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People form an integral part of the organization. The efficiency and quality of its people
determines the fate of the organization. Hence choice of right people and placing them at right
place becomes essential. Hiring comes at this point of time in the picture. Hiring is a strategic
function for HR department. Recruitment and selection form the process of hiring the employees.
Recruitment is the systematic process of generating a pool of qualified applicant for

job. The process includes the step like HR planning attracting applicant and

screening them. This step is affected by various factors, which can be internal as well as
external. The organization makes use of various methods and sources for this purpose.

Selection is carried from the screen applicant during the recruitment process. There is also some
specific process is involved. By the way of conducting preliminary interview and conducting
the various test , if required reference check and further final interview is conducted.
During the process there are certain difficulties and barriers that are to be overcomes.
Different organization adopts different approaches and techniques for their employees.







Case Studies


Trends in Recruitment and Selection








Job description sample








IQ Distribution









Generations co-exist



Generations in work place






Job Style



Paradigm Shift






People are integral part of any organization today. No organization can run

without its human resources. In todays highly complex and competitive situation, choice of
right person at the right place has far reaching implications for an organizations functioning.
Employee well selected and well placed would not only contribute to the efficient running of
the organization but offer significant potential for future replacement. This hiring is an
important function. The process of hiring begins with human resource planning (HRP) which
helps to determine the number and type of people on organization needs. Job analysis and job
design enables to specify the task and duties of hobs and qualification expected from
prospective job HRP, job analysis, job design helps to identify the kind of people required in
an organization and hence hiring. It should be noted that hiring is an ongoing process and not
confined to formative stages of an organization. Employees leave the organization in search
of greener pastures, some retire and some die in the saddle. More importantly an enterprises
grows, diversifies, take over the other units all necessitating hiring of new men and women.
In fact the hiring function stops only when the organization ceases to exist.
Hiring involves two board activities:



The word recruitment has many meaning and plays an important role. Employees leave the
organization in search of greener pastures- some retire some die in saddle. The most important
thing is that enterprise grows, diversifies, and takes over other units-all necessitating hiring of
new men and women. In fact recruitment functions stop only when the organization ceases to
exist. To understand recruitment in simple terms it is understood as process of searching for
obtaining applications of job from among from whom the right people can be selected. To define
recruitment we can define it formally as it is a process of finding and attracting capable
applicants for employment. The process begins when new recruit are sought and ends when
their application are submitted. The result is a pool of applicants from which new employees are
selected. Theoretically, recruitment process is said to end with receipt of application in practice
the activity extends to the screening applicants as to eliminate those who are not qualified for
The general purpose of recruitment is to provide a pool of potentially qualified job candidates.
Specifically, the purposes are to:

Determine the present and future requirement of the organization in conjunction with its
personnel planning and job analysis activities;

Increase the job pool of job candidates at minimum cost;

Help increase the success rate of the selection process by reducing the number visibly
under qualified or job application;

Help reduce the probability that job applicants, once recruited selected, will leave the
organization only after a short period of time;

Meet the organizations legal and social obligation regarding the composition of its

Being identifying and preparing potential job applicants who will be appropriate

Increase organization individual effectiveness in the short term and long term and to
evaluate the effectiveness of various recruiting technique and sources for all types of job


There are a number of factors that affect recruitment. These are broadly classified into two
1. Internal factors
2. External factors


The internal factors also called as endogenous factors are the factors within the organization
that affect recruiting personnel in the organization.
Some of these are:Size of the organization
The size of the organization affects the recruitment process. Larger organization finds
recruitment less problematic than organization with smaller in size.
Recruiting policy
The recruitment policy of the organization i.e. recruiting from internal sources and external
sources also affect the recruitment process. Generally, recruitment through internal sources is
preferred, because own employees know the organization and they can well fit in to the
organization culture.
Image of the organization
Image of the organization is another factor having its influence on the recruitment process of the
organization. Good image of the organization earned by the number of overt and covert action by
management helps attract potential and complete candidates. Managerial actions like good public
relations, rendering public service like building roads, public parks, hospitals and schools help
earn image or goodwill for organization. That is why chip companies attract the larger numbers
of application.

Image of the job

Better remuneration and working conditions are considered the characteristics of good image of
a job. Besides, promotion and carrier development policies of organization also attract potential
Like internal factors, there are some factors external to organization, which have their influence
on recruitment process. Some of these are given below:Demographic factors
As demographics factors are intimately related to human beings, i.e. employees, these have
profound influence on recruitment process. Demographic factors include age, sex, Literacy,
economics status etc
Labor market
Labor market condition I.e. supply and demand of labor is of particular importance in affecting
recruitment process. E.g. if the demand for specific skill is high relative to its supply is more than
for particular skill, recruitment will be relatively easier.
Unemployment situation
The rate of unemployment is yet another external factor its influence on the recruitment process.
When the employment rate in an area is high, the recruitment process tends to simpler. The
reason is not difficult to seek. The number of application is expectedly very high which makes
easier to attract the best-qualified applications. The reserve is also true. With low rate of
unemployment, recruiting process tend to become difficult
Labor laws
There are several labor laws and regulations passed by the central and state governments that
govern different type of employment. These cover working condition, compensation, retirement
benefits, safety and health of employee in industrial undertakings.

The child Labour Act, 1986; for example prohibits employment of children in certain
employments. Similarly several other acts such as the Employment Exchange Act,1958; The
Apprentice Act, 1961; the Factory Act,1948; and The Mines Act, 1952 deal with recruitment.
Legal consideration
Another external factor is legal consideration with regard to employment reservation of jobs for
schedule tribes, and other backward class (OBC) is the popular examples of such legal
consideration. The supreme court of India has given its verdict in favor of 50 per cent of jobs and
seats. This is so in case admission in the educational institutions also.
There are two source of recruitment,

Internal Sources

External Sources


Present employees:
Promotions and transfer from among the present employees can be good sources of
recruitment. Promotion implies upgrading of an employee to a higher position carrying higher
status, pay and responsibilities. Promotion from among the present employees is advantageous
because the employees promoted are well acquainted with the organization culture, they get
motivated and it is cheaper also. Promotion from among the person employees also reduces the
requirement of job training. However, the disadvantage lies in limiting the choice of the few
people and denying hiring of outsiders who may be better qualified and skilled. Furthermore,
promotion from among present employees also results in inbreeding, which creates frustration
among those not promoted.
Transfer refers to shifting an employee from one job to another without any change in the
position/post, status and responsibilities. The need for transfer is felt to provide employees a
broader and carried base, which is considered necessary for promotion. Job rotation involves
transfer of employees from one job to another job on the lateral basis.

Former employees:
Former employees are another source of applicant for vacancies to be filled up in the
organization. Retired or retrenched employees may be interested to e come back the company to
work on the part time basis. Similarly, some former employees who had left the organization for
any reason, any come back to work. This source has the advantages of hiring people whose
performance is already known to the organization.
Employee referrals:
This is yet another internal source of recruitment. The existing employees refer to the family
members, friends and relatives to the company potential candidates for the vacancies to be filled
up in the organization. This source serves as the most effective methods of recruiting people in
the organizations because refer to those potential candidates who meet the company requirement
known to them from their own experience. The referred individuals are expected to be similar in
type in the of race and sex, for example, to those who are already working in the organization
Previous applicant:
This is considered as internal source in the sense that applications from the potential candidates
are already lying with organization. Sometimes the organization contacts though mail or
messengers these applicants to fill up the vacancies particularly for unskilled or semiskilled jobs.
Evaluation can be done in terms of advantages and disadvantages.
The advantages of the internal source of recruitment include the following:
Familiarity with own employees:
The organization has more knowledge and familiarity with the strengths and weaknesses of its
own employees than of strange on unknown outsiders.

