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Different Industries and Sectors of Singapore

Submitted to
Gujarat Technological University
Submitted by
Marwadi Education Foundations Group of Institutions
Affiliated to Gujarat Technological University Ahmedabad
May, 2012


Aviation is the design, development, production, operation, and use of aircraft,
especially heavier-than-air aircraft. Aviation is derived from avis, the Latin word for

There are early legends of human flight such as the story of Icarus, and Jamshid in
Persian myth, and later, somewhat more credible claims of short-distance human
flights appear, such as the flying automaton of Archytas of Tarentum (428347 BC),
the winged flights of Abbas IbnFirnas (810887), Eilmer of Malmesbury (11th
century), and the hot-air Passarola of BartolomeuLoureno de Gusmo (1685
The modern age of aviation began with the first untethered human lighter-than-air
flight on November 21, 1783, in a hot air balloon designed by the Montgolfier
In 1799 Sir George Cayley set forth the concept of the modern airplane as a fixedwing flying machine with separate systems for lift, propulsion, and control. Early
dirigible developments included machine-powered propulsion (Henri Giffard, 1852),
rigid frames (David Schwarz, 1896), and improved speed and maneuverability
(Alberto Santos-Dumont, 1901).
Great progress was made in the field of aviation during the 1920s and 1930s, such
as Charles Lindbergh's solo transatlantic flight in 1927, and Charles Kingsford
Smith's transpacific flight the following year. One of the most successful designs of
this period was the Douglas DC-3, which became the first airliner that was profitable
carrying passengers exclusively, starting the modern era of passenger airline

By the 1950s, the development of civil jets grew, beginning with the de Havilland
Comet, though the first widely-used passenger jet was the Boeing 707, because it
was much more economical than other planes at the time.
Since the 1960s, composite airframes and quieter, more efficient engines have
become available, and Concorde provided supersonic passenger service for more
than two decades, but the most important lasting innovations have taken place in
instrumentation and control. The arrival of solid-state electronics, the Global
Positioning System, satellite communications, and increasingly small and powerful
computers and LED displays, have dramatically changed the cockpits of airliners
and, increasingly, of smaller aircraft as well.
On June 21, 2004, SpaceShipOne became the first privately funded aircraft to make
a spaceflight, opening the possibility of an aviation market capable of leaving the
Earth's atmosphere.




Civil Aviation is one of two major categories of flying, representing all non-military
aviation, both private and commercial. Most of the countries in the world are

members of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and work together to
establish common standards and recommended practices for civil aviation through
that agency.

Civil aviation includes two major categories:

Scheduled Air Transport, including all passenger and cargo flights operating
on regularly scheduled routes; and

General Aviation (GA), including all other civil flights, private or commercial

General Aviation includes all non-scheduled civil flying, both private and
commercial. General aviation may include business flights, air charter, private
aviation, flight training, ballooning, parachuting, gliding, hang gliding, aerial
photography, foot-launched powered hang gliders, air ambulance, crop dusting,
charter flights, traffic reporting, police air patrols and forest fire fighting.
Each country regulates aviation differently, but general aviation usually falls under
different regulations depending on whether it is private or commercial and on the
type of equipment involved.
Many small aircraft manufacturers serve the general aviation market, with a focus on
private aviation and flight training.
Military Aviation is the use of aircraft and other flying machines for the purposes of
conducting or enabling warfare, including national airlift (cargo) capacity to provide
logistical supply to forces stationed in a theater or along a front.
Air power includes the national means of conducting such warfare including the
intersection of transport and war craft. The wide variety of military aircraft includes
bombers, fighters, fighter bombers, transports, trainers, and reconnaissance aircraft.
These varied types of aircraft allow for the completion of a wide variety of objectives.
Types of military aviation

Fighter aircraft's primary function is to destroy other aircraft. (e.g. Sopwith

Camel, A6M Zero, F-15, MiG-29, Su-27, and F-22).

Ground attack aircraft are used against tactical earth-bound targets. (e.g.
Junkers Stuka, A-10, Il-2, J-22 Orao, AH-64 and Su-25).

Bombers are generally used against more strategic targets, such as factories
and oil fields. (e.g. Zeppelin, Tu-95, Mirage IV, and B-52).

Transport aircraft are used to transport hardware and personnel. (e.g. C-17
Globemaster III, C-130 Hercules and Mil Mi-26).

Surveillance and reconnaissance aircraft obtain information about enemy

forces. (e.g. Rumpler Taube, Mosquito, U-2, OH-58 and MiG-25R).

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are used primarily as reconnaissance fixedwing aircraft, though many also carry payloads. Cargo aircraft are in
development. (e.g. RQ-7B Shadow, MQ-8 Fire Scout, and MQ-1C Gray

Missiles deliver warheads, normally explosives, but also things like leaflets.

Aviation in Singapore is a key component of the Singaporean economy in its quest to
be a transport hub of the Asian region. Besides currently the sixth busiest airport and
the fourth busiest air cargo hub in Asia, the Singaporean aviation industry is also a
significant aerospace maintenance, repair and overhaul centre.
Pre War
In 1937, the Wearne Brothers launched the first commercial air service between
Singapore and Malaya. It was called Wearne Air Services. On 28 June 1937, a de
Havilland Dragon Rapide aircraft, the Governor Raffles, took off from Singapore to
Kuala Lumpur and Penang.
Post War
Malayan Airways Limited (MAL)was established on 1 May 1947, by the Ocean
Steamship Company of Liverpool, the Straits Steamship Company of Singapore and
Imperial Airways. The airline's first flight was a chartered flight from the British Straits
Settlement of Singapore to Kuala Lumpur on 2 April 1947 using an Airspeed Consul
twin-engined airplane.

Federation (1963)
When Malaya, Singapore, Sabah and Sarawak formed the Federation of Malaysia in
1963, the airline's name was changed, from "Malayan Airways" to "Malaysian
Airways". MAL also took over Borneo Airways. In 1966, following Singapore's
separation from the federation, the airline's name was changed again, to MalaysiaSingapore Airlines (MSA).

Split (1972)
MSA ceased operations in 1972, when political disagreements between Singapore
and Malaysia resulted in the formation of two entities: Singapore Airlines and
Malaysian Airlines System.
A study conducted in 2001 showed the aviation industry contributing about 5.5%, or
S$7.9 billion, to Singapores gross domestic product. It provided one in 20 jobs in the
country, or one in 17 jobs if the indirect impact of the sector on the rest of the
economy is taken into account. A different set of measures by the Economic
Development Board showed the industry having an output of S$3.8 billion in 2003,
contributing 1.2% to the GDP and employing over 11,000 people. In 2004, the
industry grew 16% to hit a record high of S$4.5 billion.
The Indian Aviation Industry is among the worlds fastest growing industries. It has
undergone huge transformation following the liberalization of the aviation industry in
India. Once owned by the Government, the aviation sector of India is now privately
owned with full service airways and affordable carriers. Almost 75% of the domestic
aviation sector consists of the private airlines.
Indian aviation industry ranks 4th in the world after USA, China, and Japan in terms
of domestic passenger volume, as per statistics released by Ministry of Civil Aviation.
Industry experts have predicted that not less than 50 million passengers will be
served by the India aviation industry by 2015. Widening opportunities in India will

create room for over 69 foreign airlines entering the Indian aviation sector from about
49 countries.
The Aviation industry in India began with the birth of Tata Airlines, through the
business relationship between Mr. NevillVintcent, a Royal Air Force pilot and Mr.
JRD Tata, the first Indian to get an A-license. Tata Airlines became Air India in
August 1946. In 1953, the Air Corporation Act nationalized all existing airline assets
and established the Indian Airline Corporation and Air India International for
domestic and international air services respectively.

<1953 Nine Airlines existed including Indian Airlines & Air India

1953 Nationalization of all private airlines through Air Corporations Act;

1986 Private players permitted to operate as air taxi operators

1994 Air Corporation act repealed; Private players can operate schedule

1995 Jet, Sahara, Modiluft, Damania, East West granted scheduled carrier

1997 4 out of 6 operators shut down; Jet & Sahara continue

2001 Aviation Turbine Fuel (ATF) prices decontrolled

2003 Air Deccan starts operations as Indias first LCC

2005 Kingfisher, SpiceJet, Indigo, Go Air, Paramount start operations

2007 Industry consolidates; Jet acquired Sahara; Kingfisher acquired Air


2010 SpiceJet starts international operations 2011 Indigo starts international

operations, Kingfisher exits LCC segment

2012 Government allows direct ATF imports, FDI proposal for allowing foreign
carriers to pick up to 49% stake under consideration


Employee shortage

There is clearly a shortage of trained and skilled manpower in the aviation sector as
a consequence of which there is cut-throat competition for employees which, in turn,
is driving wages to unsustainable levels. Moreover, the industry is unable to retain
talented employees.
Rising fuel prices
As fuel prices have climbed, the inverse relationship between fuel prices and airline
stock prices has been demonstrated. Moreover, the rising fuel prices have led to
increase in the air fares.
Poor infrastructure
Infrastructure remains a major obstacle for the Indian airline industry today, which
was aggravated further due to the excess capacity created in good times.
Maintenance and traffic control (ATC) infrastructure is completely inadequate, if the
industry is expected to grow further. While steps are taken on this front in order to
upgrade the major airports of Mumbai, Delhi and Hyderabad remain security
concerns. Attract private sector investment will go a long way in the development
and maintenance of the infrastructure is crumbling because of the built up excess
Regional connectivity
Although the industry is burdened with excess capacity, regional connectivity
continues to be poor, mainly because of lack of infrastructure. Industry experts
speculate that the increase in regional networking, concentrating instead in the
subways and the reallocation of the current fleet of routes where the demand to help
airlines manage their excess capacity.
High input costs
Apart from the above-mentioned factors, the input costs are also high. Some of the
reasons for high input costs are:Withholding tax on interest repayments on foreign currency loans for aircraft
acquisition. Increasing manpower costs due to shortage of technical personnel.


Understand reality of change and become flexible

Revitalize strategy

LCC, LC/HV, Virtual carriers

Customer focus (ask what they want)

Eliminate duplication

Organizational accountability

Staff relations into strength

Updating of airline systems

Build partnerships (alliances, interactive marketing)

Act decisively

Diversify the business (core and non-core)

Airlines inventing new ways to reduce future

costs and spending of capital

Increased efficiency

Dependent upon aviation (links local, national

and international economies)

Airlines must take control of business issues and

work in partnership (first time in history)


The main 3 cost for the airlines are:





The boom in the aviation sector is likely to generate nearly 2.5 lakh jobs by
the year 2014.

The study says that the civil aviation sector is also set to become a Rs
55,000-crore industry by the same time.

The industry is expected to add 130 airliners to its current fleet of 270
airliners, which would, in turn, increase manpower demand

The aviation industry employs about 3000 pilots and there is an immediate shortage
of 450 planes that will be added to the activity expanding Indian fleet in the next five
years and a shortage of additional 4,500 pilots stares us in the face (Total
requirement: 7500 pilots by2010)
Training to be a pilot can be a pretty expensive affair that can push you into a
financial air pocket! From April 2001 all DGCA-subsidized rates have been
discontinued. However, various states offer separate subsidies of varying amounts
up to the PPL stage. Considering the high cost of aviation fuel, you have to pay the
steep commercial rate, which is in the region of Rs.2750-3500 per hour. 40 free
flying scholarships are awarded to SC/ST trainee pilots every year. Under this
scheme, apart from free flying training, student pilots receive financialaid.

While a private school may charge as much as Rs.15-20 lakh, the cost of obtaining a
CPL in a government-sponsored school works out to Rs.10 lakh plus boarding and







Salaries for commercial pilots are very attractive, ranging anywhere from Rs.40,
000/- to whopping Rs.4 lakh p.m., depending on the airline. Besides the obvious thrill
of going places and seeing the world in five-star comfort, there are several attractive
perks that go with the job.

Helicopter Pilots
There are certain attributes to be a Pilot. First of all, one should not be afraid of
heights and should have a passion to fly those machines.
A Pilot has to be quick thinker as he is the one who is responsible for the lives of
many. One should have patience, commitment, responsibility and self-confidence. A
lot of hard work, stamina, adaptability to follow difficult time schedules, good team
spirit etc., are also required in an aspirant. Most importantly, one must have
emotional stability in crisis situations.
To get a CPL, one should have passed 10+2 examination with Physics and
Mathematics and must be between the age of 18-30 years. The minimum height
should be 5 feet and eyesight 6/6.




The trouble free, comfortable and safe journey of a passenger is of prime importance
to the aviation sector. In this regard, it is an Air Hostess / Flight Steward whose role
becomes really crucial as they are the first one to welcome passengers aboard an
By the count, the various airlines in the country have almost 10,207 Cabin Crew
members in 2007-08 and the number is expected to grow to almost 20,284 by 201112.
To be an Air Hostess or a Flight Steward, one should have common sense, sense of
responsibility, initiative quality, friendly outgoing personality, politeness, physical
stamina and the capacity to work for long hours on the feet.
The educational qualification for an Air Hostess / Flight Steward training programme
is 10+2 or a graduate degree with a diploma / degree in Hotel Management or
Tourism Management.



After three to five years, depending upon your performance, Flight Steward/Air
Hostess is eligible to become a Flight Purser. Your responsibilities increase as you
take over the charge of the Cabin Crew on board. Salaries generally get double up.



You can join here directly or after having served on the flight for long, you can opt for
ground jobs in sections like staff-training and human resource management in the


The Cabin Crew can get up to Rs.40, 000 per month for domestic flights whereas
upto Rs.1, 50,000 for international flights on wide-bodied aircrafts. The ground staff
can also earn Rs.20, 000 - Rs.30, 000 per month.

A Swiss pilot completed the longest manned solar-powered flight ever. Andr Borschberg
flew the aircraft, called the Solar Impulse HB-SIA, for 26 hoursan entire day and night. The
flight was an important milestone for green aviation, since it demonstrated that a lithium
battery can hold enough charge for the plane to remain in-air at night, when no solar energy
is available.

The HB-SIA is able to store solar energy for nighttime flight (source: Solar Impulse).


Watch outthat plane flying overhead soon might have no one in its cockpit. Unmanned
aircraft aren't a particularly new idea. The first was built in 1916, and remote-controlled
planes were becoming widely used by World War I. Today, unmanned aircrafts are
commonly used for war operations in many countries. But as drone planes grow more
capable of performing complex tasks and carrying passengers, unmanned commercial flight
seems to be on the horizon. In June, the Federal Aviation Administration announced its twoyear plan to bring unmanned flight to the American skies, possibly in a commercial form.
Commercial drone crafts could mean cheaperand possibly saferflights.

The search-and-rescue drone plane can find lost hikers more accurately than humancontrolled helicopters (source: Brigham Young University)


One of the trendiest topics in aviation is futuristic design and innovation. While green
energy and drone technology are often incorporated into futuristic plans, more
outlandish design quirks are also exciting engineers. A prime example is Airbus'
2030 Concept Plane, which features elements that airplanes might have 20 to 40
years from now. Conceptual components include self-cleaning cabins, smart seats
that form to passengers' bodies, and see-through walls, floors and ceilings.
Engineers even imagine holographic projections that could turn the cabin into a
home office or Zen garden.

Airbus conceptual plane features extra-long wings, a U-shaped tail and a highly
efficient fuselage.


Singapore has mainly two regulatory i.e.:

CAAS Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore

ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization

Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore

The Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore is Singapore's Civil Aviation Authority
and a statutory board under the Ministry of Transport of the Singapore Government.
Its head office is located on the fourth storey of Terminal 2 of Changi Airport
The CAAS regulates civilian air traffic within the airspace jurisdiction of the Republic;
it is also the sole government agency to maintain the operational efficiency of the
airports in Singapore and to engage civilian air-service agreements with air-service
CAAS also operates the CAAS Air Traffic Control Service, which serves to ensure
faultless movements of civilian aircraft at Singapores airports and in the Singapore
Flight Information Region (FIR).
International Civil Aviation Organization
The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is a specialized agency of the
United Nations. It codifies the principles and techniques of international air
navigation and fosters the planning and development of international air transport to
ensure safe and orderly growth. Its headquarters are located in the Quartier
International of Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Aviation LegislationIn Singapore
List of Legislation for the are described below:

Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore Act

Air Navigation Act

Carriage by Air Act

Carriage by Air (Montreal Convention, 1999) Act

Tokyo Convention Act

Hijacking of Aircraft and Protection of Aircraft and International Airports Act

International Interests in Aircraft Equipment Act 2009

The SINCAIR Programme

Ministry of Singapore has developed a program for aviation safety according to
international standards named, SINCAIR
The key objective of SINCAIR is to enhance aviation safety through the collection of
feedback on incidents that would otherwise not be reported through other channels,
or that may appear minor but may be useful for others to learn from the reporter's
experience and may even lead to changes in procedures or design. But it does not
eliminate the need for mandatory reporting of aircraft accidents and incidents to the
relevant authorities under the existing law.
The Singapore Confidential Aviation Incident Reporting (SINCAIR) programme is a
voluntary, non-punitive confidential incident reporting system established by the
AAIB. It provides a channel for the reporting of aviation incidents and safety
deficiencies while protecting the reporter's identity.
What does the SINCAIR Programme cover?
The SINCAIR Programme covers the following areas:
a. Flight Operations:

Departure/en route/approach landing


Aircraft cabin operations


Air proximity events


Weight and balance and Performance

b. Ground Operations:


Aircraft ground operations


Movement on the airport


Fuelling operations


Airport conditions or services


Cargo Loading

c. Air Traffic Management:


ATC operations


ATC equipment and navigation aids


Crew and ATC communications

d. Maintenance:

Aircraft maintenance


Record keeping

e. Miscellaneous:

Passenger handling operations related to safety


Indian Regulatory agencies for the aviation are described below:

Director General of Civil Aviation

Bureau of Civil Aviation Security

Airports Authority of India

International Air Transport Association (IATA)

International Civil Aviation Organization

Directorate General of Civil Aviation (India)

The Directorate General of Civil Aviation is the Indian governmental regulatory body
for civil aviation under the Ministry of Civil Aviation. This directorate investigates
aviation accidents and incidents. It is headquartered along Sri Aurobindo Marg,
opposite Safdarjung Airport, in New Delhi.

Bureau of Civil Aviation Security


Bureau of

Civil Aviation Security

Directorate General

of Civil Aviation

was initially set up

as a Cell in the

(DGCA) in January 1978 on the

recommendation of the Pande Committee constituted in the wake of the hijacking

of the Indian Airlines flight on 10th September , 1976. The role of the Cell was to
coordinate, monitor, inspect and train personnel in Civil Aviation Security matters.

The BCAS was reorganized into an independent department on 1st April , 1987
under the Ministry of Civil Aviation as a sequel to the Kanishka Tragedy in June
1985. The main responsibility of BCAS are lay down standards and measures in
respect of security of civil flights at International and domestic airports in India.

Airports Authority of India

The Airports Authority of India (AAI) is an organization working under the Ministry of
Civil Aviation that manages most of the airports in India. The AAI manages and
operates 126 airports and 329 airstrips including 16 international airports, 89
domestic airports and 26 civil enclaves. The corporate headquarters(CHQ) are at
Rajiv Gandhi Bhawan, Safdarjung Airport, New Delhi. A V.P Agrawal is the current
chairman of the AAI.

International Air Transport Association

The International Air Transport Association (IATA) is an international industry trade
group of airlines headquartered in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, where the
International Civil Aviation Organization is also headquartered. The executive offices
are at the Geneva Airport in Switzerland.
IATA's mission is to represent, lead, and serve the airline industry. IATA represents
some 240 airlines comprising 84% of scheduled international air traffic. The Director
General and Chief Executive Officer is Tony Tyler. Currently, IATA is present in over
150 countries covered through 101 offices around the globe.

