

129

pht trin th nhu cu ca con ngi v nhu cu vn cho hot ng sn xut kinh doanh
ca mnh cng tng ln.V vy, ngn hng khng ngng m rng quy m hot ng
ca mnh v n lc khng ngng pht trin chin lc kinh doanh, ng thi Chi
nhnh giao ch tiu ngun vn m nhn vin phi huy ng nn doanh thu trong ba
nm tng ln. Bn cnh , do li sut huy ng qua ba nm c gim (t 17%/nm vo
nm 2010 gim xung cn 9% nm vo nm 2012) nhng nn kinh t vn tnh trng
khng hong cha c du hiu phc hi, mc lm pht tng i cao, tnh hnh u
t kinh doanh kh khn, nn phn ln lng tin t dn c tp trung gi tit kim
cho an ton v sinh li
Tng chi ph:
Qua bng 2.3, Tng chi ph gia tng qua cc nm. Nm 2011, chi ph t
427.743 triu ng, tng 164.025 triu ng so vi nm 2010 tng ng t l 62,2%.
Nm 2012, chi ph t 572.380 triu ng, tng 144.637 triu ng so vi nm 2011
tng ng t l 33,81%. Trong , chi ph tr li tin gi chim t trng cao nht, t
trng bnh qun xp x 67%. Nguyn nhn l nm 2011, li sut huy ng tin gi l
14% nm, tng 2% so vi nm 2010, thu ht nhiu khch hng n gi tin. Do ,
tin li gia tng, ng thi, Chi nhnh cn chi tr cho nhng khon chi ph khc
phc v hot ng kinh doanh nh: chi ph lng nhn vin, chi ph thu, ...
Li nhun trc thu:
Nm 2010, li nhun trc thu t 54.993 triu ng nhng n nm 2011 li nhun
trc thu t 58.793 triu ng, tng 3.800 triu ng so vi nm 2010 tng ng vi
t l 6,91%. L gii iu ny l mc thu nhp cao hn chi ph nn Chi nhnh kinh
doanh vn sinh li. Tuy nhin, nm 2012 thu nhp tng nhanh, thu nhp t 618.712
triu ng, tng 27,17% so vi nm 2012 nhng do chi ph tng qu nhanh, tng
33,81% so vi nm 2011 nn tng li nhun trc thu ca Chi nhnh gim xung cn
46.332 triu ng tng ng gim 21,19% so vi nm 2011.
Qua phn tch trn, tng thu nhp v tng chi ph ca Ngn hng gia tng nhng khng
u dn n li nhun c s bin ng. Tuy nhin, tc tng trng tng thu nhp

130

cao hn tc tng trng tng chi ph nn li nhun ca Chi nhnh gia tng. Kt qu
l nh vo nhng chnh sch ng n, a dng ha sn phm v dch v, nhng n
lc ca Ban lnh o v cn b nhn vin gip Vietinbank Nng lun duy tr t
l n xu di 1%. Tuy nhin, trong nhng nm ti ngn hng cn a ra nhng bin
php tng ngun vn p ng cho nhu cu m rng tn dng v ngun thu dch v
khc. Bn cnh , ngn hng nng cao cng tc cho vay, x l n hiu qu gim
bt cc chi ph lin quan khc, t gia tng li nhun.
2.2. Thc trng hot ng cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh ti Ngn hng
TMCP Cng Thng Vit Nam chi nhnh Nng qua 3 nm (2010 2012)
2.2.1. Cc qui nh v sn phm cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh ti
Ngn hng TMCP Cng Thng Vit Nam chi nhnh Nng

2.2.1.1. i tng vay vn


Khch hng c nhn, h gia nh gm chi ph xy dng, sa cha nh c km theo vic
xy dng, sa cha nh ca khch hng c xc nh trong phng n s dng vn
vay.

2.2.1.2. iu kin vay vn


Khch hng c m bo bng TS
+ C nhn c nng lc php lut v nng lc hnh vi dn s; chu trch nhim trc
php lut v vic s dng vn vay.
+ C h khu thng tr hoc KT3 trn a bn thnh ph Nng.
+ Ti thi im xem xt cho vay, khng c n xu ti bt k T chc tn dng khc.
+ C TSB y cho khon vay.
Khch hng l cn b, nhn vin
+ C nhn c nng lc php lut v nng lc hnh vi dn s; chu trch nhim trc
php lut v vic s dng vn vay.
+ L cng nhn, vin chc v ngi lao ng (CB-NV) tham gia ng BHXH y ,
ang lm vic trong bin ch hoc theo hp ng lao ng khng xc nh thi hn ti

131

:C quan Nh nc (hnh chnh v s nghip), t chc chnh tr, t chc chnh tr - x


hi ang hot ng bng NSNN, cng ty c phn c vn nh nc.
+ tui ti thi im kt thc thi hn cho vay khng qu 60 tui i vi nam v 55
tui i vi n hoc tui ngh hu theo quy nh ca php lut .
+ C h khu thng tr hoc KT3 trn a bn thnh ph Nng.
+ Thu nhp thng xuyn hng thng t 3 triu ng tr ln v c c quan ni lm
vic xc nhn c thu nhp, cam kt trch thu nhp tr n.
+ Khch hng c phng n tr n, c kh nng tr gc, li, ph trong thi hn cam kt.
Vn t c tham gia ti thiu l 30% trn tng nhu cu vn ca phng n vay.

2.2.1.3. Phng thc cho vay


Phng thc cho vay tng ln
+ K hn tr n gc v k hn tr li c th trng nhau hoc khng trng nhau. K hn
tr n gc v/ hoc li c th l 1 thng hoc 3 thng, hoc tr n mt ln vo cui k
nu l cho vay ngn hn.
+ p dng cho khch hng iu kin vay vn, chng minh c thu nhp n nh
tr n gc v li.
+ Mi ln vay, ngn hng v khch hng tin hnh lm th tc vay vn v k kt hp
ng tn dng.
+ Mi hp ng tn dng c th gii ngn mt ln hoc nhiu ln ph hp vi yu cu
s dng vn thc t ca khch hng. Tin vay c chuyn tr trc tip cho bn th
hng. Vic gii ngn bng tin mt phi ph hp vi tnh trng v mc ch s dng
vn vay ghi trong giy nhn n.
Phng thc cho vay tr gp
+ S tin phi tr (c gc v li) c chia thnh nhiu khong u nhau v hon tr
theo nh k l 1 thng hoc 3 thng. Li c tnh theo d n gc v s ngy thc t
ca k hn tr n.
+ p dng cho khch hng iu kin vay vn, chng minh c thu nhp n nh
tr n gc v li.

132

+ Khch hng c th tr trc hn, nhng vn phi hon tr y s n gc v li


xc nh tha thun ca k hn. Nu pht sinh n qu hn, khch hng phi tr thm li
pht qu hn tnh trn tng s tin tr n ca k hn theo quy nh ca NHNN v
NHCT.

2.2.1.4. Thi hn cho vay


Cn c xc nh thi hn vay bao gm: nhu cu vay vn, kh nng tr n, thi gian
s dng cn li ca TSB. Do :
Thi hn cho vay i vi xy dng nh ti a 10 nm
Thi hn cho vay i vi sa cha nh ti a 5 nm
Thi hn cho vay mua nh , nhn quyn s dng t c km theo vic xy
dng v sa cha nh ti a 15 nm.

2.2.1.5. Hnh thc m bo vn vay


Bo m bng TS ca khch hng ( cm c, th chp ):
+ TS phi thuc quyn s hu, s sng (i vi t ai) ca bn bo m theo quy
nh.
+ TS c php giao dch; khng c tranh chp quyn s hu, quyn s dng ti thi
im k kt v trong sut qu trnh cho vay.
+ TS cm c/ th chp phi c mua bo him trong sut thi gian bo m tin vay
vi s tin bo m khng thp hn s tin cho vay gm gc, li, li pht qu hn v
ph (nu c).
Bo m bng TS hnh thnh vn vay:
+ TS xc nh c quyn s hu, quyn s dng t
+ TS xc nh c gi tr, c php giao dch, bn, chuyn nhng, t b mt
mt.
+ Nhn vin tn dng phi qun l , gim st c TSB trong qu trnh hon thnh v
sau khi hon thnh
+ TS hnh thnh t vn vay phi thuc cc loi TS dng cm c, th chp theo qui
nh.

133

2.2.1.6. Mc cho vay ti a


Cn c vo: tng nhu cu vn vay, kh nng tr n ca khch hng, gi tr TSB mc
cho vay ti a so vi gi tr TSB v kh nng ngun vn ca NHCT. Ngn hng xc
nh mc cho vay theo quy nh nh sau:
+ Cho vay ngn hn: bng 80% tng nhu cu vn vay ca khch hng.
+ Cho vay trung, di hn: bng 70% tng nhu cu vn vay ca khch hng.
+ Cho vay bng 70% gi tr TSB.

2.2.1.7. H s vay vn
H s php l :
CMND/ H chiu cn thi hn (xut trnh bn sao cng chng nu l bn photo,
CBTD ghi r bn photo l i chiu vi bn chnh), s h khu hoc KT3 ca ngi
vay, Giy ng k kt hn (nu c).
H s v khon vay:
+ Giy ngh cp tng GHTD, ngh vay vn kim phng n tiu dng, t trnh
thm nh.
+ Giy t hp l, hp php v: ngi nh d nh sa cha, xy dng (Giy chng nhn
quyn s hu nh / quyn s dng t
+ H s chng minh mc ch s dng tin vay: Hp ng mua bn nh/ Hp ng thi
cng, sa cha cng trnh;
+ Giy php xy dng (i vi mc ch xy dng nh )
+ H s chng minh ngun tr n: Hp ng lao ng/ Xc nhn lng Bng k khai
thu nhp t hot ng SXKD hoc cc ti liu chng minh ngun thu nhp dng
tr n ca ngi vay v ngi ng gp thu nhp tr n.
+ Giy t lin quan khc (nu c)

2.2.1.8. Qui nh v thi gian gii quyt th tc vay vn


+ Khng qu 5 ngy i vi cho vay ngn hn.
+ Khng qu 10 ngy i vi cho vay trung v di hn.

134

Khi nhn vin tn dng nhn c h s hp l v thng tin cn thit t pha khch
hng, ngn hng phi thng tin v vic cho vay hoc khng cho vay ti khch hng
(nu khng cho vay phi nu r l do).Tuy nhin, nhng khon vay phc tp th ngn
hng c th tha thun vi khch hng nhm gia hn thm thi hn gii quyt h s.

2.2.1.9. Qui trnh cho vay


S qui trnh cho vay (xem ph lc 01)
Gii thch
Bc 1: Tip nhn v hng dn lm th tc h s vay vn.
i vi khch hng ln u vay vn, CBQHKH:
+ Tip nhn nhu cu khch hng, t vn cho khch hng v cc sn phm ph hp.
+ Hng dn khch hng cung cp h s php l ; lp, hon thin h s vay vn:
Cp nht nhng thay i ca H s php l ;
H s lin quan n phng n vay vn c th: Giy ngh vay vn
kim phng n vay v tr n; Giy t chng minh nhu cu vay vn;
Giy t chng minh ngun tr n (sao k bng lng, giy t chng
minh ngun tr n thng xuyn)
+ Kim tra tnh y , php l, ca h s khch hng cung cp, i chiu vi cc
ngun thng tin thu thp.
+ Scan ton b h s do khch hng cung cp chuyn cho PQLRR qua chng trnh
iCdoc.
i vi khch hng tng vay vn, CBQHKH hng dn hon thin b h s
vay vn.
Bc 2: Phn tch thm nh h s vay vn v lp t trnh.
+Da vo h s ngh vay, CBQHKH thm nh quyt nh cho vay, bao gm:
Thu thp thng tin:
Thng tin KH qua knh nh phng vn KH, kho st thc t,

135

Thng tin v phng n s dng vn vay/ mc ch s dng vn


vay, TSB,
Thm nh khch hng:
nh gi t cch khch hng
Phn loi, xp hng khch hng (c mi, i tng cho vay/ hn
ch cho vay/ ngng cho vay), quan h tn dng ca khch hng (quy m tn dng, s
lng t chc tn dng quan h).
Thm nh nhu cu vay vn ca khch hng.
nh gi mc n nh, pht trin ngh nghip, v tr cng tc, thu nhp ca
khch hng lm c s nh gi ngun tr n, kh nng tr n.
Thm nh TSB theo qui nh, ti thiu phi c 2 cn b, hoc thu c quan c
chc nng nu TSB vt qu thm quyn thm nh ca CBTD.
Xc nh phng thc cho vay phi ph hp vi c im ti chnh khch hng.
Xc nh li sut cho vay:
Li sut cho vay khng c thp hn sn li sut tiu dng ca
NHCT trong tng thi k.
Li sut c xc nh vo ngy gii ngn u tin v c iu
chnh nh k nhng ti a khng qu 6 thng ph thuc bin ng li sut th trng.
Li sut pht qu hn: bng 50% li sut cho vay k kt hoc
iu chnh theo tha thun trong HTD.
Lp BCX trong nu r xut cho vay/ khng cho vay, s tin cho vay, d
kin li sut, ph (nu c), trnh ln LPKH.
+ LPKH kim sot thng tin trn BCX v h s khch hng, m bo y , trung
thc, chnh xc, k trn tng trang Giy ngh vay vn ca khch hng xc nhn
kim sot thng tin. ng thi, LPKH ghi

kin ng

nu ng phi nu r xut mc cho vay, li sut, ph,

136

khng ng cho vay,

+ CBQHKH lp TTT ghi r: xut cho vay/ khng cho vay, nu cho vay th ghi r
mc cho vay, li sut, ph (nu c), k v trnh ln LPQLRR.
+LPQLRR kim sot TTT do CBQHKH thc hin, ghi kin ng

khng ng

cho vay, nu ng phi nu r xut mc cho vay, li sut, ph Sau ,


LPQLRR k trn tng trang TTT v trnh Cp c thm quyn ph duyt.
Bc 3: Ph duyt cho vay i vi khch hng v thng bo cho khch hng
+ Cp c thm quyn xem x t, ph duyt trn t trnh thm nh v xut quyt nh
cho vay (TTT).
+ Sau khi cp c thm quyn ph duyt, CBQLRR Scan TTT vo chng trnh
iCdoc, sau chuyn sang CBQHKH.
+ CBQHKH thng bo bng vn bn cho khch hng v vic ng

khng ng

cho

vay cho khch hng sau khi cp c thm quyn ph duyt (nu cn).
Bc 4: Son tho hp ng tn dng, k kt hp ng. Nhp d liu TSB v khon
vay ca khch hng trong kho h s.
Sau khi, CBQHKH thng bo ng

cho vay thng qua vn bn th CBQHKH:

+ Son tho HCTD trn c s mu hp ng c sn ca NHCT c Gim c


ph duyt.
+Sau khi son tho chuyn hp ng cho khch hng k duyt v Cp c thm quyn
k kt hp ng.
+lm th tc giao nhn giy t v TSB, cng chng v ng k giao dch bo m,
scan HCTD vo chng trnh iCdoc, chuyn 1 bn HCTD cho B phn giao dch
thc hin gii ngn cho khch hng.
+Nhp thng tin, to bn ghi TSB, in v k Bng lit k h s TSB kim phiu
nhp kho TSB, chuyn B phn giao dch kim sot k v trnh Cp c thm quyn.
+ Chuyn Bng lit k h s TSB (sau khi ph duyt) cho Th kho nhp h s TSB
Th kho/ Th qu : cp nht thng tin vo chng trnh qun l TSB v k Bng lit
k h s TSB kim phiu nhp kho TSB.
Bc 5: Gii ngn.

