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Building Materials 10 - Testing Methods

14. TESTING OF STEEL


14.1 Marking of Steel
The most common type of marking in Czech republic is by five-digits number (eventually six-digits), for
example 10 335,or 11 373, where
 first two digits
material group sign
10 .. building steel,
11 .. machine steel
 second two digits for steels from group 10
33 1/10 of yield strength in MPa



other steels
37
some important property, for example
5 ..
8 ..
complementary sixth digit state of steel
for ex. 1 ..

1/10 of tensile strength in MPa

fifth digit

good weldability
cold worked steel
normalised steel

14.2 Basic Properties of Reinforcing Steel


3

Volume weight

7850 kg/m

Modulus of elasticity

210 000 MPa (N/mm )

Thermal expansion coefficient

11.10 13.10

Thermal conductivity

75 W/mK (pure iron). With increasing carbon

-6

-6

1/K

content decreases to 50 W/mK




Tensile strength

250 2000 MPa

in relation to carbon content

0,1-0,15 % of C.. 370-450 MPa


0,58 % of C .. 700 MPa

in relation to temperature

at temperature > 300C decreases


at temp. > 500C decreases to 50 % of
original value

The basic properties of common types of Czech reinforcing steels are given in Tab.:32 and Tab.:33
Tab.:32 Main properties of reinforcing steel
Mark of steel

10 216 E
11 373 EZ

Standard requirement [ MPa]


minimum yield
strength

tensile strenght

206

max. 539

> 16

226

16

235

minimum
ductility
[%]

min. 363

24
26
27

10 245 K

245

min. 363

18

10 335 J

325

min. 471

18

10 338 T

325

min. 390

12

10 425 V

410

min. 569

14

10 505 R

490

min. 550

12

page 72

Chapter 14 -Testing of Steel

Tab.:33 Shape of some types of reinforcing steel

Mark of steel

Nominal
diameter

10216 E

5,5 12

10 373 EZ

> 16
16

Shape and surface

10 245 K
6 50

10 335 J

10-32

6,5

10 338 T
8

10 425 V

8 and 10

10-32

10 505 R

6 36

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Building Materials 10 - Testing Methods

14.3 Tensile Test


Tensile test is one of the most common tests for steel. The test is described by standard EN 10 002.
The test involves straining a test piece by tensile force, generally to fracture, for the purpose of
determining tensile strength, yield strength, event. ductility and reduction of area.
14.3.1 Definitions






gauge length (L) - length of cylindrical or prismatic portion of the test piece on which elongation is
measured at any moment during the test [m]
original gauge length (L0) - gauge length before application of force [m]
final gauge length (Lu) - gauge length after rupture of the test piece [m]
elongation - increase in the original gauge length at the end of the test
ductility percentage elongation after fracture (A) - permanent elongation of the gauge length
after fracture , expressed as the percentage of the original length:

A=



Lu - L0
L0

[%]

extension increase of the original length at a given moment of the test


percentage reduction of area (Z) - maximum change of cross sectional area, which was
occurred during the test, expressed as a percentage of the original cross-sectional area .

Z=
where S0 is
Su

S 0 - Su
S0

[%]
2

original cross-sectional area before testing [m ]


2
minimum cross-sectional area after fracture [m ]

maximum force (Fm) - the greatest force which the test piece withstand during the test [N ]

stress (
) - force at any moment during the test divided by the original cross-sectional area (S0) of
the test piece :

F
S0

tensile strength (Rm) - stress, corresponding to the maximum force Fm :

Rm =


Fm
S0

[MPa]

yield strength (Ry) when metallic material exhibits a yield phenomenon, a point is reached
during the test at which plastic deformation occurs without any increase in the force :

Ry =
where Fy is


[MPa]

Fy
S0

[MPa]

force at the point of yield [N]

proof strength (Rp) stress at which extension is equal to a specified percentage of the gauge
length. the symbol used is followed by a suffix giving the prescribed percentage,for example Rp, 0,2

page 74

Chapter 14 -Testing of Steel

Fig.:36 Stress strain diagram


a) steel with yield point

b) steel with proof strength Rp,0,2

[N/mm2]

[N/mm2]

( F [N] )

( F [N] )
tensile strength

Rm

Rp,0,2

proof strength

fracture
Ry

yield strenght
elastic limit
proportionality limit

[-]

[-]

( l [mm] )

0,2 %

( l [mm] )

14.3.2 Test Pieces


The shape and dimensions of the test pieces depend on the shape and dimensions of the metallic
products the mechanical properties of which are to be determined.
The test piece is usually obtained by machining a sample from the product. However product of
constant cross-section may be subjected to test without being machined. The cross section of the test
pieces may be circular, square, rectangular, annular or, in special cases, of some other shape.
14.3.3 Determination of Original Cross-Section Area
The original cross-section area S0 shall be calculated from measurements of the dimensions of the test
piece.
 for products of circular cross-section and smooth surface S0 may be calculated from formula:

S0 =

.d 2
4

[mm ]
2

where d is the arithmetic mean of two measurements carried out in two perpendicular direction

for products of ribbed surface S0 may be determined from the mass of a known length L and its
3
density (7850 kg/m ) according the formula :

v =

m
m
=
V
S0 L

and from it :

