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You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1426 which are based on Reading Passage 2

speaking countries were by no means

exempt - although the widespread use of
English as an alternative language made
them less open to the charge of

The discovery that language can be a
barrier to communication is quickly
made by all who travel, study, govern or
sell. Whether the activity is tourism,
research, government, policing, business,
or data dissemination, the lack of a
common language can severely impede
progress or can halt it altogether.
'Common language' here usually means
a foreign language, but the same point
applies in principle to any encounter
with unfamiliar dialects or styles within a
single language. 'They don't talk the
same language' has a major metaphorical
meaning alongside its literal one.
Although communication problems of
this kind must happen thousands of
times each day, very few become public
knowledge. Publicity comes only when a
failure to communicate has major
consequences, such as strikes, lost orders,
legal problems, or fatal accidents - even,
at times, war. One reported instance of
communication failure took place in
1970, when several Americans ate a
species of poisonous mushroom. No
remedy was known, and two of the
people died within days. A radio report
of the case was heard by a chemist who
knew of a treatment that had been
successfully used in 1959 and published
in 1963. Why had the American doctors
not heard of it seven years later?
Presumably because the report of the
treatment had been published only in
journals written in European languages
other than English.
Several comparable cases have been
reported. But isolated examples do not

give an impression of the size of the

problem something that can come only
from studies of the use or avoidance of
foreign-language materials and contacts
in different communicative situations. In
the English-speaking scientific world, for
example, surveys of books and
documents consulted in libraries and
other information agencies have shown
that very little foreign-language material
is ever consulted. Library requests in the
field of science and technology showed
that only 13 per cent were for foreign
language periodicals. Studies of the
sources cited in publications lead to a
similar conclusion: the use of foreignlanguage sources is often found to be as
low as 10 per cent.
The language barrier presents itself in
stark form to firms who wish to market
their products in other countries. British
industry, in particular, has in recent
decades often been criticised for its
linguistic insularity for its assumption
that foreign buyers will be happy to
communicate in English, and that
awareness of other languages is not
therefore a priority. In the 1960s, over
two-thirds of British firms dealing with
non-English-speaking customers were
using English for outgoing
correspondence; many had their sales
literature only in English; and as many as
40 per cent employed no-one able to
communicate in the customers'
languages. A similar problem was
identified in other English-speaking
countries, notably the USA, Australia
and New Zealand. And non-English-

The criticism and publicity given to

this problem since the 1960s seems to
have greatly improved the situation.
industrial training schemes have
promoted an increase in linguistic and
cultural awareness. Many firms now have
their own translation services; to take just
one example in Britain, Rowntree
Mackintosh now publish their
documents in six languages (English,
French, German, Dutch, Italian and
Xhosa). Some firms run part-time
language courses in the languages of the
countries with which they are most
involved; some produce their own
technical glossaries, to ensure
consistency when material is being
translated. It is now much more readily
appreciated that marketing efforts can be
delayed, damaged, or disrupted by a

failure to take account of the linguistic

needs of the customer.
The changes in awareness have been
most marked in English-speaking
countries, where the realisation has
gradually dawned that by no means
everyone in the world knows English
well enough to negotiate in it. This is
especially a problem when English is not
an official language of public
administration, as in most parts of the
Far East, Russia, Eastern Europe, the
Arab world, Latin America and Frenchspeaking Africa. Even in cases where
foreign customers can speak English
quite well, it is often forgotten that they
may not be able to understand it to the
required level - bearing in mind the
regional and social variation which
permeates speech and which can cause
major problems of listening
comprehension. In securing
understanding, how 'we' speak to 'them'
is just as important, it appears, as how
'they' speak to 'us'.

Questions 14-17
Complete each of the following statements (Questions 14-17) with words taken from Reading
Passage 2.
Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 14-17 on your answer sheet.

Language problems may come to the attention of the public when they have
, such as fatal accidents or social problems.


Evidence of the extent of the language barrier has been gained from
of materials used by scientists such as books and


An example of British linguistic insularity is the use of English for materials such as


An example of a part of the world where people may have difficulty in negotiating
English is

Questions 18-20
Choose the appropriate letters A-D and write them in boxes 18-20 on your answer sheet.