137

Phng giao dch to ti khon gii ngn v thc hin gii ngn cho khch hng.
Bc 6: Kim tra, gim st khon s dng vn vay
Da vo mc gii ngn, PKH phi hp PQLRR kim tra s dng vn vay, cp nht
h s khon vay nh gi li ti sn th chp, ti sn hnh thnh t vn vay.
Bc 7: Thu hi n gc, li v x l n pht sinh.
+ CBQHKH theo di tr n gc, li, ph chm nht 7 ngy theo lch trc khi n hn
tr n, thng bo khch hng. Sau , n c khch hng tr n y v ng hn.
+ B phn giao dch cn c thi gian tha thun trong HCTD, thc hin thu n theo
qui nh,trng hp:
Nu khng thu c n, thng bo li CBQHKH qun l khon vay
tip tc n c thu hi n.
Nu n pht sinh khng thu hi c, CBQHKH xem xt nh hng ca
cc vn n pht sinh. Sau , lp bo co v chuyn h s lin quan cho PQLRR
thc hin cc bin php x l n pht sinh nh:
iu chnh k hn n.
Nu cc khon n n hn cha tr c th cc khon n chuyn
sang n qu hn.
Khi o hn, khch hng khng tr c n do nguyn nhn
khch quan th NHCT s xem x t iu kin gia hn n. Nu qu thi gian gia hn
n th ngn hng c quyn khi kin php lut v thu hi n qu hn.
Bc 8: Thanh l hp ng cp tn dng, gii chp TSB
+ Khch hng yu cu gii chp TSB.
+ CBQHKH kim tra thng tin, lp Giy ngh ngt lin kt TSB (khch hng
tr ht n sang PQLRR qua chng trnh iCdoc.
+ Sau khi kim tra, PQLRR thc hin:
Trng hp KH tr ht n vay c bo m:

138

Ngt lin kt TSB trn h thng, cn c vo cc thng tin trn

Giy ngh ngt lin kt ca PKH.

Thng bo cho PKH chuyn trng thi xut TSB v in bng

lit k h s TSB kim phiu nhp/xut kho TSB, v chuyn B phn giao dch k,
trnh Cp c thm quyn ph duyt Th kho xut h s TSB.
Trng hp KH ngh rt bt ti sn TSB rt h s TSB x l n:

nh gi v kh nng tr n ca khch hng, tnh thanh khon ca

TSB, gi tr cn li ca TSB so vi d n vay, ghi kin xut trn TTT


ngh rt bt TSB i TSB rt h s TSB x l n, trnh ln Cp c thm
quyn xem xt, quyt nh

Thng bo cho CBQHKH thc hin cc cng vic tng t ca

trng hp KH tr ht n vay.
Bc 9: Lu gi Hp ng cp tn dng.
+ CBTD lu ton b h s lin quan n khon vay
+ K ton lu h s HCTD, giy nhn n, giy t lin quan x l , ng k k hn n
v gia hn n (bn chnh).
Nhn xt v quy trnh cho vay:
Quy tnh cho vay ti chi nhnh hng dn rt chi tit v phn cng trch nhim r rng
cho tng thnh vin. Cc bc thc hin trnh t, logic do CBTD thc hin, bn cnh
cn c s kim tra gim st ca TPTD v cp c thm quyn ph duyt (gim c
ph gim c), s tham gia thm nh ca phng Qun l ri ro. Quy trnh gn kt s
tham gia ca nhiu ngi nn hn ch c sai st, v trnh tnh trng quan h c nhn
nh hng n kt qu thm nh khon vay. So vi cc quy trnh cho vay ti cc ngn
hng khc nh ACB, Techcombank, Agribank, ng th hu ht u ging nhau v
ni dung cng vic v s phn cng trnh nhim nhng khc nhau trong phn chia
thnh nhiu bc nh hay gp thnh mt bc ln.
Tuy nhin, ti ngn hng ACB, vic phn tch thm nh trong ni b phng khch
hng c nhn c s chuyn mn ho tng cng on, nh: t s c phn cng tip

139

xc t vn khch hng, t s lm cng tc thm nh, t s lm cng tc kim sot, thu


hi n ,.. Nh vy, ngn hng c hn ch sai st v qu trnh x l h s s nhanh
chng. Trong khi ngn hng hin nay th vic tip nhn, x l v theo di h s khch
hng li theo tng CBTD, khi thm nh CBTD thng phi t mnh i thu thp ti
liu nn qu trnh xt duyt cho vay cn chm, c th xy ra nhiu sai st i hi trnh
chuyn mn CBTD phi cao. Bn cnh , hin nay s lng CBTD phng khch
hng c nhn ti chi nhnh cn hn ch gm 3cn b chuyn mn, 1 ph phng tn
dng, 1 trng phng nh vy p lc cng vic l rt ln.
2.2.2. Thc trng hot ng cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh ti Ngn
hng TMCP Cng Thng Vit Nam chi nhnh Nng qua 3 nm ( 2010
2012 )

2.2.2.1. Thc trng hot ng chung cho vay xy dng v sa cha


nh ti Ngn hng TMCP Cng Thng Vit Nam chi nhnh Nng qua
3 nm ( 2010 2012 )
Hin nay, nn kinh t th trng khng ngng pht trin. Nhm ngnh ngn hng cnh
tranh ngy cng gay gt khng nhng cnh tranh cc ngn hng trong nc m cn
cnh tranh cc ngn hng nc ngoi. V th, cc ngn hng a ra cc sn phm dch
v mi, hot ng hiu qu nhm thu ht khch hng v gia tng li nhun. Sn phm
cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh l loi hnh cho vay truyn thng ca ngn hng
nhng hin nay sn phm ny vn thu ht khch hng bi v n p ng nhu cu cn
thit ca khch hng v nh , nng cao mc sng. Qua cc nm, loi hnh cho vay ny
khng ngng tng trng c th hin qua bng s liu di y:
Nhn xt:
Doanh s cho vay
Qua bng 2.4, ta thy DSCV XD SCN gia tng qua cc nm. C th, DSCV XD SCN
chim t trng bnh qun xp x 24,2% trong tng DSCV tiu dng. Nm 2012 DSCV
XD SCN tng ln ng k, t c 71.456 triu ng, tng 15.707 triu ng so vi

140

Bng 2.4 Tnh hnh chung cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh ti Ngn hng
TMCP Cng Thng Vit Nam chi nhnh Nng qua 3 nm ( 2010 2012 )
VT: triu ng
Nm 2010
CH TIU
S tin

Nm 2011
TT
(%)

S tin

Nm 2012
TT
(%)

S tin

Chnh lch 11/10


TT
(%)

S tin

T
l(%)

Chnh lch 12/11


S tin

T
l(%)

1. DSCV CVTD

226.460

100

226.621

100

277.498

100

161

0,07

50.877

22,45

1.1. XD SCN

50.501

22,3

55.749

24,6

71.456

25,75

5.248

10,39

15.707

28,17

1.2. Mc ch khc

175.959

77,7

170.872

75,4

206.042

74,25

-5.087

-2,89

35.170

20,58

2. DSTN CVTD

198.152

100

185.417

100

256.152

100

-12.735

-6,43

70.735

38,15

2.1. XD SCN

47.953

24,2

48.394

26,1

70.570

27,55

441

0,92

22.176

45,82

2.2. Mc ch khc

150.199

75,8

137.023

73,9

185.582

72,45

-13.176

-8,77

48.559

35,44

189.331

100

212.760

100

245.030

100

23.428

12,37

32.271

15,17

3.1. XD SCN

27.074

14,30

30.744

14,45

36.804

15,02

3.669

13,55

6.060

19,71

3.2. Mc ch khc

162.257

85,70

182.016

85,55

208.227

84,98

19.759

12,18

26.211

14,40

4. N xu CVTD

239

100

290

100

613

100

50

21,06

323

111,52

4.1. XD SCN

71

29,76

88

30,51

157

25,67

17

24,11

69

77,97

4.2. Mc ch khc

168

70,24

201

69.49

455

74,33

33

19,77

254

126,25

3. D n cui k
CVTD

5. T l n xu

0,13

0,14

0,25

0,01

0,11

5.1. XD SCN

0,26

0,29

0,43

0,02

0,1

5.2. Mc ch khc

0,10

0,11

0,22

0,007

0,11

CVTD (%)

(Ngun phng Tng hp Ngn hng Vietinbank Nng)


nm 2011 tng ng t l 28,17%, chng t Chi nhnh c s chuyn hng hot ng
kinh doanh. Nguyn nhn s m rng l hin nay cc NHTM trn a bn cho ra i
nhiu sn phm dch v khc nhau trn nhiu lnh vc (nh , gio duc, y t,) thu
ht khch hng v gia tng s cnh tranh gia cc NHTM vi nhau, do Vietinbank
Nng cng m rng cc sn phm cho vay, c bit, nhng nm gn y th trng
bt ng sn, mua bn t ko cn si ng nn hot ng cho vay kinh doanh bt ng
sn gim. Thnh ph Nng ang thc hin vic quy hoch th, gii phng mt

141

bng do nhu cu xy dng sa cha v nh ca ngi dn gia tng nhng s tin


c n b khng ngi dn xy dng hoc sa cha nh nn nhu cu khch
hng i vay ti cc ngn hng gia tng. Nhn thc iu , Chi nhnh m rng hot
ng kinh doanh sang hot ng cho vay xy dng sa cha nh nhm nng cao li
nhun.
Doanh s thu n
Trong hot ng kinh doanh tn dng th vic thu hi n gc v li l quan
trng. N nh hng n hot ng kinh doanh ca ngn hng. Nm 2011 DSTN XD
SCN t 48.394 triu ng, tng 441 triu ng so vi nm 2010, tng ng t l
0,92%. Nm 2012 DSTN XD SCN l 70.570 triu ng, tng 22.176 triu ng so vi
nm 2011, tng ng t l 45,82%. Do , DSTN XD SCN gia tng qua cc nm
chng t vic DSCV tng k o theo DSTN gia tng, th hin cng tc thc y thu n
khch hng kh tt.
D n
T s liu phn tch, d n XD SCN v t trng ca n cn thp so vi tng d
n CVTD. Trong khi nhiu ngn hng khc xem l sn phm ch o ca tn dng,
chim phn ln trong tng d n CVTD. Qua ba nm, d n XD SCN chim t trng
bnh qun xp x l 14,5%. Nm 2011 d n XD SCN t 30.744 triu ng, tng
13,55% so vi nm 2010, tng ng tng 3.669 triu ng. Nm 2012 d n XD SCN
tng 6.060 triu ng so vi nm 2011 tng ng t l 19,71%. Nguyn nhn l hin
nay Chi nhnh tng cng m rng hot ng kinh doanh cc lnh vc khc, trong
m rng cho vay tiu dng, c bit cho vay XD SCN cng l mc tiu hng n.
Tuy nhin, t trng d n cho vay SX SCN chim di 16% trong tng d n CVTD
mt phn cng l do chi nhnh c lnh vc kinh doanh a dng v rt nhiu sn phm
dch v c cung cp nh: cho vay ti tr xut nhp khu, cho vay ti tr d n, cho
vay h tr sn xut kinh doanh, cho vay du hc, cho thu ti chnh, bo lnh khon
vay, cc dch v th tn dng,.
N xu

142

Bn cnh s gia tng d n XD SCN qua ba nm th n xu XD SCN cng gia


tng. C th, n xu nm 2011 l 88 triu ng, tng 17 triu ng so vi nm 2010,
tng ng t l 24,11%. Nm 2012 n xu l 157 triu ng, tng 69 triu ng so vi
nm 2011, tng ng tng 77,97%. Nguyn nhn l do tnh hnh kinh t xy ra lm
pht, hot ng kinhh doanh trn a bn hu nh kh khn nh hng n kh nng
tr n ng hn. Ngoi ra, t nm 2010 n 2012 c nhng thay i php l quan
trng, nhiu bin ng trn th trng, gy nhiu kh khn v song gi cho Ngn hng
ln doanh nghip. u nm 2010 li sut vay vn VN dao ng quanh 12% nm
nhng cui nm tng 18% nm, nhiu lc li sut tng ln 20% nm. n nm 2012,
li sut cho vay dn dn gim nhng vn cao (16% - 18% nm) nh hng n vic
thu hi n ca ngn hng. Hn na, cng tc thm nh khch hng v gim st hot
ng khch hng s dng vn vay cha cht ch.
T l n xu
Biu 2.4 Tnh hnh t l n xu cho vay XD SCN ti Ngn hng TMCP Cng
Thng Vit Nam chi nhnh Nng qua 3 nm ( 2010 2012 )

Qua cc nm, t l n xu i vi cho vay tiu dng khng ngng gia tng.
Trong , nm 2011,t l n xu cho vay XD SCN l 0,29% tng 0,01% so vi nm
2010. Nm 2012, t l n xu cho vay XD SCN l 0,43% tng 0,1% so vi nm 2011.
Tm li, n xu v t l n xu gia tng nhng Chi nhnh cn duy tr t l trong mc
NHNN cho ph p (di 5%), mi gim thiu ri ro v m bo an ton vn.

