Response
Increase in the number of stages could also affect the frequency response of a
circuit.
In general, the gain of amplifier circuits decreases at low and high
frequencies.
The cutoff frequencies are the frequencies when the power delivered to the
load of the circuit becomes half the power delivered to the load at middle
frequencies.
Voltage gain
AVmid
Bandwidth = f2f1
0.707 AVmid
f1
f2
Frequency
Bandwidth
Avmid = voltage gain of amplifier at middle frequencies
0.707 Avmid = voltage gain of amplifier at lower cutoff frequency and higher cutoff frequency
(when output power is half the output power at middle frequencies)
f1 = low cutoff frequency
PO(HPF) = output power at higher cutoff frequency Vi = input voltage
f2= high cutoff frequency
PO(LPF) = output power at lower cutoff frequency
Pomid= output power at middle frequencies
2
0.707Avmid Vi
Po(HPF) PO(LPF)
Ro
Avmid Vi
0.5
Ro
0.5 POmid
f1 and f2 are called half power, corner, cutoff, band, break, or 3db
frequencies.
f1 is the low cutoff frequency and f2 is the high cutoff frequency.
When the amplitude of a signal is 0.707 of its original amplitude, its power
becomes half of its original power.
PHP = PMF / 2 = power at half power frequency
where: PHP = Power at half power point (f1 or f2)
PMF = Power at middle frequencies
The 180 degrees phase shift of most amplifiers (Common emitter, common
source) is only true at middle frequencies.
At low frequencies, the phase shift is more than 180 degrees.
At high frequencies, the phase shift is less than 180 degrees.
Phase shift
between Vo
and Vi
2700
1800
900
f1
f2
Phase shift between Vo and Vi
Frequency
Normalized Gain
in Ratio
1 AVmid
0.707 AVmid
f1
f2
Frequency
A decibel plot of the gain can be made using the following formula:
AV
AV
db 20log
normalized gain in db
AVmid
AVmid
where : AV voltage gain at frequency f
AVmid voltage gain at middle frequency
Voltage
gain
Normalized Gain in db
1 AVmid 0 db
0.707 AVmid 3 db
6 db
9 db
Frequency
f1
f2
AVmid
0.707 AVmid
f1
Bandwidth
f2
Frequency
Voltage
gain
AVmid
0.707 AVmid
f1
Bandwidth
f2
Frequency
Voltage
gain
AVmid
0.707 AVmid
Bandwidth
f2
Frequency
A capacitor coupled circuit which acts as a high pass filter is shown below.
At middle and high frequencies, the capacitor C can be considered a short
circuit because its reactance becomes low enough that the voltage appearing
across RL is almost equal to Vi (input voltage of combination of C and RL).
At low frequencies, the coupling capacitor C could no longer be treated as a
short circuit because its reactance becomes high enough that the voltage
appearing at the load (RL) becomes significantly lower than Vi.
R can represent any resistance or resistance combination in a circuit.
At low frequencies, the RC combination of the coupling capacitor (C) and the
resistance (R) determines the frequency response of the amplifier circuit.
The reactance of the coupling capacitor C can be computed as:
Xc
1
reactance of Cc at frequency f
2fC
Cc
Vi =
Input voltage
to RC network
IR
R Vo = Output
voltage
Xc
Vo
1
Vi
If the frequency is equal to zero (0) such as when the signal is a DC voltage,
the reactance of Cc is equal to infinity, and the capacitor Cc can be assumed to
be an open circuit.
The voltage across R (Vo) is equal to zero (0).
1
reactance of Cc when f 0 hz
2fC
Vo 0 voltage across the load RL
Xc
Vo
0
Vi
Between the two extremes, the ratio between Vo and Vi will vary between
zero and one (1).
