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American Journal of Food and Nutrition, 2015, Vol. 3, No.

2, 56-63
Available online at http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajfn/3/2/4
Science and Education Publishing
DOI:10.12691/ajfn-3-2-4

Comparative Evaluation of Macro and Micro-Nutrient


Element and Heavy Metal Contents of Commercial Fruit
Juices Available in Bangladesh
I. J. Salma1, M. A. M. Sajib2, M. Motalab3, B. Mumtaz3, S. Jahan3, M. M. Hoque1, B. K. Saha3,*
1

Department of Food Engineering and Tea Technology, Shahjalal University of Science & Technology, Sylhet-3114, Bangladesh
2
Department of Food Technology and Nutrition, Lund University, Lund-22220, Sweden
3
Institute of Food Science & Technology, Bangladesh Council of Scientific & Industrial Research, Dhaka-1205, Bangladesh
*Corresponding author: bksbcsir@yahoo.com

Received March 22, 2015; Revised April 09, 2015; Accepted April 26, 2015

Abstract This study was performed to compare the macro and micro nutrient elements and heavy metal contents
of ten different types of fruit juices available in Bangladesh. Physicochemical properties, vitamin, minerals,
preservatives and heavy metals concentration were determined for all the samples. The results of this study suggest
that the selected fruit juices are a good source of antioxidants and minerals. Heavy metals as well as concentration of
preservatives were analyzed to assess the safety in terms of physical and chemical hazards associated with fruit
juices. Among heavy metals, only aluminum was detected in studying fruit juices, but their concentration was lower
than the permitted level. The results of this study were compared with existing results and recommendations which
will be helpful for consumers to consider the nutritional quality and safety of fruit juices.
Keywords: nutrition, vitamin, minerals, micronutrients, preservatives, heavy metals, fruit juices, Bangladesh
Cite This Article: I. J. Salma, M. A. M. Sajib, M. Motalab, B. Mumtaz, S. Jahan, M. M. Hoque, and B. K.
Saha, Comparative Evaluation of Macro and Micro-Nutrient Element and Heavy Metal Contents of Commercial
Fruit Juices Available in Bangladesh. American Journal of Food and Nutrition, vol. 3, no. 2 (2015): 56-63. doi:
10.12691/ajfn-3-2-4.

1. Introduction
Fruit juices are widely consumed in tropical countries
as part of habitual diet and are an important source of
vitamins and minerals. The consumption of fruit juices has
been increasing during the last decades because of its
various health benefits and consumption of fresh fruit is
often replaced by the fruit juices [1]. But the micronutrient
contents of fruit juices are seldom taken into account,
neither by doctors nor by dietitians when advising their
patients about balanced nutrition or in case of
supplementation. Primarily, this is due to the scarcity of
reliable published data on this subject.
Juices are fat-free, nutrient-dense beverages, rich in
vitamins, minerals and naturally occurring phyto-nutrients
that contribute to good health. For example, orange juice
is rich in vitamin C, an excellent source of antioxidant
phytochemicals, which contribute to protect the cells and
the body against oxidative damage [2]. This also offers
protection against free radicals that damage lipids,
proteins, and nucleic acids. It is well known that
polyphenols, carotenoids (pro-vitamin A), vitamins C and
E present in fruits have antioxidant and free radical
scavenging activities and play a significant role in the
prevention of many diseases [3]. A number of trace
elements protect the cell from oxidative cell damage as

these minerals are the cofactor of antioxidant enzymes.