Aviation Security (AVSEC) Law & Policy of India are as below:

The Aircraft Act, 1934

The Aircraft Rules, 1937

The Air Corporation Act, 1953

The Air Corporation Act, 1953,

The International Airports Authority Act, 1971,

The Carriage by Air Act, 1972,

The Tokyo Convention Act, 1975,

The Anti-Hijacking Act, 1982,

The National Airports Authority Act, 1985,

The Airports Authority of India Act,1994

Major Player of Singapore Aviation

Jetstar Asia Airways

Jett8 Airlines



Singapore Airlines

Singapore Airlines Cargo

Tiger Airways


Major Player of India Aviation

Air India

Blue Dart Aviation

Deccan Aviation



Jet Airways

Kingfisher Airlines


Marketing Strategies of Singapore Airlines

Singapore Airline

Cutting-edge quality Service strategy

o More cabin staff per seat than other airlines
o Free of charge amenities to Economy class passengers
o Singapore girl promotion a sense of style and sophistication,
romance of travel

Aircraft Replacement Strategy

o Replacing new aircraft by every six year
o The youngest and modernist fleet in the industry
o Advanced, fuel-efficient version aircraft

Demographics strategy: Singapore Airlines offers premium flight fares

targeted to businessmen and the wealthy folks., who are willing to fork out
tens of thousands of dollars for a one-way First Class trip from Singapore to
Los Angeles

Air Asia

Social Media:AirAsia has taken giant and successful leaps on the social
media sphere, especially on Facebook and Twitter. The Malaysia-based
low-cost airline has a whopping 835,00 fans on their Facebook page and
100,000 followers on Twitter.

Demographics strategy: Air Asia key customer group are those who are
looking for cheap flights to countries located in Southeast Asia, and young
adults looking for a short weekend getaway trip to Thailand will most likely
choose budget airlines such as Air Asia due to their limited budget and choice
of destination.


We used to grow about 20% a year 20 years ago, and about 15 years ago in themid
teens. And as we mature, we grow at 6 to 8%. So, how do we continue toget high
growth? Acquisition is one of the strategies. But, we cant expect to getthat kind of
high rate of growth by simply acquiring any airline. We must belooking for airlines
that are firstly in the growth stage, as we were, say 20 yearsago. That kind of airline
must have a very good product, in terms ofsustainability, and good management. So
in a sense we are trying to look forwhat we were like 20 years ago, and to invest in
that airline so that, with a strongmanagement, we dont have to be distracted or
divert a lot of our managerialfocus and attention on the acquired airline. Then we can
focus on our ownorganic growth. So in that way we are not compromising or taking
awayanything from ourselves.

Managing Alliances
When you get into investment situations with your alliance or equity partners,how do
you deal with partners that are so different from your own company? Forexample,
Virgin,5 its a totally different relationship that you have to manage.Its very new. How
do you get more people to be familiar with dealing withalliance and equity partners?
Because of growing numbers and working withpeople coming from different cultures
and backgrounds, we have to find betterways to manage these relationships. So we
have a new division, Alliance andPartnerships, just to cater to those relationship
issues that we want to get involvedwith.
Product Decisions
[The terrorist attacks of] 9/11 require us to think about our service classes: firstclass,
business class, two classes, three classes, two-and-one-half classes! What5 Virgin
Atlantic, in which SIA had acquired a 49% stake for S$1.6 billion in December,
1999.is it going to be? We still have to think about it. It may not stay three

The nature of flying is different now. In some instances, we havent realized thatwe
are a global airline and we operated as though we were still a regional airline.Our
systems were arranged to support regional operations rather than global ones,for
example. We now realize the need for the company to review all aspects
ofoperations and for the organizational structure to support a global airline.
Managing Discontinuous Change
The need for us to respond quickly is greater now. Its not what is happening, itshow
you respond to what is happening 90% of the time. Your response to it isgoing to
make the material difference. So we need more agility, greaterflexibility, and yet how
do we communicate within the more complexorganization? In the past, we could all
go into a room and discuss it and that wasit. So all this has changed and we have to
respond to it, because we are aninternational company.


We have analyzed the external factors for Singapore airlines using PESTEL
Framework and to identify strategic challenge of external environment and have
been using Five Forces of Framework and SWOT for Singapore airlines.
The PEST analysis is one of them that are merely a framework that categorizes
environmental influences as political, economical, social and technological forces.
Sometimes two additional factors environmental and legal, will be added to make a
PESTEL analysis, but these themes can be easily subsumed in the others. This
classification distinguished between:

This refers to government policy as such degree of intervention in the economy. To
what extent does it believe in finance firms such as Singapore Airlines has withdrawn
its bid for a stake in Air India, dealing a heavy blow to the Indian governments
privatization programmed. This is political barrier for Singapore Airlines.
These include interest rates, taxation charges, economic growth, inflation and
exchange rates. The SA offer to buy 24% stake in China Eastern Airlines for 7.2
billion Hong Kong dollars appeared in trouble Wednesday after a major shareholder
criticized the deal as unfair.
Changes in social trends can impact on a demand for a firms product and availability
and willingness of individuals to work. In the year 2002, there was a fatal crash of
Singapore Airline flight SQ006 at Taipeis Chiang Kai-Shek International Airport.
Authorities blamed pilot error for the accident.
New technologies create new products and new processes. SA is the first airline to
install a productivity suite for the benefit of its passengers who can now continue to
work after boarding the plane without having to power up their laptops.
Strategic Capability of SA
Strategic capability identifies the capacity of a business to deliver future value to his
end user i.e. competitive advantage. It includes the following

Resources & Competence Of SA:

SA is the strongest brand from Asia and its long serving is almost iconic. SA has
consistently been one of the most profitable airlines globally. One of the factor is
strong brand management and healthy brand equity. As a result of a dedicated
professional brand strategy throughout diversified global organization.

Unique & Core Competence Of SA:

SA is first to introduce hot meals, free alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages and hot
towels with a unique and patented scent, personal entertainment systems and videoon-demand in all cabins.
Competitive Advantage of SA
One key element of SIAs competitive success is that it manages to navigate skillfully
between poles that most companies think as distinct.

Business Level Strategy

o Strategy for competitive advantage
o Meet economical expectations of shareholders
o Strategy for Singapore government satisfaction

Corporate Level Strategy

o Market diversification
o Value creation


Brand name

Cabin crews






Connected with few destinations.

Pricing policy



Growing Asia Pacific market

Increase in trans-pacific cargo

Global airline market


Competition increase in low cost airlines



Increase in prices


Instability in the Middle-East

Fuel prices



Freedom of entry/exit
Availability of aircraft etc.



Excess to

Competing for
growth, market
share etc.



Video Conferencing
High Speed Railroads etc.

Availability of aircraft etc.

Products etc.


The travel and hospitality industries are amongst the most vulnerable to global or
local shocks. That means contingencies, cash reserves, hedging of major risks such
as oil prices. But most of all it means agile and bold leadership who think ahead,










Airline manufacturers and airlines themselves will continue to exploit significant

energy savings over the next 20 years from a wide range of new technologies,
including better airline engine design, lighter composite fuselage, more direct aircraft
routing. Efficiencies will also be gained from fuller planes, faster turnaround,
economies of scale (consolidation of smaller airlines). For more on greener aviation,


Passengers will segment further into budget (bus quality), premium budget
(especially older travelers), traditional economy, right up to premier business class in





Despite energy price rises, our worlds population will continue to want to fly, and will
sacrifice other spending to do so, cushioning the adjustment for the airline industry.
Burning food in plane engines will become very controversial as it connects energy
and food prices, with potentially disastrous consequences for the poorest citizens



Most planes will continue to burn carbon-based fuel for decades to come because
the average life expectancy of a new plane today is at least 30 years.


Singapore airline is the national airline of Singapore and one of the leading
aviation companies in the world.

At present, they operate in South East Asia, East Asia, Europe and Australia

After analyzing external factors we find that SIAs has some major barriers in
international political and economical sector.

As we are familiar that oil price is sensitive issue worldwide and day by day
its in receipt of more unstable. For those reasons the supplier power is very

In the internal capability shows high brand attributes and strong brand
management as their core competence.

To maintain the current positioning company should concern their internal and
external surroundings.


The Reserve Bank of India was established on April 1, 1935 in accordance with the
provisions of the Reserve Bank Of India Act, 1934. The Central Office of the Reserve Bank
was initially established in Calcutta but was permanently moved to Mumbai in 1937. The
Central Office is where the Governor sits and where policies are formulated. Though
originally privately owned, since nationalization in 1949, the Reserve Bank is fully owned by
the Government of India.

Main Functions of RBI:

It acts as the Monetary Authority.

It regulates and supervises the Financial System.

It acts as the Manager of Foreign Currency

It issues Currency

It has the developmental role to support the National Objectives

It is the banker to the Government

Its the banker to the Banks

(Reserve Bank of India)







The Central Bank of Singapore is the Monetary Authority of Singapore. It was established in
1971 in order to regulate Singapores financial industry to aid in its development as an
international financial centre. Its primary function is to ensure that the financial markets
operate in an efficient and smooth manner, in line with national economic goals. The MAS is
responsible for the following:

Main Functions of MAS:

It is concerned with implementing the Monetary Policy

It supervises the Banking Systems

Its banker to the Government

Its banker to the Banks

It controls the International Reserves

It issues currency

It issues licences to Banks Issuer of banking licences

Its the lender of the last resort

(Monitory Autority of Sinapore)


Most Banks in Singapore cater to different types of clients individuals, corporations or

government agencies.

Commercial Banking (catering to Businesses and Corporations),

Retail Banking (catering to individual members of the Public)

Private banking (catering to HNWIs) services. Banks can be classified into two

1. Local Banks

Six local banks in Singapore

2. Foreign Banks

108 Foreign banks in Singapore

a. Full Banks
a. 26 full license banks in Singapore.
b. They provide whole range of banking business approved under the
Banking Act.
c. Six of the foreign banks operating in Singapore have been awarded
Qualifying Full Bank (QFB) privileges.
d. These Banks include:


HSBC, Citibank, Standard Chartered, Maybank, ABN AMRO

and BNP Paribas.

b. Wholesale Banks
a. 42 wholesale banks in Singapore
b. They are engaged in the same range of banking activities as full banks,
except Singapore Dollar retail banking activities.
c. All wholesale banks in Singapore operate as branches of foreign banks.
d. Examples:
i. ING bank, National Australia Bank, Barclays Bank, Fortis
Bank, Deutsche Bank etc.

c. Offshore Banks
a. 40 offshore banks in Singapore
b. They are engaged in the same activities as full and wholesale Banks for
businesses transacted through their Asian Currency Units (an
accounting unit, which banks use to book all foreign currency
transactions conducted in the Asian Dollar Market).
c. The banks Singapore dollar transactions are separately booked in the
Domestic Banking Unit (DBU).
d. All these.
e. Operate as branches of foreign banks.
f. Examples:
i. ICICI Bank Ltd, Korea Development Bank, Bank of Taiwan,
Bank of New Zealand, Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce

d. Merchant Banks
a. 50 merchant banks in Singapore
b. They provide:

corporate finance, underwriting of share and bond issues,

mergers and acquisitions, portfolio investment management,
management consultancy and other fee-based activities.

ii. Examples:

1. Credit Suisse Singapore Ltd, Barclays Merchant Bank

Singapore Ltd, ANZ Singapore Ltd, Axis Bank Ltd etc.





Major Local Banks

DBS (Development Bank Of Singapore)

o Established in 1968.
o It is considered the largest bank in Singapore and Southeast Asia, as measured
by assets.
o It is a leading consumer bank in Singapore and Hong Kong, serving over 4
million and 1 million retail customers respectively.
o It also has the largest retail network in Singapore, with 80 branches at present.
o It ranked 14th in The Bankers Top 200 Asian Banks 2008.

OCBC (Overseas Chinese Banking Corporation)

o Established in 1912
o It is one of the largest financial institutions in the Singapore-Malaysia market
with total assets of S$184 billion.
o It ranked 1st in Top 5 Regional Banks, Asia Risk End-User Survey 2008.

UOB (United Overseas Bank)

o Established in 1935
o It is a leading bank in Singapore with a strong presence in the Asia-Pacific
o As at 31 December 2007, the UOB Group had total assets of S$175.0 billion.

o It was awarded the Best Overall Fund Group in Singapore during The EdgeLipper Singapore Fund Awards 2008.
Major Foreign Banks

o In Singapore, The Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited
first opened its doors in December 1877.
o HSBC is an approved Primary Dealer in the Singapore Government Securities
Market and an Approved Bond Intermediary (ABI).
o It is a QFB honoured with 33 awards at Global Finance Awards 2006
by Global Finance. (Monetary Authority Of Singapore)

Standard Chartered
o Standard Chartereds Singapore operation began in 1859 and today boasts of a
largest branch network (20) among international banks in the Republic.

It is the Groups second largest consumer banking market and was awarded a
Qualifying Full Bank (QFB) license in 1999.

o It is the largest custodian bank in Singapore for foreign institutions, rated top
for the past seven years in Global Custodians Agent Bank Survey.

ABN-AMRO Singapore
o ABN AMRO is now owned by RBS, Santander and the Dutch government.
o Its various businesses around the globe are currently being separated from
ABN AMRO and integrated in line with each owners plans.

o Maybanks presence in Singapore began in 1960 as a full-licensed commercial
o Maybank is currently among the top five banks in ASEAN and is a Qualifying
Full Bank in Singapore.
o As of June 2008, Maybanks total assets amounted to S$22.7 billion in

BNP Paribas
o BNP Paribas has been at the forefront of banking in Singapore since 1968 and
was awarded a QFB status in 1999.
o Today, BNP Paribas Singapore assumes a prominent presence in the region by
acting as the Groups regional hub for its business in Corporate and
Investment Banking as well as Private Banking.

o Citibank was the first American bank to set up a branch in Singapore in 1902.
o Although a relative latecomer to the retail-banking sector.
o The bank has grown into a formidable market player with major market share
in key businesses including unsecured lending, deposits and investments and
secured assets.
o Citibank was among the first four foreign banks to be awarded the Qualifying
Full Bank (QFB) license in 1999.





In Singapore, the laws regulating Banking are found in the relevant Acts passed by
Parliament (and other related subsidiary legislation), the common law and principles and
rules of Equity which are derived from the case law. These legislations not only regulates the
Banking Sector in Singapore, but also ensure that the legal framework for Banking in
Singapore and keeps pace with the latest developments in the financial World. The relevant
acts pertaining to the Banking Industry include:
1. Banking Act The Banking Act is the legislation that governs commercial banks in
2. Monetary Authority Of Singapore Act It governs all matters related to MAS in its

3. Anti Money Laundering Regulations

4. Payment and Settlement System Guidelines
5. Securities and Futures Act






















From the above chart, it can be analysed that India has been very competitive when compared
to Singapore and the domestic credit provided by Banking Sector in both the countries is
continuously rising, which is a good sign.
2.4.2: GDP (CURRENT US$)











From the above chart, it can be analyzed that the GDP of both the countries are continuously
rising, for India, the change is very nominal but its a pretty good rise for Singapore, except
for the year 2008 where it was stable. The reason for this is recession in India during the year
2008 which affected both the countries, as far as their GDP is concerned.












The above chart clearly defines that annual GDP growth of Singapore and India. When
compared to India, the change in the GDP Growth Rate of Singapore is significant.











From the above chart we can conclude the Singapore has more bank branches rather than
India in the year 2005, 2006, and 2007 and at par in the year 2008 and 2009 but fortunately,

in India, the number of Bank Branches has increased the banking sector growth because of
formation of new banking policy in the year 2010. (Per 1,00,000 adults)














According to World Bank data, the overall bank capital to assets ratio of Singapore is higher
than that of India year on year. Due, to Global Crisis, the ratio for both the countries is less
for the year 2008.












The above graph shows the relation between bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans
ratio of last five year. In the year 2005 and 2007, the ratio is higher of India than that of
Singapore and for the year 2006, 2008, 2009 and 2010, it is constant for both the countries.













The above graph represents Bank Capital to Asset Ratio in percentage. It can be analysed that
its increasing for both the countries except in the year 2007 where its declining for both the
countries by 1% and again decrease of 1% in the year 2008 for Singapore.















The above graph represents the Lending Rates in percentage. The lending rates of India are
significantly higher of India than that of Singapore. For, India the rates are fluctuating to
regulate the money supply in the economy which was a major focus for India in recent years,
whereas for Singapore its stable.

















The above graph represents the exchange rates between India and US and Singapore and US.
The exchange rates between Singapore and US are stable over the time and changes are not
major whereas, the exchange rate between India and US is fluctuating and the major change
can be seen from the year 2006 to 2009. This is because of Global crisis and again the
imports are more for India than exports. The fluctuating exchange rates for India results in
huge loss for companies associated in Exports and Imports.


MAS/Central Bank Balance Sheet


The above chart shows the comparison between Financial Sectors with other Business
Sectors. The Financial Service sector is quite stable when compared to other sectors. This is
majorly because of the stability of exchange rate. The Business services are also rising.



























































Economic resilience is "very low risk", supported by the highly competitive, diverse,
and resilient economy-factors which provide buffers against external shocks.

The institutional framework is "very low risk", benefiting from prudent banking
regulations and supervision, a strong regulatory track record, and supportive
governance framework which is benefiting at long term.

Competitive dynamics are "low risk", reflecting the banking industry's restrained risk
appetite, stable competitive environment as well as a healthy market and absence of
market distortions.

Liberalization in the domestic banking market.

Local banks are strengthened by their regional presence through mergers and

Increased competition spurred the development of innovative products and more

competitive pricing models.

Provision of sophisticated banking services like corporate and investment banking

activities, apart from traditional lending and deposit-taking functions.

Strict banking secrecy laws, tax friendly policies and a suite of wealth management
services created a private banking boom.

Recognizing the needs of SMEs which comprise a sizable Banking Market in


(Monetary Authority Of Singapore) (WorldBank)



Singapore has capitalized on the growing no. of high net worth individuals in Asia and other
regions like Europe and the Middle East, emerging as an attractive hub for global investors.
Singapore has earned the title Switzerland of Asia, attributable to:

Strict banking secrecy laws Sec. (47) of the Banking Act states that consumer details
shall not, in any way, be disclosed by an any bank or any of its officers, to any other
person except as expressly provided in the Banking Act.

Non-recognition of the 2005 European Tax Directive Singapore is one of the few
remaining offshore centers that has not signed up to the EU;s saving tax Directive,
whose country members can transit private details regarding to individuals who bank
and invest in these countries.

Generous tax incentives capital gains and interest income from outside Singapore are
not taxed here

Private Banks such as Credit Suisse, UBS, standard chartered and Citigroup to name a few,
provides the following facilities:

Global wealth management services

Wealth and lifestyle consulting services

Investment strategies

Asset and tax planning

Asset security

Credit Services


The key findings from this report are presented as under:

Domestic credit provided by Banking in Singapore (% of GDP) is significantly rising

for both the countries. Singapore saw a decline in the same in the year 2010 by 5% as
compared to 2009, whereas, it has increased for India.

The lending rates of in India are reducing where as for Singapore; it is stable and
significantly lesser than that of India. From this, it can be analysed that there are
Arbitrage opportunities possible from the same and Market for taking loan in
Singapore would be quite high.

The exchange rates of Singapore are quite stable than that of India.

The Strengths of Banking in Singapore is in large quantum which shows that the
feasibility of Banking in Singapore is high.

The foreign assets of MAS are significantly rising over the period of years.

The lending rates of India are significantly higher of India than that of Singapore. For,
India the rates are fluctuating to regulate the money supply in the economy which was
a major focus for India in recent years, whereas for Singapore its stable.

The overall bank capital to assets ratio of Singapore is higher than that of India year
on year. Due, to Global Crisis, the ratio for both the countries is less for the year

The scope of Banking in India is also high with special reference to Rural Area as
there the large quantum of Market is untapped, especially in developing states.

The employment opportunities in Singapore and India are high as the feasibility for
Banking in both the countries is high.

The norms of Banking in India are more complex than that of Singapore.

The Banking System is much more protective in India as during crisis in 2008-09, the
GDP of India didnt let to breakdown much.

The overall bank capital to assets ratio is Singapore higher then India in every
consecutive year in the same proportion. The year 2008 is lower in all year because of
Global crisis.



The electronics industry today plays a vital role in the development of most nations as it has
grown substantially and strongly over the past decades. This industry moves closer to the
centre and drives rapid economic development of the world, taking its place in the heart of
one country after another.