Better use of the talent:

The policy of internal recruitment also provides an opportunity to the organization to make a
better use of talents internally available and to develop them further and further.

Economical recruitment:
In case of internal recruitment, the organization does not need to spend much money, time and
effort to locate and attract the potential candidates. Thus, internal recruitment proves to be
economical, or say, inexpensive.

Improves morale:
This method makes employees sure that they would be preferred over the outsiders as and when
they filled up in the organization vacancies.

A motivator:
The promotion through internal recruitment serves as a source of motivation for the employees to
improve their carrier and income. The employees feel that organization feel that organization is a
place where they can build up their life-long career. Besides, internal recruitment also serves as a
means of attracting and retaining employees in the organization.

The main drawback associated with the internal recruitment is as follows:

Limited choice:
Internal recruitment limits its choice to the talents available within the organization. Thus, it
denies the tapping of talents available in the vast labor market outside the organization.
Moreover, internal recruitment serves as a means for inbreeding, which is never healthy for the
future organizations.

Discourage competition:
In this system, the internal candidates are protected from competition by not giving opportunity
to otherwise competent candidates from outside the organization. This in turn, develops a
tendency among the employees to take the promotion without showing

extra performance.

Stagnation of skills:
With the feeling that internal candidates will surely get promoted, their skill in the
long run may become stagnant or obsolete. If so, productivity and sufficiency of the
organization, in turn, decreases.

Creates conflicts:
Conflicts and controversies surface among the internal candidates, whether or not they deserve


External sources of recruitment lie outside the organization. These outnumber internal sources.
The main ones are listed as follows:

Employment exchanges:
The national commission labor (1969) observed in its report that in the pre-independence era, the
main source of labor war rural areas surrounding the industries. Immediately after independence,
national employment services were established to bring employer and job seeker together. In
response to it, the compulsory notification of vacancies act of 1959 (Commonly called
employment exchange act) was instituted which become operative in 1960.the main functions of
these employment exchanges with the branches in most cities are registration of job seeker and
tier placement in the notified vacancies. It is obligatory for employer to inform about the
outcome of selection within 15 days to the employment exchange. Employment exchange is
particularly useful in recruiting blue-collar, white- collar and technical workers.


Employment agencies:
In addition to the government agencies, there are number of private agencies that register
candidates for employment and furnish a list of suitable candidates from the data bank as and
when sought by the prospective employer. Generally, these agencies select personnel for
supervisory and the higher levels. The main function of these agencies is to invite application
and short-list the suitable candidates for the organization. Of course, the representative of the
organization takes the final decision on selection. The employer organizations derive several
advantages through this source. The time saved in this method can be better utilized elsewhere
by the organization. As the organizational identity remains unknown to the job speakers, it, thus,
avoid receiving letters and attempts to influence.

This method of recruitment can be used for jobs like clerical, technical, and managerial. The
higher the position in the organization, the more specialized the skills or the shorter the supply of
that resources in the labour market, the more widely dispersed the advertisement are likely to be.
For instance, the search for a top executive might include advertisements in a national daily like
the Hindu. Some employers/companies advertise their post by giving them post box number of
the name of some recruiting agency. This is done to particular keep own identity secret to avoid
unnecessary correspondence with the applicants. However the disadvantage of these blind
advertisement, i.e., post box number is that the potential job seekers are the hesitant without
unknowing the image of the organization, on the one hand, and the bad image/ reputation that the
blind advertisement have received because of the organizations that placed such advertisements
without position lying vacant just to know supply of labor/ workers in the labor market, on the
other. While preparing advertisement, a lot of care has to be taken to make it clear and to the
point. It must ensure that some self-selection among applicant take place and only qualified
applicant responds the advertisement copy should be prepared by using a four-point guide called
AIDA . The letters in the acronym denote that advertisement should attract Attention, gain
Interest, arouse a Desire and result in action.


However, not many organizations mention complete detail about job positions in there









advertisements may generate a lot irrelevant application, which would, by necessity,

increasing the cost of processing them.
Professional Associations
Very often, recruitment for certain professional and technical positions is made through
professionals association also called Headhunters. Institute of Engineers, All India


etc., provide







professional associations prepare either list of jobseekers or publish or sponsor journal

or magazines containing advertisements for their member. It is particularly useful for
attracting highly skilled and professional personnel. However, in India, this is not a
very common practice and those few provide such kind service have not been able to
generating a large number of application.
Campus Recruitment
This is another source of recruitment. Though



is a common

phenomenon particularly in the American organizations, it has made rather recently. Of

late, some organizations such as HLL, HCL, L&T, Citibank, Cadbury ANZ Grind
lays, etc., in India have started visiting educational and training institute/ campuses for
recruitment purposes. Many Institutes have regular placement cells / offices to serve liaison
between the employer and the students. Tezpur Central University has one Deputy Director
(Training and Placement) for purpose of campus recruitment and placement.
The method of campus recruitment offers certain advantages to the employer organizations.
First, the most of the candidates are available at one place; second, the interviews are
arranged at short notice; third, the teaching is also

met; fourth, it gives them

opportunity to sell the organization to a large students body who would be graduating
subsequently. The disadvantages of this of recruitment are that organizations have to
limit their selection to only entry positions and they interview the candidates who
have similar education and experience, if at all.


Another source of recruitment is deputation I.e., sending an employees to another
organization for the short duration of two to three years. This method of recruitment is
practice in a pretty manner, in the Government department and public sector organization
does not have to incurred the initial cast of induction and training.

However, the

disadvantages of this of deputation is that deputation period of two/three year is not

enough for the deputed employee to provide employee to prove his/her mettle, on the one
hand, and develop commitment with organization to become part of it, on the other.

Some organizations in India also practice the word-of-mouth method of recruitment. In this
method , the word is passed around the vacancies or opening in the organization. Another
from of word-of-mouth method of employee-pinching i.e., the employee working in another
organization is offered by the rival organization. This method is economic, in terms of both
time and money. Some of the organization maintain a file applications and sent a bio-data
by a job seeker. These serve as a very handy as when there is vacancy in the organization. The
advantage of this method is no cost involved in recruitment. However, the disadvantages of
this method of recruitment are non- availability of the candidates when needed choice of
candidates is restricted to a too small number.

Raiding or Poaching:
This is another sources of recruitment whereby the rival firm by offering terms and
conditions, try to attract qualified employees to join the organisation. This raiding is a
common feature in the Indian organizations. For instance, service executive of HMT left to join
Titan Watch Company, so also exodus of pilot from Indian Airlines to join the private air taxi
operator. In fact, raiding has become challenge for the human resource manager.

Besides these, walk - ins, contractors, radio and television, acquisitions and merger, etc., art
some other sources of recruitment used by organization.



Like the internal source of recruitment, external sources are mixed of advantages and

ADVANTAGES:Open process
Being a more open process, it is likely to attract a large number of applicants/application. The, in
turn, widens it option of selection.

Availability of Talented Candidates

With the large pool of applicants, it becomes possible for organization to have talented
candidates from the outside. Thus, it introduces new blood in the organization.