143

2.2.2.2. Thc trng hot ng cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh theo


thi hn vay ti Ngn hng TMCP Cng Thng Vit Nam chi nhnh Nng
qua 3 nm ( 2010 2012 )
Vic la chn thi hn vay cng l yu t quan trng quyt nh la chn khon vay v
la chn ngn hng. Nu thi hn vay qu ngn th khch hng gp kh khn tr n
ng hn. Ngc li, thi hn vay qu di th ngn hng gp phi ri ro khng thu hi
c n hoc khon cho vay khng tr ng hn. Do , da vo nhu cu vay, kh
nng tr n v thi gian cn li ca TSB, ngn hng v khch hng c th tha thun
vi nhau a ra thi hn hp l. Vic phn tch theo thi hn gip ngn hng qun l
tnh hnh cc khon n mt cch hiu qu, va hn ch ri ro i vi ngn hng, va
hi lng khch hng.
Nhn xt:
Doanh s cho vay
Qua bng 2.5, cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh tp trung ch yu l trung
di hn v ngy cng tng. Nm 2011, DSCV trung di hn t 50.040 triu ng tng
4.211 triu ng so vi nm 2010 tng ng t l 9,19%. Nm 2012, DSCV trung di
hn t 63.474 triu ng, tng 13.343 triu ng so vi nm 2011 tng ng t l
26,85%. Nguyn nhn c s gia tng l do Nng l thnh ph tr, l trung tm kinh
t pht trin ti min Trung nn thu ht ngy cng nhiu ngi dn cc tnh ln cn n
y sinh sng v lm vic, nhu cu vn nh ht sc cn thit, do hot ng cho
vay XD SCN gp phn gim bt gnh nng ti chnh ca ngi dn v vn nh ;
hn na, khch hng n vay trung di hn ch yu l xy mi nh, nng cp nh; thi
hn trung di hn thng ko di 5 20 nm nn khch hng la chn trung di hn
m bo kh nng tr n. Ngoi ra, DSCV ngn hn cng chim t trng mt phn nh
(khong 10%) v khch hng thng vay trong ngn hn tu sa bp, cng trnh ph,
Doanh s thu n
V cng tc thu n, DSTN trung di hn vn chim u th v gia tng. Nm
2011, DSTN trung di hn t 43.482 triu ng, tng 113 triu ng so vi nm 2010

144

tng ng tng 0.265%, c bit nm 2012 DSTN trung di hn t 62.624 triu ng,
tng 19.142 triu ng so vi nm 2011 tng ng tng 44,02%. iu ny chng t
kh nng tr n ca khch hng n nh, n c thu hi n tt.
Bng 2.5 Tnh hnh cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh theo thi hn vay ti
Ngn hng TMCP Cng Thng Vit Nam chi nhnh Nng qua 3 nm (2010
2012)
VT: triu ng
Chnh

lch

Nm 2010

Nm 2011

Nm 2012

TT

TT

TT

tin

(%)

tin

(%)

tin

(%)

tin

l(%)

1. DSCV XD SCN

50.501

100

55.749

100

71.456

100

5.248

10,39

15.707

28,17

1.1. Ngn hn

4.671

9,25

5.709

10,24

7.982

11,17

1.037

22,21

2.273

39,82

1.2 Trung, di hn

45.829

90,75

50.040

8,7

63.474

88,83

4.211

9,19

13.434

26,85

2. DSTN XD SCN

47.953

100

48.394

100

70.570

100

441

0,92

22.176

45,82

2.1. Ngn hn

4.584

9,56

4.912

10,15

7.946

11,26

328

7,15

3.034

61,77

2.2 Trung, di hn

43.368

90,44

43.482

89,85

62.624

88,74

113

0,26

19.142

44,02

27.074

100

30.744

100

36.804

100

3.669

13,55

6.060

19,71

3.1. Ngn hn

2.347

8,67

2.798

9,10

3.625

9,85

450

19,18

827

29,58

3.2 Trung, di hn

24.727

91,33

27.946

90,90

33.178

90,15

3.219

13,02

5.232

18,72

4. N xu XD SCN

71

100

88

100

157

100

17

24,11

69

77,97

4.1. Ngn hn

7,05

8,04

12

7,60

41,54

68,23

4.2 Trung, di hn

66

92,95

81

91,96

145

92,40

15

22,79

64

78,82

CH TIU

3. D n cui k XD
SCN

5.T l n xu XD

11/10

Chnh lch 12/11

S tin

0,26

0,29

0,43

9,3

48,7

5.1. Ngn hn

0,21

0,25

0,33

18,8

29,8

5.2 Trung, di hn

0,27

0,29

0,44

8,6

50,6

SCN (%)

T
l(%)

(Ngun phng Tng hp Ngn hng Vietinbank Nng)

145

Biu 2.5 Tnh hnh d n cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh theo thi hn
vay ti Ngn hng TMCP Cng Thng Vit Nam chi nhnh Nng qua 3
nm (2010 2012)

D n
T bng s liu 2.5, d n trung di hn c tng qua cc nm nhng mc tng
vn thp so vi nhiu ngn hng khc bi v thc t cho vay trung di hn chi nhnh
thng p dng phng thc cho vay tr gp. N cha thc s to c s thun li
cho khch hng nh khng tnh n xu hng thu nhp ca khch hng tng dn qua
thi gian, khch hng c mong mun tr ht n nhng khng c, cha c nhng u
i gim li trong nm u khch hng n nh ti chnh hoc ch tr li nm u
cha tr gc, m ch thc hin chia u gc li v hon tr theo nh k. Do , d
n gia tng. Nm 2011, d n XD SCN l 27.946 triu ng tng 3.219 triu ng so
vi nm 2010 tng ng t l 13,02%. Nm 2012, d n XD SCN l 33.178 triu
ng, tng 5.232 triu ng so vi nm 2011 tng ng t l 18,72%.
N xu v t l n xu
N xu v t l n xu ri vo trung di hn. N xu trung di hn gia tng qua
cc nm. c bit, n xu nm 2012 tng vt bc, tng 69 triu ng so vi nm 2011
tng ng tng 77,97% v t l n xu l 0,37%. L gii vn ny l do hot ng
thu hi n trung di hn ca chi nhnh thun li nn chi nhnh c s ni lng trong
cng tc thm nh iu kin vay vn. Bn cnh , s lng CBTD c hn, vic phn

146

cng nhim v kim tra gim st cht ch tt c h s vay vn cn hn ch v do tnh


hnh kinh doanh ca khch hng kh khn nh hng n vic tr n ng hn hoc
khng tr n dn n n xu gia tng.
Tm li, theo thi hn vay th t trng cho vay trung di hn ti chi nhnh chim a s
v ngy cng tng, s pht trin ca cc loi hnh xy nh trn a bn.T trng n xu
ch yu ri vo nhm trung di hn do vn ti chnh khch hng c nhiu bin
ng. Do , chi nhnh cn nhng bin php thu n nhm to thun tin hn cho
khch hng, nng cao cht lng thm nh, ti thm nh; theo di, gim st thu hi
n; m rng hot ng cho vay ngn hn nhm hn ch ri ro v tn tht v pha ngn
hng.

2.2.2.3. Thc trng hot ng cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh


theo hnh thc m bo ti Ngn hng TMCP Cng Thng Vit Nam chi
nhnh Nng qua 3 nm ( 2010 2012)
Trong hot ng cho vay, ngn hng quan tm nht l kh nng sinh li v vn ri
ro. Hai vn ny t l thun vi nhau, nu li nhun cao n n ri ro cao v ngc
li. Do , Ngn hng cn phi xem xt k cng trc khi cho vay m bo khon
cho vay c th thu hi gc v li. Cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh l mt trong
nhng hnh thc cho vay em li li nhun cao nhng mc ri ro cao, v tnh hnh
gi t v nguyn vt liu xy dng lun bin ng. Do , ngn hng thc hin hn
ch ri ro xy ra xc sut thp nht vi iu kin ngi i vay phi m bo bng ti
sn, ngn hng ch cho vay mt mc nht nh trn gi tr TSB v quy nh hai hnh
thc m bo: m bo bng TS th chp v m bo bng TS hnh thnh vn vay. V
mi hnh thc m bo c tnh cht ri ro khc nhau nn ngn hng a ra mc t l
cho vay khc nhau m vn m bo mc tiu li nhun v m bo an ton vn. Di
y l bng s liu theo hnh thc m bo qua cc nm.
Nhn xt:
Doanh s cho vay

147

Qua bng 2.6, cho vay vi hnh thc TS th chp chim t trng cao, chim t trng bnh
qun 86% v hnh thc TS th chp ngy cng tng. Nm 2011 DSCV TS th chp t
47.398 triu ng, tng 6.608 triu ng so vi nm 2010 tng ng t l 16,2%, nhng
nm 2012 DSCV TS th chp t 63.996 triu ng, tng 16.598 triu ng so vi nm
2012 tng ng t l 35,02%. L do: v bn cht, khch hng phi chuyn giao giy t
chng minh quyn s hu ca mnh i vi ti sn cho bn ngn hng) nn ngn hng c
ton quyn quyt nh i vi TS . Mt khc, hnh thc cho vay xy dng v sa cha
nh l loi hnh cho vay nhiu ri ro nn ngn hng rt ch trng trong hnh thc bo m,
ch yu l s dng hnh thc ny nhm hn ch ti a ri ro, tn tht xy ra, ngi i
vay b rng buc nn c trch nhim cao hn, vic qun l giy t th chp bng TS trc
tip cng c nhiu quy nh php l cht ch. Ngc li, DSCV bo m TS hnh thnh
vn vay gim qua cc nm. Nm 2011 gim 1.360 triu ng so vi nm 2010 tng ng
t l 14,01%, nm 2012 gim 891 triu ng so vi nm 2011 tng ng t l 10,67%.
Nguyn nhn: v bn cht, ti sn hnh thnh t vn vay l ti sn hnh thnh trong tng
lai, ti sn cha c thc ti thi im k kt hp ng, tuy nhin gi tr ti sn c to
nn mt phn hoc ton b khon vay ca khch hng. Thc t, CBTD kh nh gi ti
sn hnh thnh t vn vay m bo ngha v tr n ca khch hng, c bit CBTD
phi xc nh s tin vay phi ph hp vi quy nh s tin vay (nh hn gi tr TSB).
Chnh v vy, ngn hng thng tht cht hng mc cho vay bo m TS hnh thnh vn
vay.
Doanh s thu n
V cng tc thu n, DSTN i vi bo m TS th chp cao hn DSTN bo m
TS hnh thnh vn vay. C th, nm 2011 DSTN tng 1.206 triu ng so vi nm 2010
tng ng t l 3,31%, nm 2012 DSTN t 60.161 triu ng, tng 22.535 triu ng so
vi nm 2011 tng ng t l 59,89%, chng t khch hng c trch nhim v khon vay
v gi tr TSB, gip ngn hng gim thiu c ri ro. Bn cnh , DSTN bo m TS
hnh thnh vn vay gim qua cc nm. C th, nm 2012 DSTN gim 359 triu ng so
vi nm 2011 tng ng t l 3,33%. Nguyn nhn: khch hng s dng hnh thc m

148

bo TS hnh thnh vn vay ch yu l xy nh nn s bin ng ca th trng, hot ng


kinh doanh kh khn, tc ng ca thi tit, nh hng khng nh n vic tr n ca
khch hng.
Bng 2.6 Tnh hnh cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh theo hnh thc m bo
ti Ngn hng TMCP Cng Thng Vit Nam chi nhnh Nng qua 3 nm
(2010 2012)
VT: triu ng
Nm 2010
CH TIU
S tin

Nm 2011

TT
(%)

S tin

Nm 2012

TT
(%)

S tin

TT
(%)

Chnh lch 11/10


S tin

T l
(%)

Chnh lch 12/11


S tin

T l
(%)

1.DSCV XD CSN

50.501

100

55.749

100

71.456

100

5.248

10,39

15.707

28,17

1.1 Bo m TS th chp

40.789

80,77

47.398

85,02

63.996

89,56

6.608

16,2

16.598

35,02

9.711

19,23

8.351

14,98

7.460

10,44

-1.360

-14,01

-891

-10,67

2.DSTN XD SCN

47.953

100

48.394

100

70.570

100

441

0,92

22.176

45,82

2.1 Bo m TS th chp

36.420

75,95

37.626

77,75

60,161

85,25

1.206

3,31

22.535

59,89

11.533

24,1

10.768

22,25

10.409

14,75

-765

-6,63

-359

-3,33

27.074

100

30.744

100

36.804

100

3.669

13,55

6.060

19,71

12.026

44,42

12.740

41,44

14.563

39,57

714

5,94

1.823

14,31

15.048

55,58

18.004

58,56

22.240

60,43

2.956

19,64

4.237

23,53

4.N xu XD SCN

71

100

89

100

157

100

17

24,11

69

77,97

4.1 Bo m TS th chp

29

40,2

40

45,65

65

41,25

12

40,94

25

60,81

43

59,8

48

54,35

92

58,75

12,8

44

92,37

1.2 Bo m TS hnh
thnh vn vay

2.2 Bo m TS hnh
thnh vn vay
3.D n cui k XD
SCN
3.1 Bo m TS th chp
3.2 Bo m TS hnh
thnh vn vay

4.2 Bo m TS hnh
thnh vn vay
5.T l n xu XD SCN
(%)
5.1 Bo m TS th chp
5.2 Bo m TS hnh
thnh vn vay

0,26

0,29

0,43

0,02

0,14

0,19

0,22

0,29

0,03

0,07

0,35

0,38

0,63

0,03

0,26

(Ngun phng Tng hp Ngn hng Vietinbank Nng)

149

Hn na, TS ca khch hng hnh thnh t vn vay nn vic kim tra, gim st ca CBTD
trong qu trnh xy dng v sau khi xy dng cha hiu qu.
D n
D n bo m TS th chp thp hn d n bo m TS hnh thnh vn vay. C
th, d n nm 2011 tng 714 triu ng so vi nm 2010 tng ng t l 5,94%, nm
2012 tng 1.823 triu ng so vi nm 2011 tng ng t l 14,31%. L gii iu ny l
do hnh thc ny t em li ri ro cho ngn hng so vi hnh thc bo m TS hnh thnh
t vn vay, khi khch hng khng c kh nng tr n th ngn hng pht mi TSB thu
hi n.
N xu
Biu 2.6 Tnh hnh n xu cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh theo hnh thc
m bo ti Ngn hng TMCP Cng Thng Vit Nam chi nhnh Nng qua
3 nm (2010 2012)