According to the passage, 'They don't talk the same language' (paragraph 1), can refer
to problems in ...
A . understanding metaphor.
learning foreign languages.
C understanding dialect or style.
D dealing with technological change.


The case of the poisonous mushrooms (paragraph 2) suggests that American doctors .


should pay more attention to radio reports.

only read medical articles if they are in English.
are sometimes unwilling to try foreign treatments.
do not always communicate effectively with their patients.

According to the writer, the linguistic insularity of British businesses ...


later spread to other countries.

had a negative effect on their business.
is not as bad now as it used to be in the past.
made non-English-speaking companies turn to other markets.

Questions 21-24
LIST the four main ways in which British companies have tried to solve the problem of the
language barrier since the 1960s.
Write your answers in boxes 21-24 on your answer sheet.
Questions 25 and 26
Choose the appropriate letters A-D and write them in boxes 25 and 26 on your answer sheet.
25 According to the writer, English-speaking people need to be aware that...

some foreigners have never met an English-speaking person.

many foreigners have no desire to learn English.
foreign languages may pose a greater problem in the future.
English-speaking foreigners may have difficulty understanding English.

26 A suitable title for this passage would be ...


Overcoming the language barrier

How to survive an English-speaking world
Global understanding - the key to personal progress
The need for a common language

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40 which are based on Reading Passage 3
on the following pages.

Questions 27-30
Reading Passage 3 has seven paragraphs A-G.
From the list of headings below choose the most suitable headings for paragraphs B-E.
Write the appropriate numbers (i-viii) in boxes 27-30 on your answer sheet.
NB There are more headings than paragraphs, so you will not use them all.

List of Headings

A truly international environment


Once a port city, always a port city


Good ports make huge profits


How the port changes a city's

What Is a Port City?

The port city provides a fascinating and rich understanding of the movement of people
and qoods around the world. We understand a port as a centre of land-sea exchange,
and as a major source of livelihood and a major force for cultural mixing. But do ports
all produce a range of common urban characteristics which justify classifying port cities
toqether under a single generic label? Do they have enough in common to warrant
distinguishing them from other kinds of cities ?
A A port must be distinguished from a harbour. They are two very different things. Most
ports have poor harbours, and many fine harbours see few ships. Harbour is a physical
concept, a shelter for ships; port is an economic concept, a centre of land-sea
exchange which requires good access to a hinterland even more than a sea-linked
foreland. It is landward access, which is productive of goods for export and which
demands imports, that is critical. Poor harbours can be improved with breakwaters and
dredging if there is a demand for a port. Madras and Colombo are examples of
harbours expensively improved by enlarging, dredging and building breakwaters.



for the decline of ports

Relative significance of trade and service


Paragraph A


Paragraph B

28 Paragraph C
29 Paragraph D

Paragraph E


Ports and harbours


The demands of the oil industry


B Port cities become industrial, financial and service centres and political capitals
because of their water connections and the urban concentration which arises there and
later draws to it railways, highways and air routes. Water transport means cheap access,
the chief basis of all port cities. Many of the world's biggest cities, for example,
London, New York, Shanghai, Istanbul, Buenos Aires, Tokyo, Jakarta, Calcutta,
Philadelphia and San Francisco began as ports - that is, with land-sea exchange as
their major function - but they have since grown disproportionately in other respects
so that their port functions are no longer dominant. They remain different kinds of
places from non-port cities and their port functions account for that difference.
C Port functions, more than anything else, make a city cosmopolitan. A port city is open
to the world. In it races, cultures, and ideas, as well as goods from a variety of places,
jostle, mix and enrich each other and the life of the city. The smell of the sea and the
harbour, the sound of boat whistles or the moving tides are symbols of their multiple
links with a wide world, samples of which are present in microcosm within their own
urban areas.
D Sea ports have been transformed by the advent of powered vessels, whose size and
draught have increased. Many formerly important ports have become economically
and physically less accessible as a result. By-passed by most of their former enriching
flow of exchange, they have become cultural and economic backwaters or have
acquired the character of museums of the past. Examples of these are Charleston,
Salem, Bristol, Plymouth, Surat, Galle, Melaka, Soochow, and a long list of earlier
prominent port cities in Southeast Asia, Africa and Latin America.