Opportunity to Select the Best Candidate

With the large pool of applicants, selection process becomes competitive. This increases
prospects for selection the best candidates.

Provides healthy competition

As the external members are supposed to be more trained and efficient. With such a background,
they work with the positive attitude and greater vigor. This helps create healthy competition and
conductive work environment in the organization.

However, the external sources of recruitment suffer from certain disadvantages too, these are:

Expensive and time consuming:

This method of recruitment is both expensive and time consuming. There is no guarantee that
organization will get good and suitable candidates.


Unfamiliarity with the Organization:

As candidates some outside the organization, they are not familiar with tasks, job nature
and the international scenario of the organization.

Discourage the Existing Employee:

Existing employees are not sure to get promotion. This discourages them to do the hard work.
This, in turn, boils down to decreasing productivity of the organization.


The traditional philosophy of recruiting has been to get as many people to apply for a
job as possible. A large number of jobseekers waiting in queues would make the final
selection difficult, often resulting in wrong selection. Job dissatisfaction and employee
turnover are the consequence of this. A persuasive agreement can be made that matching the
needs of the organization to the needs of the applicants will enhance the effectiveness of the
recruitment process. The result will be a workforce which is likely to stay with the organization
longer and performs at a higher level of effectiveness. Two approaches are available to bring
about match. They are:

Realistic Job Preview (RJP)

Job Compatibility Questionnaire (JCQ)

Realistic Job Previews:

Realistic job preview provides complete job related information , both positive and
negative, to the applicants. The information provided will help job seekers to evaluate the
compatibility among the jobs and their personal ends before hiring decisions are made.
RJPs can result in self selection process- job applicant can decide where to attend the
interviews and tests for final selection or withdraw them the initial stage.
Research on realistic recruiting shows a lower rate of employee turnover in case of
employee recruited through RJPs, particularly for more complex jobs and higher level of
job satisfaction and performance, at the initial stage of employment. RJPs are more
beneficial for organization hiring at entry level, when there are unemployment. Otherwise
the approach may increase the cost of recruiting by increase the average time it takes to
fill each job.


Job Compatibility Questionnaire:

The job compatibility questionnaire was developed to determine whether applicant
preferences for work match the characteristics of the job. The JCQ is designed to collect
the information on aspect of a job, which has bearing on employee performance,
absenteeism, and turnover and job satisfaction. The underlying assumption of the JQC is
that greater the compatibility between an the jobseeker, the greater the profitability of
employee effectiveness and longer the tenure. The JCQ is a 400- item instrument that
measure job factors, which are related to performance, satisfaction, turnover and



the following

environment, customer characteristics,









compensation preference, task variety, job autonomy, physical demands, and work



The process of recruitment begins with the sending of the Job description by the company. The
job description comprises of the following requirements:

Position vacant
This very first point, clarifies to the recruiter, for which required position, the candidate is
needed. The recruiter then makes use of the data that is available to him, or creates new data of
the candidates. Thus, the recruiter can contact the person and can make him attend the scheduled
interview for the required post.

Examining the Job description

The Job description provided by the company tells the recruiter, the complete insight of the
position vacant and also provides the knowledge of what the company is seeking in the required
candidate. Understanding the complete JD (Job description) only can help the recruiter to move
to the next step. If the recruiter fails to understand the need of the company from the JD
provided, then all of the steps undertaken by the recruiter would turn out to be a failure.

Finding the required candidate

The major work of the recruiter begins here. The companies are loaded with many
responsibilities, due to which they put the pressure of the recruitment and selection of the
required candidates on a job consultancy firm. Since these firms basically, are into the business
of recruiting only, so they are having much broader aspect and determination for the access and
selection of the job seekers, plus the job providers.

Here, there are some major tools that a recruiter put to use to, in order to generate new data,
which comprises of the required candidates relevant to the given job description.
JOB PORTALS, usually called PORTALS, in midst of recruiters, are the major source of
providing the data required for the relative job description. The recruiter has the access to these
portals, by paying an amount to these portals. These portals contain the data of candidates from
almost every part of the world, ranging from a wider aspect of qualifications and experiences.


These job portals have some very famous names among them. NAUKRI.COM,
SHINE.COM and MONSTER.COM are some of the major job portals that are having the
bio-data of millions of candidates. The job-seeking candidates upload their resumes on these
portals, so as to open up their profiles to the recruiter and to update themselves by the latest and
the relevant opportunities in the market.
The job portals have a specific area called the EMPLOYERS ZONE , through which the
recruiter can make his/her personal account and can post the relevant job and can send invites to
the desired and qualified candidates. The desired candidates can then reply to the message sent
by the recruiter, through his/her own message.
These job portals provide a very efficient method of posting the job by the employer or recruiter.
The recruiter can post the job through the Search-Post method or he /she can simply search for
the desired candidates through advanced search and can find out the resumes of various
candidates. These portals have a special feature in which some of the portals give the contact
number of the candidate to the employer without charging any fee, and some portals do not
provide this offer to the employer.

Interviewing the candidate

After the candidates have been shortlisted by the recruiter, the candidates are called for the
interview. For this purpose, the recruiter prepare a logical approach to make the candidate,
understand the job for which the candidate is required and also interview him/her on the basis of
their qualification and experiences.
In some of the cases, the recruiter is the only one who conducts the interview by himself. An
another aspect when the recruitment process is handed over to a recruiting agency, the candidates
are called upon and interviewed by the agency people only. The company always would have
foretold the recruiter about the kind of candidates required, for a specific job.

Job Analysis
The next and the foremost part of the job procedure is Job analysis. When the recruiter finally
get the required candidate, then he/she has to prepare an analytic form of the work, the employee
has to do.


This complete process is called Job analysis. Job analysis, basically, is the procedure for
determining the duties and skill requirements of a job and the kind of person who should be hired
from it.

Job analysis further produces information that is to be used for writing Job Descriptions.
Job analysis is further necessary to support several human resource management activities. In
case of recruitment and selection process, job analysis provides information about what the jobs
entails and what human characteristics are required to perform these activities. This information,
in the form of job descriptions and specifications, helps managers decide what sort of people to
recruit and hire.
Job description is a product of job analysis. Jon description is a list of a jobs duties,
responsibilities, reporting relationships, working conditions and supervisory responsibilities. Job
description then further helps in training and development process, because it lists the jobs
specific duties and requisite skills.
Job description should contain,

Job Title

Based at (Business Unit, Section - if applicable)

Position reports to (Line Manager title, location, and Functional Manager, location if
matrix management structure)

Job Purpose Summary (ideally one sentence)

Key Responsibilities and Accountabilities, (or 'Duties'. 8-15 numbered points)

Dimensions/Territory/Scope/Scale indicators (the areas to which responsibilities extend

and the scale of responsibilities - staff, customers, territory, products, equipment,
premises, etc)

Date and other relevant internal references

Thus job analysis is a basic tool that is required by the recruiter in making the candidate
understand the job carefully and properly. Certain other activities related to human resources like
Performance Appraisal, compensation and Legal compliances are also dependent on the Job
analysis proc



Sales Exe. with Textile Chemical Mfg. Co. - 6 Opening(s)

Hiring For

a Textile Sizing Chemicals Mfg. Co.

Job Description

Position: Sales Executive

Job Profile:
The position will be responsible for handling Business Development & new business
development in given territory.
Location: Ahmedabad/ Udaipur / Kolkata / Chennai / Bangalore / Chandigarh
Exeperience: minimum 2yrs experience
Salary range: best in the industry
A candidate should be preferable from laundry & cleaning chemical industry or from any
industrial chemical industry.

