133
FLOW IN PIPES.
CYRIL FRANK
COL~BROOK,
Ph.D., B.Sc. (Eng.), Assoc. M. Inst. C.E.
(Ordered by the Council to be published with written.dkcusswn.)l
TABLE O F CONTENTS.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Introduction
.
Theory of turbulent flow inpipes
.
.
.
.
. .
A new theoretical formula for flow in the transition region
.
Relation between PrandtlvonKarman and exponential formulas.
Analysis of experimental data on smooth pipes
. . . .
Galvanized,cast, and wroughtironpipes
.
.
.
.
.
Old pipes .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Discussion and conclusions .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
AppendixExamplesillustratingthe
use of designTables .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
PAGE
133
137
139
141
143
145
153
154
.
.
.
155
INTRODUCTION.
The problem offlow in pipes is one which has until recently defied
theoretical analysis, owing to its complexity and the absence of a rational
basis for its solution. An outstanding contribution t o the knowledge of
the subject was made more than half a century ago by Professor OsboTne
Reynolds, who succeeded in finding a unifying principle which considerably
simplified the analysis of his experimental results. His discovery that the
PUd
led later workers to thc corollary that the coefieient X in the wellknown
hlU2
PUd
C.E.
134
h = ARh
By rearrangement of this equation into the form
i t is easy to show that for smooth pipes the sum of the indices of U and d
must be 3 for all pipesizes and velocities. This equation is widely known
and the argument is frequently put forward that the sum of the indices
must equal 3 in any exponential formula designed to fit experimental
results on a few pipes over a limited range of velocities of flow. Although
this relation between the indices is true for smooth pipes, the value of n
itself so depends on the Reynolds number that a single value cf n will only
give approximatelycorrectresults
over alimited range of Reynolds
numbers. When the roughnessfactor is introduced the relation no longer
holds : indeed, it will be shown in a later paragraph that, whatever the
roughness, this sum always exceeds 3. F. C. Scobey attempts to justify
by dimensional reasoning 1 his formula for riveted steel pipes in which the
sum of the indices is 3, but his omission, from the argument, of the roughnessfactor, which is particularly important in the case of riveted pipes,
seriously affects the value of the formula.
In brief, it may be stated that the principle of dynamical similarity
determines the nondimensional parameters governing fluid motion, but
fails to determine the functional relationship between them. This has led to
a reconsideration of t,he fundamentals of the problem, and therecent success
of L. Prandtl and von Karman in Germany, and of G. I. Taylor in Great
Brihin, in expressing in mathematical form the mechanism of turbulence,
Riveted
Steel and Analogous Pipes. Bulletin No. 150, Department of
Agriculture, U.S.A., 1930.
COLEBROOK ON TURBULENT
FLOW
135
IN PIPES.
linked with the experimental investigations of Nikuradse, have now provided a fundamental basis for the analysis of the problem.
They developed a formula of the type
and showed that thelower limit of integration y1 is a function of the wallparticle size k in the case of rough pipes in which the 00w obeys the
square resistancelaw, and is dependent on the density p, the viscosity
p, and theshear stress at thewall T,in thecase of smooth pipes.
Substituting appropriate values of y1 in (1) the following resistance
laws are obtained for
))
R 4
log2.51
. . . . . . . .
(2)
. . . . . .
(3)
PV*k
exceeding 60, whilst for values less than 3 even rough pipes obey the smoothpipe law as the excrescences then cease to contribute to the resistance.
Between these values there is a transition from one law to the other.
The smooth, rough, and transition laws for Nikuradse's sand roughness
in which the grains are of uniform size and closely packed together, are
shown in Fig. l (p. 136) together with the transition curvefor a pipe having
a roughness composed of isolated particles, the experiments on which are
t I.'=2/?
"
of a velocity.
Theroughness Reynolds number
It will be seen that it is the product of three dimensionless numbers, the resistancecoefficient, the relative roughness, and the Reynolds number.
136
COLERROOK TURBULENT
ON
137
FLOW IN PIPES.
grains is comparatively large even a t fairly low mean velocities, the local
grain coefficient is practically constant over the entire transition range.
Y1
k
P
In effect,  in (1) is a function of , the relative roughness, and __
d
d
P V*d
and hasdefinite limiting values corresponding a t the one extreme to fullyroughlaw flowconditions in which viscous resistance is negligible, and at
the other extremeto smoothpipe conditions when the resistance mechanism
is entirely molecular. The exact form of the function will depend on the
distribution of the roughnesselements and is mathematically indeterminate,
but it will be shown in the present Paper that it is possible to obtain a
particular transition law which is similar to those obtained experimentally
for commercial pipes by simply addingtogether 1 the lower limits of
integration y1 which satisfy the rough and smoothpipe laws. The following general formula is then obtained :
THEORYOF TURBULENT
FLOWIN PIPES.
