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TRAINING MANUAL

PRINS VSI-LPG

Version: 151001

About this training manual


Automotive engineering has developed rapidly over the last few years. Engine
management systems have evolved even further. Injection strategies are becoming more
complex and emission standards more strict. Due to these rapid developments, the VSI
system has been subject to continuous innovations. The VSI-LPG system is a
master/slave system, i.e. the engine management system's injection strategy is followed.
For a proper installation and a correct diagnosis of the current VSI system, extensive
system knowledge is required.
This manual describes the operation and components of the Prins VSI-LPG system in
detail. It also contains the signal processing and control of the injectors. For a better
understanding of the operation of the VSI system, it is important to know what the
characteristics of LPG are. They are explained in detail.
Since technology will continue to develop in the future, this manual will be continuously
kept up-to-date.

This training manual was developed by Prins Autogassystemen B.V.


For more information:
Prins Autogassystemen B.V.
Jan Hilgersweg 22
5657 ES Eindhoven, the Netherlands
Tel: (+31) 040-2547700
Fax: (+31) 040-2549749
www.prinsautogas.com

Sales@prinsautogas.com

Training Manual VSI-LPG

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Contents
TRAINING MANUAL PRINS VSI-LPG ................................................................................... 1
About this training manual ............................................................................................... 1
Contents ........................................................................................................................... 2
Prins autogassystemen ..................................................................................................... 4
LPG in general ................................................................................................................... 5
Extraction of LPG.......................................................................................................................................... 5
Composition of LPG...................................................................................................................................... 6
LPG Properties ............................................................................................................................................. 6
LPG vapour tension ...................................................................................................................................... 7
Calorific value .............................................................................................................................................. 8
Relative density of LPG ................................................................................................................................ 8
Knock rating, explosive limit ........................................................................................................................ 9
Safety ........................................................................................................................................................... 9
Ignition ...................................................................................................................................................... 10
Spark plugs................................................................................................................................................. 10
Valves and valve seats ............................................................................................................................... 11
Excess consumption ................................................................................................................................... 12
Power loss.................................................................................................................................................. 12
Environmental aspects ............................................................................................................................... 13

Introduction VSI-LPG....................................................................................................... 14
VSI-LPG system ............................................................................................................... 15
LPG-tank ......................................................................................................................... 17
LPG shut off valve (tank) ................................................................................................. 18
LPG reducer .................................................................................................................... 19
Functioning of the LPG reducer .................................................................................................................. 20
MAP reducer .............................................................................................................................................. 22
Coolant connections .................................................................................................................................. 23
Mounting the reducer ................................................................................................................................ 24
Pressure relief safety valve ........................................................................................................................ 25

Evaporator Coolant Temperature sensor (ECT) ................................................................ 26


LPG shut-off valve (reducer) ............................................................................................ 27
Filter unit with combined pressure / temperature sensor ................................................ 28

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Combined pressure / temperature sensor ....................................................................... 30


Injector rail ..................................................................................................................... 32
LPG-injectors .............................................................................................................................................. 33
Injector Identification Type ........................................................................................................................ 34
Injector selection: ...................................................................................................................................... 35
Injector control: ......................................................................................................................................... 36

Injection nozzles ............................................................................................................. 37


VSI computer .................................................................................................................. 38
VSI-computer modes.................................................................................................................................. 40

Injector control ............................................................................................................... 42


RPM-signal ..................................................................................................................... 43
Lambda probe signal ....................................................................................................... 44
Injector Module (IM)....................................................................................................... 45
Injector numbers versus cylinder numbers ................................................................................................ 46

RPM module ................................................................................................................... 47


Wiring harness ................................................................................................................ 48
Fuel switch ..................................................................................................................... 50
st

Fuel switch 1 generation (with separate buzzer) ...................................................................................... 51


nd

Fuel switch 2 generation (with integrated buzzer)................................................................................... 52


Diagnosis through the fuel selection switch ............................................................................................... 54
Wiring diagram fuel selector ...................................................................................................................... 55

Reservoir sensor (Hall) .................................................................................................... 56


Dual Sensor Interface ................................................................................................................................. 57
Tank connection block ............................................................................................................................... 58

Diagnostic program VSI ................................................................................................... 59

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Prins autogassystemen

Prins Autogassystemen B.V., a division of SHV Gas, has been a leader in the development
of alternative fuel systems for over 20 years. Prins has earned an excellent reputation by
supplying their OEM customers, importers in various countries and retrofit customers with
cost-effective and innovative solutions for a wide variety of engine types.
In association with their R&D partner Keihin Corp. Japan, one of the world's most
important manufacturers of OE fuel systems, Prins has developed a high-tech sequential
gas injection system (VSI system) which is suitable for both LPG (Liquid Petrol Gas) and
CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) applications.
Prins closely works together with their customers around the world to ensure that all
systems and components seamlessly match the latest automotive developments.
Prins Autogassystemen B.V. is NEN-EN-ISO-9001:2000 certified. All components are
tested in-house and comply with EU-R67-01/R110/R115, CSA and EPA regulations.
Important components are tested 100% C.O.P. before shipment.
Prins supplies systems and components for automotive, bus, HDV, industrial and maritime
applications and has distribution channels in over 50 countries. Their large network of
dedicated professionals is available for service-oriented and technical support.

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LPG in general
Extraction of LPG

Large amounts of petroleum gas are released both during the extraction of petroleum and
natural gas and during the refining of crude petroleum. By compressing these petroleum
gases, they will liquefy. This liquefied petroleum gas is also called LPG. A large amount of
gas (field gas) is releasing during the extraction of crude petroleum and natural gas. In
the past, field gas was flared out due to high transport costs. Nowadays this gas is
collected and processed. Flaring outfield gas is not only a waste of energy, but also
damaging to the environment.
Both the environment and the responsible management of energy supplies will become
more and more important.
The second part of the overall amount of LPG is extracted during the distillation process of
crude petroleum. Various products are generated during this process such as: gas, petrol,
kerosene, gas oil and fuel oil. This means that LPG always appears on the oil market as a
fixed percentage of the total amount of petrol products. The percentage of gas depends
on the composition of crude petroleum and will vary between 2 and 10 percent. LPG is
adequately available and therefore a good choice as an energy source. It is also a fuel
which requires no additives, contrary to petrol and diesel, i.e. LPG is a clean and
inexpensive fuel.

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Composition of LPG

C3H8
C4H10
Similar to petrol and diesel, LPG mainly consists of hydrocarbon compounds.
LPG is gaseous at room temperature and atmospheric pressure and will liquefy under
relatively low pressure.
LPG consists, among others, of the following hydrocarbon compounds:

Propane (C3H8)

Propene (C3H6)

Normal butane (C4H10)

Isobutane (C4H10)

Butene (C4H8)
The composition of butane and propane (main components) is important for LPG.
The composition ratio is determined by the LPG suppliers.
The composition ratio determines the:

vapour pressure

density

knocking resistance

motor octane number

calorific value

more consumption

LPG Properties

Gaseous under atmospheric conditions


Low boiling point
Liquefied by temperature drop and/or pressure increase
Propane and butane are odourless (odorant added)
LPG is heavier than air (higher relative density than air)
LPG contains a number of contaminations (olefins, propene and butene)
During vaporization its volume will increase by approx. factor 230, depending
on the gas composition
High knock rating

One of the properties of LPG is that its state of aggregation will change when pressurized,
so the gaseous LPG will be liquefied, due to the low boiling point of LPG. Because LPG is
liquefied by this pressure increase, it can be filled in a liquid state and stored into a tank.
Liquid LPG is non-compressible, which allows a large amount of LPG to be stored in the
fuel tank. When LPG vaporizes, its volume will increase by factor 230. This volume
increase has many advantages for its combustion. Vaporization allows LPG to mix
properly with air. This produces a homogeneous combustion. It will combust more
completely than petrol or diesel and will therefore produce less polluting emissions.

