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# ELECTRICITY: form of energy generated by friction, induction, or chemical change

## MOTORS: converts electrical energy to mechanical energy

TRANSFORMERS: transforms one voltage to another
Step-Up Transformer: 110/120V to 220/240V
Step-Down Transformer: 220/240V to 110/120V
ROTARY CONVERTER: converts AC to DC, and vice versa
AC (Alternating Current): periodically varying in time rate and direction
DC (Direct Current): constant in time rate and direction (e.g., battery)
UNITS
-

Quantity:
o
Coulomb: 6.25 x 1018 electrons
o
Ampere: 1 coulomb / second (through given section)
Electric Potential:
o
Volt: electromotive force or potential

## Voltmeter: measures EMF, parallel to the circuit

Resistance:
o
Ohm: resistance allowing 1 amp
o
Electric Power: time rate of doing work
o
Watt: measuring unit
Energy:
o
Watt-hours
o
Ampere: unit of strength of electric current

## OHMS LAW: I = V/R

I = amp, V = volt, R = ohms, W = watts, I = amperes
BUILDING CIRCUITS
Branch Circuit: complete conducting path carrying current from source
o
Grounding wire for excess electricity: green
o
Neutral wire (always on): white
o
Types:

General Purpose

## Individual Circuit: for large loads (e.g., aircon, pumps, etc.)

Series Circuit: components connected in tandem, single path of current flow
Parallel Circuit: current divides them
Low Voltage
SERVICE: supply of utilites
Substation: auxiliary power system where voltage is stepped up or down
o
Service Drop: overhead portion of service conductors
o
Service Lateral: underground portion of service conductors
Service Entrance Conductor: service drop / lateral service entrance
Transformer Vault: fire-rated room housing the transformer
Switchgear Room: contains building service equipment
Switchboard: group of panels with mounted switches, etc.

Unit Substation: free standing enclosure housing disconnect switch (solid copper)
o
Feeder

## LINE SIDE: from supply side

LIGHTNING ROD (air terminal): conducting rods at top of the structure that diverts lighting
3/8 solid copper rod
LIGHTNING ARRESTER: device for protecting electrical equipment from lightning damage
SPARK GAP: space between two terminals or electrodes
PANEL BOARDS (cut-outs): control and protect subfeeders and branch circuits
ELECTRICAL MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT
Conductors: bare (no covering), covered (encased with non-recognized materials), insulated

## CABLE: larger than wire

CABLE TYPES
Armored Cable (AC): enclosed in flexible metal sheath, for BX wiring
Metal Clad Cable (MC): each individual enclosed in metal sheath
Mineral Insulated Cable (MI): highly compressed refractory mineral, made of
compacted magnesium oxide
Non-Metallic Sheathed Cable (NM/NMC): moisture-resistant flame-retardant
copper or aluminum wire with paper or vinyl covering
Shielded NMC (SNM): extruded core, moisture-resistant and flame-retardant
Underground Feeder and Branch Circuit Cable (UF): moisture-resistant, for
underground
Service Entrance Cable (SE or USE): for service wire, single or multi-conductor
Flat Cable Assembly (FC) and Flat Conductor Cable (FCC): electronics and
fiber optics, for general purposes
Medium Voltage Cable (MV): for television, internet
Power and Control Tray Cable (TC): installation in cable trays or raceways

## INSULATORS: materials that prevent electrode flow

Thermoplastics: PVC and UPVC
Types:
o RHW: Moisture and Heat Resistant Rubber
o T: Thermoplastic
o TW: Moisture Resistant Thermoplastic
o THHN: Heat Resistant Thermoplastic with Nylon
o THW: Moisture and Heat Resistant Thermoplastic
o THWN: Moisture and Heat Resistant Thermoplastic with Nylon
o XHHW: Moisture and Heat Resistant Crosslinked Thermosetting
Polyethylene
o SA: Silicon Asbestos
o AVA: Asbestos and Varnish Cambric
o UF: Underground Feeder
CONDUITS: circular raceways used to enclose wired and cables
STEEL CONDUIT TYPES
Rigid Steel Conduit (RSC): 0.017mm, best material for conduit
Intermediate Metal Conduit (IMC): 0.071mm, larger inside diameter
Electrical Metal Tubing

RACEWAY: holds wires, cables or busbars; metal or plastic (PVC electrical molding)
OUTLET: point at wiring system where current is taken
Power outlet and lighting outlet
RECEPTACLE: wiring device where equipment is plugged into
WALL PLATE / FACE PLATE: cover for switches or outlets
OVERCURRENT CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES: protecting the apparatus from
overheating or burning
CIRCUIT BREAKER: functions as switch, breaks a circuit with an automatic tripping
device
GROUND FAULT CIRCUIT INTERRUPTOR: provides ground fault protection
WIRING METHODS
Knob and Tube Wiring: insulated conductors supported by porcelain knobs
and tubes
Rigid Metal Conduit Wiring: best and most expensive
Rigid Non-Metallic: UPVC
Flexible Metal Conduit Wiring
Surface Metal Raceway Wiring: wires are supported by thin sheet steel casing
Lighting Track
Cable Tray / Open Raceway

SWITCH TYPES
A. According to Duty

## - Normal Duty (ND)

- Heavy Duty (HD)
- Light Duty (LD)

D. According to Service

B. According to Operation
Mechanism

## C. According to No. of Poles

and Throws

- Rotary
- Push Button
- Toggle or tumbler

- Single Throw
- Double Throw

- Service Switch
- Power Switches
--- General Purpose
--- Disconnecting/ Isolating
- Wiring Switches
--- General Purpose
--- 3-way switch
--- 2-way switch
- Electrolier / Multi-circuit Switches
--- Momentary contact
--- Dimmer

E. Special Switches

- Time Controlled
- Remote Controlled
- Air Switch (clapper)
- Knife Switch
- Float Switch
- Mercury Switch
- Key Switch / Card Switch
- Automatic Transfer Switch

## ACOUSTICS: science of effects of sound on enclosed space

SOUND: human ears response to pressure fluctuations caused by vibration
Physical Qualities of Sound
Frequency (f): number of sound ripples per unit time
o unit = cycles/sec or Hertz
Speed (c): 344 m/sec, does not vary with frequency of sound or loudness
Wavelength (): C = f
o C = speed in m/time
o f = frequency in cycles/time
o = meters
Intensity: amount of sound power, unit = w/m2
Characteristics of Sound
Loudness: dB (sounds intensity level)
Pitch: frequency perceived by human ear

ACOUSTICAL DEFECTS
Prolonged Reverberation: due to reflective surfaces and/or large space
volume
Echo: reflection of original sound
Resonance: reinforcement of sound frequency due to sympathetic vibrations
Flutter Echo: rapid but repetitive succession of sounds
Undue Focusing: caused by concave surfaces