India is the fifth largest economy in the world and has the second largest GDP among
emerging economies. Owing to its large population, the potential consumer demand is almost
unlimited and consequently under appropriate conditions, strong growth performance can be
expected. The electronics industry, in particular, is emerging as one of the most important
industry in the Indian market.
The electronics industry in India dates back to the early 1960s. Electronics was initially
restricted to the development and maintenance of fundamental communication systems
including radio-broadcasting, telephonic and telegraphic communication, and augmentation
of defence capabilities. Until 1984, the electronics sector was primarily government owned.
The late 1980s witnessed a rapid growth of the electronics industry due to sweeping
economic changes, resulting in the liberalization and globalization of the economy. The
economic transformation was motivated by two compelling factors - the determination to
boost economic growth, and to accelerate the development of export-oriented industries, like
the electronics industry.
Electronics is the major industry underpinning Singapores economic growth. Singapore aims
to be a world-class electronics hub, creating manufacturing solutions and producing high
value-added components for the global market. This is the choice location for companies and
talent to create and manage new markets, advanced products and processes, technologies and

The Singapore's semiconductor industry has grown from humble beginnings as an assemblyand test-subcontracting supplier to a fully integrated, cutting-edge technology wafer
fabrication hub. With about 13 state-of-the-art wafer fabs nationwide, the small island of
Singapore is way ahead of its Southeast Asia neighbours in the development of the region's
chip-making infrastructure. Semiconductors, as well as related production equipment and
materials, are a key focus of the Singapores Industry initiative. An important advantage for
investors is that the government is a significant shareholder in most of the island's wafer fabs.


The electronics industry has recorded very high growth in subsequent years. By 1991, private
investments - both foreign and domestic - were encouraged. The easing of foreign investment
norms, allowance of 100 percent foreign equity, reduction in custom tariffs, and delicensing
of several consumer electronic products attracted remarkable amount of foreign collaboration
and investment. The domestic industry also responded favorably to the politic policies of the
government. The opening of the electronics field to private sector enabled entrepreneurs to
establish industries to meet hitherto suppressed demand. The Indian Electronics Industry is a
text for investors who are seeing India as a potential investment opportunity.
Improvements in the electronics industry have not been limited to a particular segment, but
encompass all its sectors. Strides have been made in the areas of commercial electronics,
software, telecommunications, instrumentation, positioning and networking systems, and
defence. The result has been a significant trade growth that began in the late 1990s.
Despite commendable achievements in the sphere of electronics, considerable infrastructural
improvements remain a priority. Water, power, telecommunications, and transportation
sectors must still be amplified so that high economic growth can be sustained.
Due to liberalization policies of 1980s, Output from electronics plants in India grew from
Rs1.8 billion in FY 1970 to Rs8.1 billion in FY 1980 and to Rs123 billion in FY 1992. Most
of the expansion too
k place in the production of computers and consumer electronics. Indian Production of
Computer rose from 7,500 units in 1985 to 60,000 units in 1988 and to an estimated 200,000
units in 1992. During this period, major advances were made in the domestic computer
industry that led to more sales. Consumer electronics in India account for about 30% of total
electronics production of the country.


With good physical infrastructure support, such as specialized power and water supplies,
waste treatment and other ancillary services already in place, Singapores Economic
Development Board (EDB) is hostilely courting investments from both multinational
corporations and local companies. It is offering incentives such as research and development
funding and tax rebates. The key aspect of the "Silicon Valley concept" for Singapore is its
ability to capture the entire value chain of semiconductor production. Industry specific
supporting facilities that have come on line include silicon wafer production, photo-masking
and a high-purity hydrogen peroxide plant.
EDB reports that there are more than 40 semiconductor companies and 160 supporting
organizations operating at all levels of the value chain. The Association of Electronics
Industries of Singapore (AEIS) and the Singapore Manufacturers Federation/EEAIIG are the
two organizations working for the development of electronics industry in Singapore. Most
ASEAN countries are not in direct competition with Singapore, as Singapore has decided to
target sectors with higher technologies.
In 2009, electronics contributed an output of almost S$63 billion and employed more than
76,000 workers. Of the S$11.8 billion in fixed asset investment Singapore received that year,
electronics was the largest contributor, accounting for 41.5%.

The charts above, showing Indias trade with Singapore since 2002-03, shows a remarkable trend
of upward movement. From the trade figures, it is quite specious that Indian exports to and
imports from Singapore have been rising substantially since CECA. Indian exports nearly

doubled from Rs. 9,764 crore in 2003-04 to Rs. 17,975 crore in 2004-05. A major reason for this
probably was the anticipation for CECAs signing, which was in its final stages of negotiation at
the time. Total trade has gone up from Rs. 13,823.6 crore in 2002-03 to Rs. 62,344.4 crore in
2007-08, a nearly five-fold increase.


As the market of India is rising like plant growing in the garden in electronics sectors the
demand for the Indian market is expected to reach at the peak point in 2020 by US $ 400
billion. Manufacturing has been recognized as the main engine for economic growth and
exciting target of taking the share of ICT and electronics hardware manufacturing to around
25% within the reach of 2025 has been setup by National Manufacturing Policy. As the India
is second largest peopled country in the world, there are many coupled with strong growth,
India will remain one of the largest consumers of electronics products globally.
The industry is composed to ride the wave of domestic demand for electronic products.
Developing core areas of design and application development will only help totoss the Indian
electronics and manufacturing industry towards greater innovation.
In 2011 the US trade deficit in relation with the India goods is US $ 14.5 billion which is
been increased from 2010 by $ 4.3 billion. In 2010 the US goods shortfall was increased by
12.4% that is in US $ 21.6 billion. As per the above data India is the 17th largest export maker
for US goods. Export of US towards the private commercial service which eliminates military
and government. In 2010 the US exports to India was 10.3 billion and vice versa the US
import from India was 13.7 billion. Majority of sale service affiliated by US in India was 13.9
billion in 2009 & vice versa of that the majority of sale service affiliated by Indias owned
firm in US was 7.2 billion.
The industry constitutes less than 1% of the global market. However, demand for these
products is growing quickly and investments are smooth in to augment manufacturing
a) India remains a major importer of electronic materials, components and finished
equipment amounting to around $20 billion in 2007. The country imports electronic goods
mainly from China
b) In the last four years, production of computers has grown at a compounded annual growth
rate (CAGR) of 31%, the highest among the various electronic products in India. This has

been followed by communication and broadcast equipment (25%), strategic electronics

(20%) and industrial electronics (17%).
c) The consumer electronics segment, which has grown at a CAGR of 10% in the last five
years, includes a wide range of products such as DVD, VCD/MP3 players, television sets and
microwave ovens.
d) The growth in demand for telecom products has been high, with India adding two million
mobile phone users every month, which is one of the main reasons for the growth in
production of electronic goods. This growth is expected to continue over the next decade, too.
e) The government has recognized electronics and IT hardware manufacturing as one of the
thrust areas for development. A special incentive package scheme (SIPS) was announced in
March 2007 to appeal investments for semiconductor fabrication and other micro and
nanotechnology manufacturing industries in India.
f) In the case of exports, the largest share was taken by electronic components, with 47% of
total electronic exports. Exports of electronic components have grown at a CAGR of 25% in
the last five years.
g) Indias main destination for electronic goods is the US.
India however remains a major importer of electronic materials, components and finished
equipment amounting to over US$12 Billion in 2005.India is also an exporter of a huge range
of electronic components and products for the following segments Display technologies
Entertainment electronics
Optical Storage devices
Passive components
Electromechanical components
Telecom equipment
Semiconductor designing
Electronic Manufacturing Services (EMS)
Indian Electronics Industry Exports are given below

Electronics & IT Production (Calendar Year)

(Rs. crore)







Consumer Electronics







Industrial Electronics














Communication & Broadcast 4,800






Strategic Electronics





















Software for Export





132,025 157,500

Domestic Software








113,200 145,300 178,500 231,575 279,340


Source: Electronic Industries Association of India

Singapore is a major manufacturing and trading centre in the region for electronic products,
components and parts, and supporting services. This section considers Singapores position in
the industry value chain, including production, technology development, procurement,
marketing and sales.
Data initiated from the International Economic Database of the Australian National
University (ANU) show that, among the eight economies in this study, Singapore ranked first

as an exporter of office and computing machinery (ISIC 3825) and electrical machinery (ISIC
383) and second only to Hong Kong as an importer. As illustrated, this dominant position can
be accounted for by large domestic production and entrecote trade.
Singapores national trade data (excluding trade with Indonesia) illustrate the composition of
domestic exports and re-exports and the product alignment in its total exports. In 1992,
Singapores total trade in electronics reached US$74.3 billion, with imports of US$30.8
billion and exports of US$43.5 billion, of which re-exports accounted for 26.5%. The largest
categories of domestic exports were disk drives, computers and subassemblies, integrated
circuits (ICs), television (TV) receivers and subassemblies, and color TV sets. Re-exports
were concentrated in ICs, computers and subassemblies, disk drives, color TV sets, radios
and videocassette recorders (VCRs), and telecommunications equipment.
In 2011, the sector donated an output of US$86.1 billion, accounting for 6.3% of Singapores
total GDP, and employed more than 82,000 workers.
Singapores domestic exports of electronics still depend on USEC markets, which immersed
64.1% of such exports in 1992. East Asia accounted for 26.3%, but Japans share was only
5.1%. The very small Japanese share is noteworthy in view of the extensive presence of
Japanese electronics firms in Singapore and may be attributed to both Japans import barriers
and the corporate strategies of Japanese electronics firms in Singapore.

From the early 1980s to the early 1990s, Singapore became a key manufacturing base for
original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) as production costs increased in the OEMs home
base. The Singapore Government stimulated the sectors development through investments in
state-owned enterprises like Chartered Semiconductor, NatSteel Electronics. A host of
smaller private-sector Singapore firms emerged, many as suppliers to the MNCs, but others
as innovators themselves (Creative Technology and its soundcards). In the 1990s, several
large contract assemblers grew, including Venture and NatSteel Broadway. By the mid1990s, electronics was contributing over half the economys manufacturing output, up from
23.6% in 1985 and 10.7% in 1975.



GDP Electronics
Growth %
Output as



% of Total Output











































0.8 (est.)


27.1 (est.)


Source: Research Paper on Foreign Trade Performance of Singapore

The weakness of the dependence on electronics for such a large share of output and exports
was brought home in 2001, when Singapore suffered a sharp economic recession. The 20012002 downturn in global electronics demand (global sales of semiconductors plunged 34% in
2001) saw Singapores domestic exports of electronics down 20% to S$59 million (US$32
billion at then current exchange rates) in 2001 (the U.S. absorbs 20% of Singapores
electronics shipments). Shipments were down in all segments of the electronics industry.
Exports of electronics fell further in 2002, to S$57 billion (US$32 billion at end-2002
exchange rates), or 25% below their level in 2000 and 10% below the 1997 level.

Electronics Trade
(Percent Share)
Electronics Exports:

CY 2001

CY 2002

CY 2003

As a percentage of Total Exports




To U.S. as percentage of Total Exports




To U.S. as percentage of NODX




To U.S. as percentage of Electronics Exports




Electronics NODX as percentage of NODX




Source: Research Paper on Foreign Trade Performance of Singapore


A short-term look at trends for some of the main commodities of import/ export will shed some

light on the composition of trade between the two countries. The main commodities exported
and imported by India to/ from Singapore in the last few years are given in the table below:







Source: Export Import Data Bank, Ministry of Commerce, Government of India

Source: Export Import Data Bank, Ministry of Commerce, Government of India

In the annexure, there are tables analyzing export/ import trends in some of the above
commodities. In exports, there has been a very explosive movement in growth rates of the top
commodities. For example, gemstones and precious metals had 2 successive years of more
than 100% growth, which was followed by a 87.46% drop in 2006-07 that brought the value
of export back to around the original level. Mineral oil and fuel products (motor oils, fuel oil,
petroleum products, diesel, ATF, etc.) have increased to become 55% of all exports from
India to Singapore. Shipping and boat goods (such as floating/ submersible drilling/
production platforms, small vessels for transport of persons and goods) registered huge
growth in export around time of CECAs launch and have grown to 7.3% of Indias exports
to Singapore from 1.14% in 2003-04. Unwrought aluminum, copper wires and diamond are
other important items of export.

Indias Imports Exports from/to Singapore:

Indias main imports from Singapore comprise electronic goods, non-electrical machinery,
organic chemicals, project goods, transport equipment, artificial resins and professional
instruments (non-electronic).

Electronic items are Indias largest imports from Singapore. The value of such imports has
increased from US$1.31 billion in 2005-06 to US$1.65 billion in 2006-07. Out of around 440
different electronic products imported by India from Singapore, some of the leading ones are
photosensitive transistor diodes, electronic integrated circuits, telephones for cellular and
wireless networks, apparatus for control and distribution of electricity, electrical machinery
parts, laser and magnetic discs for reproducing purpose, optical fiber cables, remote control
apparatus (excluding radio), apparatus for switching, static convertors, generating sets with
spark ignition, fixed capacitors, transmission apparatus, digital cameras, smart cards, video
recorders and parts for line telephone apparatus.
Under the Early Harvest Program of the CECA, India eliminated customs duties on 506
items originating from Singapore from 1 August 2005. These include a large number of items
in electronics, machinery, organic chemicals and other product categories that are currently
figuring on the list of Indias important imports from Singapore.
Singapore is Indias fourth largest export market and the countrys biggest trade partner
among the Association of Southeast Asian (ASEAN) The ASEAN countries account for 9.5
percent of Indias total commodity exports. Within ASEAN, Singapore alone absorbs 4.5
percent of Indias exports. On the other hand, Singapore is Indias 10th largest source of
imports. At present, it accounts for 3.27 percent of Indias total commodity imports.
Singapore accounts for around three percent of Indias machinery and instrument exports.
India exports a diverse array of machines and instruments to Singapore. These include
printing machinery (parts and accessories), compression ignition engines, aircraft engines,
tool holders and machine die heads, boring or sinking machinery, electrically operated textile.
spinning machines, different categories of valves, taps and similar appliances, window and
wall air-conditioners, roller bearings, machine parts and mechanical appliances, accessories,
compressors, printed circuit boards, water and filtering/purifying machinery and centrifugal
electrically operated pumps.
Indian exports to Singapore have shown a lower rate of growth. Indian imports from
Singapore, however, have shown a higher rate of growth. If this trend continues and

strengthens over time, then future India-Singapore trade will be driven more by Indias
imports as opposed to Indias exports.

Source: Export Import Data Bank, Ministry of Commerce, Government of India

Source: Export Import Data Bank, Ministry of Commerce, Government of India

India's Export to some important countries during the period from 2005-06 to 2009-10

Source: Export Import Data Bank, Ministry of Commerce, Government of India

Source: Export Import Data Bank, Ministry of Commerce, Government of India

Source: Export Import Data Bank, Ministry of Commerce, Government of India

Source: Export Import Data Bank, Ministry of Commerce, Government of India

Trade Data
An analysis of trade statistics indicates rapid growth in trade between India and Singapore
over the last decade. Since CECA, there has been a important growth in trade flows between
the two countries. This trade data relates to trade in merchandise/ goods, not services.

Table which shows Period-wise growth in export, import and trade between India and

There are many polices affecting electronics industry. In India & Singapore are
related industrial policy-1, foreign investment policy, government- MNC partnership, trade
policy, national policy on electronics 2011 announced.

Period Export Import Trade


Export (%)



a) 1992-93 to 1996-97




b) 1997-98 to 2001-02




c) 2002-03 to 2006-07




Source: Computed from Handbook of Statistics on the Indian Economy of the Reserve Bank
of India.

Petroleum is Indias main export to Singapore. Other leading Indian exports to Singapore
include gems and jewellery, machinery and instruments, transport equipment, electronic
goods and non-ferrous metals.

The rate of growth for the last 4 years has averaged at 36.4% for exports, 37.16% for imports
and 34.57% for total trade. However, there has been some difference in this. The growth rate
for exports has been heading downwards since that first big jump between 2003-04 and 200405. Imports growth rate has been growing steadily, and total trade growth rate has been more


With existing abilities in IC design, R&D and manufacturing technologies, Singapores
electronics industry also provides the opportunity to develop solutions addressing the
challenges of tomorrow, through the new growth areas of green electronics, bioelectronics,
security and plastic electronics. In addition, the manufacturing of finished electronics
products creates many spin-offs to other segments of the economy, such as precision
component manufacturers, electronic manufacturing systems companies and logistics service

Analogue IC design is the key enabling capability for power management and energy
harvesting. To pre-position the nation in advanced analogue and mixed-signal design
capabilities, Singapores new IC Design Centre of Excellence, VIRTUS, was launched.
The S$50 million jointly funded center by Nanyang Technological University (NTU) and the
Singapore Economic Development Board aims to be a world-class IC design house,
developing key technologies required to design combined circuits and systems for
applications in medical technology, clean technology and consumer electronics.
The centres research activities can be broadly divided into the following major areas:
analogue, mixed-signal, power management and data converters; energy harvesting; lowpower RF and mm-wave ICs; and new technology directions such as 3D-integration and
physical design, 3D RF and mixed-signal circuits, and terahertz IC. Apart from its primary
focus in design, innovation and enterprise, VIRTUS is also committed to train more than
100Post graduate students and researchers in the next five years.
While the WTO Agreement has opened almost the entire electronic hardware sector to zero
import duty, local manufacturing is faced with huge disabilities which makes indigenous
manufacturing uncompetitive against Asian manufacturers such as China, Thailand, Malaysia
and singapore etc.
The industry has to deal with additional disability factor related costs such as higher
interest rates, energy costs, cascading taxes and procedural delays making imports cheaper
and an attractive proposition.
The gap between demand and local manufacture for electronic hardware has been growing
fast and steadily and unless the local industry is offered a level playing field and incentives
to invest, we will be faced with the twin problem of uncontrollable growth of imports and a
shrinking local manufacturing base.
It is estimated that demand for electronics hardware in India would rise from US$30 Bn
today to US$ 320 Bn by 2015 and if we can produce even 50% of this locally, Electronics
Hardware can provide direct employment to 7 million workers and an additional 14 million



Some of the factors that affect electronics industry of Singapore are labor wages, investment

promotion activity, geographical location, proactive government policy, large market support,
accelerating change in technology, price changing and imperative to lower costs
Pay Television
In March 2010, the Ministry of Information, Communications, and the Arts, through its subagency, the Media Development Authority, released new regulations to require pay television
providers to cross carry high-class broadcasting content acquired after March 12, 2010.
With the help of this rule in the imports and exports of Singapore economy a pay television
company with an exclusive contract for a channel would be required to offer that content to
customers of other pay television companies.

Basic Telecommunications
By the end of 2012 Singapore next generation national broadband fiber network should allow
fuller, more reasonably priced network access to provide telecommunication services to
homes and businesses, with the help of passing the bottleneck of sing Teleowned circuits
nearly about the 70% of the home network are being connected within the end of August,

Audiovisual and Media Services

Now a days with the help of audiovisual and media services the use of the electronics devices
have increased the Singapore restricts the use of satellite dishes and has not official direct-tohome satellite television services. Singapore Media Development Authority must license the
installation and operation of broadcast receiving equipment, including satellite dishes.
Distribution, importation, foreign newspaper must be approved by the government. Singapore
has banned the circulation of some foreign publications when it is been perceived crime of
the Singapore economy in the publication.
Singapore maintains legal distinctions between foreign currency transactions conducted in the
Asian Dollar Market and Singapore Dollar transactions and the type of license held. In retail
banking sector of the Singapore laws does not distinguish between the foreign and domestic
banks. In mixture with foreign banks and other financial institutions the issue of credit cards
in Singapore is unable to provide ATM cards and services through their own local network
for holders of those cards.

Foreign banks do not face the same restrictions for credit cards that they issue outside of
Singapore. The Minister in charge of the Monetary Authority of Singapore must provide
specific types of approve for acquisitions of the voting shares of a local bank above specific
beginnings. Although it has lifted the formal ceilings on foreign ownership of local banks and
finance companies, the government of Singapore has indicated that it will not allow a foreign
takeover of its three major local financial institutions

In late 2008 India introduced legislation to allow foreign equity participation of up to 49
percent and also allow entry of foreign Re-insurers. In 2009, the Insurance Laws

(Amendment) Bill went to the Standing Committee on Finance for assessment; the
Committee did not release its report on the bill until December2011, recommending against
increasing the 26 percent foreign equity capital Under current regulations, at the 10 year
mark, any partner in an insurance enterprise is required to divest its equity stake down to 26
percent. The requirement efficiently applies only to Indian partners by giving the equity
capital of 26 percent for maintaining the joint ventures.