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LPG vapour tension


Druk (Bar)

100
50.0
20.0

Vloeistof

10.0
5.0
2.0
1.0
0.5
0.2

Damp

0.1
-35

0.05
0.02

Propaan 50/50

0.01

70/30

Butaan
30/70

-45 -40 -35 -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

Temperatuur (celcius)

The vapour tension diagram above shows the state of aggregation (liquid/gas) of LPG at a
certain pressure, temperature and gas composition. Fives lines (different gas
compositions) are displayed in the diagram. Each line shows when the gas transfers from
a liquid state to a vaporous state. The diagram also shows why the composition of LPG is
different for each season. Butane will not leave the tank at a temperature of -10C,
because the vapour pressure is too low at this temperature. The composition of LPG in the
Netherlands is 70% butane during summer and 70% propane during winter. This
means that the gas composition always includes a mixture of butane and propane.
When the amount of liquid LPG decreases, the volume inside the LPG tank will be filled
with gas vapour. Vaporization and condensation are continuous processes which will not
stop until the tank is completely empty. The vapour pressure (or vapour tension) above
the gas depends on temperature and composition of the gas. This is shown in the vapour
tension diagram. The pressure inside the tank will remain equal until the last drop of gas
is vaporized.
When using gas vapour injection systems, the liquid LPG from the tank must be vaporized
before it can be injected. LPG can be vaporized by increasing the temperature and/or
decreasing the pressure by using an evaporator/pressure regulator.
Example:
1. For a mixture of 30/70 and an LPG temperature of 20C the pressure will have to
be decreased to at least 2.5 Bar to vaporize the LPG.
2. Tank pressure is shown in the diagram above.
Tank pressure is 8 Bar for a mixture of 70/30 and an LPG tank temperature of
25C.

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Calorific value
Proportion
propane/butane
petrol
Diesel
LPG (liquid)
Propane
Butane

Calorific value
MJ/kg
43,50
42,50
46,10
46,50
45,50

Calorific value
MJ/l
31,60
35,28
24,91
23,61
26,45

The calorific value is an indication of the fuel energy value. The calorific value of LPG
depends on the composition of the natural gas (propane/butane). The table above shows
the calorific values of various fuels. Calorific values are shown in kJ/kg and kJ/dm3 =kJ/l.
The calorific value of LPG shown in kJ/kg is higher than of petrol. However, the calorific
value of petrol per litre is higher. Petrol and LPG are sold in litres at the fuel station, so in
fact you buy an amount of energy per litre. We can see that the calorific value of LPG per
litre is lower than of petrol. This difference is about 20-25%, depending on the
butane/propane ratio. Butane has a higher calorific value per litre than propane.

Relative density of LPG


Fuel
propane
butane
petrol
Diesel

Density (kg/l)
Liquified LPG
0,51
0,58
0,73
0,84

Density (kg/m3)
2,02
2,67
---

In physics and chemistry the relative density of a material indicates the mass (kg) of the
material present in a certain volume (dm3 or litre)
LPG's relative density depends on the temperature and composition of the gas. If the
temperature rises, the volume of gas will increase. Since the weight of the gas does not
change, the relative density will decrease. Considering that butane has a higher relative
density than propane, the percentage of butane and propane is an important factor for
LPG's relative density. The table shows the relative density of propane and butane at 0C.

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Knock rating, explosive limit


Research Octane Number
(RON)
Motor Octane Number
(MON)

Propane
112
97

Butane
94
89

Petrol
91-99
81-93

The knock rating of a fuel is the resistance of a fuel to self-ignition or detonation.


Detonation may occur in a petrol engine due to the premature ignition of the mixture.
This may be the case if the temperature inside the combustion chamber quickly rises due
to a considerable pressure rise. Provided that the temperature rises high enough, the
mixture will self-ignite. This unwanted combustion only lasts a very short time (1/10 to
1/15 millisecond).
The knock rating of a fuel is expressed in a so-called octane number. The octane number
is a comparative number and is determined based on a test fuel. This octane number is
established in a test engine. To determine the knock rating in the test engine, the
following methods are applied:

RON (Research Octane Number) research method

MON (Motor Octane Number) motor method


The motor method is a stricter test and will result in a lower octane number.

Safety

Outflowing autogas is very cold. When, for example, a pipe is loosened, a white
mist is produced by vapours in the surrounding area which are freezing.
Outflowing LPG that comes into contact with skin, may cause "burns".
Liquid LPG will expand when the temperature increases. This will increase the
pressure with 600 kPa per C. Therefore, LPG tanks can only be filled about
80%. If the tank is filled by more than 80%, the bursting pressure will be
reached sooner. Bursting pressure of LPG tank (10,000kPa).
When liquid LPG escapes into the atmosphere, its volume will increase by factor
230. A concentration of 2 to 10% LPG in the atmosphere will produce a
flammable mixture. Outflowing LPG entails a fire hazard. Therefore, always
provide proper ventilation!

Safety requirements:

Leave disassembled, non-gasfree tanks outside the building.

Make sure that LPG tanks are blown off at a safe location where no ignition
sources are present.

Autogas is heavier than air and will therefore accumulate at the lowest point
(greasing pit, boot, etc.), so always provide proper ventilation.

Be careful when placing a vehicle with LPG tank in a spray-painting booth. If a


full LPG tank is warmed up, the setting pressure of the spring loaded pressure
relief valve may be exceeded and the tank may be blown off.

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Ignition
Important factors for a proper combustion include:

Correct compression final pressure

Optimal conditions for ignition


During LPG mode the spark plug and, as a result, the central electrode, will become
warmer. According to measurements, the central electrode will be at least 50 C warmer
than during petrol mode. This is caused by the differences in chemical composition
between CNG and petrol.
The electrical resistance of the LPG/air mixture is higher than of the petrol/air mixture.
Therefore, igniting a LPG/air mixture requires a more powerful spark, i.e. the spark
tension must be higher. In actual practice the required ignition tension during LPG mode
is approximately 15-20% higher than during petrol mode. If the ignition capacity is
insufficient, driveability problems will arise immediately. Since the ignition of the LPG/air
mixture is more critical than of the petrol/air mixture, driveability problems will occur
sooner while driving on LPG.

Spark plugs

Since LPG is harder to ignite than petrol, the requirements for the spark plugs are higher.
In addition, LPG is more aggressive than petrol, requiring the use of materials with
extremely high load-bearing capacity. Practical experience has shown that in some cases
after installing a LPG installation it is best to reduce the electrode gap to a max. of 0.6
mm, compared to the prescribed electrode gap for a petrol engine. This will improve the
spark-over. When using spark plugs as prescribed by the car manufacturer, in some cases
the replacement interval will have to be shortened.

Recommendation!
In case of ignition problems Prins recommends type LPG/CNG Iridium spark plugs instead
of the original spark plugs.

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Valves and valve seats

Valves, valve seats and valve guides of certain engine types are not resistant to unleaded
fuels. LPG contains no additives, so increased wear may occur to the valves and valve
seats. The extent of wear strongly depends on the materials used by the manufacturer
and the use of the vehicle. High engine speeds and loads will cause rapid wear. A
permanent solution is mounting valves and valve seats with sufficient hardness and made
of a suitable alloy.
Since LPG contains neither additives nor sulphur, it has bad lubricating qualities. For some
engines it is recommended to use an additive to lubricate and cool the valves.
For this reason Prins has developed ValveCare. ValveCare is an additive dosing unit
developed exclusively for the Prins VSI system. It is suitable for all combustion engines
using alternative fuels such as LPG and CNG. ValveCare is used for the correct dosage of
additives which prevent excessive valve and valve seat wear.
Insufficient valve clearance will cause burnt valves. If the valve clearance is too small, the
valve will be closed for a shorter period of time, which does not allow the valve enough
time to discharge its heat through the valve seat. So the most obvious solution would be
to increase the valve clearance. Attention: if the valve clearance is too large, it will cause
the camshaft load to double, which will have far-reaching consequences.

Recommendation!
If possible, always adjust the valve clearance according to the instructions of the car
importer/manufacturer. In some cases it is advisable to check the valve clearance more
frequently.
Lubricating oil:
Occasionally the oil consumption is higher during CNG mode. This is caused by the fact
that lubricating oil is no longer diluted during CNG mode. Therefore, the actual oil
consumption is determined while driving on CNG.