Desired Profile

Please refer to the Job description above


2 - 7 Years

Industry Type



Sales Executive/Officer

Functional Area

Sales, Retail, Business Development


UG - Any Graduate - Any Specialization

PG - Post Graduation Not Required
Doctorate - Any Doctorate - Any Specialization


best in the industry


Ahmedabad, Chandigarh, Bengaluru/Bangalore, Chennai, Kolkata


sales business development sales marketing industrial chemical textile chemical cleaning
chemical laundry chemical


Mansi Mehta
United HR Solutions Pvt Ltd
302, Sachet-1, Off C.G. Road,
Nr Swastik Char Rasta, Navrangpura
AHMEDABAD,Gujarat,India 380009







Job Posted

2015-06-20 16:19:06.0





As stated earlier, recruitment is the process of location, identifying, and attracting capable
applications for jobs available in an organization. Accordingly, the recruitment process
comprises the following five steps:

Recruitment planning;

Strategy Development;



Evaluation and Control.

Recruitment Planning:
The first involved in the recruitment process is planning. Hire, planning involves to draft a
comprehensive job specification for the vacant position, outline its major and minor
responsibilities; the skills, experience and qualifications needed; grade and level of pay;
starting date; whether temporary or permanent; and mention of special condition, if any,
attached to the job to be filled.

Strategy Development:Once it is known how many with what qualification of candidates are required, the next
step involved in this regard is to device a suitable strategy for recruitment the candidates
in the organization. The strategic considerations to be considered may include issues like
whether to prepare the required candidates themselves or hire it from outside, what type
of recruitment method to be used, what geographical area be considered, for searching
the candidates, which source of recruitment to be practiced, and what sequence of
activities to be followed in recruiting candidates in the organization.


Searching:This step involves attracting job seeders to the organization. There are broadly two sources used
to attract candidates. These are:

Internal Sources

External Sources

Screening:Through some view screening as the starting point of selection, we have considered it as
an integral part of recruitment. The reason being the selection process starts only after the
application have been screened and short listed. Let it be exemplified with an example. In
the Universities, application is invited for filling the post of Professors. Application received in
respond to invitation, i.e. advertisement are screened and short listed on the

basis of

eligibility and suitability. Then, only the screened applicant are invited for seminar
presentation and personal interview.
The selection process starts from here, i.e., seminar presentation or interview. Job specification
is invaluable n screening. Applications are screened against the qualification, knowledge, skills,
abilities, interest and experience mentioned in the job specification. Those who do not qualify are
straightway eliminated from the selection process. The techniques used for screening candidates
are varying depending on the source of supply and method used for recruiting. Preliminary
applications, de-selections tests and screening interviews are common techniques used for
screening the candidates.

Evaluation and control:Given the considerable involved in the recruitment process, its evaluation and control is,
therefore, imperative. The costs generally incurred in a recruitment process include:

Salary of recruiters;

Cost of time spent for preparing job analysis, advertisement, etc;

Administrative expenses;

Cost of outsourcing or overtime while vacancies remain unfilled;

Cost incurred in recruiting unsuitable candidates.



Recruitment methods refer to the means by which an organization reaches to the potential
job seeker. It is important to mention that the recruitment methods are different from the
resources of recruitment. The major line of distinction between the two is that while the
former is the means of establishing links with the prospective candidates, the latter is
location where the prospective employees are available. Dunn and Stephen have broadly
classified methods of recruitment into three categories. These are;

Direct Method;

Indirect Method;

Third Party Method.

Brief descriptions of these are follows:

Direct Method:
In this method, the representatives of the organizations are sent to the potential candidates
in the educational and training institutes. They establish contacts with the candidates seeking
jobs. Person

pursuing management, engineering, medical, etc. programmers are mostly

picked up the manner.

Sometimes, some employer firm establishes with professors and solicits information about

with excellent



Sending the recruiter

to the conventions,

seminars, setting up exhibits at fairs and using mobile office to go to the desired
centers are some other methods used establish direct contact with the job seekers.

Indirect Method:
Indirect methods include advertisements in the newspaper, on the radio and television,
in professional journals, technical magazines, etc. this method is useful when organization
does not find suitable candidates to be promoted to fill up the higher posts, When the
organization want to reach out a vast territory, and When organization wants to fill up scientific,
professional and technical posts.


The experience suggests that the higher the position to be filled up in the organization, or
the skill sought by the sophisticated one, the more widely dispersed advertisement is likely
to be used to reach too many suitable candidates. Sometimes, many organizations go for
what referred to as blind advertisement in which only Box No. is given and the
identity of the organization is not disclosed. However, organizations with regional or
national repute do not usually use blind advertisements for obvious reasons.

While placing an advertisement to reach to the potential candidates, the following three
points need to borne in mind:

To visualize the type of the applicant one is trying recruit;

To write out a list of the advantages the job will offer;

To decide where to run the advertisement , i.e., newspaper with local, state, nation
wide and international reach or circulation.

Third Party Method:


include the

use of

private employment

agencies, management


professional bodies pr associations, employee referral or recommendation, voluntary

organization, trade banks, labor contractors, etc., to establish contact with the job seekers.

Now, a question arises; which particular method is to be used to recruit employee in the
organization? The answer to it is that it will depend on the policy of the particular firm, the
position of the labor supply, the government regulations in this regard and agreements
with labor organizations. Notwithstanding, the best recruitment method is to look first
within the organization.



Recruitment consultants work with companies to help them find the right people for their
positions. They also work for candidates to find a role that is suitable for them. The key skill of a
recruitment consultant is to meet the needs of both the client and the candidate to ensure the best
mutual fit; this is not simply a case of skills matching but of truly understanding the business and
its culture, as well as the aspirations of the candidate.

The companies rely on the recruitment agencies for a number of reasons that they can fulfill by
simply hiring a recruitment agency rather doing it themselves. Some of the reasons for their
hiring the recruiters are;

To save the time doing the recruitment

Since the recruitment process is a very prolonged and time-constraint activity, that requires keen
observation and insight of the candidates perspective, qualification and approach towards the
job, so the company, by hiring a recruitment agency, save that time of theirs, to accomplish some
other task. The HR department of a company deals with a lot many activities related to legal
compliance of the company, the compensation methods and procedures for the employees etc. so
the time for hiring the new candidates become a tough job for the department, as such they have
to devote their time for a prolonged and a careful approach of finding the right candidate for the
vacant position in the organization. So the organization finds it easier to hire a recruitment
agency for the purpose of the recruitment and selection of the candidates.
The recruitment agency, having its due attention and business approach towards hiring the right
candidates for the right job, pay its full and foremost attention towards the hiring of the
candidates. Thus, by saving the time of the organization, they also provide the required
candidates for being the employees for the particular organization.

Convenience of coordination
When it comes to the convenience of coordination within the organization and the recruitment
agency, it becomes much easier to coordinate with each other regarding the Job descriptions, the
interview handling and the final selection of the candidates.