Vi
Vo (IR)(R)
R
2
2
R Xc
When the frequency of the signal is equal to the low cutoff frequency (f1),
the output power at R is half that of the output power at middle frequencies,
and this occurs when R Xc as shown below. When R Xc,
Vi
Vi
Vo (IR)(R)
R
R2 R2
2
2
R
Xc
Vi
2 0.707Vi
Vi 2
Vo 2 Vi 1 1 Vi 2
P
When the frequency is equal to the low cutoff frequency (f1), R=XC and f1
can be computed as follows:
R Xc
f1
1
2f1C
1
lower cutoff frequency (Hz)
2RC
In magnitude and phase form, the voltage gain at any frequency can be
computed as:
Av
1
f1
1
f
/Tan 1fi/f
Vo
20 log
Vi
1
f1
1
f
(db)
Vo
20 log
Vi
1
f1
1
f1
3 db
Vo
20 log
Vi
f1 2
20log1
f
f1
1
f
(db)
f1 2
10 log 1
f
1/ 2
1/ 2
f1
20 log (when f f1)
f
If we forget the condition f<<f1 and plot the right side of the above
equation, the following points can be used. The plot is a straight line when
plotted in a log scale.
At
At
At
At
f
f
f
f
f1
f1/2
f1/4
f1/10
 20log1 0 db
 20log2  6 db
 20log4  12 db
 20log10  20 db
f1 2
X 20log
f
1/ 2
f1
20 log
f
Avdb 20 log
1
f1
1
f
(db)
Asymptote
Actual Response Curve
Asymptote
The plot in the preceding slide shows two asymptotes. One for f<< f1 (6 db /
octave), and the other for f >> f1 (horizontal line 0 db).
The plot of the line corresponding to f << f1 results to frequency response of
6db per octave (6 db drop in gain for every reduction in the frequency by a
factor of 2). The plot also corresponds to a response of 20 db per decade.
The decibel plot of voltage gain (Av) can be made by using the information
on the asymptotes and knowing that at f= f1, Avdb = 3db.
Example: For the RC network shown below, Determine the break frequency
(cutoff frequency), sketch the asymptotes and the frequency response curve.
Cc = 0.2 microfarad
Vi =
IRL
Input voltage
to RC network
f1/10=
Normalized Gain 9.947
in db
1 AV 0 db
0.707 AV 3 db
6 db
9 db
12 db
15 db
18 db
21 db
RL =
Vo = Output
8 kohm voltage
f1/4=
24.87
f1/2= f1 =
49.74 99.47
1
1
f1
3db point
Frequency (log scale)
Asymptote
Asymptote
RB1
Cc
Cs
Q1
Rsig
Vi
Vs
Zi
RL
RB2
RE
Ce
Zo
Vs = Signal source
Rsig = internal resistance of signal source
Cs =coupling capacitor for Vs
Cc= coupling capacitor for RL
Ce= bypass capacitor for RE
Vo = Output
voltage
The frequency analysis of high pass RC network can be used for capacitor
coupled BJT amplifier circuits. The values of R and C are taken from the
equivalent resistances and capacitances in the BJT amplifier circuit.
For the portion of the circuit involving the coupling capacitor Cs, the
equivalent circuit is shown below.
Equivalent circuit assumes that the input impedance of the amplifier (Zi) is
purely resistive and is equal to Ri.
Ii
Cs
Rsig
Vi
Ii
Cs
RB1//RB2
Vs
hie = re
re
Rsig
Vi
Zi = Ri
Vs
Zi = Ri
Equivalent Circuit of Vs, Cs and Zi
Zi = Ri
Equivalent Circuit of Vs, Cs and Zi
The value of the input impedance (resistance) of the amplifier can be computed
as:
Zi = Ri = RB1 // RB2 // hie
= RB1 // RB2 // re
Vs Ri
Ri Rsig jXCs
The voltage Vi at middle frequencies (Cs can be considered short circuit) can
be computed as:
Vs Ri
Vi mid
Ri Rsig
1
lower cut off frequency for the portion of the circuit
2 (Rsig Ri)Cs
involving Cs
For the portion of the circuit involving the coupling capacitor Cc, the
equivalent circuit is shown below.
Equivalent circuit assumes that the output impedance of the transistor is
purely resistive and is equal to ro.
Cc
ib
ro
Rc
Rc // ro
IRL
VRL
RL
Zo= Ro
IRL
Cc
VRL
RL
Zo= Ro = Rc // ro
Equivalent Circuit of Circuit Portion Involving Cc
1
lower cut off frequency for the portion of the circuit
2 (Ro RL)CC
involving Cc
For the portion of the circuit involving the bypass capacitor Ce, the equivalent
circuit is shown below.
The equivalent circuit uses the re model.