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Excess consumption
Fuel

Calorific value
(MJ/kg)

Density
(kg/l)

Calorific value
(MJ/l)

46,5
45,5
46,0

0,51
0,58
0,55

23,61
26,45
25,03

Excess
consumption
factor
1,34
1,19
1,26

43,5

0,73

31,60

--

100% propane
100% butane
propane/
butane 50/50
petrol

When comparing LPG consumption to petrol consumption, LPG consumption in litres per
kilometre is theoretically 19-34% higher. As a result of the good mixture and
homogeneous combustion of LPG, excess consumption will be slightly lower in actual
practice. This excess consumption is related to the calorific value of LPG. Excess
consumption of LPG compared to petrol can be calculated based on the value in the table
above.
petrol calorific value
[MJ/l]
LPG calorific value
[MJ/l] = excess consumption factor
Excess consumption of LPG depends on the composition of LPG (propane/butane ratio).
Example:
Petrol calorific value = 31,60
LPG 50/50 calorific value = 25,03
Calculate the excess consumption factor:
31,60 / 25,03 = 1,26
This means that the theoretical excess consumption is approx. 26%.

Power loss
To combust 1 kilogram of petrol stoichiometrically, 14.5kg of air are required.
To combust 1 kilogram of LPG stoichiometrically, 15.5kg of air are required.
When considering the volume percentage of LPG compared to petrol, you can see that it
adopts a higher value. This increase in volume (less energy in combustion chamber) will
result in a power loss of approx. 2%.
Power loss during LPG mode depends on the fill factor. Power loss is virtually linear to the
fill factor loss.

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Environmental aspects
The reason why many drivers choose LPG as fuel was and still is the low price of this type
of fuel. This decision is usually not influenced by emissions.
However, vehicles running on LPG have less hazardous substances emissions than
vehicles running on petrol or diesel. When comparing two vehicles with the same
production date, the vehicle with a G3 installation running on LPG is least harmful to the
environment. Using LPG reduces the hazardous substances emissions and makes an
important contribution to improving air quality.
A vehicle running on LPG has approximately the same CO2 emissions as a vehicle running
on diesel, which is approx. 10-20% less CO2 as a vehicle running on petrol. CO2 causes
green house gases and climate change.
In addition, a vehicle running on LPG has no soot particle emissions, contrary to a vehicle
running on diesel. PM10 particles (airborne particles) cause health problems for people.
HC emissions are also less. HC are uncombusted hydrocarbons. The low HC emissions are
mainly due to a more complete combustion of LPG.
In addition, LPG is the only fuel without lead, sulphur and other additives.
These substances cause, among others, acid rain.
Compared to a vehicle running on diesel, the NOx emissions are much lower.
CO emissions are 10-30% lower. These lower emissions are a result of the complete
combustion of LPG.
Advantages are:

CO2 emissions 10-20% lower than while running on petrol

No PM10 emissions (particles, soot)

Less HC emissions due to completely homogeneous combustion

LPG contains no lead and virtually no sulphur (which causes acid rain)

NOx emissions much lower than while running on diesel

CO2 emissions 10-30% lower than while running on petrol

LPG barely contaminates the engine and engine oil (longer oil life)

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Introduction VSI-LPG
VSI is short for 'vapour sequential injection' and is related to the main features of the
system.
The second generation gas injection systems has been based on the sequential injection
of vaporous LPG into the engine. 'Sequential' means that the LPG injectors apply the LPG
in a specific order or sequence which equals the injection sequence of petrol injectors.
This sequence mostly corresponds with the firing order of the engine, i.e. mostly 1-3-4-2
in a four cylinder engine.
In a sequential injection process, the fuel to be injected can both the dosed and timed.
A characteristic feature of VSI is the high degree of integration of the LPG system in the
petrol engine management. Both systems work together as a so-called 'master/slave'
system.
This means that the amount of petrol to be injected into the engine as calculated by the
engine management system, the injector injection time, is determined by the VSI
computer and translated to the corresponding amount of LPG, the LPG injector injection
time.
The petrol engine management systems is the master system both in petrol and LPG
mode; this automatically implies that the VSI system follows the instructions of the petrol
engine management system in LPG mode.
Consequently, in the LPG mode the petrol engine management system sees to the lambda
fuel control; moreover in both operating modes the EOBD remains active, so that no
signals have to be simulated. There is one exception to this: the simulation of the petrol
injectors, because those are switched off in the LPG mode. The petrol injectors have to be
simulated in LPG mode in order to have the petrol injector control signals available for the
'fuel to gas' signal translation.
The new system of sequential injection allows a more precise injection of the mixture,
thus complying with the tightened emission regulations.
All those improvements have resulted in a higher performance level of the VSI system,
thus creating a system that is ready for the future.

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VSI-LPG system

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

LPG tank
Tank shut-off valve
Filler
Fuel level sensor
LPG shut-off valve +filter
Evaporator/pressure regulator
Filter unit
Combined pressure/temperature sensor
Injector rail with injectors
Injection module
VSI computer
Fuses
Fuel selector switch

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Description:
Liquid LPG is stored under pressure in the tank (1). The tank contains a number of tank
accessories which provide safe storage of LPG. A fuel level sensor is mounted on top of
the tank to measure the fuel level and send this information to the fuel switch with fuel
level display (13). LEDs are used to inform the driver about the fuel level. When LPG
mode is selected, the shut-off valves will be activated. By activating the LPG shut-off
valves (3/5), the liquid LPG can flow to the evaporator/pressure regulator (6). A filter (5)
which filters the liquid LPG is placed in front of the evaporator/pressure regulator. The
liquid LPG is warmed up inside the evaporator by the engine coolant. Furthermore,
pressure inside the evaporator is reduced and set to a steady, adjustable system
pressure. Then the vaporous LPG is sequentially injected into the inlet manifold by the
gas injectors (6). A filter unit (7) is placed between evaporator and injectors. It filters the
vaporous LPG to prevent contamination of the gas injectors.
A combined pressure/temperature sensor (8) is installed in the filter unit. This combined
sensor measures the gas temperature and system pressure. These signals are processed
by the VSI computer (11) to obtain the proper mixture.
During LPG mode the petrol injectors must be switched off. The injector module (10) will
deactivate the petrol injectors when switching to LPG mode. It is activated by the VSI
computer which determines the optimal switch-over time.

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LPG-tank

Function:

Enabling safe storage of liquefied LPG

Providing housing for all fittings


Description:
LPG tanks are available in various shapes and sizes. Any LPG tank is tested and pressure
tested up to 30 bar.
If the tank is manufactured and approved, it will bear a label and date mark.

Attention!
There are several mounting options, always refer to the installation guide + installation
regulations.
Emptying the LPG-tank:
Please note that emptying the reservoir completely while driving is not recommended.
The system pressure is monitored by the VSI computer. When the vapour pressure in the
reservoir decreases because of the emptying of the reservoir, the system pressure will
also drop. As soon as the system pressure is below the 'low level' value (minimum gas
pressure), the VSI computer will automatically switch over to petrol. While switching over
to petrol, a buzzer will sound and the system LED in the fuel selection switch will be lit.
The buzzer and the LED will stop indicating as soon as the driver puts the fuel selection
switch into petrol position.

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LPG shut off valve (tank)

Function:

Shutting off the LPG flow from tank to evaporator

Limiting the LPG flow in case of a broken pipe


Specifications:

The LPG shut-off valve has a coil with spray-proof housing

Complies with R67-01 regulations


Description:
The shut-off valve is a legally required component which shuts off the LPG flow in case
the engine speed/ignition signal is missing.
The LPG shut-off valve is mounted on top of the tank.
The LPG shut-off valve is activated by the VSI computer when LPG is selected as fuel and
no system errors are present.
The supply from the LPG tank to the other LPG components is shut off when switching
back to petrol mode, when stopping the engine and in case of system errors.
Two types of shut-off valves are available:

Default shut-off valve with 3.2 opening

Big Flow Capacity shut-off valve with 5.2 mm opening


The opening of the shut-off valves is different.
The Big Flow Capacity valve is used for vehicles with an engine power higher than 180
hp. The supply pipe diameter for this shut-off valve is 8 mm.