The company finds it easier to connect with the recruiters to discuss only a few important points
on the recruitment process and not on the entire selection process. Thus, it becomes easier for the
organization to coordinate with the agency, rather than handling the prolonged process of
selection themselves.
Also, the organization can keep a check on the activities of the recruitment agency by employing
an individual to maintain and record the progress made by the agency and to prevent any sort of
misunderstanding regarding any job constraint.
The coordination process between the organization and the recruitment agency, is a major factor
of the successful completion of the recruitment and selection process of the candidates. So, it has
to be very accurate and must be in due agreements within the two firms. Due to this convenience,
the organization put their steps forward in hiring a recruitment agency rather than handing this
process by themselves.

Replacement Policy
A significant and most prominently, a plus-point feature, why an organization depends much on
a recruitment agency for hiring employees for them, is the REPLACEMENT POLICY. Many
of the recruitment agencies (also the one in which I worked in) provide this unique feature. To be
stated, the recruitment agencies works the way like the candidate who is seeking a job and is
interested in the posted job by the recruiter on the portals, has to first register him/herself in that
particular agency. The agency has their charges from the candidates for the registration purpose.
After the candidate is registered in the agency, the interview is done by the recruiter or the
candidate is sent to the HR manager of the organization for the interview purpose. If the
candidate got selected in the interview, the agency charges for their part in the selection process.
These charges are of two different aspects.

If the company needed a candidate for a vacant position in their organization and
proposes a JD for the same, then after the selection of the candidate, the recruitment
agency charges its salary part from the company itself. The agency then, do not take any
amount from the employees end.


If the candidate is seeking a job in a reputed organization and contacts the recruitment
agency for the desired job, then the company sends the candidate in a particular company
for interview and if he/she gets selected there, then the agency charges its part from the
employees end and not from the companys end.

This is how the recruitment agencies work. Now, for the point mentioned above, if a candidate
who is selected for the job and is placed in the organization, declines from the job or leaves it
due to some valid reason, within a given time of probation of the organization, then again the
position of that particular personnel would be left vacant. Here comes the role of the recruitment
agency again. According to the replacement policy, if such an employee, who is provided to the
organization by that agency, leaves the organization within a given time of probation, then the
recruitment agency is RESPONSIBLE for hiring another candidate for the same position,
without charging any amount from the companys end.

Due to this replacement policy, it become an advantage for the organization to hire a candidate
from the due help of a recruitment agency and not by themselves as the chances of getting a good
candidate from the one who is purely into the business of recruiting, is very high. And also, the
organization do not have to allocate its time in searching for an another efficient candidate for
the job, by again investing money on the whole procedure again.
Thus, the replacement policy is also a major factor, why an organization hires a
recruitment agency for hiring their employees.
It is clear, that why organizations rely much on hiring candidates from the recruitment agencys
side and not by themselves, we can now move on to the part that indicates some special
characteristics of the recruitment agencies. Due to these characteristics, the recruitment agencies
are considered to be the efficient choice of the organizations for hiring candidates for them, and
also by the candidates to provide better options for the job opportunities.



Act as Intermediates
There are several instances when a job-seeking candidate cannot access the interview dates of an
organization from the data available on the sites of the organization. The general data available
on these sites are only the overview of what the organization do, and what progress they have
made in the present. Most of the sites only talk about the achievements of the organization.
In spite of all this, very few companies have sites in which an option to upload the resumes by
the candidates interested for job, is available. The company also has a reason, NOT to put that
option on its websites to avoid spam and unwanted comments.
Now, the difficulty arises that neither the person who need the job, is able to upload his/her
resume on the companys website, nor the company is having any resume or data of any
personnel that is required for some vacant post in the company.
Thus, in such cases the recruitment agencies act as intermediates between the job-seeking
candidate and the organization. These agencies have their tie-ups with the companies and thus
after receiving the appropriate JD, starts searching for the required candidates. Thus, the
candidate who is having the required qualification but was unable to get access to the company,
can also reach to interview desk, through the help of the recruitment agencies.
As a result both of the sides purpose is served. And the recruitment agency gets to act as the
intermediates between the two sides.

Can approach for collaborations

The recruitment agencies, as are in the business of open recruiters, so they can approach any
organizations for the tie-up. To clarify this point, it is well known, that many of the organizations
have rivalries among them or even companies have cut throat competencies between them. Due
to this thing, these organizations do not communicate with each other.
But since each side of the business groups want good candidates for their organizations, so they
indulge in tie-ups with the recruitment agencies. It is the job of the recruitment agencies then to
make candidates available to all the business groups, without creating any favoritism and to work
without having any influence of any organization.


Moreover, the recruitment agencies are not bound by any sort of restriction by their
collaborators, not to approach any of the business units for business purpose. These agencies can
approach to the organizations that are having a small business unit to that of a large one, ranging
from manufacturing sectors to service sectors and from the government -owned organizations to
the private players of the market also.

The range of these agencies also depends on the sizes of them. Some recruitment agencies runs
in a larger unit offices and some of them operates from smaller offices. Most of the agencies still
have the work process in them as manual, that is candidates records etc. are kept as manual files
and data are maintained in registers or folders. But now on, the recruitment agencies are taking a
broader range, operating in big offices and the work process there is also shifting from manual to
computerized. That is, the data entry of the candidates are done in computers and special
software is created that can access the incoming JDs from the companies and can search the
suitable matching candidates from the available data.
The candidates are contacted immediately through an E-mail or a message to the contact
numbers of the candidates and there are less chances of spam or missing entry and also the
chances of a missed candidate, decreases to a large extent.

Cut the competencies

This is critical point to be mentioned and explained in the report, but is the extreme feature of the
agencies also. Since, the recruitment agencies have tie-ups with many organizations and also
deals with the business groups who are having rivalries or tough competencies among them, so at
many times, one organization can approach the recruitment agency to get the employees of some
other organization to join a job in their own organizations, at more pay-packages than the
previous ones.
Among all of the strategies that an organization applies to make its venture successful, this is
also one of the strategies of the company to cut the competency given to them by other
companies. Since every organization is well aware of the deserving assets of the other
organization, the organizations at many times tries to cut this competition by hiring those
employees of the others who are solely responsible for the success of any project, by offering


higher pay-packages to these employees. If the employee is committed to the organization,

he/she do not accept the offer but many cases are there, in which this thing happen.
Now, the part of the recruitment agency comes like, that one organization cannot approach the
employees of the other, directly. So they do it through the recruitment agency. The agency, on
the behalf of the other organization approach those desired employees and make an offer to
them, for the higher package for the shift in jobs plus the organizations.
Thus, being a rather critical point to be mentioned here, it is a point that is also a characteristic of
the recruitment agencies though being a disputable one.

Provide candidates a broader range of opportunities

The recruitment agencies are having a larger range of dealing with different agencies. . These
agencies can approach to the organizations that are having a small business unit to that of a large
one, ranging from manufacturing sectors to service sectors and from the government -owned
organizations to the private players of the market also.
Since both the companies and the candidates with qualification, need each other, but only due to
the lack of coordination, a better talent and a better job opportunity is lost, both of the sides has
to suffer. Now, due to the role played by the recruitment agencies in the midst of them, the jjobseeker gets a better job opportunity for themselves according to their qualificati0on and
experience, at the same time the organization also gets a better employee for their work who can
lead the company to success in the coming future.
As the ranges of the agencies are very broad, the candidates also get access to various other
opportunities which they can work up depending on certain abilities of them. Many of the
recruitment agencies have the job access to more than 1 or 2 places. They can provide the
deserving candidates a whole lot of openings to their career.



Though there has so far not been evolved any formula such that makes recruitment programme
necessitates having certain attributes such as:

A well defined recruitment policy.