Qua cc nm, n xu i vi TS th chp v TS hnh thnh vn vay gia tng nhng


t trng TS hnh thnh vn vay chim cao hn t trng TS th chp, t trng bnh qun
xp x l 58%. Nm 2012, n xu l 65 triu ng, tng 25 triu ng so vi nm 2011
tng ng t l 60,81%. Bi v trong qu trnh thm nh nh gi TSB, Chi nhnh
thng a ra mc cho vay ti a 70% gi tr ti sn nhng nhiu trng hp Chi nhnh
a ra mc cho vay cha n 70% gi tr TS, mt phn do nh hng ca nn kinh t, yu

150

t mi trng, hn ch ri ro nn gim gi tr TSB.i vi hnh thc bo m TS


hnh thnh vn vay th n xu v t l n xu gia tng, c bit nm 2012 n xu l 92
triu ng, tng 44 triu ng so vi nm 2011 tng ng t l 92,37%. Nguyn nhn l
TS khng hnh thnh t vn vay hoc cng trnh xy dng TS gp bin c nn kh khn
trong vic thu hi n. Mt khc, khi x l TS th khch hng khng chu hp tc (b trn)
hoc CBTD khng xc nh ng gi tr TS hnh thnh vn vay dn n kh khn trong
vic pht mi TS, nhiu trng hp ngn hng khng thu khon n khi x l TS.
T l n xu
Qua cc nm, t l n xu i vi TS hnh thnh vn vay cao hn t l n xu i vi TS
th chp. C th, nm 2011 c hai hnh thc ny u tng 0,03% so vi nm 2010. Nm
2012, t l n xu i vi TS hnh thnh vn vay l 0,63% tng 0,26% so vi nm 2011,
trong khi t l n xu i vi TS th chp l 0,29% tng 0,07% so vi nm 2011.
Tm li, hnh thc cho vay B bng TS th chp vn l u tin s mt khi xt duyt cho
vay, nhng do TSB ch yu l quyn s dng t, giy t c lin quan nn tnh cht di n
bin phc tp, a dng v s lng CBTD c hn. Do , chi nhnh cn c hng t chc
nhm nng cao cht lng thm nh tn dng gim thiu ri ro, tn tht.

2.2.2.4. Thc trng hot ng cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh


theo mc ch vay ti Ngn hng TMCP Cng Thng Vit Nam chi nhnh
Nng qua 3 nm (2010 2012)
Da vo mc ch s dng ca khch hng, sn phm cho vay xy dng v sa cha
nh c chia ra: xy dng v sa cha nh. Mc ch vic phn chia l khon tin
c ngn hng phn b nh th no, khon cho vay no ang pht trin, khon cho
vay no cn hn ch v nguyn nhn ca n. T , ngn hng nm bt xu hng nhu
cu khch hng a ra k hoch v phng n hot ng nhm khc phc hn ch
v kt qu kinh doanh tt nht.
Nhn xt:
Doanh s cho vay

151

Qua bng 2.7, t trng DSCV xy nh chim cao hn t trng DSCV sa cha nh,
DSCV xy nh chim t trng bnh qun xp x 53,8%. Nm 2012, DSCV xy nh t
38.836 triu ng, tng 8.855 triu ng so vi nm 2011 tng ng t l 29,53%. Mc
d, Chi nhnh bit hnh thc cho vay ny ri ro cao hn cho vay sa cha nh v mc
Bng 2.7 Tnh hnh cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh theo mc ch vay ti
Ngn hng TMCP Cng Thng Vit Nam chi nhnh Nng qua 3 nm (2010
2012)
VT: triu ng
Nm 2010
Ch tiu

S tin

Nm 2011

TT
(%)

S tin

Nm 2012

TT
(%)

S tin

Chnh lch 11/10

TT

(%)

tin

Chnh lch 12/11

T l(%)

S tin

T
l(%)

1.DSCV XD SCN

50.501

100

55.749

100

71.456

100

5.248

10,39

15.707

28,17

1.1. Xy dng

26.927

53,32

29.982

53,78

38.836

54,35

3.055

11,34

8.855

29,53

1.2 Sa cha nh

23.574

46,68

25.767

46,22

32.620

45,65

2.193

9,30

6.852

26,59

2.DSTN XD SCN

47.953

100

48.394

100

70.570

100

441

0,92

22.176

45,82

2.1. Xy dng

24.552

51,2

24.942

51,54

37.134

52,62

390

1,59

12.192

48,88

2.2. Sa cha nh

23.401

48,8

23.452

48,46

33.436

47,38

51

0,22

9.984

42,57

27.074

100

30.744

100

36.804

100

3.669

13,55

6.060

19,71

3.1. Xy dng

13.876

51,25

15.870

51,62

19.046

51,75

1.994

14,37

3.176

20,01

3.2. Sa cha nh

13.199

48,75

14.874

48,38

17.758

48,25

1.675

12,69

2.884

19,39

71

100

88

100

157

100

17

24,11

69

77,97

4.1. Xy dng

40

56,47

52

58,54

99

63,2

12

28,66

48

92,13

4.2. Sa cha nh

31

43,53

37

41,46

58

36,8

18,21

21

57,96

3.D n cui k
XD SCN

4. N xu XD
SCN

5. T l n xu

0,26

0,29

0,43

0,03

0,14

5.1. Xy dng

0,29

0,33

0,52

0,04

0,2

5.2. Sa cha nh

0,23

0,25

0,33

0,02

0,08

XD SCN (%)

(Ngun phng Tng hp Ngn hng Vietinbank Nng)


nhu cu vay ca khch hng ln v thi gian tr n di nhng phn ln khch hng n
vay vn l xy dng nh vi mc vay vn ln cng thm li sut cho vay cao

152

(17% nm-18% nm) nn ngun thu t tin li cao lm gia tng li nhun V vy,
DSCV xy nh gia tng qua cc nm. Tuy nhin, DSCV sa cha nh cng gp phn
gia tng DSCV. Nm 2012, DSCV sa cha nh t 32.620 triu ng, tng 6.852
triu ng tng ng t l 26,59%. Nguyn nhn: khch hng c nhu cu sa cha nh
th mc vay vn thng thp hn xy nh, trung bnh khon vay l 100 triu. Chnh v
mc vay thp nn CBTD khng quan tm vic tm kim khch hng trong hot ng
cho vay sa cha nh, do DSCV sa cha nh thp hn DSCV xy nh.
Doanh s thu n
Qua cc nm, t trng xy nh cao hn t trng sa cha nh v DSTN xy nh
cao hn DSTN sa cha nh. T trng DSTN xy nh chim bnh qun 51,8%, nm
2012 DSTN xy nh t 37.134 triu ng, tng 12.192 triu ng so vi nm 2011
tng ng t l 48,88%. T trng DSTN sa cha nh chim bnh qun 48,3%, nm
2012 DSTN sa cha nh t 33.436 triu ng, tng 9.984 triu ng so vi nm
2011 tng ng t l 42,57%. Nguyn nhn: khch hng s dng hnh thc cho vay
sa cha nh ch yu l sa li phng, sa li tng ro, nn nh, bp nn mc vay
ca khch hng thp v trong ngn hn (thng thng di 1 nm). Do , khch hng
c kh nng thanh ton ng hn, nu khch hng chm tr th thi gian hon tr ch
vt qu t 1 n 2 ngy tr n. V vy, cng tc thu hi n i vi cho vay sa cha
nh kh hiu qu.
D n
Biu 2.7 Tnh hnh d n cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh theo mc ch
vay ti Ngn hng TMCP Cng Thng Vit Nam chi nhnh Nng qua 3
nm (2010 2012) (xem trang tip theo)
D n cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh chim t trng xp x ngang nhau. C th, d
n xy nh chim t trng bnh qun xp x 51%, cn sa cha nh chim t trng
bnh qun xp x 49%. Nguyn nhn l do v tr a l ca thnh ph Nng nm gn

153

bin nn chu nhiu nh hng v thi tit nh bo, l lt gy h hi v nh ca dn


c, do , ngi dn phi xy dng li nh ca, tu sa nh ca cho kin c phng trnh
lt bo. Mt khc, do ngi dn di c n hc tp, lm vic, sinh sng nn nhu cu v nh
rt cn thit, do nhiu khch hng n ngn hng xin vay xy dng nh . V
vy, cho vay xy dng nh chim t trng cao hn cho vay sa cha nh.
Hn na, nhu cu khch hng l ln nhng mc tng d n vn thp do vn cn mt s
hn ch. C th, nm 2012 d n cho vay xy dng nh t 19.046 triu ng, tng
3.176 triu ng so vi nm 2011 tng ng t l 20,01%. Nm 2012 d n cho vay sa
cha nh t 17.758 triu ng, tng 2.884 triu ng so vi nm 2011 tng ng t l
19,39%. Trong hnh thc cho vay xy dng nh, nu khon vay mc 300 triu ng
vi li sut trung bnh l 17% nm vi thi hn 5 nm th hng thng khch hng phi
tr tin gc v li khng di 10 triu ng, nh vy nhng ngi c thu nhp trung
bnh 4 triu ng/thng kh c kh nng p ng c. Do vy, chi nhnh cng u tin
loi hnh ny sang thi hn lu hn khch hng gim bt gnh nng chi tr khon n
nhng ch thu ht nhng khon vay di 500 triu ng (theo quy nh ca Hi s chnh
i vi quyn hn ca Chi nhnh), nhng khon vay ln hn 500 triu ng phi ch
Hi s chnh ph duyt.
N xu

154

Qua cc nm, tnh hnh n xu gia tng. N xu ch yu l cho vay xy dng


nh. Nm 2012 n xu v xy dng l 99 triu ng, tng 48 triu ng so vi nm
2011 tng ng t l 92,13%. L gii iu ny: do nhu cu xy dng thng l vay gi
tr ln (ln hn 500 triu ng) vi thi hn trung bnh l 10 nm nn cng tc theo di
v thu hi n di n ra kh khn. Nu khch hng khng th thanh ton khon n th Chi
nhnh phi thu hi TSB v pht mi TSB thu hi khon n. Tuy nhin, trong
nhiu trng hp Chi nhnh gp phi tnh hung: khi pht mi TS th s tin thu hi
khng b p c khon n gc v li ca khch hng bi v TS b gim gi tr so vi
lc ban u thm nh TS. Do , khon tin thiu ht lm gia tng n xu. Ngoi ra,
nm 2012 n xu v sa cha nh l 58 triu ng, tng 21 triu ng so vi nm 2011
tng ng t l 57, 96%.
T l n xu
T l n xu cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh gia tng qua cc nm. C th,
nm 2012 t l n xu cho vay xy dng l 0,52%, tng 0,2% so vi nm 2011.
Nguyn nhn l do d n v n xu i vi xy dng gia tng nn t l n xu tng.
Nm 2012 t l n xu cho vay sa cha nh l 0,33%, tng 0,08% so vi nm 2011.

2.2.2.5. Thc trng hot ng cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh


theo i tng vay ti Ngn hng TMCP Cng Thng Vit Nam chi nhnh
Nng qua 3 nm (2010 2012)
Ngn hng c rt nhiu i tng trong x hi tham gia vay vn, do lnh vc cho vay
ny tim n nhiu ri ro nn phn loi khch hng gip cho ngn hng thy c loi
hnh khch hng no thng c nhu cu, quan h vay vn vi ngn hng nhiu nht,
loi khch hng no thng c lch s vay vn tt, ngn hng c th tm ra
hng i tt trong chn la loi khch hng xy dng quan h tn dng, xc nh
phng thc tr n, cng nh xc nh loi TSB nhm hn ch ri ro v gia tng li
nhun.Thng thng, do c im v i tng tr n, phng thc tr n m ngn

155

hng chia khch hng thnh 2 nhm: CB-NV, khng phi CB-NV. Di y l bng
tnh hnh cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh theo i tng vay.
CB-NV l nhng ngi lm cng n lng, c giy xc nhn ni c tr, h vay vn ti
ngn hng, vi nhng i tng ny ngn hng thng cho vay di hnh thc bo
lnh ca c quan ni lm vc hoc da vo kh nng ti chnh l tin lng v TSB.
Ngun tr n ca h l da trn doanh thu hot ng kinh doanh, k tr n c th l
theo thng, tu thuc vo k thu n m CBTD xem xt v tho thun.
Nhn xt:
Doanh s cho vay
T bng 2.8, DSCV chim t trng ln l nhm CB-NV v c xu hng tng
dn, t trng bnh qun xp x 62,5%. Nm 2012 DSCV CB-NV t 45.946 triu ng,
tng 11.131 triu ng so vi nm 2011 tng ng vi t l 31,97%. Bi v CB-NV l
nhng ngi lm vic c quan nh nc c thu nhp tng i n nh.
Mt khc, li sut cho vay hot ng xy dng v sa cha nh c u i,i vi
CB-NV Vietinbank, li sut cho vay thng thp hn t 1% nm n 2% nm so vi
li sut ngn hng Vietinbank quy nh v mc cho vay ti a l 300 triu ng, do ,
hot ng cho vay xy dng sa cha nh cng thu ht lng nhn vin i vay.
Ngoi ra, DSCV i vi thnh phn khng phi CB NV l kh thp. Nm 2012,
DSCV t 25.510 triu ng, tng 4.576 triu ng so vi nm 2011 tng ng t l
21,86%. Nguyn nhn: do thnh phn khng phi CB NV thng l c nhn t m
cng ty, cc tiu thng, cc CB-NV lm vic ti doanh nghip t nhn, ngi bun
bn nn vn thm nh ti chnh c nhn l kh khn, bi v thu nhp ca h ph
thuc vo tnh hnh hot ng kinh doanh.
Doanh s thu n
V cng tc thu n, t trng DSTN i vi CB-NV qua cc nm chim cao hn
t trng DSTN khng phi CB-NV, chim t trng bnh qun 60%. Qua cc nm,
DSTN i vi CB-NV u tng. Nm 2012, DSTN CB-NV t 54.092 triu ng tng
23.096 triu ng so vi nm 2011 tng ng vi t l 74,51%. Nguyn nhn l do