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LPG reducer

Function:

Vaporizing liquid LPG

Absorbing sufficient heat to vaporize the required amount of LPG

Setting the vapour pressure to a steady, adjustable value

Providing the engine with sufficient vaporous LPG across its entire load range
Specifications:

Vaporizing capacity of 15g/s at 80C, sufficient fuel supply for engine powers
up to 295kW / 400hp

Single-stage pressure control

Steady dynamic pressure characteristic, min. pressure drop of system pressure


at max. LPG demand

Optional working pressure control depending on MAP for turbo engines

Adjustable system pressure protected by seal label and software

Integrated cooling water temperature sensor

Pressure relief valve opening at 5.85 0.5 Bar according to R67-01

Equipped with a shut-off valve with integrated filter and flexible assembly
(360 rotatable)

Assembly cross in rear cover for easy installation


Description:
The liquid gas is vaporized inside the evaporator by the heat emitted by the engine
coolant and by the pressure drop in the evaporator. The VSI evaporator is a single-stage
evaporator, i.e. the tank pressure is adjusted in one stage to the system pressure which
is used to inject the gaseous LPG.
Prins has two types of single-phase VSI evaporators:

with MAP connection (for turbo/turbocompressor engines)

without MAP connection

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Functioning of the LPG reducer

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Output vaporized LPG


Membrane
Adjusting screw
Spring
Coolant in/out
Nozzle
First stage valve
Coolant channel
LPG channel
Overpressure relief valve

The VSI evaporator is a so-called one-stage evaporator, which means the LPG pressure
(which is equal to the reservoir pressure) is reduced to the system pressure required to
inject vaporous LPG.
In this training manual the word 'pressure' always refers to absolute pressures. So 0 bar
is vacuum and 1 bar is ambient pressure.

First stage valve closed


Liquid LPG enters the evaporator via an electrically controlled shut-off valve. Depending
on the LPG mixture and the ambient temperature, the LPG pressure is between 2,5 and
15 bar(tank pressure).
Whether the liquid LPG is allowed to pass the first stage valve in the evaporator, depends
on the evaporator pressure.
When the reducer is in idle condition, we have an equilibrium of forces. This will be the
case when the actual evaporator pressure equals the pressure set. The equilibrium of
forces is between the gas pressure on the membrane and the spring force on the spring
cup of the membrane.

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Page 20

The system pressure can be set, depending on the type of car / engine and the LPG
injectors to be applied; it can vary between 1.7 and 2.6bar. This pressure is referred to as
the system pressure, Psys, to be found on the diagnosis screen.
The system pressure can be set by means of a 6mm socket-head screw in the front cover
of the evaporator. This socket-head screw controls the pre-tensioning of the first stage
spring, pushing against the spring cup on the membrane. Turn to the left to increase the
system pressure or turn to the right to lower it.

First stage valve opened


As soon as LPG is injected, the LPG pressure will drop. Consequently the first stage
pressure will also drop and disturb the force equilibrium. The spring force will be higher
than the gas pressure. Hence, the first stage valve will be pushed out of the cap by the
spring and liquid LPG is allowed to enter the evaporator chamber, preheated by the
cooling water, via the nozzle. The liquid LPG will start to vaporize due to the pressure and
temperature. The gas pressure on the membrane will increase again. As soon as the gas
pressure is as high as the spring force, the first stage valve will be closed again. The
opening / closing frequency of the first stage valve depends on the LPG demand of the
engine.

Training Manual VSI-LPG

Page 21

MAP reducer

The MAP evaporator was developed for turbo engines. For this type of engine the
efficiency depends on the turbopressure.
In some cases the MAP evaporator is used when the default evaporator's operating range
of is not sufficient.
In a default evaporator pressure is adjusted and kept steady (1.7-2.6 Bar). In a MAP
evaporator the set system pressure depends on the inlet manifold pressure. High loads
and max. turbopressure will cause overpressure inside the inlet manifold of approx. 0.60.8 Bar, depending on the turbopressure setting. This means that the system pressure
will increase accordingly.
The MAP evaporator front cover is different from the default evaporator cover. The MAP
evaporator front cover has no airing hole, but a MAP connection instead. In addition, the
adjusting bolt is adapted and has an O ring, creating an airtight connection between
adjusting bolt and front cover.

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Page 22

Coolant connections

In general, the evaporator is connected in parallel to the heating system by means of a


16mm hose.
Modern heating systems are of the so-called 'constant flow' type, which means that the
coolant flow is at the maximum level, independent of the heating setting; the flow only
depends on the actual RPM and there is no heating system valve in the circuit. This
automatically implies that the amount of heat in the evaporator is maximum under all
circumstances in order to vaporize the liquid LPG. In this case, the coolant connections
may also be in series.
The 16mm water hoses have a tight fit in the evaporator on purpose. These plastic water
hoses can be rotated to the required position.
Install without twisting the hoses, pay attention that the hose clamps are correctly
fastened, check the coolant level, refill if required and de-aerate the circuit.

Attention!

The 16mm plastic water pipe can be rotated to the desired position!
Ensure a kink-free routing of the coolant hoses
Make sure hose clamps are properly tightened
Check the coolant level, top up if necessary and bled the coolant system
Check after the installation if the evaporator and interior heater heats up
quickly (normal operating temperature of motor is 85 5C)
The coolant temperature must be 55C within 10 minutes. If not, VSI error
code (340) will be set.

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Page 23

Mounting the reducer

The rear lid contains a cross for a closed connection. One bolt M8 is sufficient for the
fixation on the frame. The reducer must always be mounted with the 16mm output facing
upwards, i.e. with the water connections pointing downwards. When using this kind of
reducer, you do not have to install it in drive direction / square to drive direction.

Attention!
The evaporator can be mounted in two ways (see pictures):

With the 16 mm LPG output upwards or in other words with the water
connections directed downwards (This installation is recommended!)

With the lock off valve directed downwards (only if other assembly is not
possible!)
When using this type of evaporator, you do not have to install it in drive direction /
square to drive direction.

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Page 24

Pressure relief safety valve

Description:
According to the 67R-01 regulations, a evaporator must be provided with a pressure relief
safety valve which opens when the evaporator pressure becomes 2.25x max. working
pressure. For the VSI evaporator this implies that the pressure relief safety valve opens at
2.25 x 2.6bar = 5.85 bar 0.5bar
The gas leaving the pressure relief valve is not allowed to enter the engine compartment
or relieved to the outside of the car.
The pressure relief valve is installed next to the LPG outlet and has to be connected to the
inlet manifold of the engine by means of a 5mm hose. The gas leaving the circuit via the
pressure relief valve is relieved into the engine.

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Page 25

Evaporator Coolant Temperature sensor


(ECT)

Function:

Measuring the coolant temperature inside the LPG reducer

Evaporator temperature / flow monitoring

Determining the switch-over strategy based on this temperature


Specifications:

The NTC thermistor has a negative temperature coefficient, i.e. the electrical
resistance drops if the temperature rises.

The sensor is equipped with a sealing ring


Description:
A coolant temperature sensor has been integrated in the coolant section of the
evaporator. The VSI computer uses the signal of this sensor to monitor the evaporator
temperature and to control the switching over timing from petrol to LPG. The switching
over moment is reached as soon as the coolant temperature in the evaporator reaches
Temp_min (adjustable). This temperature normally varies from 30 to 45C.
This implies that the engine runs on petrol at temperatures below Temp_min and
switches over to LPG when the coolant has heated up.
When a hot engine is started or at a 'hot' start, i.e. starting the engine at an ambient
temperature higher than 45C (TSO_hot), the engine will run on LPG almost directly from
the start.
When being started at an ambient temperature between 45C and Temp_min, the engine
will run on petrol for 100 seconds (TSO_cold) before checking whether Temp_min has
been reached. If so, the engine will switch over to LPG. In this way, problems due to cold
start enrichment can be prevented.
The coolant temperature sensor measures the temperature based on changes in
resistance.
For this purpose, a NTC resistor is applied. The higher the temperature of the coolant
being monitored, the lower the NTC resistance will become; refer to the diagram above.
ECT sensor resistance values at various temperatures:
R NTC [Ohm]

Temperature [C]

9400

-10

2500

20

325

80

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Page 26

LPG shut-off valve (reducer)

Function:

Shutting off the LPG flow to the evaporator

Filtering the LPG flowing towards the evaporator


Specifications:

The LPG shut-off valve has a coil with spray-proof housing

Complies with R67-01 regulations

Shut-off valve is mounted with a central bolt, so it can be rotated 360 during
installation

Equipped with a replaceable filter

Evaporator can be mounted without loosing liquid gas from the supply pipe
Description:
The shut-off valve is mounted on top of the evaporator/pressure regulator.
The supply to the evaporator is shut off when switching back to petrol mode, when
stopping the engine and in case of system errors. In addition, this shut-off valve has a
magnet and glass fibre filter to prevent contamination of the LPG components.
Two types of shut-off valves are available:

Default shut-off valve with 3.2 opening

Big Flow Capacity shut-off valve with 5.2 mm opening


The opening of the shut-off valves is different.
The Big Flow Capacity valve is used for vehicles with an engine power higher than 180
hp. The supply pipe diameter for this shut-off valve is 8 mm.