Zinc, copper and manganese are necessary for superoxide
dismutases in both cytosol and mitochondria. Iron is a
component of catalase, a heme protein, which catalyzes
the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide [4]. Small
amounts of micronutrients (minerals and vitamins) along
with macronutrients are required to maintain a sound
physical condition. Sodium, potassium, iron, calcium and
many trace elements together with antioxidant vitamins
and minerals are vital for the body.
On the other hand, people are getting busier day by day
and hence the demand for ready to eat food/drink is
increasing rapidly. To meet the increasing demand and
huge opportunity to make money from this sector, a large
number of new brands of fruit juices have appeared in the
market. In most cases they are not aware about presence
of heavy metals in the final product. Also, they are using
preservatives in fruit juices to delay their decomposition
and to increase the shelf life of the product. Sodium
benzoate, Ascorbic acid, Citric acid, Sulphites (or
sulphites) - sometimes also labeled as sulfur dioxide,
sodium sulphite, sodium and potassium bisulphate,
sodium and potassium metabisulphite etc. are being used
as preservatives in these types of products. The existing
food safety and regulatory management of Bangladesh is
governed by many enactments and governmental bodies
and more than dozen of laws deal with the food safety
affairs excluding the common law provisions. It was

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American Journal of Food and Nutrition

found in a study that the food industries are ignoring the


existing food regulations in Bangladesh. The reasons like
regulatory failures, choice of product, good price, lack of
consumer awareness, and educational and cultural
influences are accountable for the existing food safety
concerns in Bangladesh. [5]
Food adulteration can prove very dangerous for the
development of a healthy society and this can lead to a
number of diseases such as cancer, paralysis, mental
retardation and hypertension etc. Therefore, it is essential
to take necessary steps to check food adulteration before it
is too late. Adulteration and contamination in edibles
especially beverages, bottled water, cooking oil/ ghee,
spices, tea, sweeteners like sugar, sweetmeats, bakery
products, milk and milk products, fruit and vegetable
products are a constant threat to the health of the common
people. One of the significant measures in this regard is to
create awareness amongst the public regarding the safety
and hygienic conditions. The kinds of impurities found in
food items that are sold in the markets should be
highlighted. This can only be done by more research work
like this to test the deviation from the standard and by
media coverage. The government should start
campaigning against food adulteration, forcing the
producers to change their methods of production. [6].
By considering all these facts, the present study was
conducted to prepare new and updated information about
the nutritional composition of fruit juices available in
Bangladesh and also to magnitude the concentration of
heavy metals and preservatives in fruit juices. The authors
believe that this study will help consumers purchase fruit
juices which have more nutritive properties and also this
will give them an idea about the status of preservatives
and heavy metals in fruit juices.

carbohydrate and energy was determined by the method of


Osborn and Voogt [11].

2.4. Determination of Vitamin-C and Minerals


Vitamin C was determined by the method of Bessey
and King [8]. Ash was determined by the process of
Ranganna [7]. Sodium and potassium contents were
determined by flame photometric method mentioned by
Ward and Johnston [8]. Calcium [10] and Magnesium [12]
were determined by titration process. Copper, Iron,
Manganese, Zinc and Chromium were determined by
Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometric method [13].
2.5. Determination of Preservatives
Sulpher di-oxide was determined by titration process
[14] and Sodium Benzoate was determined by the method
of Ronald [10].

2.6. Determination of Heavy Metals


Aluminum, Arsenic, Mercury, Lead, Tin and Cadmium
were determined by Flame Atomic Absorption
Spectrometric method [13].

2.7. Statistical analysis


Statistical analyses were carried out by using Statistical
Package for Social Science (SPSS) for Windows version
16.0. The results obtained in the present study are reported
as mean values (obtained from the five replications)
standard deviation (SD). The significant differences
between mean values were analyzed by the Duncan
multiple range test at a significance level of p<0.05.

3. Results and Discussion

2. Materials and Methods


This experiment was carried out at Institute of Food
Science and Technology, BCSIR, Dhaka. Ten different
types of fruit juices from dissimilar producers were
analyzed in this study. The selected fruit juices were
collected from different markets and superstores in Dhaka
city. Collected samples were fresh, sealed and free from
any kind of deterioration.

This study was conducted to evaluate the quality of


juices by studying their physico-chemical properties,
vitamin, trace-elements, minerals, preservatives and heavy
metals content. Five samples of each type of fruit juices
were collected for this experiment. Each value represents
the average from five replications and the outcomes
expressed as mean values standard deviations (SD). All
the results were expressed as gram (g), percentage (%),
kilocalorie (Kcal), milligram (mg) and microgram (g) per
100 g of fruit juices.