The resistance (Re) seen looking into RE from the output side can be computed
as:
Rs'
Re RE//
re impedance seen looking into RE from the output side (ohms)
Ce
RE
Rs'
re
Re RE//
The lower cutoff frequency of the portion of the circuit involving the
bypass capacitor Ce can be computed as:
1
lower cut off frequency for the portion of the circuit
2 Re Ce
where : Re equivalent resistance looking into RE from the output side.
fLE
The voltage gain of the amplifier without considering the effects of the
voltage source resistance Rsig can be computed as:
At middle frequencies, RE is shorted out because the reactance of Ce is
very low. Voltage gain can be computed as:
Av
Av
Vo VRL
ro//Rc//RL
Vo VRL
Rc//RL
Overall, the effects of the capacitors Cs, Cc, and Ce must be considered in
determining the lower cutoff frequency of the amplifier.
The highest lower cutoff frequency among the three cutoff frequencies will
have the greatest impact on the lower cutoff frequency of the amplifier.
If the cutoff frequencies due to the capacitors are relatively far apart, the
highest lower cutoff frequency will essentially determine the lower cutoff
frequency of the amplifier.
If the highest lower cutoff frequency is relatively close to another lower cutoff
frequency, or if there are more than one lower cutoff frequencies, the lower
cutoff frequency of the amplifier will be higher than the highest lower cutoff
frequency due to the capacitors.
fLT = overall lower cutoff frequency of amplifier
fLT > fLS
fLT > fLC
Flt > fLE
Example: A voltage divider BJT amplifier circuit has the parameters listed below.
Determine the low cutoff frequency of the amplifier and sketch the low frequency
response.
Cs=12 uF Rsig = 2 kohm RL= 2 kohm RB1=50 kohm RB2= 10 kohm
Cc=2 uF RE = 2 kohm RC= 4 kohm =100 Vcc= 20 volts
CE=20 uF Assume that output resistance of transistor to be infinite.
3.333 volts
VB
RB2 RB1 10,000 50,000
DC voltage at base relative to ground
VRE VB VBE 3.333 0.7
1.317 x 10 3 A
RE
RE
2000
Emitter Quiescent Current
IE
26 x 10 3
re
19.742
1.317 x 10 3
Vi
re
19.742
67.538 voltage gain at mid frequencies (not considering Rs)
1
1
1
1
Zi Ri RB1//RB2//re
Vi
Ri
1,596.08
0.444
Vs Ri Rsig 1,596.08 2,000
fLS
2 (Rsig Ri)Cs 2 (2,000 1,596.08)12 X 106
3.688 Hz lower cut off frequency for the portion of the circuit involving Cs
Zi Ri RB1//RB2//re
13.263 Hz
6
2 (Rc RL)Cc 2 (4,000 2,000) 2 X 10
lower cutoff frequency of circuit involving Cc
fLC
1
1612.903 ohms
1
1
1
R S'
1612.903
1
1
225.822 Hz
fLE
6
2 Re CE 2 (35.239) 20 X 10
Because the lower cutoff frequency of the portion of the circuit
involving CE is relatively high compared to the cutoff frequecies
due to Cs and Cc, its lower cutoff frequency will predominantly affect the cutoff
frequency of the whole amplifier circuit.
RG2
CG
Ii
Rsig
Vs =
Source
voltage
IG (Gate
Vi = Current)
=0
Input
voltage
Zi
RD
ID = Drain current
(ac)
Drain (D)
Gate (G)
VGS
RG1
Source
Rs
VDS
Cc
VDD
RL
Cs
Zo
VO=
Output voltage
The frequency analysis of high pass RC network can be used for capacitor
coupled FET amplifier circuits. The values of R and C are taken from the
equivalent resistances and capacitances in the FET amplifier circuit.
For the portion of the circuit involving the coupling capacitor CG, the
equivalent circuit is shown below.
Equivalent circuit assumes that the input impedance of the amplifier (Zi) is
purely resistive and is equal to Ri.