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Page 27

Filter unit with combined pressure /


temperature sensor

1
2
3
4
5

Vaporous LPG in
Combined Psys and T_LPG sensor
Filter
support
Vaporous LPG out

Functions:

Filtering of the LPG

Measuring of the LPG pressure

Measuring of the LPG temperature

Distributing the gas over several injector rails


Specifications:

Light-weight nylon housing

High-pressure resistant

Special multi-layer glass fibre filtering material [3]

Long filter life

Oil trap of 8-10 grams


Description:
A 16mm hose is used to allow the vaporized LPG from the evaporator to enter the 16mm
inlet of the filter unit. In the filter unit, the gas flows through a fine-meshed filter to the
outlet. The filter section consists of a number of filter layers, from coarse to fine. The
purpose of those layers is to filter out the bigger parts first, followed by the smaller parts.
This results in an efficient filtering and a long filter life, combined with a one-way flow.
The flow direction in the VSI filters is from the outside to the inside.
In the filtered gas section, the LPG temperature and the gas pressure is being measured.
In this way the pressure measured is the actual pressure at which the gas is injected,
without any drop in pressure caused by a dirty filter. The LPG pressure and temperature
are measured behind / after the filter.
After having left the filter, the gas is directed to the injector rail via one or two 11mm
outlets. The number of outlets depends on the engine configuration (inline engine, V
engine or opposed cylinder engine) and the number of cylinders.

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Page 28

For 3 - 4 - 5 cil. engines

For 6 - 8 cil. engines

Filter life:

The filter life largely depends on the degree of pollution of the LPG fuel.

Replace the filter together with the gas shut-off valve at 25,000km / first major
servicing after the installation

After this, replace every 75,000km / 2years.


The difference in replacement period is due to the fact that most of the pollution in
various parts of the LPG system occur during and directly after the installation. Think of
the steel roll layer in the LPG reservoir, etc.
Filter sets are available as filter unit only (incl. hose clamps) without combined sensor or
as filter unit for the gas cut-off valve (incl. O-rings).

Attention!
To guarantee a clean system, the inspection and maintenance booklet for the user
requires the registration of the filter; see the example below.
The dealer who replaces the filters, has to sign / stamp the booklet.
Registration of the replacement of the filter of the gas shut-off valve and filter
unit:

25,000km
Dealer stamp

100,000km
Dealer stamp

175,000km
Dealer stamp

250,000km
Dealer stamp

Km

Km

Km

Km

Date

Date

Training Manual VSI-LPG

Date

Page 29

Date

Combined pressure / temperature


sensor

Function:

Measuring the system pressure

Measuring the system temperature


Features:

Temperature range: -40 C and 130 C.

Pressure range: 0.5 and 4.0 bar

Ensure a tight seal between the sensor and filter housing


Description:
A temperature / pressure sensor has been integrated into the filter unit in order to
measure the system pressure and the LPG temperature.
The system pressure has to be measured because:

Adapting the LPG injection times in case of any pressure variations. This makes
the VSI system insensitive to system pressure variations.

Empty tank detection, low system pressure detection.


The system temperature has to be measured because:

the LPG density varies to the LPG temperature; the colder the LPG is, the
higher the density of the LPG. As a result, the energy flow to the engine varies
approx. 12% over a temperature range from 20 to 60C.
The LPG temperature has to be monitored, in order to allow the VSI computer to adapt
the LPG injection times.
There are three different sensors available, only types three can still be delivered!
Prins type

Bosch type

1e Type
2e Type
3e Type

0 281 002 205


0 281 002 456
0 281 002 576

Measuring range
(absolute)
0.2 tot 2.5 bar
0.5 tot 3,5 bar
0.5 tot 4.0 bar

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Page 30

Note the relation between the pressure measured and the output voltage (the normal
system pressure, i.e. between 1.7 to 2.8bar, is indicated by the dotted lines).
1st type pressure sensor
5

Output [V]

4
3
2
1
0
0

0,5

1,5

2,5

Psys abs [bar]

2nd type pressure sensor


5

Output [V]

4
3
2
1
0
0

0,5

1,5

2,5

3,5

Psys abs [bar]

3rd type pressure sensor


5

Output [V]

4
3
2
1
0
0

0,5

1,5

2,5

3,5

4,5

Psys abs [bar]

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Page 31

Injector rail

Function:

Distributing the gas over the various injectors

Fixing the injectors in the various cylinder configurations


Specifications:

Light-weight and compact

100% tested for leak-tightness

Available in 2-3-4-5 rail versions


Description:
A 11mm hose provides the injector rail with LPG from the filter unit. In the rail, the LPG
injectors are mounted and linked to the common gas supply channel.
The injectors are held in the rail by means of two studs / bolts M8; those studs / bolts
clamps the injectors between a strip with hole pattern and the common rail.
The injectors can be rotated to reduce the length of the corresponding hoses between the
injector and injector nozzles in different engine types. Consequently, the LPG input may
be on the left or right of the injector connectors.
The injector rail is mounted to the car specific support and the engine by means of the
protruding stud M8. 5mm hoses are connected to the injector outlets and fastened by
means of hose clamps; ensure that the hoses to each of the cylinder inlet channels are
not bent.

Attention!
Try to keep LPG hoses between the intake manifold nipples and VSI injectors as
short as possible

The differences in length of the various 5mm injector hoses have be as low as
possible

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Page 32

LPG-injectors

Function:

Injecting CNG into the inlet manifold

Ensuring the quick opening and closing of the injector needle

Shutting off the gas supply, if deactivated


Specifications:

R67-01(LPG) & R110 (CNG) homologated

Perfect linear flow characteristic

OEM quality with guaranteed service life of 290 million cycles (more than
240,000km guaranteed)

Available in 6 different sizes (32-100cc)


Description:
Prins Autogassystemen B.V. has designed their LPG/CNG injector in close cooperation
with Keihin corp. from Japan. Keihin corp. is one of world's leading injector
manufacturers, producing high quality parts for the automotive industry. The injector is
perfectly linear from 2.2ms and has a duty life of 290 million cycles, corresponding with
240,000km in a fully sequential engine (OEM quality). Due to its specifications, this
injectors distinguishes itself from injectors of other brands.
The functioning of the LPG injectors can be compared to the functioning of the petrol
injectors. The dosing of the LPG to be injected during the four stroke cycle is adapted by
controlling the injection time for each of the gas injectors.
Consequently, the activation time of the injector varies from idle to full load and thus the
amount of gas that is injected.

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Page 33

Injector Identification Type

Because of the various engines, six different injector types are available, each with a
different output volume. The higher the stroke per cylinder or engine power, the bigger
the LPG injector to be applied.
The injector size can be recognized from:

the colour dot in the left bottom corner of the injector approval label.

the number of grooves at the 6mm output side.