A proper organizational structure.

A well - laid down procedure for locating potential jobseekers.

A suitable method and technique for tapping and utilizing these candidates.

A continuous assessment of effectiveness of recruitment programme and incorporation of

suitable modifications from time to improve the effectiveness of the programme. An ethically
sound fool-proof telling an applicant all about the job and its position, the firm to enable
the candidate to judiciously decide whether or not to apply and join the firm, if selected.


Selection is the process of picking individuals (out of the pool of job applicants) with
requisite qualifications and competence to fill jobs in the organization. A formal definition of
Selection is: It is the process of differentiating between applicants in order to identify (and
here) those with a greater likelihood of success in a job.
Recruitment and selection are the two crucial in the HR process and are often used
interchangeably. There I, however, a fine distinction between the two steps. While recruitment
refers to the process of identifying and encouraging prospective employees to apply for jobs,
selection is concerned with picking the right candidates from the pool of applicants.
Recruitment is said to be positive in its approach as it seeks to attract as many candidates as
possible. Selection, on the other hand, is negative in its application in as it seeks to
eliminate as many unqualified applicants as possible in order to identify the right candidates.



The role of selection in an organizations effectiveness is crucial for at least, two reasons; first,
work performance depends on individuals. The best way to improve performance is to hire
people who have the competence and the willingness to work. Arguing from the employees
viewpoint, poor or inappropriate choice can be demoralizing to the individual concerned (who
finds himself or herself in the wrong job) and de-motivating to the rest of the workforce.
Effective selection, therefore, assumes greater relevance.
Second, cost incurred in recruiting and hiring personnel speaks about volumes of the selection.
Costs of wrong selection are greater.


To create a favorable impression on the applicants right from the stage of reception.

Screening Interview
Generally planned by large organizations to cut the cost of selection by allowing only eligible
candidates to go through the further stages in selection.

Application Blank
Application blank or form is one of the most common methods used to collect information like,

Personal data (address, sex, telephone number)

Marital data

Educational data

Employment Experience

Extra-curricular activities

References and Recommendations

Selection Testing
Attempts to asses intelligence, abilities, personality trait, performance, simulation tests. Some of
the commonly used employment tests are,

Intelligence tests

Aptitude tests

Personality tests

Achievement tests

Selection Interview
Interview is the oral examination of candidates for employment. The most essential step in the
selection process. Interviewer matches the information obtained about the candidates through
various means to the job requirements.


Medical Examination
Certain jobs require physical qualities like clear vision, perfect hearing, unusual stamina,
tolerance of hard working conditions, clear tone, etc. Medical examination reveals whether or not
a candidate possesses these qualities.

Reference Check
Once the interview and medical examination of the candidate is over, the personnel department
will engage in checking references. Candidates are required to give the names of 2 or 3
references in their application forms.

Hiring Decision
The line manager has to make the final decision now, whether to select or reject a candidate after
soliciting the required information through different techniques.


A selection procedure measures the personality characteristics of applicants that are related to
future job performance. Personality tests typically measure one or more of five personality


Emotional stability,


Conscientiousness and

Openness to experience. TYPES OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS:

Aptitude tests: It refers to potentiality that a person has to profit from certain kind of training.

Achievement tests: It helps to measure the proficiency that a person has been able to achieve.


Intelligence tests: It attempts to measure the intelligencethat is, basic ability to understand the
world around you, assimilate its functioning, and apply this knowledge to enhance the quality of
your life. Or, as Alfred Whitehead said about intelligence, it enables the individual to profit by
error without being slaughtered by it.
Intelligence, therefore, is a measure of a potential, not a measure of what youve learned (as in an
achievement test), and so it is supposed to be independent of culture.
IQ=Mental Age/Actual Age*100 IQ Distribution

IQ Range


Above 145

Genius or near genius


Very superior







Below 70

Borderline deficiency


Neuropsychological tests: It attempts to measure deficits in cognitive functioning (i.e., your

ability to think, speak, reason, etc.) that may result from some sort of brain damage, such as a
stroke or a brain injury.

Occupational tests: It attempts to match your interests with the interests of persons in known
careers. The logic here is that if the things that interest you in life match up with, say, the things
that interest most school teachers, then you might make a good school teacher yourself.

Personality tests: It attempts to measure your basic personality style and is most used in research
or forensic settings to help with clinical diagnoses. Two of the most well-known personality tests

Minnesota Multiphase Personality Inventory (MMPI), or the revised MMPI-2, composed

of several hundred yes or no questions.

Rorschach (the inkblot test), composed of several cards of inkblotsyou simply give a
description of the images and feelings you experience in looking at the blots.

Specific clinical tests: It attempts to measure specific clinical matters, such as your current level
of anxiety or depression.


In recent years, HR specialists have found out new methods of selection. These approaches are
deemed to the alternatives to the traditional methods of selection.

Two intersecting alternatives are Participative Selection and Employee Leasing. Participative
selection that subordinates participates in the selection of their co-workers and supervisors. The
idea is that such participation will improve quality, increase support for the selected supervisors
and co-workers, and improve employee morale. In employee leasing, the client company leases
employees from a third part, not on a temporary basis, but rather ate leased as full-time, longterm help.


An interesting feature of this method is that the client company need not perform such
personnel activities as hiring, compensation or record keeping. The advantages of employee
leasing are significant.
The client is relived from many administrative burdens, as well as the need to employ specialized
personnel employees. Further, employees not recruited by one client are sent to another
client company for employment.


Conditions of labor market largely determine the selection process. As is well known, we have a
strange paradox in our country. There is large-scale unemployment juxtaposed with shortage of
skilled labor. No Vacancy boards are seen along with wanted hung on factory gates
Unemployment prevails among people who are unemployable-individuals who have acquires
university degrees but do not possess any specific skills. Matriculates, B.A.s, B.Coms, and
B.Scs fall into this category. All the evils associated with selection corruption, favoritism and
influence- are found in hiring these people. Selection is obviously, not systematic and times
bizarre too.
Selection practices in hiring skilled and managerial personnel are fairly well defined and
systematically practiced. Particularly in hiring managerial personnel and executives, a lot of
professionalism has come in, thanks to the realization that these individual are difficult to
come by and no effort is too excess to attract them. Specialist agencies to available whose
services are retained for hiring technical and managerial personnel. Merit and not favorite,
objectivity and subjectivity will be the criteria for such selections.





The recruitment and selection procedure followed by LARSEN & TOUBRO is as follows
(Some steps may be interchanged in order, depending on the situation):

A Need Assessment is carried out as to how many people are / will be required and at
what level(s). These would normally include Management Trainees or other recruits at
middle or senior levels. This stage is referred to as manpower planning (MPP).

A Talent Acquisition Request form (TAR) is filled in case of any openings, based on
which the Job Profile and other details are laid out. This is filled by the H.R head of the
respective operating division which has to be approved by the business head.

the basis of the nature of job and present employee inventory, skills, the HR Department
decides whether to go for Internal Recruitment or External Recruitment.

In case of Internal Recruitment, a Job Posting is made on the notice boards of the
company for the employees to make applications.

Also they have an internal employee scheme known as AMANTRAN wherein the
employee working in the company recommends an outsider for the required post.

The company also goes for PCO i.e. POLICY FOR CAREER OFFER wherein an
employee from one department can apply for another position in another department with
the consent of the local HR consultant.