2.2. Sample Preparation

3.1. Physico-chemical Properties

The sample was homogenized and accurate amount was


weighed as required for different analysis. Five samples of
each type of fruit juices were selected for measurement.

Any systematic analysis of nutritional compositions of


fruit juices has not launched yet in Bangladesh. Moreover,
there are various types of fruit juices from different type
of fruits that are available in Bangladesh. These fruit
juices replaced some of our traditional foods, the nutritive
values of which are not yet to be determined. The physicochemical properties of the studied fruits are shown in
Table 1 and Table 2.
Most fruits and fruit juices are composed of 70% to
90% water [15]. The moisture content of studying fruit
juices ranged between 79.63 0.04 % and 88.10 0.02 %.
The high moisture content of these fruit juices gives great
impact on energy density (amount of energy in a given
weight of food (kcal/g)) as water adds substantial weight
to the food without adding energy and this may give the

2.1. Sample Collection

2.3. Determination
Properties

of

Physico-Chemical

The pH was determined with a digital pH meter and


titratable acidity was estimated with the visual acid-base
method [7]. The moisture content was determined by the
digital moisture analyzer. The total soluble solid (TSS)
was determined with a hand refract-meter [8]. Crude fiber,
total fat was determined by the standard AOAC method [9]
and the estimation of total protein was made by the
method of Ronald and Ronald [10]. The content of total

American Journal of Food and Nutrition

consumers a better satiety without increase their energy


intake [16].
The pH of selected fruit juices varied from 3.00 0.05
to 3.50 0.10. The lowest amount of titratable acidity was
found in sample X, 0.12 0.002%. Generally, higher TSS
indicates more sugar in the pulp. The more ripe the fruits
the more amount of sugar in fruit juices [15]. According to
Norman, the sugar content of fruit and fruit juices ranges
between 2% and 30% [8]. The total soluble solids (TSS)
among ten different fruit juices were in the range of 10.50
0.30% to 17.50 0.40%. This range is similar to the
results found by Haque et al. [15].
In this study, it was found that dietary fiber ranges from
0.06 0.03 g to 0.17 0.05 g. The recommended daily
dietary fiber intake is 28 g/day for adult women and 36
g/day for adult men [17]. Macronutrients consist of
protein, carbohydrate and fat which converted into energy,
and used by the body for essential functions and when
performing physical activities [18]. Carbohydrate content
of fruit juices is less concentrated than cereals because of
their high water content. Fruit juices rich in carbohydrate
provide a high amount of energy. Sample VIII showed the

58

highest amount of energy, 80.81 0.33 Kcal due to its


high carbohydrate content of 19.87 0.001 g. Carbohydrate
foods provide energy to the body and on the other hand it
influence our blood glucose level. An important concept
regarding this is the glycaemic index (GI). A high GI diet
results in a high release of glucose in the blood after
consumption of food, while a low GI diet results in a slow
release of the glucose in the blood. It is important to
mention that a diet with low GI and high fiber content is
associated with the feeling of satiety to last longer and
hence the risk of over consumption will decrease. [19] Fat
and protein content of fruit juices is not greater than 1%
and 3.5%, respectively [8] and the findings of these results
are similar to the previous result. Proteins, specifically
amino acids play an important role to regulate the
pancreatic -cell differentiation, replication and insulin
secretion [20]. The amount of total ash (mineral) present
in selected fruit juices were ranges between 0.002 0.002
g to 0.42 0.002 g. Gardner et al. observed that the total
content of mineral salt as ash in fruit juices varied from
0.2% to 1.5% [21]. The range is more or less similar to the
present study.