138
av.
&JP
2.5
y
. . . . . . . . .
where U denotes the velocity a t a distance y from the wall of the pipe,
r, the shear stress at the wall, and p, the density of the fluid.
On integration the equation (5) becomes
.
. . . . .
PV&
__ exceeds
* For the proof of this expression, see The Reduction of Carrying Capacity of
Pipes with Age, by C. F. Colebrook and C. M. White. Journal Inst. C.E.,vol. 7
(193738),p.99.(November1937.)
139
mined a value of
Y1
=g'
where k denotes the diameter of the sand grains. Inserting this value of
y1 in (S), the resistancelaw for rough pipes becomes
(3)
In thecase of smooth pipes (or rough pipes when 'Y*k,,,.is
less than
3 when the roughness particles cease to shed eddies and contribute to the
resistance), the resistance is due entirely to molecular or viscous mixing,
and y1 must, by dimensional reasoning, be proportional t o ,CL which is the
PV*
only combination of 7, p, and p which has the same unit as a length.
Other experiments by Nikuradse show that for smooth pipes
P
y1 =1 
10 PV*
which on insertion in (8) leads to theresistancelaw for smooth pipes
When
U
of a smooth 'pipeduetothe
protuberances.
A NEW THEORETICAL
FORMULA
ROR FLOW
IN
THE
roughness
TRANSITION
REGION.
= +PV*
L ).
. .
140
0.113d
3=
=
log k
33
2log
1CL
+.10 p v *
+ lO'p17,d
__
0.113 3%
1
2log(:+)
dX
k
37d
2.51
RdA
'
'
'
_ 1
'
3
from the remainder.
CL
3.7d
3.28
2log= 2log
k
Thus,
(13)
discrepancy against
pv k
experiment is very small and diminishes with increasing values of 2.
CL
The curve approaches the smooth and roughlaws asymtoticallyin
accordance with experimental observation.
The formula for flow in smooth pipes
(2)
141
RELATION
BETWEEN PRANDTI~VONKARMAN
AND EXPONENTIAL
FORMULAS.
Thus
or
It is clear that the exponent, n, is itself a function of the resistancecoeficient, so that a single value will only give approximatelycorrect
results over a limited range of d/k values. In order to illustrate the argument, suppose it is necessary to develop exponential formulas to cover a
142
2/h
X:
dlk
dlk
= 10 to
= 200 to
=ARn
. . . .
. . . .
Thus
or
143
ANALYSISOF EXPERIMENTAL
DATAON SMOOTH
PIPES.
A number of commerical pipes may be regarded as hydraulically smooth,
at least for all ordinary velocities of flow. Among these may be included
good commercial drawnbrass pipes, lead, glass, or tin pipes, centrifugallyspun lined (with bitumen or concrete) castiron pipes, and concretelined
pipes which have been deposited against oiled steel forms and carefully
rubbed down to remove any imperfections.
The results of an analysis of much of the available experimental data
are shown in Figs. 2 (p. l44), and are seen to be in close agreement with
the PrandtlvonKarman smoothpipe law.
The data include the experimental results on only one brass pipe of
05 inch diameter,obtained a t the National Physical Laboratory by
Stanton and Pannell in 1915, although the results for a large number of
brass pipes of other diameters tested by them also agree very closely with
theory. The results on sixteen spun concretelined pipes and on six spun
bitumasticlined pipes ranging in size from 4inches to 60 inches in diameter
are included. Of these, the laboratory tests by M. L. Enger on 4inch,
6inch and 8inch pipes were probably subject to the least experimental
error, and the result.s exhibit only slight scatter from the theoretical law.
I n analyzing the dat,a obtained by B. W. Bryan on the Stour Supply,
Danbury to Herongate main, which included one hundred and ninetytwo
lobsterback bends of radius 3 4 4 and having a total change in direction
U2
F. C. Scobey,
No. 852.
144
COLEBROOKONTURBULENTFLOW
IN PIPES.
I45
TABLEI.
1 zGi! 1
1,018
2,036
3,045
4,063
5,091
in
1,000feet :per
4
8
12
16
20
feet,
Coemclent of
friction, X .
Reynolds
number.
0.108
0.448
0.990
1.701
2,397
5,550,000
11,100,000
16,650,000
22,2oo,oO0
27,700,000
0.00782
0.00812
0.00798
0.00773
040697
'
9
and,
thus
II
dA
This arrangement gives a sloping straight line for the smoothlaw flow and
a series of parallel horizontal lines in the squarelaw region which extends to
the right of the dotted line representing the lower limit of roughlaw flow.