Ii
CG
Rsig
Vi
Ii
CG
RG1 // RG2
Vs
Rsig
Vi
Zi = Ri
= RG1 // RG2
Vs
Zi = Ri
= RG1 // RG2
Equivalent Circuit of Vs, CG and Zi
Zi = Ri
= RG1 // RG2
Equivalent Circuit of Vs, CG and Zi
The value of the input impedance (resistance) of the amplifier can be computed
as:
Zi = Ri = RG1 // RG2
Zi = RG2 if RG1 is not present (RG1 = infinity)
Vs Ri
Ri Rsig jX CG
Vs Ri
Ri Rsig
The lower cutoff frequency (half power frequency) can be computed as:
fLG
1
lower cut off frequency for the portion of the circuit
2 (Rsig Ri)CG
involving CG
For the portion of the circuit involving the coupling capacitor Cc, the
equivalent circuit is shown below.
Equivalent circuit assumes that the output impedance of the transistor is
purely resistive and is equal to Ro.
Cc
Drain (D) ID
rd
gmVgs
Ird
RD
IRD
+
gmVgs
RL
IRL
+
Zo = Ro
Zo = Ro = RD if rd is equal to infinity
1
lower cut off frequency for the portion of the circuit
2 (Ro R L)C C
involving Cc
For the portion of the circuit involving the bypass capacitor Cs, the equivalent
circuit is shown below.
The resistance (Req) seen looking into Rs from the output side can be
computed as:
Rs
impedance seen looking into RS from the output side (ohms)
Req
1 gm rd
1 Rs
rd RD//RL
when rd infinity, the equation above will be
1
Req Rs//
gm
System
Cs
RS
Req
Equivalent Circuit of Portion of Circuit Involving RS and CS
The low cutoff frequency of the portion of the circuit involving the bypass
capacitor Cs can be computed as:
1
lower cut off frequency for the portion of the circuit
2 Req Cs involving Cs
where : Req equivalent resistance looking into RS from the output side.
fLs
Overall, the effects of the capacitors CG, Cc, and CS must be considered in
determining the low cutoff frequency of the amplifier.
The highest lower cutoff frequency among the three cutoff frequencies will
have the greatest impact on the low cutoff frequency of the amplifier.
If the cutoff frequencies due to the capacitors are relatively far apart, the
highest low cutoff frequency will essentially determine the low cutoff
frequency of the amplifier.
If the highest lower cutoff frequency is relatively close to another lower cutoff
frequency, or if there are more than one lower cutoff frequency, the low cutoff
frequency of the amplifier will be higher than the highest lower cutoff
frequency due to the capacitors.
 (ID )(RS)
VGS
DSS 1
ID IDQ IDSS 1
I
Drain current (Ampere)
VP
VP
2
2
2
 (ID )(1000)
3
3
D 20,408ID
D 183ID
ID 9 x 10 3 1
9
x
10
1
285
I
9
x
10
2
.
565
I
7
0 9 x 10 3 3.565ID 183ID
gm
1
1
1
.
33
x10
Siemens transconductance
VP VP
9
9
fLG
1
1
1
7.86 Hz
6
2 (Rsig Ri)CG 2 (Rsig RG)CG 2 (12,000 1,000,000)0.02 x 10
fLC
1
1
1
37.89 Hz
2 (Ro RL)CC 2 (RD RL)CC 2 (5,000 2,000) 0.6x106
1
(1000)(1 / 1.33 x 10 3 )
Since rd infinity, Req Rs//
429.18 ohms
gm 1000 1 / 1.33 x 103
1
1
185 Hz
6
2 Req Cs 2 (429.18)(2x10 )
Since fLS is the largest of the three lower cutoff frequencies,
it has the highest impact on the low cutoff frequency of the amplifier
fLs
Vo
(5,000)(2,000)
gm(RD//RL) (1.33 x 103 )
1.9
Vi
5,000 2,000
1 AVmid
0.707 AVmid
Av / Avmid (db)
Normalized
Normalized Gain in db
Voltage
1 10 100 1K 10K 100K 1M 10M 100M
gain
fLG fLC fLS
fHi f
fHo
Frequency
0 db
3 db
5 db
10 db
15 db
20 db
 20 db / decade
25 db
Low Frequency Response (Normalized Voltage Gain Versus Frequency
At the high frequency end, the frequency response of a low pass RC network
shown below is determined by the decrease in the reactance of the capacitor as
frequency of operation increases.
Because of the decrease in the capacitance, there is a shorting effect across
the terminals of the capacitor at high frequencies, and the voltage drop across
the capacitor decreases as frequency increases.