Audiovisual Services
US companies continue to experience difficulty importing film and video publicity materials
and are unable to license merchandise. Although India has removed most barriers to the
importation of motion pictures.

No foreign accounting firms can enter into the accounting code of the Indian Accounting
Services sector because they first have to be the members or part of Institute of Chartered
Accountant of India for which they have to undergo the practical training of ICAI which is
been accredited by organization and with the help of passing an examination they can enter in
to the Indian Accounting Service Sector. Only firms established as a partnership may provide
financial auditing services, and foreign-licensed accountants may not be equity partners in an
Indian accounting firm.

Postal and Express Delivery

The Post Office Act 1898 replace the proposed bill which is being revised in 2011. The bill
revised by the post department is about the certain features of the bill include the certain
question of the parliament. Through the passing of bill monopoly on express delivery of
items weights up to 50 grams & to inspect the same they requires the private operators charge
double than the express mail service rate in order to provide service falling within the
monopoly. With the help of passing of bill will establish a new licensing and registration
scheme over their competitors by granting India Post Regulatory Authority. US companies
have expressed concern both with the elements of bill disclosed thus far and with the
possibility that the bill may move ahead to parliamentary approval without an opportunity for
stakeholder input on the final text of the bill.

As a under developing countries India possess the lack of knowledge and skills. Due to lack
of knowledge the representative of India works as the governing boards and also works for
the universities. In 2012 the issues regarding the Foreign Education Providers Bill has stated
that the control on fees and expelling salaries and income from the research has created the
potential for the double taxation.

National Policy on Electronics 2011 announced
The Ministry of Communications & IT has announced the Draft National Agenda on ICTE.
This includes the Draft National Policies on Electronics, IT and Telecom. The Draft National
Policy on Electronics was announced on 4th October. The National Policy of Electronics,
2011 envisions creating a globally competitive ESDM industry including nano-electronics to
meet the country's needs and serve the international market. The Main Policy Objectives are:
To achieve a turnover of about USD 400 Billion by 2020 involving investment of
about USD 100 Billion and employment of around 28 million by 2020.
To set up over 200 Electronic Manufacturing Clusters
To increase export in ESDM sector to USD 80 billion by 2020
To develop core competencies in sectors like automotive, avionics, industrial,
medical, solar, information & broadcasting, etc.
To significantly enhance availability of skilled manpower and upscale high-end
human resource creation

New electronic policy aims $400-bn by 2020:

In order to promote manufacturing of electronic and telecom products in India,
Communications and IT Minister Kapil Sibal has proposed creating an electronic
development fund, very large scale integration (VLSI) specific incubation centers across
India and a 10-year stable tax regime for the manufacturing industry.

This is a part of the proposed National Policy of Electronics 2011 (NPE 2011) released by the
minister. The government proposes to achieve a turnover of $400 billion by 2020 involving
an investment of about $100 billion. This includes $55 billion in chip design and embedded
software industry and $80 billion of exports in the sector. It also aims at ensuring
employment to around 28 million in the sector by 2020.
The size of electronic manufacturing industry in India was $20 billion in 2009.
The policy also proposes setting up over 200 electronic manufacturing clusters. Another
important objective of the policy is to significantly upscale high-end human resource creating
to 2500 PhDs annually by 2020 in the sector.
The policy also proposes to provide preferential market access for domestically manufactured
electronic products including mobile devices, SIM cards (subscriber identity module) with
enhanced features, with special emphasis on Indian products for which IPR reside in India.
This is to address strategic and security concerns of the government.
After taking a decision to end the tax-refund DEPB scheme from October 1, the government
is likely to restore interest subsidy of exporters to maintain the country's competitiveness in
the global market. The small exporters may get subsidy between 3.5% - 3.75%, whereas for
large corporate it may be 2% subvention.


As far as trade and commerce is concerned in India, during 1980-1992, major

advances were made in computer industry.

Consumer electronics in India account for 30% of total electronics production

Indias main destination for electronic goods is the US.

India however remains a major importer of electronic materials, components and

finished equipment.

Singapores Economic Development Board (EDB) is aggressively courting

investments from both multinational corporations and local companies. The
Association of Electronics Industries of Singapore (AEIS) and the Singapore
Manufacturers Federation (SMF) are the other two significant organizations working
for the development and promotion of electronics industry in Singapore.

Most Association of Southeast Asian (ASEAN) countries are not in direct race with
Singapore, as Singapore has decided to target sectors with higher technologies.

Singapores electronics sector contributed 6.3% during 2011 in GDP and 82000
workers were employed.

Singapore ranked first as an exporter of office and computing machinery (ISIC 3825)
and electrical machinery (ISIC 383) and second only to Hong Kong as an importer.

Singapores national trade data illustrate the composition of domestic exports and reexports and the product composition in its total exports.

Singapores domestic exports of electronics still depend on USelectronic markets

Singapore is Indias fourth largest export market and the countrys biggest trade
partner among the Association of Southeast Asian (ASEAN)

Out of around 440 different electronic products imported by India from Singapore,
some of the leading ones are photosensitive transistor diodes, electronic integrated
circuits, telephones for cellular and wireless networks, electrical machinery parts,
optical fiber cables, generating sets with spark ignition, fixed capacitors, transmission
apparatus, digital cameras, smart cards, video recorders and parts for line telephone


It was commented that ironically an industry which has great potential to generate
large-scale employment opportunities and wealth for the nation is struggling to

Indian exports to Singapore have shown a lower rate of growth.

Indian imports from Singapore, however, have shown a higher rate of growth.

If this trend continues and strengthens over time, then future India-Singapore trade
will be driven more by Indias imports as opposed to Indias exports.

In order to promote manufacturing of electronic and telecom products in India,

Communications and IT Minister Kapil Sibal has proposed creating an electronic
development fund, very large scale integration (VLSI) specific incubation centres
across India and a 10-year stable tax regime for the manufacturing industry.

The government proposes to achieve a turnover of $400 billion by 2020 involving an

investment of about $100 billion.

It also aims at ensuring employment to around 28 million in the sector by 2020.



Singapore is a favorite recreative destination that provides ample ways for people to
amuse and entertain themselves. Singapore, a country of islets and distinct indentity
of local regions, allows the multicultural, multivariety of entertainment to exist. People
can choose from resorts, parks and cineplexes to bars and pubs to spend quality
time and have a lot ofun.

Parks and resorts in Singapore

Parks and resorts are aplenty in Singapore each offering a variety of rides and are
set on different themes.
'Night Safari' is unique and can be experienced in Singapore only. There are several
beautiful parks in Singapore which one can visit during the trip to Singapore. While
on a Night Safari, one can witness animals engaged in their
night life like looking out for food or prowling. The zoo currently
houses more than 900 animals of 135 exotic species such as
African bongo, Cape buffalo, striped hyena, blue sheep, golden jackal and onehorned rhinoceros. Some of the famous parks are mentioned below:

Fort Canning Park in Singapore: This is one of the most visited parks
in Singapore. The Park is a popular place for arts, housing precious
memorials of the early history of Singapore dating back to 14th
century and the personal bungalow of Sir Stamford Raffles. Open-air ballet,
sculpture exhibitions and plays are organized in this Park.

Sembawang Park Singapore: At Sembawang Park in Singapore, you will

come across a beautiful natural beach which is a popular place for fishing.
You will also find a variety of marine life along the shoreline of Sembawang

Bishan Park Singapore: Another beautiful park in Singapore, Bishan Park,

features bridges and lakes, lush greenery, and colorful shrubs growing

MacRitchie Park Singapore: This Park is a popular place in Singapore among

the exercise enthusiasts, particularly among the joggers. The Park is also an
ideal place for morning and evening walks. People also visit this Park for just
a stroll along the edge of the water.

Pasir Ris Park in Singapore: This is a coastal park in Singapore, ideal for
spending your weekends with your family members. The Park features a
mangrove swamp and you can get a glimpse of the mangrove flora and fauna.
What else? You can also indulge yourself in several sports like swimming,
bird watching and cycling.

Punggol Park Singapore: Based on the theme of Family Leisure, the

Park is an ideal recreation spot for people of all ages. The Park
features open lawn areas for organizing picnics or flying kites, a
community corner for relaxation, and a wooded area for taking a stroll in a
leisurely manner. The Park also houses play and fitness equipment.

Merlion Park in Singapore: This Park in Singapore was originally built by the
Esplanade Bridge, which is approximately 120 meters from its current
location. Like the other parks, this is also a popular park in Singapore.

Bedok Reservoir Park Singapore: Bedok Reservoir Park in Singapore is an

ideal place for undertaking water-based activities and regular races are also
organized in the reservoir. The Park surrounds the beautiful
Bedok Reservoir and is a popular place for jogging. The Park
features bicycle rack, cycling track, fitness corner and fitness
equipment, running track, toilets and restrooms, event lawn, benches, fishing
jetty, and playing equipment for children.

National Orchid garden:

A feast for orchid lovers the National Orchid Garden displays almost twenty
thousand orchids.

Singapore Zoological Gardens:

It is host to almost two thousand animals of at least 240 species. This abode
of copious greenery is a safe and pleasant replicate endeavor of the natural
habitats of most animals.
Appu Ghar, New Delhi

Appu Ghar is the first amusement park of India and

is the favorite of all children because of its exquisite







Disneyland of Delhi has rides for people of all ages.

Children love the thrill of riding in a Cable Car and the Speeding Cup. Since
there is no snowfall in Delhi, the Ice Games at OYSTERS offering winter
sports is quite popular here.
Four acres of the Water Park blanketed with ice offering sledding, skiing, ice
boating and bowling on ice; is a craze among the people from all over the
Fun and Food Village, Kapashera, New Delhi
The Fun and Food Village is located in Delhi in 10 acres of land with wide
range of water rides, pools, rain dance, and also many park rides. The rides
are suitable for people of all age groups. The wave pool, largest of all water
parks in Delhi, is a special attraction of the park. The water park also boasts
of the largest indoor Snow Park over an area of 2500 sq. m..
Fantasy Land, Mumbai
TThe Fantasy Land is one of the leading theme parks in Mumbai. The park,
Located at Jogeshwari is rich with all sorts of new rides, which drags
attraction from people all round the country.
Essel World, Borivli, Mumbai
Essel World is Mumbai's only international-style
theme park, situated close to Gorai Beach. Special
ferries will take you to the park. This is the largest
water theme park in Asia. The Water Kingdom of the park is located at Gorai
Creek, west of Borivali. The park is sprawled over 64 acres and is a refreshing
gateway to a whole new world of excitement and fun.
Kishkintha, Chennai
Kishkintha is the first theme amusement park located 28 Km South of
Chennai near Tambaram. It is spread over 110 acres, and offers exciting rides
and attractions. The amusements, attractions, water games and rides, make
Kishkinta India's leading water theme park.
Athisayam Amusement Park, Madurai

Located in Madurai near the Vaigai River, the Athisayam Amusement park is
a marvelous entertainment center for children, adults and old. The Athisayam
Park is famous for its cleanliness and safety.
MGM Dizzy World, Tamil Nadu
MGM Dizzy World is a 27-acre, childrens amusement park situated at
Muttukkadu enroute to Mamallapuram. The major attractions here are the
water chute, parachute tower, pirate boat and a 110 feet dizee shake
Bay Watch Park, Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu
Bay Watch, located in Kanyakumari is unique in
many ways. With the recently added wax museum,
Bay watch is the only park in Asia to house one.
The wax museum being the first of its kind in this
part of the world has caught up with the imagination of the people. Baywatch
at sunset point Kanyakumari is also the first seaside amusement park in India.
Pearl Water Park Ltd (Crazy Waters), Bangalore
Bangalore, the Garden City of India is famous for software technology parks
also, but when dealing with amusement and entertainment Pearl Water Park
is the top. It is located on the Bannerghatta main road.
Veega Land, Cochin, Kerala
Veega Land is situated 300 feet above sea level and is set amongst 30 acres
of surpassingly grand and incomparably idyllic environs, at Pallikara (near to
Cochin city. Veega Land's scintillating and tranquil setting is matched only by
the ambitious scale and grandeur of the park itself. The architecture
expresses nothing less than the heart and soul of ethnic Kerala, with a few
surprising flashes of vintage Chinese architecture as well.
Dream World, Kerala
Dream World Water Theme Park is situated on the
lap of enchanting Athirapilly waterfalls just 8 km
from Chalakkudy. The park is designed in such a
way that tourists belonging to any age group can
effortlessly reach all the amusement rides without much walking or climbing.
Silverstorm, Kerala

This is considered to be India's most beautiful water theme park. It is located

at vettilappara near the famous Athirappilly waterfalls. There are many
exciting rides and state of the art games in this park that lies amidst mighty
hills and peaceful valleys. The place has been designed and landscaped
Fantasy Park, Malampuzha, Kerala
Fantasy Park the first amusement park of Kerala, is run by the experienced
professionals of Neotech Amusements and Resorts Ltd. The 8-acre land is a
gateway to thrilling rides and also to a beautiful area complete with fabulous
landscaping and fountains. There is a special section with games and rides
especially for kids..
Swabhumi - The Heritage Park, Calcutta, West
The Swabhumi Park is a superb theme park, which
offers something for everyone. As the name suggests the park revolves
around Indian culture and heritage. The basic theme of the park Swabhumi
(My Land) has been conceived to revolve around 'heritage'. The main offering
of the Park would essentially be an educative and participative experience for
the visitors, by showcasing and demonstrating art, crafts heritage and culture
from various regions in the country, with a focus on Bengal.
Snow World, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh
Snow World is the worlds biggest and Indias 1st Snow Theme Park. All these
snow wonders will be made possible by artificially producing snow using state
of the art technology supplied by Woomera Snow Guns Ltd., Australia.
Ocean Park, Hyderabad
Ocean Park is one of its kind Water Theme
Amusement Park modeled on International
Ramoji Film City

Ramoji Film City is a huge film studio complex where thousands of Indian
movies are filmed every year. If one wanted to see how movie sets come to
life, this is the place. It also has a theme park with rides, and Entertainment
Park for kids..
Location: Around 25 kilometers from Hyderabad, in Andhra Pradesh.

Nightlife in Singapore
A tour of the nation of Singapore remains incomplete without exploring the Nightlife
in Singapore. The nation of Singapore remains awake all the night and it could be











city/nation/island of Singapore is never short of entertainment, irrespective of the fact

that whether its daytime or nighttime. After the sun sets at Singapore the citizens of
Singapore gear themselves up to dance to the rhythm and the beats of the music
played at the nightclubs. The numerous Nightclubs in Singapore are scattered
throughout the nation/island /city of Singapore and
each of these nightclubs have an added attraction
that makes them unique and makes them the most
haunted place of this nation. After a hard day, the
Nightclubs are the best place to chill and relax with
friends or family or relatives.
If one wants to have a rocking time at Singapore
then the place that aptly suits you are the Bars and
Pubs in Singapore. Singapore is the home numerous bars and pubs that are
scattered throughout the city/island/nation of Singapore. The young citizens of
Singapore had made the bars and the pubs the most sought after places and as
soon as the sun sets its time to party at Singapore. Most of the bars and the pubs of
Singapore remain open seven days a week.
Restaurants and dinning places

Singapore is an island of varied culture, which is

invariably followed by availability of different cuisines. All over Singapore, in every
nook and corner one would find food being served hot or cold and in innumerable
varieties. The aroma and the whiffs pervading from the local eateries or the fine
dining hotels itself forms an appetizer and arouses your taste buds more than ever.

It is estimated that Singapore has over 2,000 eating establishments, so a

traveler will never be at a loss for a place to go. Apart from the hawker
centers, roadside stalls and fast food joints that are available at every corner,
Singapore also offers the pleasure of exquisite fine dining, accompanied by
spectacular views of Singapore that can be enjoyed while savoring mouthwatering food.

Shopping is another favorite activity in Singapore.







shopping, such as, Chinatown and Little India. A

plethora of shopping malls offer exciting ranges of
goods and articles. One can define the trend of
Singapore duty free shopping as a sort of fresh
breeze. This is because with the help of duty free shopping in Singapore you
can shop as much as much as you want without paying any extra dollar.
Singapore is regarded as the most happening shopping destinations of the
world. Here, at this magnificent island-city, one will find a huge range of
offerings in terms of apparels, accessories, shoes, bags, watches and almost
everything. Stylish and elegant are the terms that can very appositely define

the stuffs that are available in Singapore, the paradise for crazy shoppers.
Singapore offers a lot of duty free shopping options.

Music industry in Singapore

A nation where music can be felt in very breath you take, is undoubtedly a
place where the Music Industry thrives. With Pop, Rock, Punk, Folk and
classical running in the veins and arteries of the country, Music Industry in
Singapore can be considered as one of the most well developed and sought
after industry of. Singapore. Whenever it comes to any kind of Industry, one
factor which inevitably comes to mind is the revenue which it generates that
contributes to the economy of the country.
Music Industry in Singapore is a major revenue generating areas of the
nation, with thousands of music albums being sold everyday. As music is very
popular in the island nation, many new bands are formed and singers take to
stage, giving live performances on a nationwide basis. These live
performances are very popular and see the gathering of large number
of music fans.

As Singapore has many genres of Music existing all a the same time, be it
Folk or Operas and orchestras, contemporary or hip hop, Peranakan and
others, the Music Industry in Singapore is spread over large vistas of cultural
world of Singapore
In fact, the Music Industry in Singapore draws numerous tourists to this
nation, contributing to the Tourism Industry as well. Another area where Music
Industry has extended its reach is the Opera Festivals holding Orchestras and
Concerts, be it the Traditional Asian types or modern and contemporary
music. Singapore is home to more than 100 music companies, societies and
Music Industry Alliance of Singapore (MIAS)
MIAS is a professional body to servicing and representing the interests of the
local professionals in


music industry. Whether negotiating fair

agreements, protecting ownership of recorded music, securing the interests of

homegrown artists, or lobbying our legislators, the MFS is committed to

raising industry standards and placing the real professional in the foreground
of the cultural landscape.

Indian Music Industries

Indias entertainment economy is growing rapidly, and the world is taking
note. The country is among the worlds youngest nations, with more than half
a billion people under the age of 25. With favorable demographics and a rise
in disposable incomes, the propensity to spend on leisure and entertainment
is growing faster than the economy itself.

Enticed by economic liberalization and the huge volume of demand for leisure
and entertainment, many of the global media giants have been present in the
Indian market for more than two decades. However, in recent years, with near
double-digit annual growth and a fast-growing middle class, there has been a
renewed surge in investment in the country by global companies. Companies
in the US and Western Europe see their growth increasingly linked to
emerging giants like India, which is why they are now focused on the best way
to enter, grow and brand their business in this market.

Film music dominates the music industry: Film music, including Bollywood
and regional film music, accounts for 67% of music sales in India.95 Film
producers typically create an album for a film and license the exploitation
rights to a music company. Because of the dominance of film music, the
Indian music industry is less focused on developing stand-alone artists than in
other countries.

Theatres in Singapore
The plays that are performed at the theatres of Singapore reflect the fact that
the citizens of Singapore take active interest in art and culture. The stage
performances by the Chinese, Indians and the Malay artists give you an
insight into the culture of these communities and the actors who put in their
best to win your appreciation deserves your applause. Singapore Arts
Festival that is held in the month of June invites theater groups from all over
the world to showcase their talents.
Singapore Film Industry
The early Singaporean cinema started in 1930s was result of wholesome film
activities by few creative men who coordinated all verticals of cinema
together. The early production houses were Shaw and Cathay, who
themselves created movie houses to play their own movies. P. Ramlee and
Cathay Keris were the key people who introduced film industry to Singapore.
The most noted directors of this time were Hussein Haniff of Cathay Keris and
P. Ramlee who was a versatile talent in script making, acting and directing.

The early Singaporean cinema presented Arabian love stories which were all
time epics of the common man. Later Chinese movies which were creations of
both Chinese and Indian entertainment stalwarts became popular in
Singapore. During the infamous Japanese invasion during World War II, the

Shaw and Cathay theatres were used to propagate war hysteria and hate of
the era.