Table 1. Physico-chemical properties of studied fruit juices


Sample

Sample I

Moisture content (%)


a

pH

Titratable acidity (%)


a

85.33 0.01

3.5 0.08

0.25 0.001

TSS (%)

RS (g)

TS (g)

2.52 0.04

7.97 0.05

12.00 0.90

6.54 0.04

Sample II

85.18 0.01

3.5 0.07

0.19 0.01

13.00 0.80

4.15 0.05

Sample III

85.70 0.05a

3.5 0.05a

0.57 0.002

12.00 0.85b

3.98 0.01

8.29 0.20a

Sample IV

86.20 0.02a

3.5 0.07b

0.38 0.01

11.10 0.76a

2.74 0.04

6.90 0.40b

Sample V

84.83 0.09b

3.2 0.06b

0.32 0.02

12.00 0.87b

6.14 0.36ab

8.64 0.05

Sample VI

86.90 0.01

3.3 0.04

0.25 0.001

10.90 0.41

10.96 0.16

9.43 0.70c

Sample VII

88.10 0.02a

3.3 0.04a

0.96 0.02

10.50 0.30c

4.72 0.12a

5.78 0.28a

Sample VIII

79.63 0.04a

3.5 0.10c

0.32 0.02

17.50 0.40c

3.45 0.05a

5.60 0.31a

0.45 0.01

12.10 0.10

6.14 0.03

8.64 0.05

6.09 0.01

10.96 0.25a

Sample IX
Sample X

85.04 0.04

3.0 0.05

ab

84.38 0.10

3.3 0.03

ab

0.12 0.002

12.50 0.50

Note: Results were expressed as mean values standard deviation and values followed by different letters are significantly (p<0.05) different from each
other.
Table 2. Physico-chemical properties of studied fruit juices
Sample

Crude Fiber (g)

Total Carbohydrate (g)

Total Energy (Kcal)

Total Protein (%)

Total Fat (g)

Ash (g)

Sample I

0.06 0.03

14.50 0.002

58.58 0.38a

0.08 0.01

0.02 0.001

0.16 0.04

Sample II

0.17 0.05a

14.46 0.09a

58.53 0.29b

0.07 0.01

0.04 0.04

0.07 0.002

Sample III

0.15 0.02

13.86 0.08a

56.92 0.19c

0.07 0.02

0.13 0.05a

0.08 0.05a

13.70 0.001

ab

0.04 0.01

0.04 0.02

0.01 0.002

Sample IV

N.D.

55.35 0.90

abc

Sample V

0.11 0.02

14.96 0.09

60.09 0.49

Sample VI

0.08 0.01

12.65 0.15b

50.97 0.23b

Sample VII

N.D.

11.39 0.03

0.06 0.01

0.005 0.001

0.03 0.006

0.06 0.007a

0.01 0.003

0.29 0.05a

abc

0.05 0.02

0.04 0.01

0.42 0.002

0.12 0.003

0.09 0.02

0.28 0.05a

0.19 0.001

0.002 0.006a

0.29 0.01

0.09 0.04

0.03 0.002

0.002 0.002

46.12 0.52

Sample VIII

N.D.

19.87 0.001

80.81 0.33

Sample IX

0.13 0.03

14.33 0.02

58.13 0.62abc

0.14 0.03

Sample X

15.33 0.12

61.97 0.12

Note: Results were expressed as mean values standard deviation and values followed by different letters are significantly (p<0.05) different from each
other, N.D. = Not Detected.

3.2. Vitamin-C and Trace Elements


Vitamin-C and trace-element content of the studied
fruit juices is revealed in Table 3. Vitamin C, a water
soluble vitamin and is a monosaccharide oxidationreduction catalyst found in both plants and animals. It is

also known as ascorbic acid and has antioxidant and free


radicals scavenging activities and plays an important role
in the prevention of many diseases. The structure of
vitamin C is shown in Figure 1. As humans cannot
produce this in their body so they have to obtain this from
the diet [22,23].

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American Journal of Food and Nutrition

In this study it was observed that sample VI is a rich


source of vitamin C (ascorbic acid), 325 0.01 mg. The
North American Dietary Reference Intake recommends 90
mg/day and no more than 2 g (2,000 milligrams) of
vitamin C per day [19]. Vitamin C reacts with oxidants
present in cell cytosol and blood plasma. It is also needed
for the conversion of procollagen to collagen by oxidizing
proline residues to hydroxyproline. In other cells, it is
maintained in its reduced form by reaction with
glutathione, which can be catalyzed by protein disulfide
isomerase and glutaredoxins [24]. Vitamin C improves
heme iron absorption in the gut as well as regulates
cellular iron uptake and metabolism. Ascorbate modulate
iron metabolism in the gut by stimulating ferritin synthesis,
decreasing cellular iron efflux and inhibiting lysosomal
ferritin degradation [25]. A recent study in mice shows

that vitamin C plays a protective role against alcoholic


liver injuries through regulating the iron metabolismrelated gene expression [26].