156

CB-NV u c thu nhp n nh, vic thanh ton tin n c tnh trn phn trm
lng hng thng thng qua th tn dng. Mt khc, cng tc thm nh tn dng ca
Bng 2.8 Tnh hnh cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh theo i tng vay ti
Ngn hng TMCP Cng Thng Vit Nam chi nhnh Nng qua 3 nm (2010
2012)

VT: triu ng
Nm 2010

CH TIU
S tin

TT
(%)

Nm 2011

TT

S tin

(%)

Nm 2012

S tin

TT
(%)

Chnh lch

Chnh lch

11/10

12/11

S tin

l(%)

tin

l(%)

1. DSCV XD SCN

50.501

100

55.749

100

71.456

100

5.248

10,39

15.707

28,17

1.1 CB - NV

30.553

60,5

34.815

62,45

45.946

64,3

4.262

13,95

11.131

31,97

19.948

39,5

20.934

37,55

25.510

35,7

986

4,94

4.576

21,86

2. DSTN XD SCN

47.953

100

48.394

100

70.570

100

441

0,92

22.176

45,82

2.1 CB - NV

28.546

59,53

30.996

64,05

54.092

76,65

2.450

8,58

23.096

74,51

19.406

40,47

17.398

35,925

16.478

23,35

-2.009

-10,35

-920

-5,29

27.074

100

30.744

100

36.804

100

3.669

13,55

6.060

19,71

7.670

28,33

9.085

29,55

11,354

30,85

1.415

18,44

2.269

24,98

19.404

71,67

21.659

70,45

25.450

69,15

2.255

11,62

3.791

17,5

4. N xu XD SCN

71

100

88

100

157

100

17

24,11

69

77,97

4.1 CB - NV

23

32,55

22

25,45

21

13,45

-1

-2,96

-1

-5,95

48

67,45

66

74,55

136

86,55

11

20,81

70

106,61

1.2 Khng phi CB


- NV

2.2 Khng phi CB


- NV
3. D n cui k
XD SCN
3.1 CB - NV
3.2 Khng phi CB
- NV

4.2 Khng phi CB


- NV
5. T l n xu XD
SCN
5.1 CB - NV
5.2 Khng phi CB
- NV

0,26

0,29

0,43

0,02

0,14

0,34

0,23

0,18

-0,11

-0,05

0,24

0,31

0,55

0,08

0,23

(Ngun phng Tng hp Ngn hng Vietinbank Nng)

157

CBTD l tt, nh gi kh nng ti chnh ca khch hng nn cng vic thu n thc
hin hiu qu. DSTN i vi khng phi CB-NV l kh thp v lin tc gim. C th,
nm 2011 DSTN t 17.398 triu ng, gim 2.009 triu ng so vi nm 2010 tng
ng t l 10,35%. Nm 2012 DSTN t 16.478 triu ng, gim 920 triu ng so vi
nm 2011 tng ng t l 5,29%. Nguyn nhn: tnh hnh hot ng kinh doanh ca
nhm khch hng ny ri vo tnh trng kh khn do nh hng ca nn kinh t khin
kh nng tr n ca nhm khch hng khng c n nh so vi nhm CB-NV. Mt
khc, cng vic n c thu n cha hiu qu, i lc xao nhng. Nhiu trng hp,
cc khon vay vt qu thi hn tr n, CBTD khng ngng n c thu n nhng
khch hng khng tr n gy nh hng DSTN ca Chi nhnh.
D n
Bi v cng tc thu n i vi khch hng khng phi CB-NV gim nn khon
tin cha thu hi ca nhm khch hng ny gia tng. C th, nm 2011 d n l 21.659
triu ng, tng 2.255 triu ng so vi nm 2010 tng ng t l 11,62%. Nm 2012,
d n i vi khch hng khng phi CB-NV l 25.450 triu ng, tng 3.791 triu
ng so vi nm 2011, tng ng t l 17,5%.
N xu
Biu 2.8 Tnh hnh n xu cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh theo i tng
vay ti Ngn hng TMCP Cng Thng Vit Nam chi nhnh Nng qua 3
nm (2010 2012)

158

N xu i vi khch hng khng phi CB-NV l chim a s, chim t trng


bnh qun khong 75% v gia tng qua cc nm. Nm 2012, n xu l 136 triu ng,
tng 70 triu ng so vi nm 2011 tng ng t l 106,61%. Tc tng trng n
xu qu cao v th Chi nhnh cn n c thu n, ch trng trong cng tc thm nh,
kim tra, gim st tnh hnh khch hng thng xuyn v thng l yu cu v TSB
l rt cht ch nhm hn ch ri ro. Tuy nhin, nhm khch hng ny c nhiu ngn
hng chuyn hng sang cho vay nhng ty thuc vo tnh hnh nn kinh t v lnh
vc kinh doanh m ngn hng gii hn mc cho vay. Bn cnh , ngn hng cn xem
xt trn mi quan h tng th vi cc li ch khc nh l h c th s dng cc dch v
khc ti ngn hng, duy tr ti khon tin gi vi s d cao, nn ngn hng cng tm
cch tip cn v nng cao loi hnh khch hng ny v kh nng h mang li li nhun
l rt ln.
T l n xu
Qua cc nm, t l n xu ch yu l t l n xu xut pht t nhm khng phi
CB-NV. Nm 2010, t l n xu l 0,31%, tng 0,08% so vi nm 2011. Nm 2012 t
l n xu l 0,55%, tng 0,23% so vi nm 2011. Nguyn nhn l do d n v n xu
i vi nhm khng phi CB-CNV gia tng k o theo t l n xu gia tng.

159

T l n xu i vi CB-NV l gim. Nm 2011, t l n xu gim 0,11% so vi nm


2010. Nm 2012, t l n xu l 0,18%, gim 0,05% so vi nm 2011. V vy, s pht
trin cc loi hnh dch v ca cc ngn hng trn a bn u chuyn hng vo nhm
i tng CB-NV nh dch v tr lng qua th, cho vay qua th thng qua hn mc
thu chi, gia tng sc thu ht i tng CB-NV, c bit l hot ng cho vay
xy mi v sa cha nh c nhiu s u i i vi CB-NV nh li sut, thi hn,
phng thc tr n, do h d dng tm hiu v t vn vay vn vi ngn hng
khi c nhu cu.
2.2.3. Nhn xt chung v hot ng cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh ti
Ngn hng TMCP Cng Thng Vit Nam chi nhnh Nng qua 3 nm (2010
2012)

2.2.3.1. Nhng kt qu t c
Trong mi trng kinh doanh kh khn, hot ng cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh
chim t trng nh trong cho vay tiu dng nhng hot ng cho vay ny cng ng
gp lm gia tng li nhun ca ngn hng. Kt qu t c nh vo s n lc ca Chi
nhnh.
Quy m cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh tng qua cc nm
Quy m cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh gia tng th hin qua doanh thu cho vay
tng theo thi gian. Nm 2012, DSCV t c 71.456 triu ng, tng 28,17% so vi
nm 2011. iu ny chng t hot ng cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh thu ht s
quan tm ca khch hng.
Quy trnh cho vay ti chi nhnh hng dn rt chi tit, c th
Quy trnh cho vay ti chi nhnh hng dn rt chi tit v phn cng trch nhim r
rng cho tng thnh vin. Cc bc thc hin trnh t, logic do CBTD thc hin, bn
cnh cn c s kim tra gim st ca Trng phng tn dng v cp c thm quyn
ph duyt, i vi nhng khon vay mi v quy m ln cn c s tham gia thm nh
ca phng Qun l ri ro.
Phm vi hot ng phng giao dch rng khp thnh ph

160

Chi nhnh quan tm s thun tin ca khch hng thng qua vic m nhiu phng giao
dch khch hng khi c nhu cu giao dch c th tm n ngn hng mt cch thun
tin v nhanh chng. H thng phng giao dch nm ri rc trn cc tuyn ng Hng
Vng, Trn Cao Vn, Ni Thnh, Phan Chu Trinh, siu th Lotte Mart, ng ch
ng, . c bit,qun Cm L l khu vc c quy hoch, s lng h gia nh c
nhu cu xy mi l rt ln, bn cnh do b a bn thp trng nn chu nh hng
nng n ca ngp lt, nhu cu sa cha nh cng rt cao. Do , khch hng c nhu
cu i vay xy mi, tu sa nh . Thnh lp phng giao dch Cm L chng t chi
nhnh rt c gng n lc trong tm hiu nhu cu th trng vi xu hng nh , tng
sc cnh tranh trn a bn.
Trong thi gian qua, t l n xu ti Chi nhnh thp
Trong thi gian qua, t l n xu ti Chi nhnh thp.T l n xu duy tr di mc 1%
v thp nht 0.05% vo nm 2011; t l ny hon ton trong mc t l n xu cho php
ca NHNN. Chng t ngn hng ch trng cng tc thm nh, kim tra v gim st
cc khon vay vi mc tiu m bo an ton ngun vn, th hin tinh thn, trch nhim
v nng lc ca cn b i ng nhn vin trong chi nhnh ni chung v CBTD ni
ring. Trong thi gian qua, ta thy CBTD rt thn trng trong tip nhn h s xin vay,
nht l TSB ca khch hng. Bi v cho vay xy dngv sa cha nh vi hnh thc
bo m ch yu l quyn s dng t v ti sn gn lin vi t nhng y l loi
hnh ti sn a dng v phc tp; nhiu h s khi ri vo tnh trng n xu, cng tc
pht mi ti sn th chp c th khng thu hi n hoc thu hi n khng vn gc.
Chnh sch cho vay ph hp vi nhu cu khch hng
Ngn hng nng mc cho vay ti a trn gi tr TSB t 50% ln 70%. Mc cho
vay ny tng i ph hp vi nhu cu vay ca khch hng. Ngoi ra, ngn hng chp
nhn nhiu hnh thc bo m khc nhau, thi gian cho vay xy dng nh ln n 15
nm.
Tim lc ti chnh mnh

161

Bi v Vietinbank xut thn t ngn hng nh nc c c phn. Do , Vietinbank


lun lun duy tr mi quan h v nhn c s h tr ca cc n v, t chc nh Kho
Bc, ti khon tin gi ca cc doanh nghip nh nc, ngun vn vin tr, ti tr ca
chnh ph theo chng trnh, d n,

2.2.3.2. Nhng hn ch
Bn cnh hot ng cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh t c nhng kt qu th hot
ng ny vn tn ti mt s hn ch cn khc phc.
Cch thc thu n, th tc h s vay vn, thi gian gii quyt h s, khng mang
tnh cnh tranh so vi ngn hng khc.
+ Theo quy nh ca NHCT Vit Nam, Chi nhnh c hai phng thc thu n l tr gp
v tng ln. Tuy nhin, phng thc tr n ch yu l tr gp bi v CBTD lun t vn
cho khch hng thc hin theo phng thc tr gp trnh ri ro v thun tin trong
vic n c thu n. Trong khi , nhiu NHTM trn a bn thnh ph (ACB,
Techcombank, Sacombank, ) tm hiu nhu cu tr n ca khch hng nn a ra
cc bin php tr n nh: phng thc tr gp nhng s tin tr n c th thu ti nh
hoc thu tin qua ti khon online.
+ Th tc h s vay vn rm r, qua nhiu b h s nh: h s php l , h s m
bo, h s khon vay.
+ Thi gian gii quyt h s theo quy nh ti a 5 ngy i vi vay ngn hn v ti a
10 ngy i vi trung di hn. Thc t, nu khon vay di 500 triu th thi gian t
khi nhn h s n gii ngn ti a mt 3 ngy. Trong khi , cc NHTM khc gii
quyt h s trong 1 2 ngy. Nu khon vay ln th Chi nhnh phi xin kin Hi s
chnh ph duyt cho vay. Khi , thi gian gii quyt h s vay k o di hn 3 ngy.
Ti sn m bo l nh t c quyn th chp th phi c cp giy chng
nhn quyn s hu nh v quyn s dng t :
Hin nay, nhiu khch hng c nhn thn tt v kh nng ti chnh tr n thng qua
bng nh gi xp loi khch hng nhng khng c vay vn v khng iu kin
v ti sn m bo. Bi v khch hng mua t cha i tn ch s hu nn giy chng

162

nhn quyn s dng t vn thuc quyn ch c. Do , hn ch s lng khch hng


c vay vn ngn hng.
Thi gian cho vay xy dng nh tng i ngn
Thi gian cho vay xy dng nh ti a 10 nm l khong thi gian cha di
khch hng tr n, to ra p lc chi tr li hng thng qu cao. i vi khch hng vay
khon tin ln hn 500 triu th thi gian 10 nm, gi s li sut l 16% nm th s tin
chi tr hng thng trung bnh l 8 triu ng. i vi gia nh thu nhp trung bnh 10
triu/ thng th s tin chi tr n ngn hng l qu cao.
i tng hot ng cho vay XD SCN i vi CB-NV cn hn ch
Qua vic phn tch tnh hnh cho vay xy dng sa cha nh i vi CB-NV th i
tng hot ng cho vay ny ch dnh cho CB-NV trong cc c quan t chc nh
nc, on th, cng ty c phn c vn nh nc. CB-NV c mc lng n nh v
hng cc ch nh bo him x hi, cng on theo quy nh ca nh nc, CBNV ca Vietinbank, do hot ng cho vay ny b thu hp v khng hng ti CBNV lm trong nhng Tp on ln, nhng cng ty nc ngoi, CB-NV lm vic cc
cng ty t nhn,
Cha c b phn h tr tn dng
Hin nay, phng khch hng c nhn c 4 CBTD m nhim cng vic php l chng
t, chuyn mn v mt php l, thm nh tn dng.Do , CBTD m nhim qu
nhiu cng vic cho vay gy nh hng thi gian v qu trnh xt duyt h s. Bn
cnh , qu trnh x t duyt h s cn mang tnh th cng. Khch hng phi ti ngn
hng np h s v bit kt qu lm tn nhiu thi gian, cng sc ca khch hng.