VSI injector types

32120

42

52

63

73

100

flowrate (cc/st)

100
80
60
40
20
0
0

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

26

ti (msec)

Green
White
Colour
keihin
Type 3
Type 4
Max. flow 32cc/stroke 42cc/stroke
Prins ID.
32
42
Grooves
0
1
Conditions: 24ms/2.55Bar/AIR

Blue
Type 1

Orange
Type 2

Yellow
Type5

Brown
Type 6

52
2

63
3

73
4

100
5

52cc/stroke

63cc/stroke

Training Manual VSI-LPG

73cc/stroke

100cc/stroke

Page 34

Injector selection:
Before you can adjust the system, a matching injector will have to be selected. You can
use the table below as a first guideline when selecting the correct injector for the engine
to be converted. You can use the colour coding on the labels of the injectors to identify
the injector.

colour

Injector size

Green
White
Blue
Orange
Yellow
Brown

32cc /stroke
42cc/stroke
52cc/stroke
63cc/stroke
73cc/stroke
100cc/stroke

Minimum power per


cylinder [LPG]
kW
HP
9.0
13.0
18.0
25.0
31.0

12.1
17,4
24.1
33.5
41.6

Maximum power per


cylinder [LPG]
kW
HP
13.3
18.0
15.0
20.1
20.0
26.8
27.0
36.2
35.0
46.9
45.0
60.3

This table is only an indication. Issues such as petrol injectors with a high or lower yield,
can influence the gas injector selection considerably. Only when adjusting the gas
installation will you be able to determine whether you have selected the correct injectors.
This will be further discussed in the section "Setting the gas operation".

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Page 35

Injector control:

The gas injectors have to deal with a far higher flow than petrol injectors; this requires a
bigger injector plunger and an increased lifting height.
In order to release the increased flow, this kind of injector has to be able to generate a
high force in short time to lift the plunger from its seat.
For this reason, the injector resistance is low, resulting in a high current to allow the
injector to generate a strong magnetic field and open very fast.
In order to prevent the injector from overheating due to the high current, the current is
reduced as soon as the injector is fully open (lower hold current). This method of injector
control is also known as 'peak and hold' method or current control.
Refer the diagram for the peak and hold phases in the LPG injection cycle.

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Page 36

Injection nozzles
Description:
The LPG leaving the injectors are directed towards the inlet channels of the engine by
means of 5 mm hoses. This can be done in various ways:
1.
Base injector nipples
2.
Injector nipples (use 5mm internal nylon hose)
3.
Injector nipples in combination with thin wall inlet manifold
1 Base injector nipples

2 Injector nipples with


internal nylon hose

3 injector nipples in
combination with thin wall
inlet manifold

Attention!
Work very carefully while installing
If installed wrongly, leaks may occur (air and gas)
If possible, only use basic injector nipples, because practice has shown that
they have the best leak-tightness
After installation always check for gas or air leaks and whether the 5mm hoses
are mounted properly without jams or bends
Always use hose clamps
Make sure that hose lengths do not exceed 40 cm
Make sure that the hoses have equal lengths

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Page 37

VSI computer

Functions of the ECM:

measuring engine signals, fuel injectors, RPM, ECT, lambda, etc.


controlling the LPG shut-off valve
controlling the LPG injectors
cutting off/simulating the petrol injectors
reading out the fuel selection
monitoring the process parameters and generating trouble codes in case of an
error in the system
communicating with the diagnosis programme

Specifications:

R67-01(LPG) & R110 (CNG) homologated

Available in 4, 8 and 10 cylinders versions

Aluminium housing

56 position interlocking connector IP 67


Description:
The computer is the heart of the system and sees to all the control functions of the VSI
system.
There are three versions of the ECM, one for 4 cylinder engines one for 8 cylinder engines
and one for 10 cylinder engines . So the system can be used in engines up to 10
cylinders.
The spray-proof housing of the VSI computer is made of aluminium, because the heat
produced by the LPG injector drivers must be discharged. Therefore, it is important that
the VSI computer is placed in the coolest location in the engine compartment.

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Page 38

In order to calculate the correct amount of the fuel to be injected, i.e. to make a correct
conversion from the petrol data, it is important to measure a number of parameters in the
LPG mode. For this purpose, both analogue and digital signals are collected and sent to
the computer via the corresponding wires of the cable harness.
The VSI computer receives the following signals:

RPM
Inj_in[1t/m10]
the petrol injectors
Lambda 1
Lambda 2
MAP
Psys
T_ECT
LPG_switch
+15

number of revolutions
Injection times separately via all the control wires of
Lambda probe signal, bank 1
Lambda probe signal, bank 2
manifold pressure
System pressure via combined sensor in filter unit
Evaporator Coolant Temperature
Fuel selection, via switch
ignition +

Those input signals are processed by the various components of the VSI system, resulting
in the following output signals:

LPG shut off valves in the evaporator and fuel reservoir

Inj_out[1t/m10] LPG injectors

Interruption/simulation of petrol injectors via Injector Module (IM)

5V power supply of the temperature and pressure sensor, MAP sensor

Diagnosis LED and buzzer


The injector drivers in the VSI ECM work according to the 'peak & hold' current control
principle.
The injector driver diagnosis reacts on:

no load

over load

driver temperature
mounting:

Attention!
Place the VSI computer in a location with little heat build-up. If the VSI reaches an
internal temperature of more than 90 degrees, it will automatically switch to petrol.

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Page 39

VSI-computer modes
The computer can be in one of the following 3 modes::
1.
Sleep mode
2.
Stand by mode
3.
Wake up mode
3.1
Wake up mode Petrol
3.2
Wake up mode LPG
1
Sleep Mode
In order to minimize the power consumption when the car is not used, the computer is
switched to sleep mode. The computer goes to sleep mode shortly after the engine has
been switched off; due to the power supply cut off to the + contact (nr 13) and the
absence of RPM signals (nr 40).
2
Standby mode
The standby mode is selected as soon as the power supply to the + contact wire (nr 13)
is restored again in the sleep mode; normally this will be the case when the ignition is
turned on.
In the standby mode, the status of the switch and the RPM pulse signal is scanned; also
the 12V and 5V power supply to the fuel switch, the sensors P_sys + T-LPG and ECT
becomes available.
When the computer detects flanks in the signal, it switches over from standby mode to
wake up mode; the input signals are being scanned.
As soon as the engine is switched off, the + contact and the flanks in the RPM signal will
be interrupted, the computer switches to the sleep mode again.
3
Wake up mode
As soon as RPM flanks are detected, the wake up mode is selected. RPM flanks must be
detected in order to be able to switch on the 12V power supply circuit. This circuit is
required for the computer relays, the fuel level indication, the 5V sensor power supply
and the power supply to the two LPG cut-off valves.
Depending on the position of the fuel selection switch, the system selects the petrol or
LPG mode.
3.1 Wake up mode petrol
The petrol wake up mode always starts without any conditions.
Also in this mode, the VSI computer will be kept 'awake' via the + contact and the RPM
signal.
In this mode, the fuel selection switch is being monitored continuously; as soon as LPG is
selected, the system will switch over.
3.2 Wake up mode LPG
When the computer detects RPM flanks and the switch in the LPG position, the hardware
safety circuit will activate the LPG power supply to nr 53.
The computer will switch off the petrol system according to a special routine and switch
over to LPG. The computer never switches over directly after the conditions for LPG mode
are met. It will wait till the end of the injection cycle of the next injector before starting
the LPG injection into the following cylinder.
Example: if the firing order of a 4 cylinder engine is 1-3-4-2 and the LPG mode condition
are met, cylinder 1 will be provided with petrol, after which LPG will be injected into
cylinder 3. The switching over from petrol to LPG will not result in an interruption.

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Page 40

When switching over from LPG to petrol, the procedure will be carried out in reverse
order.
During a FCO, the fuel selection will not be changes; the system waits for an injector
becoming active.
When the computer is in the wake up mode as described above, the programme will
check whether the following conditions are met:
Switch in LPG position
No critical trouble codes present (DTCs = diagnostic trouble codes).
The measured RPM signal is high enough.
ECT (Engine Coolant Temperature) higher than the min. value.
TSO (Time Switch Over) ended

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Page 41

Injector control
During running on LPG, the LPG injectors are activated according to the numbering, based
on the time during which petrol would be injected in the cylinder.
For this purpose, the system detects the switching on of the petrol injector. The LPG
injector corresponding with the cylinder number is activated 1msec later.
Then, the system waits till the petrol injector is being switched off. At that moment, the
VSI computer calculates the remaining time for the activation of the LPG injectors.
In this calculation, all required corrections are taken into account, e.g. caused by the
change in system pressure, LPG temperature, ECT, battery voltage, calorific value
difference between petrol and LPG.
This results in a relation in switching behaviour of the petrol injector and the LPG injector;
refer to the following diagram (note the 'peak and hold' injector control sequence).