Figure 1. Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)

Table 3. Vitamin-C and trace-element content of the studied fruit juices


Vitamin-C and Trace Elements Content
Trace Elements
Sample
n
Vitamin-C (mg)
Copper (mg)
Iron (mg)
Zinc (mg)
Manganese (mg)
Sample I
5
15.00 0.90a
0.006 0.001
0.182 0.002
0.274 0.002
N.D.
Sample II
5
20.00 0.50b
0.007 0.004
0.799 0.001
0.083 0.001
N.D.
Sample III
5
25.00 0.50b
0.005 0.07
0.250 0.003
0.057 0.01
N.D.
Sample IV
5
5.00 0.20c
0.005 0.004
0.032 0.001
0.22 0.02
N.D.
Sample V
5
100.00 0.05ab
0.072 0.01
0.322 0.002
0.206 0.04a
N.D.
Sample VI
5
325.00 0.01
0.034 0.001
0.094 0.004
0.034 0.004
N.D.
Sample VII
5
225.00 0.03
0.014 0.002
0.082 0.001
0.133 0.08b
N.D.
Sample VIII
5
10.00 0.01
N.D.
0.173 0.002
0.044 0.003
N.D.
Sample IX
5
15.00 0.05ab
0.032 0.06a
0.051 0.005
0.024 0.0001
N.D.
Sample X
5
20.00 0.03
0.029 0.002
0.048 0.001
0.183 0.004
N.D.
Note: Results were expressed as mean values standard deviation and values followed by different letters are significantly (p<0.05) different from each
other, N.D. = Not Detected.

Oxygen can be a highly reactive molecule by producing


reactive oxygen species which damages living organisms
while antioxidants work to prevent oxidative damage to
cellular components such as DNA, proteins and lipids.
Generally antioxidants work either by preventing these
reactive species from being formed or by removing them
before they can damage vital components of the cell. On
the other hand, these reactive oxygen species also have
some beneficial cellular functions, such as redox signaling.
In this context, the function of antioxidant systems is not
to remove oxidants completely, but instead to keep them
at a balanced level [24].

Figure 2. Antioxidant mechanism of vitamin C

A good antioxidant should offer protection against the


oxidation (loss of electrons) by the transfer of electrons to
the oxidised molecules to reduce them and restore a nonoxidised and non-toxic environment [27]. In addition, a
good antioxidant should not be toxic in its own oxidised
form, and it should be capable of regenerating itself to
recover its electrons from another source. In this context,
ascorbic acid works as an excellent antioxidant. For
example, the oxidised form of ascorbic acid,
monodehydroascorbate radical is a very stable molecule

which can be turned into another non-radical molecule


dehydroascorbate as shown in Figure 2 [28].
Trace elements are any substance that when present at
low concentration compared to those of an oxidisable
substrate significantly delays or prevents oxidation of that
substrate. Trace elements protect the cell from oxidative
damage as these minerals are the cofactor of antioxidant
enzymes. Copper, manganese and zinc are necessary for
superoxide dismutases in both cytosol and mitochondria.
Iron is a constituent of catalase, a hemeprotein, which
catalyzes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide [23].
Antioxidant functions are associated with decreased DNA
damage, diminished lipid peroxidation, maintained
immune function and inhibited malignant transformation
of cells [29].
The trace elements that were found in selected fruit
samples are copper, iron, manganese and zinc. The highest
amount of copper was found in sample V, 0.07 0.01 mg.
The highest amount of zinc and iron was found in sample
I and II, 0.27 0.002 mg and 0.79 0.001 mg
respectively. Manganese was not detected in the selected
samples. These minerals are also called micro-minerals
which also worked as antioxidants, and are required in
amounts less than 100 mg/day. Recommended Dietary
Allowance (RDA) for copper is 900 g/day for both adult
male and female [30]. Most fruits and fruit juices contain
a small amount of copper ranging from 0.005 0.004 mg
to 0.072 0.01 mg. The U.S. recommended dietary
allowance (RDA) for zinc is listed by gender and age
group, the RDA for zinc (8 mg/day for adult women and
11 mg/day for adult men) appears sufficient to prevent