S0 =

m
v L

[m ]
2

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Building Materials 10 - Testing Methods


14.3.4 Determination of Original Gauge Length
Elongation is not equal through the whole length of the test piece. At the point of fracture is biggest and
decreases with the distance from this point. This is the reason, why the percentage elongation after
fracture is determined on special length original gauge length. Test pieces could be proportional and
non-proportional.

proportional test pieces have the original gauge length in relation with the original cross-section
area according the formula:

L 0 = k . S0
where k is equal to 5,65 ( eventually 11,3 )
S0
original cross-sectional area
In the case of test pieces with the circular cross-section this formula gives:
Lo = 5 d ( and for k = 11,3 Lo = 10 d ), where d is diameter of the test piece

non-proportional test pieces may be used if specified by the product standard.

Test pieces of circular cross-section shall preferably have the dimensions given in Tab.:34

Tab.:34 Dimensions of circular cross-section pieces


k

Diameter d
mm

Original crosssection area S0

Original gauge
length

Total length Lt

L0 = k S0
mm

5,65

mm

20 0,150

314,2

100 1,0

10 0,075

78,5

50 0,5

5 0,04

19,6

25 0,25

mm
Depends on the method of
fixing the test piece in the
machine grips.
In principle: Lt > Lc + 2d

14.3.5 Determination of Final Gauge Length


Standard EN 1002 1 says that measurement of final gauge length is valid only if the distance
between the fracture and the nearest gauge mark is not less than one third of the original gauge
length. In order to avoid having to reject test pieces in which fracture may occur outside the limits, the
method based on sub-division of L0 into N equal parts may be used:
Before the test sub-divide the original gauge length into N equal parts. Recommended value of N is 10
and the size of one part is than L0/10. Make the complementary scale (scale division is equal to one
part) along the total test piece.
After fracture the two broken pieces of the test piece are carefully fitted back together so that their axes
lie in a straight line. Special precaution shall be taken to ensure proper contact between the broken
parts.
From the point of fracture measure five parts on each side (together 10 parts) and it is final gauge
length Lu. If there is not enough parts (less than five) at one side, than final gauge length is determined
in this way (see Fig.:37):
 on the shorter piece measure the distance from the fracture to the last mark. This distance is La
 on the longer piece measure the distance from fracture to the mark, corresponding to five parts -Lb
 on the longer piece find the parts, symmetrically (from fracture) corresponding to the parts, which
miss on the shorter part. This distance is Lc

final gauge length is than equal to :

Lu = L a + L b + L c
page 76

Chapter 14 -Testing of Steel

Fig.:37 Determination of the final gauge length

Lc

Lb

La

Lc

Lu

14.3.6





Testing Procedure

before testing measure diameter of the test piece, determine cross-sectional area S0 and original
gauge length L0. Complementary scale (according 14.3.5) shall be marked along the whole test
piece. The marks could not result in premature fracture.
grip the test piece in the jaws of the test machine. Ensure that test pieces are held in such a way
that the force is applied as axially as possible.
prepare writing device for making of stress-strain diagram
apply load by prescribed rate of stressing. Within the elastic range the rate of stressing shall be
within the limits given in Tab.:35. Within the plastic range the straining rate shall not exceed
0,0025/s for determination of yield strength and 0,008/s for determination of tensile strength
after fracture put down the maximum force Fm, measure the final gauge length Lu (according
14.3.5) and minimum diameter after fracture. From stress-strain diagram find the force at the point
of yield Fy (by the rule of three).
determine tensile strength Rm, yield strength Ry, percentage elongation after fracture A, minimum
cross-sectional area and percentage reduction of the area Z according chap. 14.3.1.

Tab.:35 Rate of stressing


Rate of stressing
Modulus of elasticity of the
material

N/mm . s

-1

min.

max.

< 150 000

10

150 000

30

N/mm

page 77

Building Materials 10 - Testing Methods


14.3.7 Evaluation of Results
Determined values of tensile strength yield strength and ductility (i.e. percentage elongation after
fracture) should be compared with requirements given in the appropriate standards. Basic
requirements for common types of steel are given in Tab.:32. Value of the percentage reduction of the
area is only informative and is not given in standards.
Note: Integral part of the laboratory report is stress-strain diagram, obtained from testing machine,
completed by axes, description and scale.

Vocabulary
strain

deformace

cold worked steel

ocel tven zastudena

ductility

tanost

elongation

prodlouen

extension

protaen

final gauge length

konen men dlka

gauge length

men (odmrn)dlka

grip

pevn uchytit

jaw

elist

original gauge length

poten men dlka

percentage elongation after fracture

tanost

percentage reduction of the area

stanost (kontrakce)

proof strength

smluvn mez kluzu

reinforcing steel

betonsk ocel

ribbed

ebrovan, s vroubkovanm povrchem

stress

napt

stress-strain diagram

pracovn diagram

weldability

svaitelnost

yield

kluz, prtanost

yield strength

mez kluzu

page 78