To some extend the movies tried to reflect Singaporean life in its true awe.
But the effort did not last long due to financial crisis and lack of technical
inadequacies. The next phase of cinema was led by Chong Gay. His
creations were The Hypocrite, Crimes Does Not Pay and The Two Sides of
the Bridge. Bobby A Suarez has made some innovative experiments by
making They Call Her Cleopatra Wong, Dynamite Johnson, etc. Sonny Lim, a
Hawaiian musician tried to promote the movie They Call Her Cleopatra Wong
in America by dubbing it in American accent.
One of the internationally acclaimed movies of all times was Lim Suat Yens
film The Road Less Travelled. Post 1990 the Singaporean cinema recovered
from its inherent inertia considerably. With the entry of Bugis Street, Mee Pok
Man, which proved good standard by box office as well as artistically and
ideas of independent filmmaking. Arnmy Daze, Forever Fever, God or Dog
Tigers Whip and Teenage Textbox were some well discussed movies of the
time. In 1990s decade 12 of the Singaporean movies got entry in the Cannes
film festival.
Indian film industry

Bollywood is the informal term popularly used for the Hindi-language film
industry based in Mumbai (formerly known as Bombay), Maharashtra,
India.Film Federation of India:To promote commerce in general and in
particular to promote, protect and watch over the interests of the Indian Film
Industry and allied industries and trades, including the interests of producers,
distributors and-exhibitors of films and of all other persons connected with the
film industry, to regulate their method or doing business Bollywood is the
largest film producer in India and one of the largest centers of film production
in the world. Bollywood is formally referred to as Hindi cinema. There has
been a growing presence of Indian English in dialogue and songs as well.
Sports in Singapore

Sports in Singapore has been popular since the colonial times when it filled

idle hours of the colonial masters and also was a time when sports was

a prerogative of few. But as the economy, society and polity changed the
earlier trend has changed and now one finds active participation from the
population. The traditional games like the like congkak, capteh, gasing and
sepak are now declining in their popularity. These games are also found in
Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia and Philippines. One can also find that certain
traditional games are still played in the households. The most popular sport in
Singapore is football.
Badminton in Singapore
Badminton in Singapore is a very popular game and is played by a vast
number of people.
Basketball in Singapore
Basketball in Singapore is going places. The Singapore Slingers proves that.
The Singapore Slingers has done Singapore proud by being the first Asian
club to be part of Australian National Basketball League. Established in
2006/07, the Singapore Slingers are a great team, though they haven't won a
major championship yet.
Bowling in Singapore
Singapore Bowling includes 20 Bowling Centers, each Bowling offers more
than 20 lanes. Being a very popular game, this attracts numerous tourists
from across the globe.
Football in Singapore
In Singapore like many Europeans nation, Football is more serious than life
and death. Such is the love of Singaporeans for the game. Football was
introduced in Singapore during the British Rule, in the 19th century. Local
Leagues were performed at that time and they became highly popular. A
golden era emerged at Singapore with the advent of the Singapore Malaysia
Cup. This nation island performed very well and was acknowledged as the
strongest team. 24 championships cup in Football adorned the country and
Singapore also witnessed 50,000 fans in its home games of Football.
Golf in Singapore
A sunny weather all year round, lush greenery and world class golfing
facilities make Singapore a hot destination for golf lovers all over the world

Polo in Singapore
Polo in Singapore is a popular sport. Over the years, Polo, as a sport in
Singapore has received great acclaim. The Singapore Polo Club, for instance,
is one of the leading Polo Clubs in the place. Founded in 1886.
Table Tennis in Singapore
Table Tennis is one of the favourite sports in Singapore. It is played in the city
clubs as well. The game attracts numerous tourists from across the globe and
there is also a Table Tennis Centre at Singapore.
Tennis in Singapore
Tennis in Singapore holds a special place in the history of Sports, both
International and Domestic. This is because of the fact that Tennis had been
an ancient game at Singapore and players and audiences alike have taken
due care in order to promote this game to great heights. Singapore Tennis
has thus made a place for itself in Asian Sports and displayed copious talents
who have bagged numerous awards, much to the pride of the country.

Sports in India

Field hockey is the official national sport in India, and the country has won
eight Olympic gold medals in field hockey, though cricket is the most popular
sport. After the 1982 Asian Games hosted in New Delhi, the capital city now
has modern sports facilities, and similar facilities are also being developed in
other parts of the country.
India has hosted or co-hosted several international sporting events, such as
the 1951 Asian Games and the 1982 Asian Games, the 1987 Cricket World
Cup and 1996 Cricket World Cup, the 2003 Afro-Asian Games, the 2010
Hockey World Cup, the 2010 Commonwealth Games, and the 2011 Cricket
World Cup. Major international sporting events annually held in India include
the Chennai Open, Mumbai Marathon, Delhi Half Marathon, and the Indian
Masters. India also hosted its first Indian Grand Prix at the Buddh
International Circuit, an Indian motor racing circuit in Greater Noida, Uttar
Pradesh, India.

Board of Control for Cricket in India, India national cricket team, and India
national women's cricket team
Cricket has a long history in India, and is the most popular sport by a wide
margin in India. Recently, it won the 2011 Cricket World Cup by defeating Sri
Lanka in the final match hosted by India. It is played on local, national, and
international levels and enjoys consistent support from people in all parts of
Football was introduced to India during the British occupation, and in some
areas of the country, it is equally as popular as cricket. India was an Asian
powerhouse in the 1960s, finishing as runners up in the 1964 AFC Asian Cup,
but gradually the standard of football has gone down compared to other
countries, and India currently ranks 154th in the FIFA rankings as of 29
February 2012.
Basketball is a popular sport in India. India has both men's and women's
national teams in basketball.
Tennis is a popular sport among Indians in urban areas. Tennis gained
popularity after the exploits of Vijay Amritraj. India's fortunes in the Grand
Slam singles have been unimpressive although Leander Paes and Mahesh
Bhupathi have won many Men's Doubles and Mixed Doubles Grand Slam
Titles. Sania Mirza is the only notable Indian woman tennis player, having
won a WTA title and breaking into the Top 30 WTA rankings. On the men's
side, young Somdev Devvarman and Yuki Bhambri are flying India's flag on
ATP Tour.

Chess has risen in popularity in India in the last few decades primarily due to
its star player GM Vishwanathan Anand. He is the current World Champion,
and he has revolutionized the popularity of this sport in India.

Badminton is a popular sport in India. Indian shuttler Saina Nehwal is
currently ranked fourth in the world and has been named the Most Promising
Player of 2008 by the Badminton World Federation. This is the first ever
achievement by any Indian shuttler, after Prakash Padukone and Pullela
Gopichand, who both won the All England Open in 1980 and 2001
Other sports
Volleyball, Floor ball, Bandy, Netball, Ice Hockey, Handball, Throw boll,
Kabaddi, Lacrosse, Polo, Baseball & Softball, Boxing.
Television is one of the major mass media of India. It is a huge industry which has
thousands of programmes across Indian states ranging from national language to
regional ones. The small screen has produced numerous celebrities of their own kind
some even attaining national fame. TV soaps are extremely popular with housewives
as well as working women. Approximately half of all Indian households own a
television. As of 2010, the country has a collection of free and subscription services
over a variety of distribution media, through which there are over 515 channels and
150 are pay channels.
Terrestrial television in India started with the experimental telecast starting in Delhi
on 15 September 1959 with a small transmitter and a makeshift studio. The regular
daily transmission started in 1965 as a part of All India Radio. The television service
was extended to Bombay (now Mumbai) and Amritsar in 1972. Up until 1975, only
seven Indian cities had a television service and Doordarshan remained the sole
provider of television in India. Television services were separated from radio in 1976.
National telecasts were introduced in 1982.
Cable television
As per the TAM Annual Universe Update - 2010, India now has over 134 million
households (out of 223 million) with television sets, of which over 103 million have
access to Cable TV or Satellite TV, including 20 million households are DTH

subscribers. In Urban India, 85% of all households have a TV and over 70% of all
households have access to Satellite, Cable or DTH services. TV owning households
have been growing at between 8-10%, while growth in Satellite/Cable homes
exceeded 15% and DTH subscribers grew 28% over 2009. It is also estimated that
India now has over 500 TV channels covering all the main languages spoken in the
Satellite television
As of 2010, over 500 TV Satellite television channels are broadcast in India. This
includes channels from the state-owned Doordarshan, News Corporation owned
STAR TV, Sony owned Sony Entertainment Television, Zee TV, Sun Network and
Asianet. Direct To Home service is provided by Airtel Digital Tv, BIG TV owned by
Reliance, DD Direct Plus, DishTV, Sun Direct DTH, Tata Sky and Videocon D2H.
DishTV was the first one to come up in Indian Market, others came only years later.
Cable TV is through cable networks and DTH is wireless, reaching direct to the
consumer through a small dish and a set-top box.

Television in Singapore is strictly regulated by the government. MediaCorp TV, fully
owned by government holding company Temasek Holdings, has a monopoly on
terrestrial television channels, while the sole cable operator is StarHub. The private
ownership of satellite dishes is banned.
Broadcasting developed from a single terrestrial channel operated by the Singapore
Broadcasting Corporation (SBC) in the 1 January 1980 to 31 December 1993. When
SBC was rebranded as Television Corporation of Singapore (TCS) it launched
Channel 5, Channel 8 and Channel 12. A reorganisation on 1 January 1996 saw the
creation of MediaCorp and a redistribution of programming among the channels.

StarHub TV is the sole cable television operator in Singapore. StarHub Cable

Television was formed as a result of a merger between StarHub TV and Singapore
Cable Television (SCTV) on 1 January 2002. The latter first began broadcasting as a
terrestrial pay-television operator in 1 January 1990 as the first cable network was
not completed until 1 January 1994. Around 80% of households in Singapore are
connected to the StarHub network. The remaining 20% have mio TV only or no cable
TV at home.
Singapore's Media Industry Charting Strong Growth
Singapore's media sector has been performing strongly, posting a compounded
annual growth rate (CAGR) of 6.8% between 1997 and 2008. In 2008, the industry
contributed S$5.5 billion in value-added (VA) and S$22.4 billion revenue to the
economy, and employed some 58,000 workers. Singapore's media sector consists of
several industries, including TV broadcast and production; publishing and printing;
film; music; as well as interactive and digital media.
Fast Growing Sub-sector - Interactive & Digital Media
Interactive & Digital media which includes video games, animation, online/mobile
media and new forms of digital entertainment has skyrocketed into a multi-billion
dollar business. The global videogames industry (excluding hardware sales) is
expected to swell from US$56 billion in 2010 to US$82 billion by 2015, with Asia
registering the fastest growth, according to the PriceWaterhouse Coopers' Global
Entertainment & Media Outlook. Singapore's animation and games industries are
seeing rapid expansion According to Deloitte, Singapore's games and animation
industries, together with online/mobile media, have demonstrated robust growth,
posting a CAGR of 22% from 2005-2009. In 2009 it contributed $867 million in VA
and $1.5 billion revenue to the economy, and employed an estimated 7,400 workers.
Broadcast Hub of Asia Moves into Content
Since the 1990s, Singapore has attracted a number of global broadcasters to its
shores. There are now a large number of major networks up linking their channels
from Singapore to their regional audiences. These include Discovery Networks Asia
Pacific, CNBC Asia Pacific and ESPN Star Sports.

The Performing Arts is one of the largest and most diverse sectors in Singapores
creative industries. It is an art form that engages a live audience through stage
performances, often taking the audience into a make-believe world of the
performers. The sector is driven by people with the passion for the arts and the talent
to tell a good story, skilled at fusing rich Asian heritage with contemporary art forms,
melding the conventional with innovative technical theatre techniques, as well as
possessing a strong knowledge and understanding of the global and regional
performing arts scene, our talents are poised to take Singapores performing arts to
new heights. Producers, directors, writers, composers, artistes, technical specialists,
presenters... notable individuals and groups have collaborated with leading foreign
players and established their networks in the West, across Asia and even the Middle

Current status of the industry and its growth potential

The Indian economy continues to perform strongly and one of the key sectors that
benefits from this fast economic growth is the E&M industry. This is because the
E&M industry is a cyclical industry that grows faster when the economy is expanding.
It also grows faster than the nominal GDP during all phases of economic activity due
to its income elasticity wherein when incomes rise, more resources get spent on
leisure and entertainment and less on necessities. The size of E&M in India is
currently estimated at INR 353 billion and is expected to grow at a compounded
annual growth rate of 19 percent over the next five years.

The television industry continues to dominate the E&M industry by garnering a share
of over 42 percent, which is expected to increase by a further 9 percent to reach
about 51 percent. The share of the film industry, which currently stands at 19
percent, is not expected to change materially over the next five years. Print media,
which stands at over 31 percent, is projected to lose some of its share in favour of
the emerging segment.

Key growth drivers


Subscription revenues are projected to be the key growth driver for the Indian
television industry over the next five years. Subscription revenues will increase both
from the number of pay TV homes as well as increased subscription rates.
Filmed entertainment
Indians love to watch movies. And advancements in technology are helping the
Indian film industry in all the spheres film production, film exhibition and marketing.
The industry is increasingly getting more corporatized. Several film production,
distribution and exhibition companies are coming out with public issues. More
theatres across the country are getting upgraded to multiplexes and initiatives to set
up more digital cinema halls in the country are already underway. This will not only
improve the quality of prints and thereby make film viewing a more pleasurable
experience, but also reduce piracy of prints.

Print media
A booming Indian economy, growing need for content and government initiatives that
have opened up the sector to foreign investment are driving growth in the print
media. With the literate population on the rise, more people in rural and urban areas

are reading newspapers and magazines today. Also, there is more interest in India
amongst the global investor community. This leads to demand for more Indian
content from India. Foreign media too is evincing interest in investing in Indian
publications. And the internet today offers a new avenue to generate more
advertising revenues.

The cheapest and oldest form of entertainment in the country, which was hitherto
dominated by the AIR, is going to witness a sea-change very shortly. As many as
338 licenses are being given out by the Indian government for FM radio channels in
91 big and small towns and cities. This deluge of radio stations will result in rising
need for content and professionals. New concepts like satellite, internet and
community radio have also begun to hit the market. Increasingly, radio is making a
comeback in the lifestyles of Indians.

Barriers to investment in the entertainment and media industry

A lot more investment can be drawn into the entertainment and media industry if
certain sectoral policy barriers can be addressed. Some of the issues that need to be
addressed which commonly impacts all segments and need to be addressed
urgently include:

1. Piracy
2. Lack of a uniform media policy for foreign investment
3. Level playing field with incumbents
4. Content regulation
5. Price regulation in the television industry
6. Cross-media ownership rules
7. Lack of empowered regulators
8. Merging of the FII and FDI caps
9. Tax treatment of foreign broadcasting companies

Singapore overview of the entertainment industry:

Singapores cultural scene has become more vibrant over the past decade.
Total number of performing arts activities and visual arts exhibitions
increased by some 150% from about 1,700 in 1989 to some 4,200 in
1998. Ticketed attendance for performing arts increased by 46% from
562,000 in 1989 to some 822,000 in 1998 this translates to an average
of 2,250 ticketed patrons a day.

Theatre is the most popular form of performing arts, contributing to 65%

of ticketed performances and 53% of total ticketed attendance in
performing arts in 1998. This is followed by music (22% of total ticketed
performances and 31% of total ticketed attendance) and dance (10% of
total ticketed performances and 11% of total ticketed attendance). Local
arts groups are the main players of our vibrant arts scene, contributing
83% of total ticketed activities and 70% of ticketed attendance.

A wide range of festivals takes place throughout the year. The major ones
include the Singapore Arts Festival (June, three weeks), Singapore
International Film Festival (April, two weeks), International Comedy Festival
(April, three weeks), The Substations Septfest (September, one month),
Singapore Writers Festival (September, one week) and Nokia Singapore
Art (December - January, two months).

Community-based Arts
Apart from the arts companies and societies, our grassroots cultural
organisations have also helped to contribute to the vibrancy of the arts
scene. The Peoples Association (PA) plays a significant role in promoting
the arts through performances and courses held at community centres/
Cultural Facilities
Besides the three theatres run by the NAC Kallang Theatre, Victoria
Theatre and the Drama Centre, there are a host of other performing arts
venues in Singapore. These range from Black Boxes to small theatres like
Jubilee Hall at the Raffles Hotel (388 seats), mid-sized venues like the
DBS Auditorium (579 seats), to large venues like the Singapore Indoor
Stadium (12,000 seats). The Esplanade Theatres on the Bay, is
Singapores premier performing arts center it comprises of 1,800-seat Concert Hall,
a 2000-seat Theatre, three performing and rehearsal studios and outdoor
performing spaces. The National Heritage Boards (NHB) museums have been able
to attract healthy numbers of Singaporeans and visitors.
An innovative initiative was the launch of the arts radio station, Passion
99.5FM. The station airs infotainment arts programs, music, radio plays,
as well as previews and reviews of shows in our cultural scene
Within a year of its official launch in April 1998, the station had doubled its weekly
listenership to 60,000.
(Source: Radio Diary Survey by AC Neilsen, 29 Mar 23 May 99.)


The Singapore arts and cultural scene is being fuelled by an increasingly

educated profile of younger Singaporeans. Three quarters of the Singapore
Arts Festival audience is less than 40 years old. Former information and
arts minister BG George Yeo observed recently that the concert halls and
theatres were packed with younger people and not greying audiences,
and that the younger generation is changing the nightclub and cultural
scene in Singapore.

This is thus a critical juncture for the state of the arts in Singapore. Having
secured the economic necessities of life, Singaporeans are discovering
the allure of culture and things aesthetic. The potential for Singapore to
develop into a renaissance city of Asia is high. The population should thirsts for
knowledge, culture and the arts. This means increased demand for spaces for
libraries, bookstores, museums, theatres, concert halls and exhibition areas. There
will be dedicated arts precincts and cultural campuses in the city centre like Waterloo
Street and the Empress Place area, supporting a growing number of creative and
cultural activities. Museums and heritage trails will dot our cityscape to showcase our
shared heritage.

There should be an explosion in interest in arts and heritage issues, with intelligent,
mature and passionate exchanges in the media and among people. Standards of art
criticism improve and there is more and better quality documentation of the arts and
heritage scene in Singapore.
There is a thriving arts industry and private sector efforts to promote the arts on a
sound business case complement the support extended from the government and
corporate sectors. There is the need to develop more major arts companies,
including some flagship ones that become our National companies. These widen
the opportunities available to nurture artistic talents and to attract and absorb foreign
creative talents. Local artists are encouraged to produce works from a Singaporean
perspective and clear, internationally-recognized Singapore and pan-Asian voices
begin to develop.
In terms of quantitative benchmarks, numbers of arts events, professional arts
companies, arts facilities, attendance at arts events and government funding for the
arts per capita should reach a level comparable with cities like Hong Kong, Glasgow

and Melbourne over the next five to ten years. In the longer term, Singapore should
be as vibrant as top league cities like London and New York City.

For India
With rapid advancements in technology, we believe that convergence will play a very
crucial role in the development of the Indian entertainment and media industry where
consumers will increasingly be calling the shots in a converged media world.
Broadband access and Internet Protocol (IP) will be the technology enablers that will
evolve this new breed of consumers.
In the converged world of tomorrow, content and access will no longer be in short
supply. Opportunities for consumers to access and manipulate content and services
will not only be abundant, but overflowing. However, consumer time and attention
will be limited. Thus, established approaches of pushing exclusive content through
non-linear-channels or networks to mass or segmented audiences will no longer
guarantee competitive advantage.
Thus, following are the challenges and opportunities that convergence will bring to
the industry:
Consumer needs are expanding beyond the mass media and segmented media to
Lifestyle Media, a new approach that will help consumers maximize their limited
time and attention to create a rich, personalized and social media environment. This
approach presents many opportunities for the industry to create new avenues to
generate revenue.
Knowledge of consumer activity rather than exclusive ownership of content or
distribution assets will become the basis for competition. Businesses that capture
consumer activity data and use it to inform business and advertising models will be
positioned to succeed.
Early movers in establishing media marketplaces will have a significant advantage
over late entrants because of network effects, whereby the value of the market place
increases as the number of participants increase.
Media market places will be economically viable only if operational efficiencies can
be realized through consumer activity measurement capabilities and supporting

Significant advancements in audience measurement technology will be needed to

capture, analyze and standardize consumer activity data across platforms.