American Journal of Food and Nutrition

deficiency in most individuals [30]. The highest amount of


zinc was found 0.27 0.002 mg in the sample I and
lowest level found 0.02 0.0001 mg in sample IX. The
iron content of selected fruit juices were varied from 0.03
0.0001 mg to 0.79 0.001 mg. According to USDA, the
daily recommended intake of iron is 8 mg for adult male
and 18 mg for adult female. Thus, consumption of these
fruit juices can be suggested as a food based strategy to
alleviate or improve the unsatisfactory dietary iron intake
of adolescents.
Epidemiological studies suggest that consumption of
polyphenol-rich foods and beverages is associated with a
reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases, stroke and certain
types of cancer in which polyphenol is linked to the
antioxidant properties [31]. In Europe, apple juice is a
highly-consumed product, in second place after orange
juice. Among the most important constituents of apple
juice are polyphonic that has the ability to increase its
anti-oxidant potential. Polyphenolics also affect lipid
metabolism [32] and the absorption of cholesterol [33].

60

The consumption of dietary trace-elements will help to


prevent free radical damage. Trace-elements have the
ability to scavenge free radicals by inhibiting the initiation
step or by interrupting the propagation step (oxidation of
lipid) and as a preventive antioxidants which slow down
the rate of oxidation by a number of actions [34].

3.3. Minerals
Minerals play an important role in maintaining proper
function and good health in the human body. According to
Hendricks, approximately 98% of the calcium (Ca) and
80% of the phosphorus (P) in the human body are found in
the skeleton [35]. Inadequate intake of minerals in the diet
is often associated with an increased susceptibility to
infectious diseases due to the weakening of the immune
system. Plants, animal foods and drinking water are an
important source of essential elements [36]. Table 4 shows
the mineral content of studied fruit juices.

Table 4. Mineral content of selected fruit juices


Minerals and Preservatives Content
Minerals
Sample
Sample I

n
5

Preservatives

Sodium (mg)

Potassium
(mg)

Calcium
(mg)

Magnesium
(mg)

Chromium
(mg)

Sodium Benzoate
(%)

Sulfur dioxide
(%)

6.75 0.001

7.92 0.002

7.39 0.001

2.16 0.12a

N.D.

0.04 0.03a

0.12 0.002

N.D.

0.06 0.001

0.16 0.02a

Sample II

36.89 0.002

11.45 0.001

13.67 0.002

Sample III

10.18 0.004

4.11 0.02a

3.42 0.003

1.36 0.04

N.D.

0.06 0.001

0.01 0.003

Sample IV

8.59 0.002

0.25 0.003

2.38 0.01

0.94 0.002

N.D.

0.10 0.01a

0.16 0.02a

8.67 0.003

5.88 0.001

2.82 0.21

N.D.

0.06 0.002

0.08 0.01

7.88 0.003

1.96 0.11

N.D.

0.04 0.01

0.09 0.04a

12.68 0.03a

7.46 0.42c

N.D.

0.06 0.001

0.07 0.001

3.11 0.001

1.39 0.003

N.D.

0.02 0.001

0.08 0.02a

Sample V

Sample VI

7.32 0.006

5.90 0.02

Sample VII

14.17 0.005a

12.39 0.002

6.14 0.33

5.79 0.20

Sample VIII

8.59 0.005

3.66 0.04

Sample IX

5.53 0.007b

2.43 0.003

8.03 0.02

3.42 0.03

N.D.