IR
R
Vi =
Input voltage
to RC network
Normalized Gain
in db
Vo = Output
voltage
Av = Vo / Vi
f2
1 AV 0 db
0.707 AV 3 db
The voltage gain of the low pass RC network can be computed as:
Vo
I (jXc)
 jXc
1
1
R
Vi I R jXc R jXc 1 R
1 j
1
jXc
2fC
1
1
1
1
1 1 j 1
1 j
R R
f2
1
1 j
1 1
f
2fRC
2fC R
1
Av
voltage gain at frequency f (unitless)
f
1 j
f2
1
where : f2
high cutoff frequency (Hz)
2RC
frequency when voltage gain is 0.707 times the voltage gain
at mid frequencies
Av
The above equation results to plot that drops off at 6db per octave with
increasing frequency.
When the frequencies being processed by an amplifier are high, the frequency response
of the amplifier is affected by:
Interelectrode (between terminals) capacitance internal to the active device
Wiring capacitance between leads of the network
The coupling and bypass capacitors are considered short circuits at mid and high
frequencies because their reactance levels are very low.
The diagram below shows the existence of a feedback capacitance whose reactance
becomes significantly low at high frequencies, that it affects the performance of an
amplifier.
The input and output capacitance are increased by a capacitance level sensitive to the
interelectrode (between terminals) capacitance (Cf) between the input and output
terminals of the device and the gain of the amplifier.
Because of Cf, an equivalent capacitance, called Miller capacitance, is produced at the
input and output.
I2
Cf
Ii
+
+
I1
Vi
Zi
Ri
Av =Vo / Vi
Vo

The value of the Miller effect input capacitance can be computed as:
Vi
Vi
Vi Vo Vi Vi Av Vi(1 Av)
I1
I2
Zi
Ri
Xcf
Xcf
Xcf
Ii I1 I2
Vi Vi Vi(1 Av)
Zi Ri
Xcf
1
1 (1 Av)
Zi Ri
Xcf
1
1
1
Xcf
Zi Ri
(1 Av)
Xcf
1
1
Zi Ri XCMi
Ii
The equivalent circuit due to the Miller Effect Capacitance is shown below.
+
Ii
Vi
Ri
CM i= (1AV)Cf
Zi
Above results show that for any inverting amplifier (negative AV), the input
capacitance will be increased by a Miller effect capacitance, which is a
function of the gain of the amplifier and the interelectrode (parasitic)
capacitance between the input and output terminals of the active device.
If the voltage gain is negative (with phase reversal), Miller Effect capacitance
(CM) is positive and higher than the interelectrode capacitance.
If the voltage gain is positive (no phase reversal) and greater than 1, Miller
Effect capacitance (CM) is negative.
I2
Io
+
Vi

Av =Vo / Vi
I1
Ro
+
Vo
Zo
Io I1 I2
Io
Vo
Zo
I1
Vo
Ro
I2
Vo Vi
Xcf
Vo Vo Vi
Vo
but
is usually very small because Ro is usually sufficiently large
Ro
Xcf
Ro
Io can be approximated by :
Io
Io
Io
Vo
Vo
Io
Vo Vo 1 1
Av
Av
Xcf
Xcf
Vo
Vo Vi
Xcf
1
Av
Xcf
Xcf
1
1
1
1
CMo
1 Av 1 Av Cf
CMo 1
Cf Miller effect output capacitance
Av
When Av is much greater than 1, the Miller effect output capacitance
can be approximated by :
CMo Cf Miller effect output capacitance
At the high frequency end, the high cutoff frequency (3 db) of BJT circuits is
affected by:
Network capacitance (parasitic and induced)
Frequency dependence of the current gain hfe
At high frequencies, the high cutoff frequency of a BJT circuit is affected by:
the interelectrode capacitance between the base and emitter, base and
collector, and collector and emitter.
Wiring capacitance at the input and output of the BJT.
At high frequencies, the reactance of the interelectrode and wiring capacitance
become significantly low, resulting to a shorting effect across the
capacitances.
The shorting effect at the input and output of an amplifier causes a reduction
in the gain of the amplifier.
For common emitter BJT circuits, Miller effect capacitance will affect the high
frequency response of the circuit, since it is an inverting amplifier.
The figure below shows the RC network which affects the frequency response of
BJT circuits at high frequencies.