The control of the gas injector is based on the switching moment of the petrol injector.
The LPG injector is switched on after a fixed delay time 't_in'. This starts in peak mode in
order to open the injector rapidly and will keep the injector opened in hold mode.
As soon as the fuel injector is deactivated, the VSI computer starts calculating the
remaining time till the LPG injector must be closed again. In this switching off delay
'tg_corr' all mixture corrections are taken into account, required for a correct fuel dosing.
ti-gas = (ti-petrol x RC + offset) x correction value!

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Page 42

RPM-signal

Function:

Safety Signal in need of activation of the lock off valves.


Additional adjustment calculations using speed signal.

Description:
The VSI computer needs an engine speed signal to run on LPG. Based on this signal the
VSI computer will detect whether the engine is actually running. When the engine is
running and all switch-over conditions have been met, the VSI computer will activate the
LPG shut-off valves and switch to LPG injection. If for any reason the engine speed signal
is missing, the CNG shut-off valves are no longer activated and the system will switch to
petrol mode.
In most cases the engine speed signal is derived from the camshaft sensor or the tacho
signal. The VSI computer can only process block signals. Inductive signals are too
sensitive and can therefore not be used. If no block signal is present, a RPM module must
be installed. It will convert the interruption signal of the ignition coil (ignition coil -) into a
usable and safe engine speed signal.

Attention!
The VSI computer can only process block signals / Hall sensor signals
(camshaft/tacho signal)

Use an oscilloscope to check for a usable signal!

Max. 16 pulses per engine revolution (min. 3.2V/peak max. 300V)

Training Manual VSI-LPG

Page 43

Lambda probe signal

Function:

Monitoring the mixture by measuring the exhaust gas composition

Correcting the mixture in need of emission


Description:
The lambda probe signal is used for a proper operation of the VSI system. The VSI
system can only process narrow band or switch probe signals before the catalytic
converter (upstream probe).
The VSI computer needs the lambda probe signal for emission corrections and mixture
monitoring. During the closed-loop control the VSI computer can make small corrections
to the mixture control (Lcor and Lcor_cycle). Then the VSI computer will monitor during
full load (open loop control) whether and how long the mixture stays poor. If the mixture
stays too poor for too long, this may cause damage to the catalytic converter.
If this situation is detected, a trouble code will be generated and the system will
automatically switch to petrol.
Some engines have more than one bank. In this case, one or more lambda probes per
bank will be used. The VSI computer can process two lambda probe signals.

Attention!
The VSI computer can only process narrow band or switch probe signals
The VSI can process up to 2 probe signals (2 banks)
Always check after installation whether the lambda probe signal is received
properly

Training Manual VSI-LPG

Page 44

Injector Module (IM)

Part No.
091/01[4/5]5
180/7002x
091/7100[4/6]

Description:
dummy injector simulation
FET circuit with series resistors (unavailable)
relay circuit with series resistors

Function:

Switching on the series resistor/coil when switching from petrol to LPG

Connecting the petrol injectors to petrol ECU during petrol mode

Preventing EOBD trouble codes during LPG mode


Specifications:

4 and 6 cylinder version

Automatic petrol selection when control power supply is missing

Waterproof connector for easy connection

Waterproof housing (IP 67)


Description:
The injector module is used to deactivate the petrol injectors so the gas injectors can take
over the fuel injection. Since the engine management system detects whether any
injectors are controlled, the injectors cannot be disconnected physically. During LPG mode
power resistors or coils are connected in series with the petrol injectors. This will limit the
current to approximately 100mA. This is not enough to actually open the injector needles.
Some engine management systems will apply trouble code detection to the voltage level
of the switch-off peak of the petrol injectors. In this case injector module 091/01x5 must
be used. The coils in the injector module will produce a voltage peak which the petrol ECU
uses to detect "petrol injection".

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Injector numbers versus cylinder numbers

Attention!
The gas injector numbers are identical to the engine cylinder numbers.

So gas injector 1 can be found on cylinder 1, injector 2 on cylinder 2, etc.


When connecting the petrol injector test leads, ensure that the petrol injector test lead for
cylinder 1 is connected to the petrol injector of cylinder 1.
If connected wrongly, the mixture of one cylinder will end up at another cylinder and vice
versa. The engine will start running irregularly and will not respond correctly.
The cylinder numbers are shown in the assembly instructions. The cylinder at the
distribution side of an in-line engine is generally referred to as cylinder 1.
In a V-engine the two cylinder banks are divided into a bank with even numbers and one
with odd numbers.

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RPM module

ground

RPM
module

ground 50
rpm 40
ignition + 13

ignition +

ignition coil -

Function:

Generating a usable engine speed signal based on the high tension signal.

Creating a galvanic separation between ignition coil and VSI computer


Description:
If no usable engine speed signal can be derived, a RPM module must be used. The RPM
module converts the high tension signal from the ignition coil into a usable engine speed
signal. The ignition coil signal cannot be used directly, because the voltage peaks are too
high and will cause damage to the VSI computer.

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Wiring harness

Description:
The wiring harness connects to the computer via a 56 pole connector which is locked to
the VSI computer by means of connector clamping mechanism.
For this purpose, pull out the purple locking clip and position the 56 pole connector on the
computer connector; pay attention to the internal shape of the connector and look at the
notches and the recesses. Carefully push the connector into the computer and press the
purple locking mechanism inside again; the locking mechanism will slide the connector
onto the computer.
All wire numbers correspond with the position numbers on the connector.
Example: wire number 4 can be found on connector position number 4.
The wires have a colour, a number and some text. The text refers to the function of the
wire. Because of the fact that the wiring harness is not car specific, the wires must be
provided with a connector which allows shortening the wires and resoldering; it is also
possible to fold the surplus and combine this with the wiring harness.
Various wiring harness versions are available:

4-6-8-10 cylinder
With soldered connection or Bosch connector
Default or turbo/CNG wiring harness
Wiring harness combined with old IM module

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Assembling:

attention!
Pay attention to the following when connecting the wiring harness:
Numbers and wire colours; refer to the mounting instructions.
Correct electric connections; solder the connections or use suitable wire clamps.
Isolate all the connections with tape or shrink-sleeves.
Install the connected wires at a suitable place. This includes fixation at sufficient
places and positioning out of the reach of heat sources, e.g. EGR supply lines;
ensure that the wires are not stressed when the engine tilts
Try to integrate the LPG wires into the petrol wiring.
Mount the system fuses according to the instructions at a place which can easily be
accessed.

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Fuel switch

Functions:

Fuel selection

Fuel selection indication

Fuel level indication

Trouble code indication optical/ acoustic


Features:

Compact design, applicable to any dashboard

Programmable for various types of tank level sensors

Integrated beeper

Internal diagnostic function


Description:
The fuel switch is controlled by means of the touch control button; when pushing, the
button provides the computer with a 12V pulse signal. The computer will change the
actual fuel selection. In this way, the fuel selection can be changed from petrol to LPG
and vice versa.
This switch is available both in a resistor version and hall version (not combined).
When the system pressure is too low (empty fuel reservoir), the system will automatically
switch over to petrol mode. A beep signal will be generated in order to inform the driver
of the mode change. This beep signal has to be switched off manually by pressing the
touch control button.

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Fuel switch 1st generation (with separate


buzzer)

This switch can be recognized by the round touch key and separate beeper.
This type of switch is available in two versions:

080/70062 - suitable for fuel level gauges with variable resistor (0-95 Ohm
resistor track)

080/70060 - suitable for fuel level gauges based on the Hall principle

Attention !
Always combine the fuel selector switch with the proper fuel level sensor!

The following applies when 1st generation switches are combined wrongly:

The four green fuel level indication LEDs will illuminate one by one (full tank).
However, they will not extinguish as soon as the level drops.

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Fuel switch 2nd generation (with integrated


buzzer)

Extra Functions:

Can be programmed for various fuel level sensors

Integrated buzzer

Self diagnosis
Description:
The 2nd generation with integrated buzzer can be programmed for various fuel level
sensors:

Resistor fuel gauge (0-95 ohm)

Hall reservoir gauge (inductive)

Attention!
Make sure that the fuel selector switch is properly programmed!
The switch is factory-set to 0 - 95 Ohm.