163

Chng 3: GII PHP V MT S KIN NGH Y MNH HOT NG


CHO VAY XY DNG V SA CHA NH TI NGN HNG TMCP
CNG THNG VIT NAM CHI NHNH NNG
3.1.Thun li v kh khn i vi hot ng cho vay xy dng v sa cha
nh
3.1.1. Thun li
Thnh ph thu ht nhiu ngi dn n sinh sng nn nhu cu v nh gia
tng
Tc tng GDP bnh qun nm 2010 t 12,16%, nm 2010 tng 11%. C cu kinh
t ca thnh ph chuyn dch theo hng: dch v - cng nghip nng nghip
ngnh dch v 50,46%; ngnh cng nghip - xy dng chim t trng 46,5%; ngnh
nng, lm nghip, thy sn 3,04%. Hin nay c hn 10.000 doanh nghip thuc cc
thnh phn kinh t ang hot ng ti thnh ph. H thng ng giao thng trong v
ngoi thnh ph khng ngng c m rng v xy mi. Nhiu cng trnh ln a vo
s dng nh cu Rng, cu Trn Th L, cu Nguy n Tri Phng, Tuyn cp treo B
N, Nhiu khu vc c gii to, quy hoch xy dng v h thng cc cng trnh
phc v cho cc d n u t ca thnh ph nhm pht trin kinh t - vn ho x hi
trn a bn
V vy, thnh ph thu ht ngy cng nhiu nh u t, ngi lao ng v hc sinh, sinh
vin khp ni n lp nghip, sinh sng v hc tp, do nhu cu v nh sinh hot
ngy cng cp thit. Theo s liu ca Cc Thng k thnh ph Nng nm 2010,
trn a bn c 70.000 ngi cng nhn lao ng, trong khong 50.000 ngi ang
c nhu cu v nh . l cha k c 45.000 trong tng s 100.000 hc sinh, sinh vin
n t cc tnh khc c nhu cu v ch hc hnh trong thi gian di. Cc i
tng ny ang thc s c nhu cu v nh
Ko di thi gian tr n s dng t
Vi s quy hoch th, thnh ph thc hin gii phng mt bng, cp t ti nh
c nh cho ngi dn vi gi thp. Cn c Quyt nh s 7344 Q-UBND ngy 10

164

thng 9 nm 2008 v vic b tr t v ghi n 100% tin s dng t. Thi gian tr tin
s dng t c k o di n 10 nm. Ngi dn c ghi n v tr chm trong vng
10 nm, khng tnh li, s tin c th tr mt ln hoc nhiu ln. iu ny gip gim
bt gnh nng tr n ca ngi dn, gp phn gim bt kh khn cho ngi dn c t
b thu hi, n nh cuc sng mi sau khi gii ta. Ngi dn c th ch ng tip cn
ngun vn cho vay xy dng nh ca ngn hng, t ngi dn va c nh va cn
i ngun thu nhp, chi tiu sinh hot trong gia nh m bo kh nng tr n.
Tin cp giy chng nhn quyn s hu nh v s dng t trn a bn
thnh ph nhanh chng.
Vn phng UBND TP. Nng ra vn bn s 71/TB-UBND thng bo thi gian cp
giy chng nhn quyn s dng t ti a 15 ngy lm vic. Nhiu trng hp, ngi
dn c y giy t hp l th thi gian c th rt ngn t 5 n 10 ngy. y l mt
bc tin quan trng trong vic gii quyt th tc nhanh chng, do , gim bt thi
gian lm th tc vay vn.
Tnh hnh gi c nguyn vt liu xy dng gim mnh
Nm 2010, th trng nguyn vt liu ua nhau tng gi, c bit u thng 4/2010, gi
nhiu loi nguyn VLXD li bt u c xu hng tng t 10- 20%, c bit l gi thp
v xi mng. Gi cc loi xi mng lin tip nhiu ln iu chnh tng gi, vi mc tng
khong t 3.000- 5.000 ng/bao 50kg so vi hi thng 3/2010. Gi thp tng ln n
khong 15.000 ng/kg so vi thng 3 2010. L do l chi ph u vo gia tng (in,
nc, vt liu th ) nn nguyn vt liu xy dng tng m bo chi ph sn xut.
Tuy nhin, t nm 2011 n nm 2012, do tnh hnh kinh t t nc c nhiu kh
khn nh hng tiu cc n hot ng ca cc doanh nghip ni chung v cc
doanh nghip ngnh vt liu xy dng ni ring. Thc hin ch trng kim ch lm
pht ca Chnh ph: u t cng b ct gim, cc d n bt ng sn tm dng hoc
gin tin , nhiu cng trnh xy dng khng c vn trin khai, dn n nhu
cu tiu th VLXD 6 thng u nm 2012 gim. Do , nhiu doanh nghip thc hin
chng trnh u i kch thch tiu dng sn phm nh: gim gi bn, mi n ph vn

165

chuyn, nu khch hng mua hng vi s lng ln th doanh nghip chit khu gim
gi V vy, y l yu t thun li ngi dn tin hnh xy dng, sa cha nh
trong giai on ny.
3.1.2. Kh khn
Th trng bt ng sn bin ng
V theo hnh thc cho vay ny, ti sn th chp ch yu l ti sn bt ng sn. Theo
quy nh, chi nhnh ch nhn ti sn m bo l nh, t c cp giy chng nhn
quyn s hu nh v quyn s dng t . Hn na, trong nhng nm gn y, th
trng bt ng sn bin ng lin tc v cha c du hiu tng trng. Do , qu
trnh xt duyt cho vay cn gp nhiu bt cp trong khu thm nh gi tr TSB, m
khi thm nh CBTD phi da vo khung gi nh t do UBND thnh ph a ra.
Chnh v vy, gi tr TSB ca khch hng thng khng tng xng vi gi tr thc,
nht l quyn s dng t. Bi gi tr quyn s dng t m UBND cc tnh, thnh
ph a ra ch p dng tnh thu thu ch khng phi bn v trao i trn th
trng gy nhiu kh khn cho nhn vin trong cng tc thm nh, nu khng chnh
xc c th gy thit hi cho ngn hng.
V pha khch hng: Phn ln dn nhp c ti thnh ph cha c cng vic n
nh, thu nhp khng u v cha c h khu nn kh khn trong vic i vay. Bn
cnh , t l ngi c thu nhp thp trn a bn kh cao v nhu cu v nh l rt
ln, nhng trong thc t h kh c th tip cn ngun vn vay t ngn hng do iu
kin th tc vay vn. V th, hot ng cho vay ngi c thu nhp thp vn cha thc
s c chuyn bin.
Gia tng i th cnh tranh
Do s pht trin kinh t, trn a bn thnh ph khng nhng cnh tranh gia cc ngn
hng vi nhau m cn cnh tranh vi cc t chc ti chnh phi ngn hng (bo him,
cng ty ti chnh ) v ngn hng nc ngoi. Nhng t chc ny l i th trc tip
trong mng tn dng c nhn nh thanh ton, chuyn tin Trn a bn thnh ph
Nng c rt nhiu ngn hng vi u th cnh tranh rt mnh trong tng lnh vc nh

166

Vietcombank qun l tt nht lnh vc bao gm ti tr thng mi v thanh ton quc


t; ACB,Techcombank v Sacombank rt mnh v lnh vc cho vay i vi khch
hng c nhn, ng c xem l ngn hng nng ng nht trong khi cc ngn
hng TMCP, mnh v pht hnh th ATM vi nhng cng ngh mi nht, tin ch nht
v cn c th mnh v cung ng cc dch v lin quan v kiu hi.
Hin nay, mt s c nhn kinh doanh mang tnh tp th nh cc tiu thng trong ch,
hi ph n tn ti rt ph bin hnh thc chi biu. y l mt dng tit kim trong
dn, c th l ngun vn gp h tr vo mc ch xy mi v sa cha nh rt hu
hiu. H cho rng phng php ny thun li hn cc hnh thc cho vay vi th tc rc
ri, tn nhiu cng sc i li v khc phc tm l e ngi khi n ngn hng vay vn.
3.2. nh hng pht trin ca Ngn hng TMCP Cng Thng Vit Nam
chi nhnh Nng
Nm 2013, trong bi cnh nn kinh t th gii v trong nc, d bo cn gp nhiu
kh khn, thch thc, gi c lun bin ng, tip tc thay i v: c ch, li sut, chnh
sch, ti cu trc nn kinh t, ti c cu ngn hng, th trng cnh tranh ngy cng
gay gt. Trn c s phng hng ch o ca Ngn hng TMCP Cng ThngVit
Nam, chi nhnh tp trung thc hin cc mc tiu ch yu sau:
Chi nhnh tip tc gi vng v tr l mt trong nhng ngn hng dn u trong
h thng Ngn hng TMCP ti Nng, vi phng chm Hiu qu kinh doanh ca
khch hng l mc tiu hot ng ca ngn hng
Tng cng y mnh huy ng tt c cc ngun vn, c bit ch trng huy
ng cc ngun vn n nh v gi r t tin gi dn c, cc t chc kinh t. Ngun
vn cui nm 2013 t 3.070 t ng.
Phn u d n cho vay nn kinh t cui nm 2013 l 3.100 t ng. Tng
cng phn tch cht lng tn dng, phn loi v sng lc khch hng, kin quyt ct
gim d n khch hng c nng lc ti chnh yu km, tim n ri ro. Tp trung n qu
hn, thu hi n xu t 213,014 t ng, n xu di 3% trn tng d n.

167

Tip tc gi mi quan h gn b mt thit vi khch hng chin lc, truyn


thng; tch cc tm kim khch hng mi, tp trung pht trin th trng vn, khng
ngun vn b tt gim, m bo nng cao th phn Vietinbank Nng.
Thc hin vic chuyn i m hnh cp tn dng vi nh hng qun tr ri ro
tp trung theo Base II ca NHNN, nng cao nng lc qun tr iu hnh v phn tch
d bo, c nh hng tn dng r rng i vi tng nhm khch hng. Tng cng
cng tc qun l ri ro; nng cao cht lng thm inh d n, phng n vay vn; tng
cng cng tc kim sot cho vay hn ch pht sinh n xu.
Khai thc tm kim cc phng n v d n kh thi, tch cc cho vay i vi
khch hng c tim lc ti chnh mnh, c TSB, sn xut kinh doanh mang li hiu
qu cao, c kh nng tr n ngn hng kp thi v y . Cho vay i vi cc chng
trnh tn dng mc tiu: cho vay nng nghip, xut khu, cc doanh nghip va v nh,
y mnh tn dng ngn hn.
Li nhun nm 2013 t 363,230 triu ng, trong li nhun t hot ng
kinh doanh t 92,140 t ng. Phn u doanh thu dch v ngn hng t 35,3 t
ng. Tng cng m rng thanh ton xut nhp khu, bo lnh, ti tr thng mi,
kinh doanh ngoi t; pht hnh th ATM i vi i tng hng lng, trng hc;
pht hnh th Tn dng Quc t cho khch hng VIP, du hc sinh,
T chc tp hun ngn hn nhm nng cao k nng lnh o i vi i ng cn
b ch cht, nng cao kin thc nghip v nhn vin. Nhn x t nh gi nhn vin,
tuyn dng v bt b sung cc phng ban thiu nhn vin, thc hin cc chnh sch
lng hp l.
Tip tc cng tc hot ng truyn thng, cng ngh thng tin, m bo an ton
h thng. Tng cng cng tc qung b thng hiu, sn phm, dch v tin ch mi
bng nhiu hnh thc a dng n vi cng chng, khch hng.

168

3.3. Gii php y mnh hot ng cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh ti


Ngn hng TMCP Cng Thng Vit Nam chi nhnh Nng trong thi gian
ti
3.3.1.Gii php chnh

3.3.1.1. n gin ha th tc vay vn


Thi hn vay vn ph hp v rt ngn thi gian gii quyt h s tng tnh
cnh tranh
a dng ho cc thi hn cho vay m bo cc nguyn tc tn dng nh kh nng
hon tr, m bo mc ch s dng vn v c iu kin m bo. Chi nhnh c th
xem x t, nh gi a dng ho cc thi hn vay ph hp vi nhu cu v i tng nh:
i vi cho vay sa cha nh chi nhnh cng nn xem x t nng thi hn cho vay ti a
t 5 nm ln 8 nm, do tng kh nng cnh tranh so vi cc ngn hng trn a bn
thnh ph. Mt khc, c th gim p lc v khon tin chi tr hng k v nhu cu vay
kh ln. Trong thi gian vay vn, gia nh khch hng c th gp kh khn, bin c, do
tng thi gian vay vn gip khch hng n nh ti chnh v sp xp tr n.
c bit, i tng thu nhp thp do nh hng li sut, nu khng th gim thp hn
th ngn hng nn c bin php ko di thi gian tr n. Bi v nu trong thi gian
ngn th s tin phi tr qu ln so vi thu nhp hng thng, nh vy h s khng c
kh nng chi tr cho cc khon chi tiu khc.
Ngoi ra, mt trong nhng yu t nh hng n hot ng cho vay l thi gian gii
quyt h s vay. Thi gian gii quyt h s th hin mc ph duyt cho vay vn ca
ngn hng nhanh hay chm. Hin nay, thi gian gii quyt h s ti Chi nhnh ti a l
3 ngy, nhng nhng khon vay ln th phi ch ph duyt ca Hi s nn thi gian c
th ko di 4 5 ngy. Trong khi , nhng ngn hng khc nh: BIDV, Agribank,
ng , ACB thi gian gii quyt h s trong 1 ngy. Do , rt ngn thi gian giao
dch, xt duyt cho vay chi nhnh nn c nhng thay i nh: thay i cch phn cng
cng vic theo hng chuyn mn ho, phng tn dng c nhn nn c phn chia
thnh nhiu nhm bao gm: nhm tip khch, hon thin h s; nhm thm nh;