Cbe = capacitance between the base and emitter of transistor
Cce = capacitance between collector and emitter of transistor
Cbc = capacitance between base and collector of transistor
Cwi = wiring capacitance at input of amplifier
Cwo = wiring capacitance at output of amplifier
IRB1
RC
IRC
Cc
RB1
IB Cbc
Ii
VCC
CS
Rsig
Vs =
Source
voltage
Vi =
RB2
Input voltage
IRB2
Zi
Cce
Cbe
Cwi
Zix
RE
Cwo
IRL
VO= Output
voltage
Ce
Zox
Zo
The figure below shows the ac equivalent circuit of the BJT amplifier in the
preceding slide.
At mid and high frequencies, Cs, Cc, and Ce are assumed to be short circuits
because their impedances are very low.
The input capacitance Ci includes the input wiring capacitance (Cwi), the
transistor capacitance Cbe, and the input Miller capacitance CMi.
The output capacitance Co includes the output wiring capacitance (Cwo), the
transistor parasitic capacitance Cce, and the output Miller capacitance CMo.
Typically, Cbe is the largest of the parasitic capacitances while Cce is the
smallest
Ri re
= re
Ii
Ib
Ic
Thi
Rsig
Tho
Ib
Vi
Ri
RB1// RB2
Ci
ro
RC
RL
Vs
E Zix
Zox
Co
Vo=Vce
The Thevenin equivalent circuit of the ac equivalent circuit of the BJT amplifier
is shown below.
For the input side, the 3db high cutoff frequency can be computed as:
1
fHi
higher cut off frequency for the input side (3db frequency)
2 RThi Ci
RTHi Rsig // RB1 // RB2 // Ri Rsig // RB1 // RB2 // ( 1)re
Thevenin equivalent resistance at input side
Ci Cwi Cbe CMi Cwi Cbe (1  Av)Cbc input capacitance of circuit
Thi
RTho= Rc // RL// ro
Ci
Ri
VTho
Tho
Co Vo=Vce
1
higher cut off frequency for the output side (3db frequency)
2 RTho Co
ru
rb
C
Ic
Ib
Cu = Cbc
r re
Zix
C = Cbe
ro =
1 / hoe
Ib =
hfe Ib
E Zox
At the high frequency end, hfe of a BJT will be reduced as frequency increases.
The variation of hfe (or ) with frequency can approximately be computed as:
hfemid
hfe at frequency f
f
1 j
f
where : hfemid mid hfe at middle frequency (the one usually given at specs sheet)
hfe
1
1
1
2 r C Cu hfemid 2 re C Cu
1
1
f
mid 2 re C Cu
f fhfe
26mV
IE
f
6 db / octave (for f)
3 db
f
Frequency (log scale)
6 db / octave (for f)
Bode Plot for hfb () in the High Frequency Region (Common Base)
The upper cutoff frequency of the entire system (upper limit for the bandwidth)
is lower than the lowest upper cutoff frequency (lowest among fHi, fHo, and f)
The lowest upper cutoff frequency has the greatest impact on the bandwidth of
the system. It defines a limit for the bandwidth of the system.
The lower is the upper cut off frequency, the greater is its effect on the
bandwidth of the entire system.
hfemid
hfemid
and hfedb 20 log
1
20 log 1 0 db
f
f
1 j
1 j
f
f
The frequency at which hfedb is equal to 0db is denoted by fT,
hfe
1
2
fT
fT
1
f
f
fT (hfemid)(f) ( mid)(f) gain bandwidth product, since mid gain and f bandwidth
f
fT
mid
bandwidth
1
fT ( mid)(f) ( mid)
mid 2 re C Cu
1
fT
gain bandwidth product
2 re C Cu
Example: Given a common emitter BJT amplifier with the following parameters,
determine the following:
a. High cutoff frequency for the input of the circuit (fHi)
b. High cutoff frequency for the output of the circuit (fHo)
c. High cutoff frequency for f
d. Gain bandwidth product (fT)
e. Sketch the frequency response for the low and high frequency range
Cce = 1 pF
1
1
1
1
1
887.678 ohms
fHi
Cbc
Co Cwo Cce CMo Cwo Cce 1
Avmid
6 pF 1 pF 1
3 pF 10.044 pF
67.538
1
1
11,884,359 Hz
fHo
12
2 (RTho)(Co) 2 (1,333.33)(10.044 x 10 )
1
1
1
2 r C Cu hfemid 2 re C Cu
1
1
2,150,928 Hz
(100) 2 (19.472) 35 x10 12 3 x10 12
fT (hfemid)(f ) (100)(2,150,928 ) 215,092,800 Hz frequency when hfe 1
f fhfe
In the low frequency region, the lower cutoff frequency due to the emitter capacitor
(fLE) has the highest value. Consequently, it has the greatest impact on the bandwidth of
the system, among the three lower cutoff frequencies.