The Indian entertainment and media industry today has everything going for it - be it
regulations that allow foreign investment, the impetus from the economy, the digital
lifestyle and spending habits of the consumers and the opportunities thrown open by
the advancements in technology. All it has to do is to cash in on the growth potential
and the opportunities. The government, on its part, needs to play a more active role
in sorting out policy-related impediments to growth. The industry needs to fight all
roadblocks- such as piracy- in a concerted manner, while churning out high-quality,
world class end products. The entertainment and media industry has all that it
takes to be a star performer of the Indian economy.


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your business.
Singapore is one of the most open, and thus competitive, markets in the world. The
2011 World Bank Ease of Doing Business Index ranks Singapore as the best country
in the world to do business ahead of Hong Kong and New Zealand. Singapore is
also ranked third in the World Economic Forums Global Competitiveness Report
behind Switzerland and Sweden.
Singapore was one of the original "Newly Industrialised Countries" (NICs)
alongside Hong Kong, South Korea and Taiwan. Between the 1960s to the
1980s, the manufacturing industry, in particular, was able to attract numerous MultiNational Companies (MNCs) and Foreign Direct Investment (FDIs) into the country.
This became the foundation for Singapore to grow into one of the most advanced
and technologically driven economies in the world.
In 2010, Singapore was the third fastest growing economy in the world behind
Qatar and Paraguay with a real GDP growth rate (constant prices, national
currency) of 14.471 percent.
The economy of Singapore is best described as a mixed economy. Although the
country strongly advocates free-market policies and practices, government
intervention is also evident in macroeconomic management and major factors of
production such as land, labour and capital resources. This innovative and highly
successful economic system where both the market and the state have equally
strong roles in the government is dubbed as the Singapore Model.
The Singapore Model was born out of necessity. Singapore has a relatively small
domestic market, and thus has to open its economy to external markets in order for
the economy to thrive. However, the inherent vulnerability in depending on external
markets compelled the government to enact economic policies that would safeguard

the country from perturbations in the global market. Apart from these policies, the
government has also actively encouraged new industries to develop in Singapore so
as to respond to the needs of the global market.
The underlying influence of the government can also be felt in other various facets of
the society from education, to transportation, to housing and to the media.
However, many social policies that have been implemented are often seen to be
supplementary for the economy. As such, many people have labelled the country
as Singapore Inc. where the country appears to be run more like a
corporation than a nation.
To date however, the Singapore Model or Singapore Inc. has proven to be
extremely successful. Globally and regionally, the Singapore economy has
demonstrated astounding resilience to financial crises such as the 1997 Asian
Financial Crisis or the 2008 Global Financial Crisis. Singapore is also the only
Asian country to have AAA credit ratings from all three major credit rating
agencies Standard & Poors, Moodys and Fitch. According to the 2011 Index
of Economic Freedom, Singapore is the 2nd freest economy in the world.
Singapores business freedom score is exceptionally high it takes three days to
start a business in Singapore compared to the worlds average of thirty-four days.
Apart from strong business and regulatory policies, other factors such as the
countrys strategic geographic position, a vast natural seaport, a highly skilled
workforce and a favourable tax regime, have created a conducive business
environment for companies and industries.
Singapore is an entirely urban nation with a population of 5.2 million. It has an
anticipated GDP of US$261.4 billion for 2011 and has forecasted growth rates of
over 5 percent. Singapore is a relatively wealthy nation and it is estimated that over
68 percent of households have an annual income of over US$50,000.

i On a per capita basis, Singapore has the highest food consumption levels
in the Southeast Asia region. Singapore food consumption is forecasted to
reach US$7.5 billion in 2011 and account for 3 percent of GDP.

ii Because of its limited land for agriculture, Singapore imports more than 90

percent of its food, particularly from other Asian countries.

iii Imports of food and beverage are expected to grow 8.3 percent in 2011.

iv The typical Singaporean diet contains large amounts of fish and meat.
Meat and fish account for 14.6 percent of New Zealands overall exports,
making Singapore a valuable trading partner in these products.

Total list of all fmcg companies in singapore companies: 619

Monthly Economic Analysis Fortune 2009
Region/Country US
$ million



2008-09 % change




Market Drivers
Food retail currently accounts for 40 percent of retail spending in Singapore and this
figure is expected to rise. However, the overall food and beverage market is not
growing rapidly. Food consumption is expected to increase by only 2.3 percent in
2011. The main drivers of this growth are higher incomes and rising tourism levels.
Additionally, there are three key drivers that are leading to high growth in certain
types of products:
Premiums: Higher levels of income mean that Singaporeans are becoming more
willing to purchase value-added food and beverage at a premium. An example of
this is the growing demand for functional foods.
Food Accountability: Singapore consumers are becoming more aware of health
and safety issues. Due to this, food and beverage items that are packaged and
labelled with nutritional information, as well as healthier products, are
experiencing higher demand.


Singaporeans are living increasingly busy lifestyles and are

having less time available for food preparation. This is leading to higher demand
for convenience food products and processed foods.

Import Trends
In 2010, New Zealand exported NZ$547 million worth of food and beverage products
to Singapore. This was up 28.7 percent from 2009. The top exports have all
experienced at least double digit growth. Exports of whey, other natural milk
crustaceans and molluscs approximately doubled in value. Additionally, milk and
cream, which accounts for almost half of New Zealands exports to Singapore, grew
by 45 percent.

Key Players in the Market

In Singapore, there are four major types of food retailers
Large Retailers: Supermarket chains and hypermarkets take up 80 percent of
market share.iii Hypermarkets are the fastest growing retailers and are expected
to increase sales by 46.4 percent by 2015. Overall, large retailers are expected to
grow 20.1 percent by 2015. These stores have a large variety of products and
tend to charge lower prices than other types of retailers.
Convenience Stores & Petrol Stations: Convenience stores and stores located
at petrol stations tend to operate 24/7 and are commonly located in HDB
neighbourhoods (government subsidised complexes that house over 80 percent
of the population). These stores have a 16 percent market share and are
expected to experience sales growth of 23.4 percent by 2015.

Traditional Stores: Traditional stores have only 3 percent of market share but
make up 70 percent coverage of total food retailers in Singapore. Typical stores
in this category include wet markets, provision shops and sundry shops:

Wet markets typically sell fresh meat and produce.

Provision shops are located in HDB neighbourhoods and seen as traditional
convenience stores.


shops focus on traditional Asian cooking ingredients such as

preserved goods and spices.

Specialty Stores: Specialty stores that sell premium products at higher prices
include butcheries, wine outlets and bakeries. These stores target higher income

households and hold 1 percent of market share.


Market Entry Strategies
Local Partner
Local expertise can help with the success of exporting as a local partner will be more
familiar with the Singapore market. Exporters typically will appoint a local distributor
or agent. An agent acts as your representative in the local market and they are
usually paid by sales commissions. When selecting a local partner, the following
considerations can be important:
1. Expertise and skills
2. Networks and reputation
3. Assistance with legal and regulatory matters
4. Level of customer support

Marketing & Promotion

How a product is marketed and promoted will have a major impact on its success in
Singapore. It is recommended that New Zealand companies consider the following
marketing strategies and issues before entering the Singapore market

Co-Branding: Singapore consumers are more likely to purchase a product if it

has a familiar brand. Co-branding New Zealand products by partnering with local
Singapore brands can increase the competitive advantage of New Zealand
Language Clarity: While the predominant language in Singapore is English, it
can be spoken or understood differently in Singapore as they often mix English
with Malay, Hokkien and Mandarin. Due to this, marketing campaigns that rely on
a Westernised understanding of English may be ineffective in Singapore. It is
important to ensure that any marketing done is communicated clearly in a way
that Singapore consumers will understand. Official Endorsement: Singapore
consumers have a strong trust in government bodies. Official endorsements such
as the Healthier Choice mark, which is given to products by the Singapore Health
Promotion Board, is recognised by around 70 percent of the population.

Local Community: Singaporeans tend to prefer marketing campaigns that

feature local celebrities and people. In the past, there have also been strong
negative responses to products and brands that feature non-Singaporeans in
Product Control: It is recommended that companies maintain some control
over the way that their products are marketed and sold. Local partners in
Singapore may interpret product and brands that they are not familiar with in a
way that can affect the success of the product.



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It cover all activities from ordering the product from the manufacturer and handling it
after its physical arrival in Singapore up to delivery to the retail shop. We then
support the sale of the product through executing media and trade marketing
activities, merchandising, and in-store promotions.
DKSH Singapore is the preferred outsourcing partner for manufacturers and brand
owners, small or large, world class or local, for fast moving consumer goods. We
mainly cater to packaged, dry products, broadly categorized into

Food and confectionary

Personal care
Consumer health
Household goods

3. BIGBAZAAR.SG - Singapore
Importer, Exporter, wholesaler and distributor of all kinds of foodstuff, Beverages and
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PESTEL framework of singapore

Political and social environment
Singapore is known for its stable political climate. Despite being considered
centralized and authoritarian, the political culture is pragmatic, rational and based on

the rule of law. The highest goal of the government is the survival and prosperity of
this small nation. This often means, having to make unpopular but hard and wise
decisions in the interest of the nation. The government believes in being pro-active
and thinking for the future. Although many Singaporeans refer to the current ruling
party PAP (Peoples Action Party) as Pay and Pay, it is the PAPs governance and
intellectual policy decisions that has contributed to Singapores political stability,
social harmony and economic prosperity. Infrastructure and conditions for
investment, including ensuring the rule of law, were put in place.
According to Singapores founding father Lee Kuan Yew, Singapore has been able
to attract some 9000 multi-national companies, because it offers First World
conditions in a Third World region. Good governance is having a good system that
will ensure the country survives, so that citizens have secure lives. In 2012, the
Political and Economic Risk Consultancy ranked Singapore #1 for having the best
bureaucracy in Asia. The World Economic Forums 2011 2012 Global
Competitiveness Report also reaffirms that Singapore has the highest public trust of
politicians and the least burden of government regulation. According to corruption
watch-dog Transparency Internationals 2010 Corruption

Perceptions Index,

Singapore is perceived to be the least corrupt nation in the world.

Economic environment
Singapore boasts of a competitive, corruption-free, open business environment. The
Port of Singapore is one of the busiest in the world as the country focuses on
electronics and chemical exports to richer industrialised nations. However, over the
years, Singapore has diversified its economy and today it has become a research &
development hub, bio-medical hub, banking and finance center and in recent times
the health-care destination of Asia. Today, Singapore is a knowledge-based
economy and attracts multinational investments. Its open trade policies, social
stability, world-class infrastructure and international communication links, are some
of the reasons why foreign investors flock its shores. This is despite the fact that land
and labour costs have risen sharply and employers have to pay a sizable portion of
their employees salary to their Central Provident Fund.

Singapore is the second most competitive economy in the world according to the
World Economic Forums Global Competitiveness Report 2011-2012. According to
the Heritage Foundations 2012 Index of Economic Freedom Singapore is the
second freest economy in the world. The country is also known for its low tax
regime. In Singapore, personal income tax rates start from 0% and are capped at
20% for residents while non-residents are taxed at a flat rate of 15%. The corporate
income tax rate in Singapore is approximately 8.5% for profits up to S$300,000 and
a flat 17% above S$300,000. The GST or VAT rate is only 7%. Furthermore, there is
no dividend tax, no estate duty, and no capital gains tax.

According to a report by financial advisory firm, Ernst & Young and the Japan
External Trade Organisation, Singapore was found to be one of Asias best
investment destinations for foreign firms. It has benefited from these firms, as they
bring in capital, technology, management know-how and access to international
export markets. Singapore has also realised the need to enhance its manpower and
encourages top foreign talent to re-locate here. Hence the labour force is highly
educated, competent and skilled. The country has consistently topped the World
Banks Doing Business survey for the past six years in a row and it was accorded
the top spot in BERIs 2011 Labour Force Evaluation Measure.
Socio-cultural environment
Singapores social and ethnic fabric is a unique blend of cultures and people
Malays, Chinese, Indians and expats from various countries. Singapores lifestyle is
multi-cultural with each of these ethnic communities maintaining their unique way of
life and at the same time living harmoniously. Singapores society is cosmopolitan
due to the influx of foreigners in recent times. Along with it comes an openness
towards people and respect for all. People are amiable and courteous to each other.
High emphasis is placed on communal and racial harmony. Singaporeans are
honest, highly disciplined and extremely hard-working. There is respect for seniority,
authority and social norms. While individualism is prominent, Singapore is a society
that honours collectivism. Racism is taken seriously in the country. The Singapore
government has laid down five basic Shared Vales to develop a distinct Singapore
identity nation before community and society above self; family as the basic unit of

society; community support and respect for the individual; consensus not conflict;
racial and religious harmony.
Singapore is also known for its strict law enforcement procedures, for combating
crime and other offences. While popular opinion holds that the country is extremely
rigid and rule-bound with heavy fines and caning as punishments the legal
framework has contributed to Singapores stability and security. Women can move
about freely even late at night, without the fear of being harassed. There has been
no instance of mass shooting, serial killing, terrorist bomb attacks or civil
unrest. Expatriates continue to cite safety as one of the most attractive features of
living in Singapore. Singapore is the twelfth best country in the world for expat life
experience according to HSBCs 2010 Expat Experience Report. Gallups 2010
Potential Net Migration Index unveils Singapore as the worlds most favored
immigration destination. The country ranked #8 in the world for personal safety in
Mercers 2011 Quality of Living Rankings and is the #1 place for Asian expats
according to ECA Internationals 2010 Location Ratings System..
Access to Consumer goods
Singapores retail sector experiences brisk trading conditions practically all year
round. With an increase in disposable income, housing boom and aggressive retail
promotion, people spend on luxury items, automotive and household items like
furniture and other consumer durables. Hence, every retailer is setting up shop in
Singapore. According to the 1990 national census window shopping was the
number one leisure activity. Both Fast Moving Consumer Goods (packaged food,
cosmetics, toiletries, household products etc.), and luxury brands are easily
available. Many consumer durables have become basic necessities in Singapore. By
the year 2003, most households had a television (98%), refrigerator (99%), handphone (89%), air-conditioner (72%), and a computer (70%). Time saving household
appliances like washing machines (93%), microwaves and vacuum cleaners have
also become common. Even for higher priced durables like a piano, organ or a car,
ownership is fairly prevalent.
Hyper-marts like Carrefour and Giants are a one stop shop where everything is
available under one roof. Super markets like Cold Storage (popular with the expats),
NTUC Fair Price (co-operative supermarket chain), Shop & Save have several

outlets that dot the island. Most of these supermarkets offer promotions and
discounts and also stock basic Mexican, Australian and Indian products. This apart,
there are convenient stores like 7-Eleven and small local grocery shops near the
housing estates. You wold also find speciality supermarkets like Media-Ya
(Japanese products and sea food), Tanglin Market Place (American products),
Tierneys (Scandinavian, Swiss and German products) and Mustafa (Indian
products). Heat-and-serve meals, semi prepared food, frozen food, western-type
convenience foods are gaining importance. Low fat foods, diet beverages, yogurt,
fruits and other health foods are also becoming popular. Since Singapore imports
every possible item from every corner of the globe, the choice is wide and prices are
Positive Factors

Easy country to adjust to when relocating from elsewhere

Modern, westernized environment

Scores high on safety and low crime rates

Wide use of English is appreciated and attracts foreigners

High quality transport, infrastructure and health facilities

Readily available and affordable domestic help

Clean, green and healthy environment to live in

Negative Factors

Limited sports/recreation options

Rule-bound and sometimes stifling

Expensive to own a car

No change in climate which is hot and humid most of the time

Can be difficult to mix easily with the locals

According to a survey conducted by the PERC, Singapores most negative features

are: the high cost of living; lack of sports facilities and limited forms of entertainment.

ingapores most attractive features are: safety; cleanliness; efficiency. All in all,
Singapore is one of the best cities to work, live and play.
Singapores trade Indicators and

Indias Trade Indicators and

Statistics at a Glance (2010)

statistics at a Glance (2010)



Balance: Total value of exports: US$351.2

US$181.7 billion or 4.9% of GDP


Primary exports: petroleum (16.6%), Primary exports - commodities:

gems and jewelry (13.8%), transport machinery and equipment (including
equipment (7.6%), machinery (4.9%), electronics),
drugs and pharmaceuticals (4.3%)



pharmaceuticals and other chemicals,

mineral fuels










(10.4%), Primary exports partners: Hong


(4.0%), Kong (11.6 percent of total exports),

Hong Kong (3.9%)

Malaysia (11.5 percent), US (11.2

percent), Indonesia (9.7 percent),

Primary imports:



crude products (29.6%), gold (8.6%),







precious stones (7.94%), machinery

(6.7%), electronics (6.3%)

Total value of imports: US$310.4


Primary imports partners: China

(12.0%), UAE (7.6%), Saudi Arabia Primary imports - commodities:
(5.9%), Switzerland (5.5%), United machinery and equipment, mineral
States (5.3%)




consumer goods
Primary imports partners: US (14.7

total imports),



percent), China (10.5 percent), Japan

(7.6 percent), Indonesia (5.8 percent),
South Korea (5.7 percent)

Trade in Singapore
Singapore is the 14th largest exporter and the 15th largest importer in the world.
Historically, international trade has strongly influenced the economy. According to
the WTO, Singapore has the highest trade to GDP ratio in the world at 407.9
percent. Due to its geostrategic location and developed port facilities, a large volume
of Singapore's merchandise exports involve entrept trade with 47 percent of
exports consisting of re-exports.

Singapore trade barriers

As a strong advocate of free trade, Singapore has relatively few trade barriers. Trade
partners with Most Favoured Nation (MFN) have zero tariff rates applied to their
products apart from six lines for alcoholic beverages. There are however some
import restrictions based mainly on environmental, health, and public security
concerns. The import of rice also requires import licensing in order to ensure food
security and price stability.

Changes in the world between the 20th century and the 21st century that affect
the FMCG industry

The year 2000 roughly marks the watershed between 2 eras in the evolution of the
FMCG industry. Several things have changed between the 2 eras:
1. Some











companies, nullifying the FMCG companies' economies of scale advantage.

Prior to the 1990s, retailers were much smaller than FMCG companies. This
meant that FMCG companies were much larger than retailers, and hence FMCG
company produced products would inevitably have a cost advantage to private
label / store manufactured products. However the size and scale of retailers
today allow them to commission private label manufacturing for products (whose
technology is available to private label manufacturers) on a scale as large as the
major FMCG manufacturers.
2. It is harder for FMCG companies to sustain a technological edge and build
brand value, because chemical and materials technology have moved to

the upper end of the technology innovation S-curve. The last century was a
period when chemical, materials and industrial technology were starting to evolve
rapidly, and new industrial technologies brought us innovations like the washing
machine, rice cooker, and other home appliances. During this time, well managed
brands that communicated capability were a source of competitive advantage. It
was also difficult for competitors and upstarts to manufacture the products
because technology know-how was not widespread. They did not have the knowhow (e.g. advanced detergents, shampoos etc) or scale to manufacture
However, technology progress in chemical, materials and personal/household
technology is now entering the upper end of the S-curve. While technology
advances continue at a rapid pace, fewer of these advances are "paradigm
changing". People are no longer experiencing "shock and awe" at new products
coming onto the market, and are generally able to understand new FMCG
products. There are also fewer radical advances in categories; for example, in
many cases, the difference between a good detergent and a cutting edge
detergent is not dramatic. The result is that the value of brands deteriorates for
capability driven brands, and makes it hard for consumers to differentiate one
product from another. The widespread availability of manufacturing and
technology know-how also makes it easier for upstart competitors to manufacture
functionally near-equivalent products. The result is that many categories of
FMCG goods are in danger of being commoditized.
3. The mindset and norms of people brought up in the Information
Age reduces the value of brands. The generation that grew up in the
information age is culturally different from the generations before. Compared to
the past, when information was harder to come by, people are now used to
looking for information on product attributes and sharing product reviews.
Information is freely available and the new generation is mentally predisposed to
looking for information. The value of brands as a signaling mechanism is
reduced. For example, observe how the online jeweler Blue Nile has been able to
build a large customer base relatively quickly. In the past, it would have been
unthinkable for consumers to buy thousand dollar pieces of jewelery over the

phone, much less over the Internet. High value purchases of such hard-to-assess
products would only be done at trusted jewelry stores.