169

nhm kim tra gim st thu hi n. Ngoi ra, nn thnh lp t h tr tn dng (h tr


hon thin chng t v mt php l, nghin cu th trng, ...). Mi nhm c o
to theo hng chuyn mn nghip v ca mnh. Nh vy, h s khng nhng c
gii quyt nhanh chng m cn chnh xc hn ch ri ro.V vy, Chi nhnh c th tng
sc thu ht khch hng, c bit lng khch hng tim nng, gp phn gia tng mc
cnh tranh.
Linh hot trong cch thc tr n gc v li vay, ng thi Chi nhnh v khch
hng tha thun mc li sut hp l
Ti chi nhnh, phng thc tr n trong trung di hn c th gy kh khn cho khch
hng, nn trong qu trnh tho thun hp ng CBTD cn tip xc vi khch hng
tm hiu mong mun tr n ca khch hng, v d nh tr gp c tnh n thu nhp
khch hng, ph hp vi k thu tin bnh qun, c th khng phi tr gc trong nm
u, c th gim li sut cho 1 thng u v nhng thng sau th tr v mc li sut
theo quy nh NHCT,... Bn cnh , CTBD cng nn linh hot iu chnh mc tr,
lch tr cho ph hp vi kh nng tr n ca khch hng.
Hin nay, li sut p dng ti chi nhnh kh hp l , tun theo quy nh NHNN nhng
cng l vn phi c quan tm thng xuyn v y l n nh hng rt ln n
quyt nh vay vn ca khch hng. Ngn hng xy dng mc li sut hp dn khng
nhng hp l m cn b p c chi ph v tng li nhun cho ngn hng. Do , chi
nhnh cn tha thun mc li sut nh: trong mi thi im, li sut cho vay s khng
vt qu li sut huy ng tit kim 12 thng cng vi mt bin giao ng nht
nh tu theo thi hn v mc ri ro ca tng khon vay c th, nu li sut tng
vt kh nng, chi nhnh c th chuyn mt phn gc tr sang k sau hoc c th gia
hn thm mt khong thi gian,v th to c s hi ho cn i gia li ch ngn
hng v li ch khch hng. Vi cc khch hng truyn thng, c uy tn th chi nhnh
c th p dng mt mc li sut u i, nhm cng c mi quan h lu di vi khch
hng, va khuyn khch cho khch hng tng cng mi quan h vi chi nhnh, va
tch cc lm n c hiu qu, tr n li v gc ng hn cho ngn hng. Vi khch hng

170

mi th nh gi mc ri ro ca phng n vay, ngn hng c th h li sut cho


vay nhng tng bin li sut c iu chnh 3 thng, 6 thng trnh ri ro.
Nng cao vic nh gi TSB phng nga n qu hn.
Hin nay, chi nhnh c nhng quy nh v phng php xc nh gi tr TSB l
quyn s dng t gip ngi dn c c hi vay c nhiu vn nh: vic xc nh
gi tr t ai khng vt qu khung gi t do UBND tnh, thnh ph quy nh; hoc
mc ti a khng qu 70% gi t thc t chuyn nhng trn th trng nhng cng
rt kh xc nh c gi thc t chuyn nhng trn a phng.
Do chnh lch v khung gi t ca nh nc v trn thc t gi t bin ng rt nhiu,
tnh cht phc tp ca loi hnh TSB ny kh c th nh gi gi tr TSB ph hp.
Bn cnh , hin nay thnh ph cha c mt trung tm bt ng sn no c nng
lc, trnh v uy tn a ra gi th trng ca cc loi nh t m ngn hng c th
tham kho cho hot ng tn dng ca ngn hng. Khi nh gi nh t ca khch hng,
CBTD thng t mnh i thu thp ti liu, kho st thc t, iu ny gy kh khn
khng nh cho cng tc ca CBTD, v vy chi nhnh nn thnh lp mt t thng tin bt
ng sn, hot ng nhm cung cp thng tin v nh t, nh gi nh t, mi gii nh
t, nm bt thng tin th trng bt ng sn bin ng, nhm gip vic nh gi
TSB c xc thc hn, gim thiu ri ro trong hot ng tn dng cng nh bo lnh
v tha mn nhu cu ca khch hng.
Tuy nhin, nh gi TSB gip phng nga ri ro khon cho vay. Nu khch hng c
du hiu dn n ri ro th CBTD cn n c khch hng tr n hoc ngn hng yu
cu khch hng cung cp thm TSB m bo an ton cho ngun vn ngn hng
trong trng hp ti sn th chp b gim gi tr. i vi khon n qu hn th ngn
hng cn xem xt li cc vn trong qu trnh thm nh, vn nng lc ti chnh
khch hng, qu trnh khch hng s dng vn vay.
Khi tin hnh thu hi n qu hn, nu khch hng c thin ch tr n th ngn hng c
th iu chnh k hn tr n, cho php khch hng khc phc kh khn ti chnh tr

171

n sm. Nu khch hng khng c thin ch tr n th ngn hng tin hnh thanh l ti
sn th chp thu hi n.

3.3.1.2. a dng ha sn phm cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh


Linh hot trong chp nhn h s ti sn th chp
Trong lc ch i khch hng c cp giy chng nhn quyn s hu nh v quyn s
dng t th ngn hng cn linh hot chp nhn nhng ti sn khc lm ti sn th chp,
sau b sung giy chng nhn quyn s hu. V th, khi xt thy ch s hu c nhn
thn tt, chng minh nng lc ti chnh v nu c chnh quyn a phng xc nhn l
c tr lu di v c cn c php l chng thc quyn s hu ny nh c UBND
qun (huyn) xc nhn t ang s dng ca khch hng vay vn khng c tranh chp
v UBND thnh ph xc nhn quyt nh quyn s dng t th nn linh ng chp
nhn l vt th chp khi vay vn ngn hng. Trong trng hp ny, nn c tho thun
gia ngn hng vi c quan ph trch cp giy chng nhn quyn s dng t thuc cp
thnh ph l khi hon tt th tc giy t s c thng bo v chuyn thng n ngn
hng hoc do ngi ch s hu n nhn nhng phi c giy xc nhn ng ca ngn
hng, thi gian b sung giy quyn s dng t ti a trong vng 30 ngy. Ngoi ra,
ngn hng cn linh hot chp nhn cho vay vi iu kin m bo ti sn khc (ngoi ti
sn l khu t hoc nh nh xy dng sa cha).
M rng i tng cho vay i vi CB-NV
i tng hot ng cho vay i vi CB-NV l CB-NV trong cc c quan t chc nh
nc, on th, cng ty c phn c vn nh nc. CB-NV c mc lng n nh v
hng cc ch nh bo him x hi, cng on theo quy nh ca nh nc, CBNV ca Vietinbank. V vy, chi nhnh c th m rng i tng vay vn ra cc cng
ty c vn u t nc ngoi, cng ty trch nhim hu hn, doanh nghip t nhn, ...
Hin nay, cc doanh nghip ny pht trin rt nhanh trn a bn, thu ht ng o s
lng lao ng tham gia, a s l nhng ngi tr tui, ngi t ni khc n, thu
nhp cng kh cao v n nh. m bo an ton chi nhnh nn a ra mt s iu
kin, ch tiu nh gi tnh hnh hot ng n nh i vi cc doanh nghip nh: phi

172

lm n kinh doanh c li trong khon thi gian 3 nm tr li; c s lng CB- CNV
trn 200 ngi v vn iu l t 7 t ng tr ln Nhng CB-NV thuc doanh
nghip hay cng ty phi c giy xc nhn c tr lu di, s h khu ti thnh ph, c
giy xc nhn l CB-NV ca cng ty hoc doanh nghip, bng k khai ti chnh.
Thnh lp b phn t vn h tr khch hng
Hin nay, cc ngn hng ang cnh tranh v cht lng dch v, v quy m pht trin,
tim lc ngun vn, mng li h thng, khoa hc cng ngh. Thc t cng ch ra
rng: duy tr cht lng dch v cao c th to ra li nhun, gim chi ph v tng th
phn. H thng phn phi v quy trnh, thi gian giao dch thun tin v hiu qu nh
h s vay vn r rng, d hiu, cung cp sn phm cho vay mt cch nhanh chng l
mt biu hin ca dch v tt.
Do iu kin i li nn khch hng khng th n ngn hng tip cn sn phm dch v
nn nhn vin t vn c th xung tn nh khch hng t vn iu kin cho vay.
Thc hin cung cp sn phm, dch v n tng nh, tng h dn khch hng tip
cn c ngun vn cho vay. Nhn vin t vn phi thit k bng cu hi thm d
kin, nh gi s hi lng ca khch hng v cht lng sn phm dch v ca n v
nhm c hng iu chnh ph hp. y cng l c s trong nh gi phn loi cn b
hng nm thc hin tr lng theo v tr v cht lng, hiu qu.
Bn canh , nhng khch hng n ngn hng vay vn, nhn vin t vn s tm hiu
nhu cu vay vn v s tin vay ca khch hng. T , nhn vin s tnh ton ngun ti
chnh tr n ca khch hng c hp l hoc khng hp l. Nu ngun ti chnh tr n
ca khch hng b hn ch th nhn vin a ra cc mc vay vn v thi hn vay ph
hp vi kh nng tr n ca khch hng, Tip theo, nhn vin s tnh ton s tin hp
l phi tr hng thng hoc nh k, Cui cng, nhn vin s a ra cc cch thc thu
n nhm khch hng c th tr n mt cch thun tin nht, nh: khch hng n ngn
hng tr n nh k, tr n thng qua chuyn khon, tr n thng qua ti khon th, thu
n ti nh, Vic t vn ny gip cho nhn vin c th tip cn, tm hiu nhu cu ca
khch hng trong hin ti v tng lai, nhn vin v khch hng tr nn thn thit, to

173

Vic t vn ny gip cho nhn vin c th tip cn, tm hiu nhu cu ca khch hng
trong hin ti v tng lai, nhn vin v khch hng tr nn thn thit, to mi quan h
tt p. T , nhng khch hng vay ln u th c th vay vn li ln sau hoc y l
khch hng tim nng trong vic huy ng vn ca Chi nhnh.
3.3.2.Gii php h tr

3.3.2.1. Gii php v nhn s


Xy dng chnh sch thu ht nhn ti
Hin nay, i ng CBTD phng tn dng khch hng c nhn ti chi nhnh cn t, nn
mun m rng loi hnh cho vay ny chi nhnh cng nn xem x t tuyn dng thu ht
nhng CBTD mi vo lm vic nhng phi m bo cht lng. Cc bin php c th
p dng l:
Xy dng chnh sch tin lng, thng v phc li cng bng v r rng ph
hp vi hnh thc cng vic. Ngoi tin lng theo cp bc trnh hc vn cn c
tin thng lm vic theo nng sut trong mt thng. Hng thng, phng khch hng c
nhn s chn ra CBTD lm vic nng sut cao nht da vo mc huy ng vn v
doanh s cho vay, CBTD c tin lng cng vi tin thng lm vic. Trong mt
nm, CBTD c mc huy ng vn v doanh s cho vay cao nht th c thng k
ngh du lch, hoc phiu qu tng mua sm ngy Tt,
Vic tuyn dng cn b lao ng phi thc hin tt, ng quy nh ca ngnh v tuyt
i c s cng bng trong khu tuyn dng. Tiu chun tuyn dng CBTD mi cn c
l: tiu chun o c, t cch (trung thc, t tin, nng ng), tiu chun chuyn mn
(hc vn, trnh nghip v, k nng giao tip) tiu chun v th cht (sc kho, hnh
thc, chiu cao).
Mi trng lm vic nng ng, sng to, khng b b hp khng gian, bao gm
trang thit b h tr lm vic, cch cng nhn thnh tch v kin ng gp ca nhn
vin, s cam kt lm vic v s hp tc ca nhn vin; tnh cht chuyn nghip v s
r rng, minh bch ... Lm vic trong mt mi trng m ngi lnh o lun coi trng

174

gi tr con ngi th chc chn ngi lao ng s coi ngn hng l nh v s cng hin
ht mnh vi thi v trch nhim cao nht.
Xy dng tin trnh ngh nghip v ph bin rng ri nhn vin c th xc
nh hng pht trin ngh nghip v c hi thng tin trong tng lai.
Bao gm: k hoch cng vic r rng, mc hp dn v th thch ca cng vic, c
hi c o to v pht trin ca cng vic . Yu t pht trin ngh nghip v c
hi thng tin l mt trong nhng yu t quan trng quyt nh vic nhn vin c gn
b lu di hay khng. c bit l nhng ngi ti v c tim nng m ngn hng
mun gi.
Tin trnh c phn ha gip cc ngn hng pht trin thng hiu tt nht trong giai on
hin nay, do chi nhnh c c nhng th mnh t bn trong gi c nhn ti.
l mt mi trng lm vic chuyn nghip; c nh hng chin lc pht trin r rng,
tn dng c hi v cng tc thng tin truyn thng l ht sc cn thit, cn gip ngi c
ti thy c nh hng pht trin, nhng c hi m h c th nm c trong tng lai
khi ngn hng tin hnh hin i ha.
Nng cao i ng CBTD v t cch o c v nghip v chuyn mn
Con ngi l ngun lc quan trng nht i vi bt k t chc hay doanh nghip. S
thnh cng ca mi t chc lun ph thuc v yu t nng lc v hiu sut ca ngi
lao ng, v th ngn hng cng nm trong quy lut ny. Ngn hng cn thc hin mt
cch khoa hc vic o to, sp xp, s dng hp l lc lng CBTD. Xy dng
nhng t cht lao ng mi ca CBTD m bo Ngn hng hot ng kinh doanh
pht trin khng ngng v lin tc. Hn na, ngn hng c bin php ch ng, tch
cc gio dc CBTD, khng CBTD b li cun vo nhng vn tiu cc ca x
hi, b ng tin li cun m h thp nhn phm, h thp tiu chun tn dng, lm
phng hi n bn thn cng nh phng hi v kinh t v uy tn ca ngnh.
Cng tc o to c coi trng thng xuyn v lin tc. Qu trnh o to b sung
cho CBTD: kin thc, k nng, thng tin, cng c v k xo, tho mn cng vic hin
ti ngy mt tt hn; tng lng t ho bn thn; c c hi thng tin; c thi tch

175

cc v ng lc cao lm vic. i vi nhn vin mi v nhn vin lm vic lu nm


ti ngn hng cn c o to li v thng xuyn nng cao trnh chuyn mn
nghip v. Ngoi cho nhn vin hc tp ti Trung tm o to ca ngn hng, cn to
iu kin nhn vin c th tham gia cc kha hc ngn hn do cc b, ngnh, cc trung
tm o to v cc ngn hng khc t chc. Nhn vin hc tp k nng lm vic thng
qua quan st ng nghip hoc cp trn, h tn dng cc hnh thc km cp, u, c
vn ngi c nhiu kinh nghim chia s kinh nghim gip ngi khc pht trin
mc tiu ngh nghip lu di. ng thi, cc nhn vin c th gn kt vi nhau,
thng xuyn trao i kinh nghim s tit kim chi ph cho ngn hng nhng em li
hiu qu cao.