0.04 0.01

0.09 0.02a

Sample X

21.71 0.002

7.94 0.001

7.61 0.002

1.86 0.001

N.D.

0.03 0.02a

0.12 0.002

Note: Results were expressed as mean values standard deviation and values followed by different letters are significantly (p<0.05) different from each
other, N.D. = Not Detected.

These fruit juices were also enriched with minerals like


sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and chromium.
Sodium content of selected fruit juices were ranged
between 5.53 0.007 mg and 36.89 0.002 mg per 100g
of edible portion. Sodium variability of fruits sometimes
relies on soil sodium, black soil contains a fair amount of
sodium [37]. Among the fruit juices analyzed, the highest
quantity of potassium was found in sample VII, 12.39
0.002 mg. For the healthy adult, the RDA for sodium and
potassium intake is not more than 2,400 mg and 4700 mg
respectively per day [17]. The highest amount of calcium
was found in sample II, 13.67 0.002 mg. Calcium with
the name of super nutrient has been proven clinically
associated with reduced risk of various non-communicable
diseases such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular diseases and
it also helps to reduce colorectal cancer risk by promoting
the apoptosis in human colorectal epithelium that reduce
colorectal neoplasm [37]. The highest amount (7.46 0.42
mg/100 g) of magnesium was found in sample VII. The
amount of chromium was not detected in studied fruit
juices.
Micronutrient deficiency is a common occurrence not
only in developing countries but also in developed countries.
According to WHO (World Health Organization), iodine,

iron and vitamin A deficiency are the most widespread


micronutrient deficiencies which in together affects about
one third of the worlds population. [38] The best way to
deal with this is to take foods rich in micronutrients. But
this is not possible for all and hence comes the option of
food fortification which is a nice way to fight against
micronutrient deficiency diseases. The main motive of
food fortification is to provide nutrients so that it will help
to trim down nutritional deficiency diseases. None of the
fruit juices studied in this experiment were fortified. Food
fortification can be of two types as mandatory and
voluntary. Mandatory fortification is that fortification
(addition of nutrients) which is mandatory for the
producers to add nutrients according to the regulation.
Fortification of salt with iodine is the best example of
mandatory fortification which helps to fight against the
disease called goiter. On the other hand, voluntary
fortification is that type of fortification which is permitted
by the law but it completely depends on the producers
whether to fortify or not [39].
Addition of nutrients to food is necessary to assist trade
of the product and nowadays it is a profitable way of
earning money for the producers. A double-blind placebocontrolled study was conducted on 1000 children and

61

American Journal of Food and Nutrition

woman in China to assess the effectiveness and efficiency


of iron fortified soy sauce. The study results revealed that
the daily intake of 5 mg iron with fortified sauce was
reported to cure iron deficiency disease called anemia and
the positive effects were observed within 3 months [38].
It is important for the producers to think about the issue
that this fortification should not cross the tolerable upper
limit (UL) for the consumers considering the intake of this
nutrient from other sources. The Codex Alimentarius
Commission (CAC) of Food and Agricultural
Organization (FAO) has adopted few principles for the
addition of nutrients to foods. According to these
principles, the addition of nutrients to food should not
result in an adverse effect on the metabolism of any other
nutrients; it should not shorten the shelf-life of the product
and also it should not impart any undesirable
characteristics of the food. According to the regulation, all
the responsibility regarding fortification belongs to the
producer and the producer have to confirm that the level
of food fortification should not cross the UL for the
consumer which in turn may show adverse health effects
for the consumers. [40] Also, manufacturers have to think
about the proper vehicle for food fortification as well as
the availability of micronutrients at the end of products
shelf life and of course the influence of different storage
conditions. As fortification is a nice way to attract
consumers; so it is important that correct labeling should
be practiced to avoid misleading and regulatory authorities
have to be more careful in case of fortification especially
for the case of voluntary fortification. Regulatory
authorities should be more proactive to prevent
fraudulence of fortification and they should confirm that
the consumers will not be misguided by wrong
advertisement and confusing label used on the product.
Meanwhile, consumption of excessive micronutrients is
not good for health and should be avoided. European Food
Safety Authority (EFSA) reported that the excessive
intake of a micronutrient has adverse effects where it can
be stored in the body may cause toxicity and other health
hazards [41].

