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Mood structure-When speaker interacts with other to exchange information or to reference their

behaviour and get things done,he adopts himself a certain role,such as questioner and in doing
so,assings a complemmentary role,such as informant to his addrese.Unless the conversation is
very one-sided,the roles at questioner and informant tend to alternate between the interlocutory
engaged in a conversation.
The clause is the major grammatical unit used by speakers to ask question,make statements and
issue directed.The exchange of information is typicaly carried out by the indicative mood as
opposite to directices which are typicaly expressed by the imperative.Whitin the indicative making
statements is typically associated with the declarative and asking questions with interogative.
Interpesonal meaning between speaker and hearer is expressed by choices from several different
areas of the language which include modality intonation and attitudional lexical items.
The three main illocutionary acts stating,questionary and commanding are typically realised in
English by variation in the order of one part of the clause called the mood element,while the rest
of the clause called residue,remains unchanged.
The main elements of structure,which together from the Mood element are Subject and
Finete.The structures of the declarative,interogative and imperative moods are manifested by the
presence or absence of Subject and the order in which the Subject and the Finite occur in relation
to each other:
Jane sings
Does Jane sing?
The most cases it is the whole predicator which precides the subject to signal the interogative
mood,but only the finite part of it.Finiteness is expressed either by the verbal operator or by the
simple Present and PAst tense of the lexical verb,including have,has,had,was,were;when thing
are used as main verbs.This can be shown whit examles from interogative and declarative
Declarative mood: Ben writes letters.
Ben has written latters.
Interogative mood: Does Ben write letters?
Has Ben written a letter?
Only finite independent clauses have mood.Neither subordinate clause or neither changes
present the alternative ordening of interpersonal interaction.We cannot say is a subordinate if
change for instance:* If are you sure insteand of If you are sure,also minor changes such as if
possible,admit no variation.
However eliptical structures such as It is,You can,,which consist Mood element only do have
alternative ordening of Subject +Finite (Is it,can you) these are called Abbreviated changes.
In conversational exchange in English,minor changes amd abbreviated changes play an
important part in their ability ti realise initiations.Initiations can be expressed moodless Whquestion with the illocutionary force of an initation => How about some linch? an encouragin
sugestion (why not give it another try?) anithing => Why this sudden urge to tidy up?Initiation can
also be expressed by subordinate clauses preseded by well.
Responces by means of subordinate clauses are frequently exclamation of regret => If we had
only thought of it earlier!
In the interactive event between speaker and hearer that's realised by an independent
change,there are two basic kinds of speech roles:that of giving and that of deamnting,the thing
that is given or demanded way be essentially linguistic one (information,opinion)or way be
essentially non-linguistic(giving money,asking or giving help) This comes under the label of gods
and need not be verbalis of all,but way be carried of as nin verbal as gesture typically,however
when god's are unchanged.When it is information which is reinforcing given,the realization of the
exchange is necessarly linguistic.
These illocutionary acts provide the speaker with options from which choose when initialing a
For Example one offer may be accepted or rejectes an may be undertaken or refused,futher
statement may be acting contradicted ,question may be as answered or not.
ex: Would you like a beer? Yes i would/No i wouldn't

Bring me a beer All right i will/I wont

This is a good beer. Yes it is/No it isn't
Whose is that beer? Mine/I dont know
The Finite element -serve to relate the positions to a point of reference by specifying either the
time reference by means of tense or the speaker's judgement by means of modality the
preposition can in this may be affirmed,questioned,hypothesised or denied.The possitive
(negative) are called polarity is an essential semantic feature associate with finiteness.Polarity
can be considered to belong to the interpersonal component of language,in so far as a negaive
clause often has the function of prior assertion.
In English Mood has to do whit clause types rather than verbinflection.It leaves the subjunctive
somewhat isolated,since the latter is not a clause type but a verb form it is more common in ame.
In independent clause,the subjunctive can express a wish,but only is old-fashioned stereotyped
expression such as "Long live the queen so be it!Heaven be praised!
A past subjanctive can be identified only in the first and thierd person sing. (If i were alive
today...) in sourdinate clauses of condition and concession.Most non factual notions,such as the
expressions of doubt and hypothesis are conveyed in English by ither lexicogrammatical
means,principally the modal auxiliances.
The feature exclamation is also closely linked with this topic and it express a degree of
emotionality a feature which can be present or absent whitin the basic moods if is only a feature!
Ex: It was a veru small cabinette!
What a small cabinette it was-emotionaly marked
What do you mean?
Whatever do you mean!
In English rather than distingushing simply between positive ans negative forms;estabilish a
previous distinction between positive and non-positive(assertive-non-assertive) forms.Assertive
words such as some occur typically assertive contex,these are expressed by positive declarative
changes and are distinguished by having a features factuality.Non-Assertive words such as any
occur in contec which are nin-possitive or non-assertive.These contain the feature of nonfactuality which is the feature of interogative,negative,conditional and comparative clauses.
Also,here it shuld be mentioned negation of clauses in English and be carried out in two ways:
1)by negating the finite element ,or the non-finite verb in a demendent clause.Negative
declarative typically express a negative statement,but they can also be used to ask question utter
exclamations and give commands.
ex.i dont think we'll get there in time(i think we wont)
i wouldnt know /i wouldnt like to say-used when we avoid to comment ourselves in opinion.THis
pragmatic function is called A Ledge.Interogative structures in English are of two main
parts:asking an answer which is Yes/No polar questions Ex: Can you swim?
Non-Polar question-asking for information refered to by the Wh-question ex: Where are you from?
A Futher type is the alternative interogative consisting two polar interogatives joyned by "or" ex:
Do you want it or dont you?The typicaly illocutionary act assisting with the interogative is that of
information from the....!
The basic structure of the imperative consist of the predicator -sit down! this can be preceded by
the finite "do" and the negative form "dont".A second person Subject (stressed you)can be added
ussualy for purpuses of contents with onother person
ex you sit down and i'll stand
In the imperative structure there may be mood element at all and ti consist only residue ex:Stop!