3.3.2.2. Gii php v Marketing


Ngy nay, ngn hng hot ng trong s bin ng khng ngng ca mi trng kinh
doanh v s cnh tranh chim th phn. iu ny i hi ngn hng phi la chn cu
trc v iu chnh cch thc hot ng cho ph hp, nng cao v th cnh tranh; thc
hin gii php marketing nng ng ng hng.
Xy dng hnh nh v nhn thc v ngn hng s tc ng n thi phn hi khch
hng, lm gia tng gi tr thng hiu, to ra nhng phn hi tch cc trong tm l
khch hng. Tuy nhin, vic qung co thng hiu NHCT hin nay ch yu l trn
internet, cn trn cc phng tin thng tin i chng nh truyn hnh, bo ch, cn
hn ch. Do , Chi nhnh cn y mnh hot ng ny. Ban lnh o ngn hng to
mi quan h tt vi bo ch, tranh th c s thin cm tt v ngn hng nn t chc cc
bui hp bo v giao lu vi bo ch. Vic qung co ngn hng trn bo ch khng
nhnggia tng gi tr thng hiu ngn hng m cn gim c chi ph. Bn cnh ,
vic qung b trn phng tin thng tin phi nu im ni bt NHCT gy n tng
trong tm tr khch hng. Chi nhnh ch ng tip cn tng khch hng, chn lc
nhng nhm khch hng ph hp, tip tc truyn thng n tng khch hng nhm
em li lng tin, s tin tng ca khch hng vi ngn hng. Ngoi ra, Chi nhnh
thng xuyn tham gia cc hot ng a phng nh tham gia t chc vn ngh, ti

176

tr mt s s kin, cng tc t thin x hi nng cao hnh nh ngn hng trong


cng chng.
Mc gi cnh tranh, thit lp knh phn phi, qung co, truyn thng, ci tin sn
phm c tc ng n pht trin hot ng cho vay c nhn. Tuy nhin, tt c nhng
hot ng l b ni, nhng hot ng quyt nh n s thnh cng trong
Marketing:
Xc nh r i tng khch hng m Chi nhnh mun tp trung, t CBTD
a ra nhng sn phm c th, ph hp vi nhu cu ca khch hng. Vic xc nh
ng i tng khch mong mun hng ti cn gip cc Ngn hng trong vic tin
hnh nh gi mt cch chnh xc cc sn phm ng vi cc phn khc th trng m
chng c mang n vi ngi s dng, cng nh knh phn phi sn phm v cc
hnh thc qung co tip th sao cho t c hiu qu cao nht.
Tm hiu nhu cu v nhng mong mun ca khch hng cng ht sc quan
trng, khch hng lun mun la chn nhng sn phm gn vi nhu cu ca h nht,
d s dng v c nhiu tin ch i km. Ngn hng c th nghin cu c lp hoc
thng qua cc t chc nghin cu th trng khc c s nh gi khch quan v nhu
cu ca khch hng.
C s u t v ti chnh, con ngi. Marketing l c mt qu trnh v kt qu
ca vic u t cho marketing mang li l rt ln. Hn ch ca ngn hng thng mi
ca Vit Nam so vi cc ngn hng thng mi nc ngoi khc l s u t v ti
chnh, con ngi cn hn ch nn kt qu mang li nhiu khi cha t c k vng
ra ca cc Ngn hng.
V vy, vic y mnh chin lc marketing gip nhng sn phm, dch v ca ngn
hng ph hp vi nhu cu thc t khch hng. Ngoi ra, ngn hng c th nh gi, o
lng hiu qu ca hot ng marketing, khng nhng gip cc ngn hng c th
mnh dn a ra nhng chin dch marketing hiu qu trong tng lai m cn gip

177

ngn hng loi b nhng hot ng marketing khng ph hp, khng mang li hiu
qu cho ngn hng.
Ngoi ra, hot ng chm sc khch hng l rt quan trng. Vic chm sc khch hng
bao gm: cng c khch hng hin ti, thu ht khch hng mi. Hot ng ny ang
tr thnh hot ng kinh doanh hu hiu vi lng chi ph b ra khng qu ln nhng
mang li hiu qu cao. V vy, mt s gii php chm sc khch hng nh:
T chc thng xuyn cc hi ngh khch hng, chng trnh khuyn mi, gii
thiu sn phm dch v mi ti Chi nhnh xy dng mi quan h c nhn thn thit
vi khch hng, thu ht lng khch hng mi, ng thi qung b hnh nh
Vietinbank Nng trong tm tr khch hng.
Thc hin chnh sch u i thng qua nh gi quan h khch hng, mc
xp hng tn nhim khch hng. Nu khch hng c mc tn nhim cao th Chi nhnh
c th u i v thi hn vay, khng cn thm nh li h s vay, tng hn mc cho
vay.
i vi khch hng ln, VIP, Chi nhnh lun gi mi quan h khch hng
thng qua vic gi hoa hoc thip chc mng vo ngy sinh nht khch hng, vo dp
L , u tin i tin nhn dp Tt Nguyn n, ng vin hoc chia s khi khch hng
gp kh khn, gia tng lng trung thnh ca khch hng i vi Chi nhnh.
Tn dng thi gian ch i ca khch hng trong mi ln giao dch, Chi nhnh
cn thc hin vi iu tra n gin v khch hng thng qua cc phiu kho st ly
kin, t nh gi mc hi lng ca khch hng, sau nhn vin cng cp nht
nhng thng tin thu thp vo c s d liu hot ng quan h khch hng i ng
hng.
3.4. Mt s kin ngh
3.4.1. i vi Ngn hng Nh Nc Vit Nam
NHNN nn h tr, to iu kin cho cc NHTM pht trin hot ng kinh
doanh thng qua cc bin php nh: tng kh nng t ch, t chu trch nhim trong

178

kinh doanh. Hn na, NHNN cn thng xuyn t chc cc cuc hi tho, nhng kha
hc, nhng bui nghe kin ca NHTM v nhng chnh sch NHNN a ra.
Trong thi gian ti, NHNN cn gim li sut cho vay tiu dng, c bit c
nhng chnh sch u i i vi nhng c nhn c nhu cu xy dng sa cha nh
khch hng c th n nh nh v c kh nng tr n.
Hon thin vn bn quy nh hot ng cho vay tiu dng mt cch minh bch
v cng bng. Cc quy nh trong khung php l c thc hin cht ch, r rng,
trnh trng hp nhiu NHTM lch lut gia tng s cnh tranh.
NHNN nn ban hnh c ch iu hnh li sut trn, li sut trn s quy nh li
sut cho cc sn phm cho vay c th, t hn ch nhiu NHTM t h thp li sut
cho vay thu ht khch hng i vay.
3.4.2. i vi hi s ch nh Ngn hng TMCP Cng Thng Vit Nam
i vi ton h thng ngn hng Vietinbank, hot ng cho vay XD SCN l mt trong
nhng hot ng cho vay tim nng khi ngi dn ngy cng c mc sng cao v c
nhu cu ci thin v nh , do Vietinbank chi nhnh Nng cn tip tc thc
y m rng v pht trin loi hnh cho vay ny. Ngn hng Cng thng Vit Nam
cn c gii php h tr cho Vietinbank chi nhnh Nng, do cn c mt s kin
ngh sau:
Chi nhnh cn b sung cc gi tr gia tng gi tr sn phm. V d nh phong
cch n tip, phc v khi khch hng n ngn hng hoc khch hng c tng qu,
tham gia cc chng trnh bc thm trng thng, phn thng l cc phn qu c gi
tr nh: t, chuyn du lch, v xem i nhc hi, hc bng Ngn hng cn m rng
hnh thc ny khng nhng khch hng gi tin m cn khch hng i vay thu ht
khch hng. i vi khch hng trung thnh, ngn hng thc hin chnh sch u i li
sut hoc nhng sn phm tin ch km theo khi khch hng thc hin hot ng cho
vay.

179

Ngn hng cn quy nh thi gian gii quyt h s cho vay, rt gn thi gian
gii quyt t 5 ngy xung cn 1- 2 ngy gia tng s cnh tranh cc NHTM vi
nhau, ng thi thc y tnh linh hot, tin gii quyt cng vic ca nhn vin.
Ngn hng cn tng quyn hn mc cho vay XD SCN i vi Chi nhnh, t
Chi nhnh tng tnh ch ng mc cho vay khi khch hng c nhu cu vay cao.
Ngn hng cn lp ra t h tr tn dng. T h tr tn dng thc hin nhng
cng tc thm nh ti sn, h s php l , cng chng. Ngoi ra, t h tr tn dng thc
tin t vn ti chnh cho khch hng thng qua i thoi trc tip, in thoi, online.
Ngn hng cn hon thin h thng chm im tn dng ni b nhm thc hin
vic kim sot ton b danh mc tn dng v nh gi khch hng mt cch c h
thng da trn c s tp hp cc thng tin. H thng chm im tn dng ni b cng
cho ph p lng ha c ri ro tn dng, a ra cc cnh bo v thc hin trch lp d
phng ri ro tn dng.

180

KT LUN
Qua cc nm, tnh hnh kinh t nc ta c nhng di n bin phc tp, tc tng trng
chm li, gi c mt s mt hng tng kh cao, th trng ti chnh, tin t c nhiu
bin ng gy nh hng n hot ng sn xut kinh doanh v i sng nhn dn
Hin nay, th trng ti chnh Vit Nam kh khn do nh hng ca nn kinh t th
gii. H thng ngn hng phi i mt vi nhiu kh khn v thch thc pht trin,
nng cao v th cnh tranh. Thng qua qu trnh tm hiu trn a bn, Nng l mt
th trng kinh doanh y tim nng trong lnh vc cho vay tiu dng ni chung v cho
vay xy dng v sa cha nh ni ring, Nng l khu vc min Trung thu ht rt
nhiu cc t chc, tp on ti chnh, nh u t n kinh doanh pht trin
Vi lch s hot ng kh lu trn a bn, Vietinbank Nng cng t c nhiu
thnh tu ng k v cc mt nh c s lng khch hng doanh nghip ng o, s
lng khch hng c nhn ngy cng pht trin, cc dch v thanh ton quc t c uy
tn, cc dch v ngn hng kt hp vi cng ngh hin i,.. Tuy nhin, qua qu trnh
phn tch, hot ng cho vay xy dng v sa cha nh ti Chi nhnh chim t trng
thp trong cho vay tiu dng. Hot ng ny cha thc s thu ht khch hng bi v
nhng qu trnh cp vn di dng v iu kin vay vn cht ch. V vy, ban lnh o,
CBTD trong Vietinbank Nng cn n lc a ra nhng bin php thay i hot
ng cho vay XD SCN ph hp vi tng nhu cu ca khch hng, pht trin hot
ng ny trong tng lai.

181

TI LIU THAM KHO


1.Sch tham kho:
+Nghip v Ngn hng Thng mi _ PGS.TS Nguy n Th Mi, NXB Ti Chnh,
H Ni nm 2008.
Nghip v Ngn hng Thng mi _TS L Th Mn, NXB Lao ng X Hi, nm
2010
2.Ti liu ni b:
+ Bo co kt qu hot ng kinh doanh ca Vietinbank chi nhnh Nng 2010-2012
+ Bo co thng nin ca Vietinbank t 2010-2012
3.Ti liu tham kho t Internet:
+ Trang web http://www.vietinbank.vn, Ngn hng TMCP Cng Thng Vit Nam
(Vietinbank)
+ Trang web http://www.tapchitaichinh.vn, tp ch Ti chnh ca B Ti chnh Vit
Nam.
+ Trang web http://ctk.danang.gov.vn, Cc thng k thnh ph Nng.
+ Trang web http://taichinh.vnexpress.net, chuyn mc Ti chnh ca bo in t
VnExpress.
+ Trang web http://www.sbv.gov.vn , Ngn hng Nh nc Vit Nam.
+ Trang web http://www.danangcity.gov.vn, Cng thng tin in t thnh ph
Nng

182

PH LC 01: Quy trnh cho vay xy dng sa cha nh ti Ngn hng


Vietinbank Nng.
Ngn hng cp t n dng.
c cng vic

Cp c thm

Khch hng
PGD/PKH

PQLRR

quyn
(GD/PGD)

Bc 1: hng dn, tip


nhn h s vay vn
ngh
cho vay
Bc 2: thm nh v
xut quyt nh cho vay.

Bc 3: Ph quyt cho
vay i vi KH v thng
bo KH.

Bc 4: Son tho hp
ng tn dng, k kt
hp ng. Nhp d liu
TSB v khon vay ca
KH trong kho h s.

Phng vn, hng dn


KH lp v hon thin
h s ngh cho vay

Nhn TB
ca NH

K H

Thng bo bng
vn bn cho KH
(nu cn)

quan

Tip nhn
h s

Thm nh lp
TTTD

Thm nh quyt
nh cho vay.

phn li n

Ph
duyt

nh gi
TSB (T
nh gi)

Nhn kt qu
ph duyt

Son tho
HTD, HB
K
duyt
Cng chng, ng
k GDB

Nhp thng tin


TSB, in bng kit
k HS kim phiu
nhp/ xut kho TSB

183

Ph
duyt

Nhp kho
HS TSB
(Th kho)

Bc 5: Gii ngn
To TK gii ngn

Gii ngn.
(BP giao
dch)

Bc 6: Kim tra, gim


st s dng vn vay.
Kim tra s dng
vn vay, cp nht
HS khon vay.

Phi hp kim
tra s dng
vn vay

Bc 7: thu n gc, li,


ph (nu c).
n c thu
hi n
Bc 8: Thanh l hp
ng cp tn dng, gii
chp TSB

ngh
gii chp

Thu n

Kim tra thng tin,


lp GN ngt lin
kt TSB TTT rt
bt TSB chuyn
i TSB

Kim tra KH
tr ht n
cha.

Ngt lin kt
TSB

Xut TSB, in bng


lit k HS kim phiu
nhp/ xut kho TSB

Nhn li
HS
TDB

Thm nh v
ghi kin
xut ln TTT
rt bt TSB
chuyn i
TSB

Ph
duy

Nhn v chuyn tr
h s TSB

Bc 9: lu h s
Lu h s cho vay

184

Ph duyt,
ngt lin
kt TSB

Lu h s cho
vay

Xut HS
TSB
(Th kho)

185