Singapore is considered to be the India's largest trading and investment partners in
Association of South East Asian Nations. A close relationship between the two
nations in recent years has given birth a dramatic growth in bilateral trade and
investment linkages. A capital surplus economy like Singapore has become a good
partner in India's step towards infrastructure investments, technological progress and
enhancement of export markets.
For enhancing the relationship between the two nations, India-Singapore Joint Study
Group (JSG) in 2002 was set up to look into the possibility of concluding a
Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement (CECA) between the two
countries. The JSG in its report identified areas of increased economic engagement
between the two countries and also recommended measures to be taken. Keeping
the report of the JSG as a basis, negotiations between the two governments have
The major exportable items of India to Singapore in the year 2003 were Crude
petroleum, Refined Motor spirit, Petroleum oils, Polished diamonds for jewellery,
Polished industrial diamonds, articles of Jewellery, Aluminum Unwrought, Aluminium
sheets, Parts & accessories of computers, Synthetic fabrics, Silk fabrics,
Embroidery/Table linen of Man Made Fibres, Combed cotton, Knitted T-shirts, Vests,
Benzene, Dyes, Acids, Insecticides, Fungicides, Household articles of stainless
steel, Corrugated products of iron and steel, Forged/stamped articles of iron and
steel, Bars and Rods of iron steel, Parts of Boring or Sinking machinery, X-ray tubes,
Medical Surgical Dental or Veterinary instruments/ appliances, Penicillin, Rice,
Sugar, Cashew nuts, Essential oil, Crabs live/dried, Fish (fresh/chilled/dried),
Titanium ore, Menthol, Diesel/semi-diesel generating sets, Static converters,
Valves/Taps Cocks for Pipes, Boilers, tanks etc, Bus/lorry tyres, Tobacco.
The major importable items of India from Singapore in 2003 were parts and
accessories of Computers and Computer peripherals, Integrated Circuits, Cellular

phones, CD Roms, Styrene, P-Xylene, O-Xylene, Polypropylene, Vinyl Acetate,

Topped Crudes, Parts of boring and sinking machinery. Nickel, Tin (unwrought), lead
(unwrought) Aluminium (unwrought) Zinc (unwrought), Waste & scrap of Iron and
steel, Photographic chemicals, Sewing Machines, Ball/Roller bearings, Parts for
bulldozers, Parts of Aero planes/Helicopters, Parts for Audio/Video recorders,
Medical instruments and appliances, parts of cellular phones, parts of motor
vehicles, Cigarettes, pigments, Parts of Cathode Ray Tubes, Auto parts, parts for
electrical Machines & apparatus. These items in value terms constitute over 60 % of
India's imports from Singapore.
Total trade between India and Singapore has been steadily increasing since 1999.
The trade between India and Singapore increased by 3.22% (in 2001), to S$ 6.88
billion, and decreased by 1.16% (in 2002). By comparing the trade figures of 2003
with 2002, it is seen that total trade has gone up by 16.20%. India's Imports from
Singapore have increased by 14.22% and exports to Singapore by 21.25%.
Most of Singapore's exports to India consist of re-exports, which constitutes slightly
over 50% of Singapore's exports to India.
Over a period of 5 years India's imports from Singapore have increased by 26.88 %,
whereas, during the same period India's exports to Singapore have increased by
100.8 %.
The economic growth story in the economy is very fast and sustaining. The gross
national income (GNI) of the economy has reached at current US $ 105.0 billion
(Atlas method) in the year 2004. The GNI percapita has reached at current US $
24,220.0 in the same year.
The value of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has reached at current US $ 106.8
billion in the year 2004.
The average annual growth rate of GDP between 1965-1999 was at 8.6 percent.
Real per capita GDP rose about eight-fold, from around S$4000 in 1965 to over
S$32,000 in 1999.

Singapore's economic performance compares better with that of the OECD countries
over the same period, with GDP growth more than twice the OECD growth of 3.3%.
In the year 2003 the growth rate was declined to 2.5 percent and further increased to
8.4 percent to the year 2004.
The balance of trade has remained in favour of Singapore since 1999 but it is more
or less fixed for the last five years in value terms (in S $). Indian exports to
Singapore have been steadily increasing, growing in S$ terms by 48.8% (2000),
7.52% (2001) and 3.5% (2002), and 21.25% (2003).
Singapore has emerged amongst the top foreign investors in India. During the period
January 1991 to May 2003, approvals for Foreign Direct Investment from Singapore
to India (excluding NRI and euro issues/portfolio investment) amounted to Rs.53
billion (approx USD 1.2 billion,).
Some of the Government-Linked Corporations (GLCs) of Singapore's projects
include Ascendas' Information Technology Park in Bangalore.The Government of
Singapore Investment Corporation (GIC) has registered itself in India as an Financial
Institutional Investors, and has committed Rs. 119 million in HDFC Ltd. Instead of
investing in other stocks and equities.



Singapore is one of the most popular holiday destinations of the East. Medical
tourism has added another dimension to its tourism popularity. It has been heralded
as a centre of medical excellence and has been a meeting place for medical
professionals for conferences and training.

Popularity as a medical hub:

Singapores Ministry of Health has been a tome of support for medical tourism in the
country. In 2000, the World Health Organization listed Singapore as having the sixth
best healthcare system in the world. Eleven hospitals in Singapore have acquired
Joint Commission International (JCI) accreditation and quite a few of them are
ISO-9001-2000 certified as well. This speaks volumes about the high degree of
medical excellence and safety level of treatments in Singapore.

Lower cost of treatment:

Medical travelers taking advantage of excellently trained and certified physicians in
countries like India, Singapore and Thailand may enjoy huge cost savings. For
example, angioplasty procedures in India generally cost around $11,000, while the
same procedures cost around $13,000 in Singapore.

Travel and stay:

The Changing International Airport has a good network of flights connecting some
180 countries across the globe. The Singapore Tourism Board (STB) has been
instrumental in promoting medical tourism. It aims at developing specific services for
medical travelers. The Singapore has some of the best hotels in the world. You could
plan for a stay in one of those or just check-in to a less-expensive hotel which fits
your budget better.

A medical tourist in Singapore has an option of recuperating with a splendid postsurgical vacation in Singapore. The excellent medical service and a rejuvenating
holiday ensure a safe and refreshing journey to your home land.










complemented by rising standards of living, housing, education, medical services,

safe water supply and sanitation, and preventive medicine.
Over the years, MOH(ministry of health) has followed the principle of ensuring that
good and affordable basic medical services are available to all Singaporeans. We
have been continuously fine-tuning our system to ensure we are always aligned with
this principle and developed our healthcare system into one that has received praise
and recognition both locally and internationally.
Singapore healthcare begins with building a healthy population through preventive
healthcare programmers and promoting a healthy lifestyle.
Good, affordable basic healthcare is available to Singaporeans through subsidized
medical services at public hospitals and clinics. Our hospitals and healthcare system
will never withhold help to a Singaporean because of financial limitations. Yet our
philosophy promotes individual responsibility towards healthy living and medical

Primary Healthcare
Primary health care includes preventive healthcare and health education. Private
practitioners provide 80% of primary healthcare services while government
polyclinics provide the remaining 20%. However, public hospitals provide 80% of the
more costly hospital care with the remaining 20% by private hospital care.
Our island network of 18 outpatient polyclinics and some 2,000 private medical
practitioner's clinics provides our primary health care services. Each polyclinic is an
affordable subsidized one-stop health center, providing outpatient medical care,
follow-up of patients discharged from hospitals, immunization, health screening and
education, investigative facilities and pharmacy services. The needy elderly receive
further help through the Community Health Assist Scheme (CHAS). CHAS is most
helpful for those who cannot travel to polyclinics.

Hospital Care
Our 7 public hospitals comprise 5 general hospitals, a women's and children's
hospital and a psychiatry hospital. The general hospitals provide inpatient and
specialist outpatient services, an 24-hour emergency department. 75% of public
hospital beds are heavily subsidized. There are also 6 national specialty centers for
cancer, cardiac, eye, skin, neuroscience and dental care.

Our research & overall study on the medical tourism of India brings us with following
highlights of conclusion:

India is very well known and amongst the top rankers in the field of medical tourism
around the world.

The medical treatment package price in India is 35% to 40% lesser than the
treatment cost in USA or Thailand or Singapore.

India plays key roles & ensures that India uses its strength in medical field to get
global financial benefits.

Singapore healthcare begins with building a healthy population through preventive

healthcare programmers and promoting a healthy lifestyle.

Though they find medical treatments US, Singapore & certain other parts of the
world feasible, but when the services of such country hospitals, their costs, their
doctors are compared to that of India, Indian medical services are found much far
ahead of those of US & other countries of the world in all aspects.

We plan to make tie-ups with hospitals like Shelby for knee replacement, which is
one of the most well-known hospitals of India for organ replacements.

We plan to focus for tie-ups with the few best existing hospitals of Gujarat

Ahmedabad for providing medical services by inviting Singapore residents here &
giving them the best possible service.


The Insurance sector in Singapore is one of the most open Insurance markets in the
world. In 2000, the market was opened to foreign investors and the 49% limit on foreign
shareholdings was removed. The Monetary Authority of Singapore is responsible for the
development, supervision and regulation of the insurance industry.
Market Structure
In Singapore, there are 153 registered insurers, 12 in direct life insurers, 39 direct
general insurers, 40 reinsurers and 51 captive insurers .Nearly 75 per cent of the life and nonlife companies insurance are Multi National Companies.
Developments in the Industry
The Singapore Insurance Industry has overcome the financial crisis in Asia in
1999.Standard and Poor's one of the leading rating agencies in the world has given a positive
rating for the Insurance sector in Singapore.


An insurer should adopt a risk management structure that is commensurate with its
size and nature of its activities. The organizational structure should facilitate effective
management oversight and execution of risk management and control processes.
The Board of Directors is ultimately responsible for the sound and prudent
management of an insurer. The Board should approve the risk management strategy and risk
policies pertaining to core insurance activities. It should ensure that adequate resources,
expertise and support are provided for the effective implementation of the insurers risk
management strategy, policies and procedures. It should also be the approving authority for
changes and exceptions to such policies.
The senior management, or a committee comprising members of senior management
from both the business operations and control functions, should oversee the risk management
framework. The framework should cover areas such as approval of business and risk strategy,
review of the risk profile, implementation of risk policies approved by the Board, delegation
of authority and evaluation of the business processes. There should be adequate measures to
address potential conflicts of interest. For example, the member of senior management
approving the base premium rate of a life insurance product should not have marketing
responsibilities and there should be proper segregation of underwriting responsibilities from
claims handling and settlement responsibilities. Claims should be reported directly to the
Claims Department instead of through the Underwriting Department.

The insurer should establish a risk management function, preferably independent from
the operational processes, if warranted by the size and complexity of its operations. This
function would be primarily responsible for the development of and ensuring compliance
with the insurers risk management policies and procedures. In order to be effective, this
function should have the requisite authority, sufficient resources and be able to raise issues
directly to the Board or relevant Board Committee.

Players in Insurance sector in Singapore

Life Insurance Companies in Singapore
Aviva Insurance
Aviva is the worlds fifth largest* insurance group, serving 50 million customers
across Europe, North America and Asia Pacific. Aviva began serving the Singapore market
with the July 2001 acquisition of Insurance Corporation of Singapore.
Manu life Insurance
Manulife Financial is a leading Canadian based financial services company, operating
worldwide, offering a diverse range of financial protection, products and wealth management
AXA Life Singapore
AXA is a French global insurance companies group headquartered in Paris. The AXA
group of companies is engaged in life, health and other forms of insurance, as well as
investment management. The AXA Group encompasses five operating business segments:
Life & Savings, Property & Casualty, International Insurance (including reinsurance), Asset
Management and Other Financial Services.
HSBC Insurance
HSBC Insurance (Singapore) Pte Ltd is a wholly owned subsidiary of HSBC
Insurance (Asia Pacific) Holdings Limited. HSBC Group is one of the world's largest
banking and financial services organizations, with major personal, commercial, corporate and
investment banking and insurance businesses operating in some 10,000 offices in 82
countries and territories in Europe, the Asia Pacific region, the Americas, the Middle East
and Africa.

Non-Life Insurance Companies in Singapore

American Home Insurance
American Home Assurance Company Singapore Branch (AHA), an AIG company, is
one of the leading providers of consumer and commercial insurance in Singapore, with more
than S$402 million in gross written premiums. They have existed in Singapore since 1953.

Mitsui Sumitomo Insurance

Mitsui Sumitomo Insurance (MSI) is the parent company in Japan, while its
Singapore arm is MSIG .It has been in corporate insurance for more than 100 years. The main
objective of MSIG is to bring security and safety to the people and businesses of Singapore.
Ace Insurance
ACE Insurance Limited is a member of the ACE Group of Companies, one of the
leading global providers of insurance and reinsurance. The ACE Group provides a diversified
range of products and services to clients through operations in more than 50 countries around
the world.

Prudential in Singapore
Prudential plc is a multinational life insurance and financial services company
headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
Prudential's largest division is Prudential Corporation Asia, which has over 15 million
customers across 12 Asian markets and is a top-three provider of life insurance in mainland
China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines and Vietnam. Its
Prudential UK division has around 7 million customers and is a leading provider of life
insurance and pensions in the UK. Prudential also owns Jackson National Life Insurance
Company, which is one of the largest life insurance providers in the United States, and M&G
Investments, a Europe-focused fund manager with total assets under management of
203 billion at 30 June 2011.
Prudential has a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of
the FTSE 100 Index. It had a market capitalization of approximately 15.9 billion as of 23
December 2011, making it the 25th-largest company on the London Stock
Exchange. Prudential has secondary listings on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange, New York
Stock Exchange and Singapore Exchange.

1848 to 2000
The Company was founded on 30 May 1848 in Hatton Garden in London as the
Prudential Mutual Assurance Investment and Loan Association providing loans to
professional and working people.
In 1854 the Company began selling the relatively new concept of industrial branch
insurance policies to the working class population for premiums as low as one penny through
agents acting as door to door salesmen. The army of premium collection agents was for many
years identified with the Prudential as the "Man from the Pru".
It moved to its traditional home at Hol born Bars in 1879 and converted to a limited
company in 1881. The building was designed by Alfred Waterhouse, and is built of terracotta

manufactured by Gibbs and Canning Limited of Tamworth (c.1878)two of the same

driving forces behind the Natural History Museum in London.
The Company was first listed on the London Stock Exchange in 1924. In 1997
Prudential acquired Scottish Amicable, a business originally founded in 1826 in Glasgow as
the West of Scotland Life Insurance Company, for $1.75bn.
In 1998 Prudential set up Egg, an internet bank within the UK. The subsidiary reached
550,000 customers within nine months but had difficulty achieving profitability. In June 2000
an initial public offering of 21% was made to allow for further growth of the internet business
but in February 2006 Prudential decided to repurchase the 21% share of Egg. Egg was
subsequently sold to Citibank in January 2007.
In 1999, M&G, a UK fund management company, was acquired.
In June 2000 the Company was first listed on the New York Stock Exchange to help
focus on the US market.
2000 to present

In October 2004 Prudential launched a new subsidiary, Pru Health, a joint venture
with Discovery Holdings of South Africa selling Private Medical Insurance to the UK
In April 2008 Prudential outsourced its back office functions to Capita: about 3,000
jobs were transferred (1,000 in Stirling, 750 in Reading and 1,250 in Mumbai). This
significant outsourcing deal, worth an estimated 722m over a 15 year contract, built on
Prudential's existing relationship with Capita who took over its Belfast operation in 2006
along with approximately 450 employees in a smaller operational restructure.
On 7 April 2009, it was announced that Prudential was in talks with Manchester
United regarding becoming the English football giant's shirt sponsor in 2010. However, on 3
June 2009, Manchester United announced that it had signed a four year shirt sponsorship deal
with American insurance giant, Aon Corporation. On 1 March 2010, Prudential announced
that it was in "advanced talks" to purchase the pan-Asian life insurance company
of AIG, American International Assurance (AIA) for approximately $35.5 billion. The deal
later collapsed and AIA ended up raising money in an IPO.
Prudential Singapore, an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of UK-based Prudential
plc, is one of the top life insurance companies in Singapore. We are one of the market leaders
in investment-linked plans with over S$7.38 billion funds managed under PruLink funds as at
31 December 2011. With a rich history that has spanned more than 80 years, Prudential
Singapore now has a dedicated team of approximately 3,100 financial consultants and over
700 employees. We are committed to serving the needs of more than 680,000 policyholders
with over 1.6 million policiesPrudential Singapore is the first life insurer in Singapore to be
named Asia's Life Insurance Company of the Year in 2000. We were also presented with the
Gold Award in Reader's Digest Trusted Brands for four consecutive years from 2007 to 2010

and the May Day Model Partnership Award in 2009. In 2010, we emerged as one of the top
insurers in Singapore in the Customer Satisfaction Index, which is a national barometer that
tracks 104 companies from eight sectors.

Prudential life insurance products

Types of Life Insurance
An important part of a sound financial plan, life insurance from The Prudential
Insurance Company of America and its affiliates provides a valuable death benefit to your
beneficiaries upon your death. Your beneficiaries can then use this money to replace some of
the income you would have earned or to help pay off debts or other expenses.
The two types of life insurance are term and permanent. The one that's right for you depends
on many factors, including your budget, the amount of coverage you need, and the length of
time you'd like the coverage to last.
Term Life Insurance
Term policies issued by Pruco Life Insurance Company can help meet a wide variety
of business and personal needs and often provide the most coverage for your premium dollar
for set periods of time. Whether you want to supplement your existing coverage or simply
purchase insurance to meet a specific need, our term policies have the flexibility to help meet
your needs. Learn more about our term life insurance policies.
Permanent Life Insurance
Permanent policies can provide lifetime protection. There are several different types
of permanent policies:
Universal Life Insurance
Universal life insurance can help meet the needs of people who desire long-term
death benefit protection with a flexible premium structure. Learn more about our products
with a potential to accumulate non-guaranteed tax-deferred cash value.
Variable Life Insurance
Variable life insurance offers a choice of death benefit options and a potential to
accumulate non-guaranteed tax-deferred cash value that fluctuates based on the performance
of underlying investment options that you choose.
Survivorship Life Insurance
Survivorship (second-to-die) life insurance insures two people and pays the death
benefit when both have died. It is used primarily for wealth preservation.


Singapore A Textile Gateway

Singapore has become a major sourcing hub and headquarters site for companies in the textile
and apparel industry. The Republic of Singapore whose name means "Lion City" is
situated off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula in Southeast Asia and comprises
Singapore Island and 60 islets. The British established Singapore as a trading colony in 1819.
It became a part of the Federation of Malaysia in 1963, but it left the federation in 1965 to
become an independent nation and now is among the world's most prosperous countries. It
holds a strong position in international trade, and its per capita gross domestic product is
comparable to that of Western Europe's leading nations. One of the most densely populated
countries globally, Singapore ranks fourth worldwide as a financial center, according to the
City of London's Global Financial Centres Index 7.

Textile and Apparel Industry

Manufacturing, distribution and retail are the main activities within Singapore's textile and
apparel industry. According to 2008 data from Singapore's Department of Statistics,
Economic Development Board and SPRING Singapore a government agency that
implements programs to support the country's textile and apparel sector the textile and
apparel industry comprises 4,818 establishments, of which in that year 4,212 were
wholesalers and retailers and 606 were manufacturers. In 2008, sales totaled approximately
US$6.9 billion and manufacturing output was worth approximately US$700 million. In 2008,
the industry employed 27,378 people. Singapore's textile and apparel manufacturers export
their products primarily to the U.S. and European markets, and are some of the largest
suppliers to brands such as Nike and Gap and department stores such as Macy's.
The Textile and Fashion Federation Singapore established in 1981 through a coalition of
textile and apparel associations with cooperation from International Enterprise Singapore
and SPRING Singapore, launched Apparel Singapore in July 2008 as a brand to represent a
group of major Singapore apparel manufacturers in their strategic and global marketing
efforts. The brand comprises member companies also known as brand ambassadors, which
include established, successful Singapore-based apparel manufacturers that also operate

production facilities in nearly 20 countries. Apparel Singapore promotes the capabilities,

manufacturing services, offerings and competitiveness of the country's apparel manufacturers
to the global market with the goal of increasing the industry's production.