In case of External Recruitment, the sources for applicants would include consultants,
media such as newspapers, online applications through L&T website and third party
recruitment which include APEX consultants, RSS money and associates etc.

After receiving applications, they are first short listed on the basis of their Resumes.
Depending on the post, the candidates may be required to go through different Tests.


At junior level, (individuals with an experience of 1-2 yrs) different tests like general
aptitude test, attitude tests etc are conducted. The interview is then conducted, by the
Recruitment Manager and Jr. HR Manager. The second interview may be conducted,
again depending on the post, normally by the HR Head, the Head of the concerned
functional department. In case of senior level positions, the senior managers from L&T
are present.

Candidates for the senior post have to give a psychometric test which is self designed by
the company itself. This test checks on the functional knowledge, communication skills,
interpersonal skills, commercial skills of the candidates.

These candidates are then taken to assessment centers where they play business games.
Also the candidates are required to prepare on a topic within 45mins and present it for a
1/2 hour in front of the panel. L&T has in-house assessment centers which are designed
by SHL.

After the Interviews, the applicants are sent Regret / Offer letters, depending on whether
they are selected or not.

Once the candidate accepts the Job Offer, the salary is negotiated and they are asked for 2
reference letters. The respective HR heads speaks to the 2 people regarding the overall
performance of the applicant.

A compulsory Medical Examination is done for every single candidate before he is given
the appointment letter. This is done so as to ensure that the employee will not face any
health problems during the course of his service.

The Appointment Letter is given.

The entire process lasts for 1 month on an average but it can extend to 3 months if



KUDOS Chemical Limited is a manufacturing company which is in the business of
manufacturing SYNTHETIC CAFFIENE, a substance that is commonly found in various
products like Coffee etc., Chemicals, Potassium Chloride, Caustic Soda Pills, Aluminium
Sulphates, Hydrochloric Acids, and Sulphuric Acids in India.

the company is located at

Derabassi, near Chandigarh.

The company is operating in a huge plant situated at Derabassi,near Chandigarh. Nearly 1800
employees are already working on the rolls of the company. The HR department of the company
has an active group of 16 members, who handles the entire works like recruiting and selecting
the employees, regulating and controlling the attrition rate, managing payrolls etc.
The Company is dealing in the making of various chemicals, thus having a huge chemical base.
The recruitment process for the required candidates is usually conducted by the recruitment
agency. The company, as mentioned, is having the business of manufacturing chemicals, so the
main requirement of the candidates is from the field of chemical background.
Currently, the company is also undertaking other projects in which it is including
pharmaceuticals branch and therefore, includes the recruitment and selection of candidates
having degree in pharmacy.
Since, Kudos Chemical Limited is a manufacturing unit, so thats why the recruiter has to keep
in mind, the work background and the qualification of the candidate in mind. While doing the
recruitment, we see to it that the organization was mainly having the demand of chemical
background people. So, before begin the recruitment process, we have to completely understand
the JD received from the company. Half of the process is completed at the end of the recruiter, if
we understand the JD completely.
Also, the companys also requires different categories of employees. Sometimes the requirement
is of the diploma holders and sometimes the requirement is of degree holders. So, candidates are
called according to their qualification and their experience. Then begin the interview process.
The recruiter calls the candidate, reminding him/ her to bring his/her resumes or CVS.

We then take an interview of the candidate as per his/her qualification as mentioned in their
resumes. The questions asked generally, are related to their field and relative to the aptitude of
the candidate.

If in some cases, the organization demands to interview the candidates themselves, then the
recruiters job is to shortlist the candidates and sends the deserving and interested candidates list
and the soft copies of their shortlisted resumes, to the HR of the organization.

In Kudos Chemical Limited, the interview is conducted by the HR manager of the company, but
the screening of the candidate is done at Job achievers only (Job achievers is the recruitment
agency here, in which my training was done). At Job achievers, the candidates are called along
with their resumes and the screening is done initially. Then, the shortlisted candidates are then
sent to the company located at Derabassi. There, the final interviews of the candidates are done
by the HR manager of the company. Thereafter the candidates are selected accordingly by the
HR manager of the company.

The selected candidates name and date of joining of the job is then sent to the recruitment
agency(Job achievers, in this case). The company then provides the agency with the amount that
has to be submitted to the agency as their fee for the work.
After that, the agency also keeps a record of the candidates work profile and the satisfaction
level of his/her job there. This is due to the reason, because in case if the candidate quits the job
in the probation period or within 3 months, then the agency has to re-recruit another candidate at
the same place, keeping in mind the Replacement Policy.
Thus, the training and the development of the newly hired employee, is bkept on record by both
the recruitment agency as well as the organization.

Interviews are the most popular methods for obtaining job-related information. They may range
from completely unstructured interviews to highly structured ones in which job analysts follow
detailed questionnaires in asking their questions.


Interview conduction, is a point of differentiation, because of its mode of conduct and by whom
the interview is being conducted. In this study, this point came under observation due to the
following two points:

Mode of Conduct
The mode of conduction of the interview is again of two types: Structured and Unstructured
Unstructured Interview is an unstructured conversational-style interview in which the interviewer
pursues points of interest as they come up in response to questions. In these interviews, the
managers do not follow a set pattern.

Unlike the unstructured interviews, the structure d interviews are having a set pattern, that is the
interview follows a sequence of questions. These are such kind of interviews that are based on
carefully selected job-oriented questions with predetermined answers that interviewers ask of all

Now, mentioning this point was the main cause of understanding the differentiation of it. In
Kudos chemical Limited, the interview approach shifts from unstructured to structured,
depending on the need of the job-profile of the candidate. Explain this point, the candidate may
or may not be asked questions related to his field. He/she may face an unstructured interview in
which questions about his previous job, reason to leave that job and about the previous
companys management can be asked in the beginning of the interview. This is how, the
interviews mode of conduct is important.

Panel of interviewers
This point differentiates the interview mode in such a manner, that the differentiation could be
done at this point.
In Kudos Chemical Limited, generally the interview is taken by the HR manager of the
company. Since, the HR department of the company is quite broad and efficient, thus the team of
members of the department, are sometimes in the panel made for the interview purpose.


The company gives the recruiter, the authority to conduct a screening of the candidates prior to
the interview. Thus the recruiter at first, have to short list various candidate on the basis of their
qualification and experience, and then also have to conduct a short screening based upon the
field to which the candidates belong.

The candidates are asked questions about their code of conduct in the previous company, if they
have worked somewhere else before. Also, the recruiter asks question checking the stability of
the candidate, that is, whether the candidate is having a positive attitude towards the job or
he/she is just doing the job for money purpose, because such a candidate would not be loyal to
the company, as per the company norms.

After the screening of the candidates, the recruiter sends the deserving candidates to the
company for the final interview purpose. The company has its full team of HR department who
are in the process of recruitment and selection and handles the interviews of the shortlisted
candidates very effectively according to their needs and skills required in the candidates.
After the selection of the candidates, the information is sent back to the recruiter about how
many of the shortlisted candidates are selected and the amount incurred by the recruitment
company is being given to them by the company.

This point is also a part of the differentiation. The designation provided by Kudos Chemical
Limited to the newly hired employees is of a Production Executive. After the training of the
candidates are done, then the newly hired employees work in the organization on the post of a
production executive. The salary packages of the employees are also given according to the scale
of the employees and their designations in the company.
At first, all of the newly employed candidates work on the designation of Production
Executives and then work their way out. The designations keep on shifting as the employee
work proficiently and attains promotion during his/her work period. The employees also have to
work in the departments suited to their profiles, as the recruiter and HR department feels to put
the candidate into.