Programming:
1.
Briefly interrupt the power supply to the fuel selector switch

Remove/install the main fuse

Remove/connect the fuel selector switch


2.
Press the touch key within 10 seconds and keep it pressed for 5 seconds until it
emits a beeping signal.
3.
Immediately make your choice:
press 1 time = 0 - 95 Ohm sensor
press 2 times = Hall sensor
press 3 times = VSI 2 prepared, not used yet!
Now the VSI switch will confirm the selection with beeping signals (1 or 2 beeps)
Changing the setting: remove the VSI main fuse and begin with step 1.
Checking the setting:
1.
Briefly interrupt the power supply to the fuel selector switch

Remove/install the main fuse

Remove/connect the fuel selector switch


2.
Press the touch key within 10 seconds and keep it pressed for 5 seconds until it
emits a beeping signal.
3.
Wait until a beeping signal can be heard:
1 beep = 0-95 Ohm sensor
2 beeps = Hall sensor

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Selfdiagnostic function of the fuel switch


Ensure that the switch type corresponds with the reservoir level sensor used. When
installing new switches, check the programming.
The new switch has been provided with a diagnostic function: Tank gauge input circuit
overload. If the tank gauge input circuit is overloaded, it will be set to a safe condition
automatically. This condition occurs in the next situation. When a Hall gauge has been
selected as the tank gauge but a 0-95 ohm gauge is actually connected.
If the 0-95 ohm gauge then reaches a value of 36 ohm or higher, the load on the input
circuit will increase in such a way that a trouble code will be generated. The trouble code
will be displayed by flashing all 5 tank LEDs. When the error has been rectified and the
switch has been pressed once, the trouble code will be reset automatically.
It is possible that the 5 fuel level LEDS blink all together, although the combination fuel
gauge / programmed switch is not wrong. In that case the switch is faulty. Replace the
switch.

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Diagnosis through the fuel selection switch


A system LED and beeper are integrated into the switch for diagnostic purposes. The
following error messages may occur:
1. System LED flashes with 2Hz (fuel level indication LEDs ON!)
Diagnosis: An error has occurred in the LPG system. It is still safe to drive on LPG,
even from an environmental point of view. Driving comfort may be reduced.
Action:
Reading out the trouble codes and diagnosing.
2. 2Hz beeps + system LED illuminated brightly (fuel level indication LEDs
OFF!)
Diagnosis: A critical error has occurred in the LPG system. It is not safe to drive on
LPG. Therefore, the system will automatically switch to petrol.
Action:
Switch off beeper by pressing the fuel selector switch. Reading out the
trouble codes and diagnosing.
3. 0.5Hz beeps + system LED illuminated brightly (fuel level indication LEDs
OFF!)
Diagnosis: An error has occurred in the LPG system. The system pressure dropped too
far, possibly caused by an empty LPG tank. The system will automatically
switch to petrol.
Action:
Check the fuel tank. Reading out the trouble codes and diagnosing.
4. All fuel level indication LEDs are flashing simultaneously (switch self
diagnosis)
Diagnosis: The fuel selector switch was wrongly programmed during installation. This
will become clear after the first litres of LPG have been used. If this
diagnosis occurs at a later stage, the switch will probably be defective!
Action:
Reprogram the switch. If the problem is not solved, replace the switch.

5. Three quick beeps every 2 minutes + system LED flashes (fuel level
indication LEDs ON)

Diagnosis:

The ValveCare fluid in the tank is empty and the bottle must be replaced as
soon as possible. It is still possible to drive on LPG for a maximum of 60
minutes, before the VSI system automatically switches back to petrol.

Action:

Replace the ValveCare fluid bottle. The system will automatically switch
back to LPG.

6. Three quick beeps continually + system LED illuminated brightly (fuel


level indication LEDs off).

Diagnosis:

You have driven with an empty bottle of ValveCare fluid for 60 minutes. The
VSI system will automatically switch back to driving on petrol.

Action:

Press the VSI switch once to stop the beeping. The vehicle will continue to
drive on petrol. Replace the ValveCare fluid bottle. After replacing the
ValveCare bottle, press the switch to switch back to driving on LPG.

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Wiring diagram fuel selector

switch

buzzer

Con.

colour

Function

wire.

Blue

Reservoir sensor

Brown

Ground

50

yellow/green

+ LPG

53

Red

12V switch

51

yellow

Sign. Fuel sel.

12

Orange

System LED

49

black

Buzzer

48

Red

12V Buzzer

51

These switch wires can be connected to the wiring harness by means of an eight-pole connector.
Assembly:

Connect the switch according to the following rule: colour to colour!


Mount the switch by drilling an eight mm hole in the dashboard panel. Note
that the hole for the new switch has not to be positioned in line with
the centre of the switch.
Insert the 8 wire cable bundle through the hole and press the switch in the
required position in the drilled hole.
Do not press the switch in the middle, only at its sides. By applying force to
the centre of the switch, the PCB may be damaged.

Attention!

Do not press the switch in the middle, only at its sides. By applying force to the
centre of the switch, the PCB may be damaged.

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Reservoir sensor (Hall)

Function:

Measuring the fuel level

Sending voltage signal to the fuel selector switch for fuel level display
Specifications:

Operation according to Hall sensor principle

Easy installation

Signal voltage 0-12 Volt


Description:
The fuel level in the reservoir is measured by a hall sensor mounted to the reservoir. This
sensor informs the computer on the actual reservoir level, in five voltage levels. Switching
from the one to the other level results in hysteresis. This implies that at the transition
between 40 and 60% of the level, the 60% LED will extinguish as soon as the reservoir
level is measured lower than 40% for some time. In this way, changes in indication when
driving through a curve (fuel level at the position of sensor becomes lower temporarily)
are prevented.
Refer to the diagram for the relation between the reservoir level and reservoir level
sensor voltage generated by the reservoir level hall sensor.

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Dual Sensor Interface

Function:

Enabling the use of two fuel level sensors.

Sending a signal to the fuel level sensor which measures the highest tank level.
Specifications:

Ensures an accurate fuel level display

Waterproof housing
Description:
When two tanks are used, a fuel level sensor for each tank will be mounted. The two fuel
level sensors can be linked by a Dual Sensor Interface. The Dual Sensor Interface will
send the signal of the fuel level sensor indicating the highest fuel level.
The two tanks are often linked by a connection block. Ideally, the tank levels will remain
equal when the amount of LPG reduces. In actual practice the vapour tension per tank will
be different, which causes the tank level per tank to differ. The Dual Sensor Interface is
used to compensate for this difference.

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Tank connection block

`
1
2
3
4
5
6

Connection block
Check valve E4-67R 010134
Filter
6 mm pipe nipple / 8 mm pipe nipple
Safety valve E13-67R-01027300
Blind stop, required for connecting two tanks
Function:

Enabling a mechanical link between 2 or 3 tanks.


Specifications:

Enabling a link between up to three tanks

Tested according to R67-01

Gas inlets have check valves

Integrated filters

Integrated safety valve

Two versions available: for 6 and 8mm pipes


The tank connection block can be used to connect 2 or 3 tanks.
The connection block was developed by Prins and tested according to R67-01.
On top of the connection block a safety valve is mounted, which blows off if the pressure
in the pipe to the evaporator runs too high (28 Bar).
Check valves are mounted on all gas inlets to prevent gas from passing from one tank to
another. In addition, filters have been mounted in front of the check valves to protect
them against contamination.
The tank connection block is supplied in various versions:

for connecting 2 or 3 tanks (with or without blind stop)

for connecting 6 or 8 mm pipes

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Diagnostic program VSI

The functioning of the system can be checked by means of a Windows based programme;
this programme can also be used for reading out trouble codes.
For this purpose, connect the VSI computer to a PC. Use the special interface cable and
connect this to the 4-pin diagnosis connector. This interface adapts the communication
signal, to guarantee a trouble free connection between the VSI computer and the PC.
Refer to 'Extended help functions' in the diagnosis software for a detailed description of
the program. In this section, you will find the version number of your software, the
system specifications, an explanation of the parameters and trouble codes, the universal
parameter settings, etc. Use the program to monitor the system from behind your
computer system.

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