3.4. Preservatives
The selected samples were tested for sodium benzoate
and sulfur dioxide, which acts as preservatives. Benzoic
acid and its salts are used as a food preservative
represented by the E-numbers E210, E211, E212, and

E213. Benzoic acid inhibits the growth of mold, yeast and


some bacteria. The efficacy of benzoic acid and benzoate
is thus dependent on the pH of the food. Sodium benzoate
is most suitable for use as an antimicrobial agent in foods
and beverages which naturally are in the pH range below
4.5 %; it is not recommended as a preservative at pH
ranges higher than 4.5. Sodium benzoate content of
selected fruit juices were varied from 0.02 0.001 mg to
0.10 0.01 mg. Sulfur preservatives, such as sulphites and
Sulfur di-oxide inhibit the growth of microorganisms and
prevent discoloration of fruit juices. Sulfur di-oxide
content of selected fruit juices were varied from 0.07
0.001 mg to 0.16 0.02 mg. Checking food labels for
sulphites, sulfur dioxide and E-numbers in the range of
220-228 is helpful; however, companies are only required
to list sulphites as an ingredient when the amount is above
10 mg/liter or 10 ppm. The problems include stomach ache, hives, bronchospasm and even anaphylactic shock.

3.5. Heavy Metals


Nowadays some growers as well as traders in
Bangladesh are commercially using some chemicals,
namely Ripen, Gold-Plus, Profit etc. for the ripening of
fruits which ultimately come into the juices made of those
fruits. Childrens are the foremost consumers of fruit
juices and they are at particular risk of the harmful side
effects of food adulteration, which may lead to serious
liver and kidney diseases including various forms of
cancer and hepatitis [42]. Heavy metals are harmful and
become toxic to health if they are taken above the limit of
daily dietary allowance recommended. The heavy metals
content of the studied fruit juices is given away in Table 5.
Among the fruit juices analyzed, the highest amount of
aluminum was found in sample II; 21.56 0.02 mg and
the lowest amount of aluminum was found in sample VII,
0.03 0.001 mg. The European Food Safety Authority
(EFSA) has established for the lifelong intake of
aluminum a tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 1 milligram
(mg) per kilogram body weight [43]. Elevated aluminum
level in fruit juice may caused by the incorrect storage of
juices in aluminum containers that were not coated with
varnish. As aluminum is dissolved by acid-containing and
Salt-containing food, the metal was able to migrate to the
juice. Arsenic, mercury, lead, tin and cadmium were not
found in selected samples.

Table 5. Heavy metals content of the studied fruit juices


Heavy Metals Content
Sample

Aluminum (mg)

Arsenic (mg)

Mercury (mg)

Led (mg)

Tin (mg)

Cadmium (mg)

Sample I

18.56 0.01a

N.D.

N.D.

N.D.

N.D.

N.D.

Sample II

21.56 0.02

N.D.

N.D.

N.D.

N.D.

N.D.

Sample III

12.86 0.002

N.D.

N.D.

N.D.

N.D.

N.D.

Sample IV

5.07 0.001

N.D.

N.D.

N.D.

N.D.

N.D.

Sample V

0.47 0.003

N.D.

N.D.

N.D.

N.D.

N.D.

Sample VI

9.81 0.002

N.D.

N.D.

N.D.

N.D.

N.D.

Sample VII

0.03 0.0003

N.D.

N.D.

N.D.

N.D.

N.D.

Sample VIII

7.38 0.01

N.D.

N.D.

N.D.

N.D.

N.D.

Sample IX

8.05 0.04ab

N.D.

N.D.

N.D.

N.D.

N.D.

Sample X

0.69 0.003

N.D.

N.D.

N.D.

N.D.

N.D.

American Journal of Food and Nutrition

62

Note: Results were expressed as mean values standard deviation and values followed by different letters are significantly (p<0.05) different from each
other, N.D. = Not Detected.
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