In the high frequency region, the high cutoff frequency due to the input capacitors and
resistors (fHi) has the lowest value. Consequently, it has the greatest impact on the
bandwidth of the system, among the three high cutoff frequencies.
1 AVmid
0.707 AVmid
Av / Avmid (db)
Normalized
Normalized Gain in db
Voltage
1 10 100 1K 10K 100K 1M 10M 100M
gain
fLS fLC fLE
fHi f
fHo
Frequency
0 db
3 db
5 db
Bandwidth
10 db
15 db
20 db
+20 db / decade
(6 db/octave)
 20 db / decade
(6 db / octave)
25 db
Full Frequency Response (Normalized Voltage Gain Versus Frequency)
The high frequency response analysis for FET is similar to that of BJT.
At the high frequency end, the high cutoff frequency (3 db) of FET circuits is
affected by the network capacitance (parasitic and induced).
The capacitances that affect the high frequency response of the circuit are
composed of:
the interelectrode capacitance between the gate and source, gate and drain,
and drain and source.
Wiring capacitance at the input and output of the circuit.
At high frequencies, the reactance of the interelectrode and wiring capacitance
become significantly low, resulting to a shorting effect across the
capacitances.
The shorting effect at the input and output of an amplifier causes a reduction
in the gain of the amplifier.
For common source FET circuits, the Miller effect will be present, since it is an
inverting amplifier.
The figure below shows the RC network which affects the frequency response of
FET circuits at high frequencies.
Cgs = capacitance between the gate and source of transistor
Cds = capacitance between drain and source of transistor
Cgd = capacitance between gate and drain of transistor
Cwi = wiring capacitance at input of amplifier
Cwo = wiring capacitance at output of amplifier
IRG1
RD
IRD
Cc
RG1
IG Cgd
Ii
VCC
CG
Rsig
Vs =
Source
voltage
Vi =
RG2
Input voltage
IRG2
Zi
Cds
Cgs
Cwi
Zix
RS
Cwo
IRL
VO= Output
voltage
CS
Zox
Zo
The figure below shows the ac equivalent circuit of the FET amplifier.
At mid and high frequencies, CG, CS, and Cc are assumed to be short circuits because
their impedances are very low.
The input capacitance Ci includes the input wiring capacitance (Cwi), the transistor
capacitance Cgs, and the input Miller capacitance CMi.
The output capacitance Co includes the output wiring capacitance (Cwo), the
transistor parasitic capacitance Cds, and the output Miller capacitance CMo.
Typically, Cgs and Cgd are higher than Cds.
At high frequencies, Ci will approach a shortcircuit and Vgs will drop, resulting to
reduction in voltage gain.
At high frequencies, Co will approach a shortcircuit and Vo will drop, resulting to
reduction in voltage gain.
Ii
Thi
Rsig
Vi = Vgs
RG1// RG2
Id
Ci
Tho
IRL
gm Vgs
rd
RD
RL
Vs
S
Zix
Zox
Co
Vo=Vds
The Thevenin equivalent circuit of the ac equivalent circuit of the FET amplifier
is shown below.