"Not many people know that the largest suppliers for international brands like Nike, Macy's
and GAP are actually apparel manufacturers based in Singapore," said Lim Hng Kiang,
minister for trade and industry, in remarks made at the official launching ceremony of
Apparel Singapore. "They have been able to ride the wave of globalization by offering an
integrated global sourcing solution to established global retailers and buyers. Our [textile and
apparel] companies have been able to provide flexibility and customization of service
offerings to these global customers by leveraging on the cost-effective manufacturing
locations in China, Southeast Asia and South Asia, and basing their headquarter functions in

Sourcing Hub And Headquarters Site

Singapore ranks second in size after Hong Kong as a textile and apparel business and
sourcing hub in the Asia-Pacific region, with a total estimated sourcing volume through the
country of approximately SGD$2.5 billion to SGD$3 billion, according to SPRING
Singapore. The Port of Singapore is the largest port in Southeast Asia and currently the
world's busiest port in terms of total shipping tonnage. It is a critical port for the many textilemanufacturing countries surrounding it.

With its stable government and Western business practices, and because international brands
demand suppliers' compliance with high standards, Singapore has become an attractive
location for textile distributors to set up headquarters activities. The World Bank Group's
Doing Business Project, which evaluates business regulations and their enforcement across
183 economies and selected cities worldwide, ranked Singapore number one in the overall
"Ease of Doing Business" category in its 2011 report.
This is the fifth year the country has led the rankings number of textile dye and chemical
suppliers have relocated their headquarters to the country. For example, in 2010, Switzerlandbased textile dyes and chemical supplier Clariant International Ltd. moved its Textile
Chemicals Business Unit headquarters from Reinach, Switzerland, to Singapore. "Singapore
is the optimum location from which to service the key global textile markets across India,

China and South East Asia," said Thomas Winkler, head of Clariant's Textile Chemicals
Business Unit.
Huntsman Textile Effects a manufacturer of chemicals and dyes for finished textiles and
materials, and a division of Huntsman Corp. has relocated its headquarters from Basel,
Switzerland, to Singapore. In announcing the move in 2009, Huntsman Textile Effects
President Paul Hulme said: "Geographically, Singapore is an ideal location from which to
serve the markets in China, India and Southeast Asia, but also allows us to continue to serve
and grow our business in Europe and the Americas. Singapore was chosen from a number of
possible locations, primarily because of its proximity to our key growth markets, the
excellent international business environment encouraged by the Singapore Economic
Development Board, and the availability of the high quality professionals that will be critical
to the continued growth of our global business."

In 2008, Germany-based chemical company BASF SE made Singapore the headquarters for
its Performance Chemicals for Leather and Textiles global Business Unit; and in 2007,
Wilmington, Del.-based DuPont Imaging Technologies opened a technology center in
Singapore to support its DuPon Artistry digital printing system for textiles and to serve its
customers in the Asia Pacific region.

Machinery Shipments

Because Singapore is more of a gateway for the textile industry than a manufacturing base,
the country does not import much textile machinery. The 2008 and 2009 International Textile
Machinery Shipment Statistics reports of the Switzerland-based International Textile
Manufacturers Federation (ITMF) indicate that with the exception of a small number of
circular knitting machines, little textile machinery has been exported to Singapore by
respondents to its machinery shipment surveys.

The German Engineering Federation (VDMA) Textile Machinery Association also reports
that Singapore is not a significant market for Germany's textile machinery exports. Total
machinery exports to Singapore in 2009 were worth approximately 2.2 million Euros; and in
the first three quarters of 2010, machinery exports were worth nearly 4 million Euros.

The Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology (SIMTech) a research institute of
Singapore's Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR) recently launched
the Nanotechnology in Manufacturing Initiative (NiMI) to explore new market opportunities
in the global nanotechnology market, which is projected to be worth more than US$2.4
trillion by 2015 and is relevant to many textile applications. The initiative is supported by
International Enterprise Singapore, Singapore Economic Development Board and SPRING
Singapore. Thirteen companies are members of the initiative, including companies operating
in the textile sector such as Pidilite Innovation Centre, a provider of adhesives and sealants,
textile chemicals, organic pigment powders and industrial resins, among other products;
Toray Industries Inc., a supplier of fibers and textiles and carbon fiber composite materials,
among other products; and 3M, a supplier of tapes and adhesives, abrasives, flexible circuits,
safety and security solutions, reflective film and other products for industrial, commercial and
consumer applications.

Economic Structure of the country:

One of Singapores pioneer industries since the national industrialisation action, which started
over 40 years ago, is the textile and apparel industry. Today, in terms of sourcing volume the
island ranks as the second largest textile and apparel business and sourcing hub in AsiaPacific after Hong Kong. The estimated sourcing volume in total is about USD 2.5bn to USD
3bn. The retail sector consists of 2,408 apparel retailers who make $1.6 billion in sales.

In the last years, there has been a decrease in the domestic export of Singaporean textile and
apparel. However, there is still optimism about the industrys contribution into the islands
economy. Though Singaporean companies have their production mostly outside the country,
headquarters and main branches stay on the island. Furthermore, the industry has a multiplier
effect on other supporting industries like logistics or banking.


Since many garment manufacturers moved their fabrication abroad, Singapores
textile and apparel industry has converted to a regional fashion, sourcing and
marketing hub. The Textile and Fashion Federation (TaFf), which is the
successor of the textile and garment association for over 25 years, is supporting
the industry to obtain and remain these targets. The objectives of TaFf are to

Manufacturing: educate & provide regulations to encourage industry to safeguard

Marketing: issue the ASEAN region and beyond to Singapore

textile & fashion apparel design
Sourcing: give information to local producers where in ASEAN and
beyond to source for materials
Design: put up a platform for Singaporean designers and brands to
exhibit & sell their designs

2.3 India Textile Industry

India Textile Industry is one of the leading textile industries in the world. Though was
predominantly unorganized industry even a few years back, but the scenario started changing
after the economic liberalization of Indian economy in 1991. The opening up of economy
gave the much-needed thrust to the Indian textile industry, which has now successfully
become one of the largest in the world. India textile industry largely depends upon the textile
manufacturing and export. It also plays a major role in the economy of the country. India
earns about 27% of its total foreign exchange through textile exports. Further, the textile
industry of India also contributes nearly 14% of the total industrial production of the country.
It also contributes around 3% to the GDP of the country. India textile industry is also the
largest in the country in terms of employment generation. It not only generates jobs in its own
industry, but also opens up scopes for the other ancillary sectors. India textile industry
currently generates employment to more than 35 million people. It is also estimated that, the
industry will generate 12 million new jobs by the year 2010.

2.3.1 Various Categories

Indian textile industry can be divided into several segments, some of which can be listed as
1. Cotton Textiles
2. Silk Textiles

3. Woollen Textiles
4. Readymade Garments
5. Hand-crafted Textiles
6. Jute and Coir
India textile industry is one of the leading in the world. Currently it is estimated to be around
US$ 52 billion and is also projected to be around US$ 115 billion by the year 2012. The
current domestic market of textile in India is expected to be increased to US$ 60 billion by
2012 from the current US$ 34.6 billion. The textile export of the country was around US$
19.14 billion in 2006-07, which saw a stiff rise to reach US$ 22.13 in 2007-08. The share of
exports is also expected to increase from 4% to 7% within 2012. Following are area,
production and productivity of cotton in India during the last six decades:

Vast textile production capacity

Large pool of skilled and cheap work force

Entrepreneurial skills

Efficient multi-fiber raw material manufacturing capacity

Large domestic market

Enormous export potential

Very low import content

Flexible textile manufacturing systems


Increased global competition in the post 2005 trade regime under WTO

Imports of cheap textiles from other Asian neighbours

Use of outdated manufacturing technology

Poor supply chain management

Huge unorganized and decentralized sector

High production cost with respect to other Asian competitors


India retained its position as worlds second highest cotton producer.

Acreage under cotton reduced about 1% during 2008-09.

The productivity of cotton which was growing up over the years has decreased in

Substantial increase of Minimum Support Prices (MSPs).

Cotton exports couldn't pick up owing to disparity in domestic and international

cotton prices.

Imports of cotton were limited to shortage in supply of Extra Long staple cottons.

Year Area in lakh hectares Production in lakh bales of 170 kgs Yield kgs per hectare
























































Cotton Exports from India


Quantity (in lakh bales of 170 kgs)

Value (in `/Crores)









































Quantity (in lakh bales of 170 kgs.)

Value (` /Crores)









































Singapore Tourism Board
To be a leading economic development agency in tourism, known for partnership,
innovation and excellence.
We champion tourism and build it into a key economic driver for Singapore
Integrity Do the Right Thing!
We are fair, honest and trustworthy, inspiring trust and confidence.
Team Succeed Together
United in purpose, we accomplish more together.
Courage 3D Dare, Dream, Do!
We dare to dream, experiment and boldly execute our ideas.
Care Appreciate One Another
We respect, nurture and have compassion for one another. We care for ourselves
and our community.
Passion Love it!
We are energetic and driven, believing in our purpose and loving what we do.
Fun Its Our Attitude
We seize each day with enthusiasm. We are optimistic about our future.

Business Tourism and Government Policy

As the lead government agency for the business events sector in Singapore, the
Bureau fulfills the following roles:
Business Events Champion
SECB aims to create, grow, and attract business events that reinforce Singapores
reputation as a business and intellectual hub. In this regard, SCEB partner organizers
and other government agencies to leverage our established strengths in key industries
such as biomedical & healthcare, ICT & media, social, transport & security, lifestyle
& cruise, environment & energy, infrastructure, business, trade & professional
services, and futures.
Global Marketer
SECB engages in various marketing and promotional activities in order to
entrench Singapore's position as a premier Business & MICE destination. We also
provide marketing and publicity support for partners to reach their target audience
regionally and internationally.
Industry Developer
SECB also works to create a vibrant Business & MICE environment with strong
industry players, robust alliances, world-class infrastructure and an emerging pool of
MICE talent.
The Singapore Exhibition & Convention Bureau is a member of the Best Cities
Global Alliance, the worlds first and only convention bureau alliance with eight partners in
five continents.

For Singapore, and the Business Travel, Meetings, Incentives, Exhibitions and
Conventions (BTMICE) sector, 2011 was a watershed year. A total of 3.1 million business
travellers came, accounting for 27 per cent of all visitors to Singapore and approximately
S$5.4 billion in tourism receipts. This translated into impressive growth rates of 19.2 per cent
and 28.4 per cent respectively over 2009.
The number of meetings, incentives, conventions and exhibitions also surged, with
attendance of some events reaching all-time highs. Aiding this growth were events such as

the International Furniture Fair Singapore, BroadcastAsia 2010, Singapore International

Water Week, the 77th Union of International Fairs Congress, Asia Pacific Maritime
2010 and Food and Hotel Asia 2010, all of which recorded double-digit increases in foreign
attendance. There were also 108 new events, a 35 per cent increase in events over 2009.
Some examples of which are Live!Singapore, MedTech 2010, RoboCup 2010 and Blueprint.
SECB (Singapore Exhibition and Convention Bureau) also actively bids for business
events that are both significant and strategic towards achieving STBs tourism goals. For the
first time in its history of world congresses, the European-based International Federation of
Freight Forwarders Association (FIATA) broke its rotation pattern and chose Singapore
over the worlds top logistics country, Germany (Berlin), to host the 2013 World Logistics
Congress. .As the worlds largest non-governmental organization in the field of transportation
and logistics, FIATA will further strengthen Singapores position as a regional logistics hub.
Winning this bid in 2010 was testament to the close working relationship between STB and
our industry partners.

Medical Tourism and Government Policy

Asia's Leading Medical Hub
Singapore is Asia's leading medical hub, providing internationally accredited
healthcare for patients. Built on a heritage of excellence, safety and trustworthiness,
Singapore has come a long way to being the leading healthcare services hub in the
The hospitals and specialty centers provide integrated focus in many specialty
areas such as cardiology, ophthalmology and oncology. These specialty centres and
hospitals also carry out research and development, leveraging the growing biomedical
research and expertise in Singapore to develop new treatments. As Asia's multifaceted medical hub, Singapore leads the region in attracting a growing number of
international medical professionals and multinational healthcare/healthcare-related
companies to establish headquarters train and share their expertise as well as conduct
and host healthcare-related research, training and events.
Excellent Basic & Clinical Research & development
Singapore medical advancements are propelled by the government strong to basic
and clinical research and development. The establishment of bio polis, the S$500
million state of the art infrastructure for the life science, Has enabled Singapore to
develop swiftly into a global biomedical sciences hub advancing human healthcare.
Singapore Today
Tourism boards recently organized an Annual Tourism Industry Conference at the
Suntec Exhibition and Convention Centre. The conference brought together
experienced professionals from tourism industry in Singapore along with a famous
name Horwath HTL Asia Pacific. As informed by Singapore Tourism Board, the
discussion at conference rolled around the tremendous growth of Singapore tourism
industry in recent years. It was reported that the tourist arrival has increased in
Singapore to about 49 percent since 2009 with 11.6 million in 2010.
Singapore also showed a remarkable performance at recent World Economic Forum's
Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011 by topping in Asia Pacific and acquiring

10th place among 130 countries. Mr. S Iswaran, Senior Minister of State for Trade and
Industry expressed his views about Singapore tourism plans and its execution. He was more
focused on sustainable tourism by attracting more quality tourism rather than quantity
tourism. As revealed by Ms. Aw Kah Peng, Chief Executive, Singapore Tourism Board,
Singapore is now aimed at attracting 12 to 13 million visitor arrivals in 2011.
Singapore Tourism Board also uncovered the new mobile technology App. Your
Singapore Mobile Guide that would facilitate and help travelers wishing to visit Singapore.
Conference also marked the presence of Horwath HTL Asia Pacific that plays a major role in
appraisal of travelers in the Singapore.
What's next: Targeting to 2015
The STB has launched its new target for tourism development until 2015. The
STB, has done very well in promoting and developing Singaporean tourism to an
excellent performance level
What about the future? The Singapore Tourism Board has been setting the
target for the next decade. The target is created by realizing the new emerging powers
such as China and India which both are potential markets for Singapore tourism,
without ignoring the established market such as the neighbors, Europe, United States
and Japan. The goal for the target is for tourism to remain a key contributor in the
The STB has identified three key foci, especially, to creating strengthening
Singapore's position as
(a) Leading convention and exhibition city in Asia with a strong and dynamic business
environment. Since there are several convention cities such as Hong Kong, Singapore
has always to consider them as competitors;
(b) Developing Singapore as a leading Asian leisure destination by providing an
enriching experience that is Uniquely Singapore;
(c) Establishing Singapore as the services center of Asia - a place where visitors can
enjoy quality services such as healthcare and education services.











Visitors Arrivals (Million)
Tourism Employment
Source: STB
Tourism sector Performance
This tremendous growth is reflected across all sectors in Singapores tourism industry,
with a multitude of diverse dining, retail, arts and entertainment options enriching
Singapores rich and vibrant tourism offerings.
Singapores visibility on the world stage as an exciting, quality travel destination has
also been enhanced through key events such as the Asia Fashion Exchange, World Gourmet
Summit and Travel Rave as well as outstanding tourism infrastructure as seen in the Resorts
World Sentosa and Marina Bay Sands Integrated Resorts, endearing itself to new and
returning travelers alike.

Tourist Arrivals in singapore

Tourist Arrivals in singapore










Tourist arrivals in India


Tourist arrivals in India






Hotels and Travel Trade in India


Till 15 dec 2010

Inbound Tour Operators


Travel Agents


Tourist Transport Operators


Domestic Tour Operators


Adventure Tour Operators




(Source: Ministry of Tourism, India)


Singapores Rank

Indias Rank

Safety and security



Tourism Infra.



Natural Resources


Health and Hygiene



Prioritization of Travel


and Tourism
(Source: UNWTO)

Marketing campaign in Singapore

The official website as approved by the ministry of Singapore for the marketing
campaign for tourism is www.yoursingapore.com.This website reveals the full fledge
information for the tourists travelling all over the world..
The information include
The Attractions in Singapore
The hospitality facilities in Singapore
The Dining in Singapore
The Shopping in Singapore
So we can say that the marketing strategies and campaigns are very user friendly because
of the first time visitor to Singapore will not face any difficulties and will get all the
information in a one platform only.

Singapore tourism board launches a new marketing campaign for India:

The holiday, you take home with you
Tuesday, March 27,2012


Singapore Tourism Board (STB) unveiled its latest plan targeted at the India market.
The Holiday You Take Home with You, the third in a series of customized and
differentiated marketing campaigns, follows the previous campaigns in the adoption
of a consumer-centric approach by tailoring its experiences based on a deeper
understanding of the needs of Indian leisure travelers. The visitor-centricity is in line
with Singapores destination brand, YourSingapore, which empowers visitors to
personalize their unique Singapore experience according to their needs and wants.

Recognizing the unique, evolving needs of the India market

Through years of presence and in-market engagements held with Indian consumers,
STB has deepened its understanding of the market and observed changes in their travel
habits, needs and the way Indian travellers research and plan for their leisure trips.

Indian travellers today possess a more global worldview, and in-market interactions
have uncovered Indian consumers preferences for families to travel and bond together
through shared learning experiences. They seek much more out of their holidays and put
priority on aspirational, engaging experiences that deliver quality and enrichment, and which
suit their passions and interests at the same time. Many also research and plan their own Free
and Independent Traveller (FIT) itineraries on the Internet, eager to try out new things.

Tailoring quality, enriching experiences for Indian travelers

At the same time, the tourism landscape in Singapore has undergone tremendous
changes in recent years, with a myriad quality experiential and enriching activities, many of
which appeal to Indian travellers. The Holiday You Take Home with You campaign,
launched on 20 March in major cities including Mumbai, New Delhi and Bangalore,
highlights Singapores tailored offerings which appeal to the Indian audience. The core of the
campaign touches on four pillars of enriching experiences, namely Family Fun, Active
Lifestyle, Culinary and Romance. Beyond the sights and sounds of Singapore, visitors can
delve deeper into the wide range of activities from swimming with the dolphins, taking
cooking classes on Peranakan cuisine to picking up a new skill like skydiving.

Travelling partner- Thomas cook (India) Ltd.

For this unique campaign Singapore tourism has decided to select Thomas cook as
the travelling partner. Mr. Madhavan Menon, Managing Director of Thomas Cook (India) Ltd
said, We are delighted to partner with Singapore Tourism Board on the launch of their new
campaign, Singapore - The Holiday You Take Home with You. As pioneers of travel, with a
vibrant heritage of over 130 years, this unique partnership with Singapore Tourism Board
will bring to Indian travellers a truly enriching and experiential range of Active Lifestyle
and Family Fun experiences. In keeping with our strong focus of innovation and
exceptional customer service, our tie-up with Singapore Tourism Board, further enhances
our unique and diverse customer centric product-service portfolio.

Khushboo Gujarat ki
Khusboo Gujarat ki is a giant advertisement campaign done by the Gujarat tourism
board under the leadership of honorable chief minister Mr. Narendra


campaign is specially done to explore the untapped resources of Gujarat in the field of
tourism industry..This campaign is targeting the domestic tourists from all over India as well
as international tourists form all over the world..and that is the only reason that the
advertisement is being done in 2 languages i.e. Hindi and English
Bollywood super star Mr. Amitabh Bacchan is the Brand Ambasaddor of Gujarat and
is endorsing the same campaignThe Tourists destinations focused in the advertisement

The temple of Dwarka

The temple of Somnath
Rann of kutch
The wild life sanctuary of gir
Girnar mountain in Junagadh
Lothal region. .

The great response is being seen from domestic as well as from international
tourists in the recent festival in Kutch named RANN UTSAV because of the great
advertisement campaign approx. 350 crores of fund is being invested as a part of this
campaign by Gujarat Tourism Board. The punch line of this campaign is kuch din to
guzariye Gujarat mein