The company is having many divisions like Quality Control, Research and Development and
many others. The candidates are having their specialization in some of these fields but after the
interview, the organization decides in which division the candidate has to be placed.
Also, the organization also provides a way of Job Enrichment. For doing this, the company
keeps shifting the positions of the employees so that they may not feel fatigue while doing the
same work every day.

Since all of the employees have got the training about starting of a work during their training
period, so the employees do not face any problem in the beginning of the work. And in the way
ahead, the employees have their supervisors, who introduce the new projects and the work to be
done, so that the employees do not have to face any problem, while performing the shift in the

The organizations are having different incremental policies for the employees. Every employee
gets his/her increment based on 2 factors:

Time Period of the candidate in the organization.

The candidate is employed as a fresh candidate when he/she starts off with an initial salary that is
to be considered as the stipend of these candidates. The employees when have the time period
increasing on their account, then the organization according to their legal compliance, starts
giving off the increments to their employees.

The candidates also due to the process of job enrichment when have the continuous shifts in
work and starts becoming the important assets of the organization, then the incremental policies
again goes to a different scale for the candidates. The organization sees to it that the increment
policies of the organization is in full recognition and due consent of the owners and the
employees. The organization always clear its norms to all of the candidates and tell the
candidates beforehand that what amount of increment they would receive after a due interval of
time. The candidates are having knowledge about how much time they have to spend working in
an organization in order to get an increment.

Experience of the employee

The candidate is having incremental policies keeping in mind their experience factors also. The
experience of the candidates is also a factor that ensures some extra incentives to the employees.
If an employee has worked already in an organization, then he/she receives a certain amount of
extra incentive added up to their salary packages.
Thus, experience of the employees also is a factor that is of significance to the incremental
policies of the candidates.

Now, these are some of the points of differentiation, that are in the respect of the case of
difference between the recruitment process and here, the recruitment process in a manufacturing
unit, KUDOS CHEMICAL LIMITED is discussed.



The insurance sector is marked with a high level of attrition and therefore recruitment process
becomes a crucial function of the organization. At ICICI Prudential Life Insurance, recruitment
is all time high during May-June and Oct-Nov. The attrition is high among the sales managers,
unit mangers mostly in the sales profile. The recruitment is high during these months due to the
fact that March and September are half year closing and business is high during Jan-Mar. Thus it
is only after March that people move out of the companies.

The first task was to understand the various job profiles for which recruitment was to be

The next step was to explore the various job portals to search for suitable candidates for
the job profile.

Once the search criteria were put, candidates went through a telephonic interview to
validate the information mentioned in their resume.

A candidate matching the desired profile was then lined for the first round of Face to
Face interview in their respective cities.

Firstly the candidate had filled up the personal data form(pdf).

Then the candidate INTERVIEW EVALUATION SHEET which is provided by

interviewer was crosschecked by the HR team. If they think that the candidate was good
to hire or not.

When a candidate cleared his first round, he is then made to take an online aptitude test.
We created the online aptitude test. It the HR department, which has the exclusive rights
to assign test, codes to the candidates. Each code was unique and could be used only once
by a candidate.

I was involved in assigning codes and administering the test.

Once the candidate completed his first assessment, his scores were checked. If he cleared
his cut-off he was given another test.

I had the responsibility to make sure that candidates complete all formalities and had to
regularly follow up with them.


Since we received many resumes, it was essential that a database be maintained to keep a
track. It was convenient method than to stock up piles of papers. ICICI has their own
database named as PACE, I update all the records of the new joinees in that tracker.
PACE contains all the information of a candidate such as name, contact number, location

The external guide maintained a regular updating of the database.

Understanding what kinds of database are maintained and how they help in keeping a

I was also involved in maintaining a track of test codes given, the database for employee
referrals, Database for the resumes received through mails and response of advertisement.



Finding and selecting the best people for your organization is still the most important HR
intervention. In many organizations the hr practices in recruitment and selection are still of the
Stone Age. Someone has found a new job or gets an internal promotion. HR writes a job profile,
full with required skills and competencies. The job is posted and candidates apply. HR waits a
couple of weeks until there is a good batch. A long list is made, and five candidates are invited
for interviews. After a couple of interview rounds, and maybe some assessment or tests, the final
candidate is offered the job.

Some of the current trends in the area of recruitment and selection,

From Reactive to Proactive
The biggest shift that is slowly going on, is the shift from reactive to proactive recruitment. It
requires some level of workforce planning. With the current level of hr analytics it is relatively
easy to increase the quality of workforce planning. Who are the people or the kind of people who
are most likely to leave in the coming years? What are the capabilities where there is an upward
trend in demand? No longer recruit for vacancies, but recruit to strengthen for the capabilities
you will need in the future to lead the organization in a quite good manner.

From recruiting for jobs to recruiting for assignments

Organizations are more creatively using the opportunities of a more flexible workforce. It helps
to think less in terms of jobs and more in terms of assignments. There is an assignment to be
done, and how can we quickly find the best possible people on the market who can do the
assignment? Intermediaries with good knowledge of the market of self-employed professionals
can help here. Also more and more online platforms offer services in this domain.

From Selecting on Skills to Selecting on Values and Personality

For their core organizations are looking for talent where there is a good fit between the values
and the personality of the organization and the values and the personality of the candidates. Also
organizations have personalities and what you see emerging is methodologies to make the best fit
between people and organization.

Gamification in Recruitment
The use of gamification in recruitment has been going on for some time. Recruitment can be fun,
and people want to work for organizations where work and fun are closely connected.

Gamification in Selection
Gamification is now entering selection as well. Candidates are asked to play a game (e.g. The
Wasabi Waiter) and the companies behind the games claim they can make a valuable profile of
the candidate based on his or her game behaviour and results. Playing a game is a lot more fun
than being interviewed by people who all ask more or less the same questions ("What are your
strong points?").

The end of traineeships

Traineeships are slowly fading away. Planning the careers of people years ahead does not fit in a
time where the speed of change is continuously increasing. Also it does not help the business to
create a group of people who are pampered during a couple of years and who are kept away from
real work. Organizations need streetwise entrepreneurs who have learned to operate close to the
clients and markets.

Community management as a recruitment tool

The practice to create communities around organizations, a kind of fan clubs, is growing. The
communities are connected to organizations and through the community people can be given a
real experience of what it means to be part of an organization. When opportunities occur,
candidates from the communities can very organically become part of the organization.


4.1.1 Trends

4.1.2 Demography


4.1.3 Generations Co-exist

4.1.4 Generations in Work Place


4.1.5 Values

4.1.6 Job Style


4.1.7 Paradigm Shift

4.1.8 Technology



Recruitment and selection are getting very much importance these days in the organization. It is
very critical thing to evaluate the human resources.

It is a systematic procedure that involves many activities. The process includes the step like HR
planning attracting applicant and screening them. It is very important activity as it provides right
people in right place at right time. It is not an easy task as organizations future is depends on
this activity. If suitable employees are selected which are beneficial to the organization it is at
safe side but if decision goes wrong it can be dangerous to the organization. So it is an activity
for which HR department gets very much importance.

Recruitment and selection procedure and its policies changed as per the organization.
Its importance also gets changed as the organization changed.