For the input side, the 3db high cutoff frequency can be computed as:
1
high cut off frequency for the input side (3db frequency)
fHi
2 RThi Ci
RTHi Rsig // RG1 // RG2 Thevenin equivalent resistance at input side
Ci Cwi Cgs CMi input capacitance of circuit
CMi 1 Av Cgd Miller effect capacitance at input side
where Avmid is used for Av to get the worst case scenario
Thi
RTho= RD // RL// rd
Ci
VTho
Tho
Co Vo=Vds
For the output side, the 3db high cutoff frequency can be computed as:
fHo
1
high cut off frequency for the output side (3db frequency)
2 R Tho Co
C Mo 1
Cgd Miller effect capacitanc e at the output side
Av
Example: Given a common source FET amplifier with the following parameters,
determine the following:
a. High cutoff frequency for the input of the circuit (fHi)
b. High cutoff frequency for the output of the circuit (fHo)
c. Sketch the frequency response for the low and high frequency range
11,857 ohms
12,000 1,000,000
1
1
fHi
717,800 Hz
12
2 (RThi)(Ci) 2 (11,857)(18.7 x 10 )
(5,000)(2,000)
1,428.57 ohms
5,000 2,000
Avmid
1
6 pF 1 pF 1
3 pF 11.579 pF
1.9
1
1
fHo
9,621,605 Hz
2 (RTho)(Co) 2 (1,428.57 )(11.579 x 1012 )
In the low frequency region, the lower cutoff frequency due to the source capacitor (fLS)
has the highest value. Consequently, it has the greatest impact on the bandwidth of the
system, among the three lower cutoff frequencies.
In the high frequency region, the high cutoff frequency due to the input capacitors and
resistors (fHi) has the lowest value. Consequently, it has the greatest impact on the
bandwidth of the system, among the two high cutoff frequencies.
1 AVmid
0.707 AVmid
Av / Avmid (db)
Normalized
Normalized Gain in db
Voltage
1 10 100 1K 10K 100K 1M 10M 100M
gain
fLG fLC fLS
fHi
fHo
Frequency
0 db
3 db
5 db
Bandwidth
10 db
15 db
20 db
+20 db / decade
(6 db / octave)
20 db / decade
(6 db / octave)
25 db
Full Frequency Response (Normalized Voltage Gain Versus Frequency)
If there are several stages in a cascaded amplifier system, the overall bandwidth
of the system will be lower than the individual bandwidth of each stage.
In the high frequency region:
The output capacitance Co must now include the wiring capacitance (Cwi),
parasitic capacitance (Cbe or Cgs), and input Miller capacitance (CMi) of the
next stage.
The input capacitance Ci must now include the wiring capacitance (Cwo),
parasitic capacitance (Cce or Cds), and input Miller capacitance (CMO) of the
preceding stage.
The lower cutoff frequency of the entire system will be determined primarily by
the stage having the highest lower cutoff frequency.
The upper cutoff frequency of the entire system will be determined primarily by
the stage having the lowest higher cutoff frequency.
For n stages having the same voltage gain and lower cutoff frequency (f1), the
overall lower cutoff frequency (f1) can be computed as:
f1'
f1
2 1
where : f1 lower cutoff frequency of each stage
1/n
n number of stages
For n stages having the same voltage gain and higher cutoff frequency (f2),
the overall higher cutoff frequency (f2) can be computed as:
f2' f2 21/n 1 overall higher cutoff frequency of the entire amplifier
where : f2 higher cutoff frequency of each stage
n number of stages
A square wave signal can be used to test the frequency response of single
stage or multistage amplifier.
If an amplifier has poor low frequency response or poor high frequency
response, the output of the amplifier having a square wave input will be
distorted (not exactly a square wave at the output).
A square wave is composed of a fundamental frequency and harmonics
which are all sine waves.
If an amplifier has poor low or high frequency response, some low or high
frequencies will not be amplified effectively and the output waveform will be
distorted.
No distortion
(Good Frequency Response)
V
t
Very Poor High Frequency
Response
tilt
tilt
tilt
t
Poor High and Low
Frequency Response
t
Very Poor Low Frequency
Response
The high cutoff frequency can be determined from the output waveform by
measuring the rise time of the waveform.
Rise time is between the point when the amplitude of the waveform is 10 %
of its highest value up to the point when the amplitude is 90 % of its
highest value.
The high cutoff frequency can be computed as:
0.35
fH
upper cutoff frequency of amplifier (Hz)
tr
0.35
BW fH
Bandwidth of amplifier (bandwidth is approximately equal to fH)
tr
where : tr rise time (seconds)
The lower cutoff frequency can be determined from the output waveform
by measuring the tilt of the waveform.
fLO
tilt
V
V
where : P
t
Rise time (tr)
23,333.33 Hz
6
tr
15x10
0.35
BW fH
23,333.33 Hz
15x106
fH