The results may be brought to a single line in the roughlaw region by
3.7d
l
P V& This has been
plotting 2 log  as afunction of log
X:
di
P
carried out in Pigs. 4 , 6, and 8 (pp. 147 el seq.), and a mean transition curve
drawn in for each class of pipe. The kvalues determined for all pipes are
shown in Pys. 9 (p. 152), and using the mean Icvalue for each class together
with the corresponding mean transitioncurve, a number of transition curves
have been drawn in Pigs. 3, 5, and 7 for direct comparison with the
p.
10
146
COLEBROOK
IJRRULENT
ON
FLOW IN PIPES.
147
148
COLEBROOK ON TURBULENT
FLOW
IN PIPES.
testresults. It is seen that although some of the pipes do not agree very
closely with the mean curves, some having too rapid transition andothers
too slow, there appears to be sufficient positive evidence to justify the
adoption of the given mean transition laws together withthe mean kvalues.
It is to be expected that these will enable the prediction of resistancecoefficients in pipes of sizes other thanthose tested and at
velocities beyond
the normal range with less uncertainty than with any existing empirical
Fig. 5.
l? ,/T
EXPERIMENTAL
DATAON TARCOATED
CASTIRON
PIPES.
COLEBROOK ON TURBULENT
FLOW
IN PIPES.
149
in opposite directions from the mean curves, and the 2inch pipe is somewhat rougher than the 4inch.
The remaining data on galvanized pipes was obtained by Saph and
Schoder, but in thedetermination of the mean value of k for this class the
Author has neglected pipe XVIII (0.85 inch in diameter) as the experimenters makethe following statement concerning this pipe" Pipe XVIII
(0.85 inch in diameter) seems to be an exceptional pipe, but it has to be
remembered that a slight siltlike deposit had occurred on the inner walls
which was entirely sufficient to relieve the roughness."
150
I L \X
E XPERIMENTAL DATAON
WROUGHTIRON PIPES.
Fig. 8.
152
001
0.W6
W
$0034
0 002
0.001
DIAMETER:
INCHES,
GALVANIZEDIRON PIPES.
0.006
0004
a 0.002
0.00I
0
10
20
30
40
DIAMETER:
INCHES.
ASPHALTEDCASTIRON
50
60
70
1 0
I2
14
PIPES
0 004
vi ow2
2
5:
., 0 . 0 0 1
k
.!
0006
0.004
0
6
8
DIAMETER:
INCHES.
WROUGHTIRON
PIPES.
included, but these pipes appear to have a capacity averaging about 5 per
cent. greater than that of uncoated pipes.
Pipes Nos. 302, 304, and 310 in The Flow of Water in Riveted Steel and
Anagolous Pipes, by F. C. Scobey (U.S. Dept. AgricultureTech. Bul. No. 50,
Jan. 1930). Denoted in Fig. 9 of the present Paper by d.
153
. . . k = 0.006 inch.
. . .
I% = 0.005 inch.
. . . k = 0.01 inch.
. . . k = 0.0017 inch.
OLD PIPES.
The deterioration of pipes with age has already been discussed a t solne
length in a previous Paper 1 so only brief reference to thisproblem will be
made here.
The hydraulic resistance of watermains increases after themains have
been in service for some time due togrowths or deposits upon the internal
surfaces. By making various simplifying assumptions it has been possible
to develop a formula 1 which gives the relation between the age of a pipe
and its carrying capacity, which may be written as
$100)
. . . . . .
37a
= (lO*
100)
. . .
. .
(22)
= ko
+ uT,
I54
this may be estimated for asphalted castiron pipes from the pH value of
the water, using t.hc interpolation formula
CI
2 l o g a = 3.8  p H
. . . . . .
(24)
DISCUSSION
AND CONCLUSIONS.
The present analysis of the problem offlow in commercial pipes has
been based on the premise that transition from smoothlaw to roughlaw
flow in commercial pipes takes place in a gradual manner, as shown in
Fig. l (p. 136). By an extensionof the PrandtlvonKarmanlaws for smooth
and rough pipes, a theoretical transition law (12) has been developed by the
Author, in collaboration with D r . C. M. White, which gives favourable support to this assumption. A l t ~ T h ~ ~ i Z i i i iexperimental
ble
data is so
incomplete and limited in range that fully rough conditions were only
reached in a few cases, a collection of data on old mains shown in Pig. 2
of a previousPaper 1 proves conclusively that in thecase of nonuniformly
roughened pipes (which include most commercial pipes), the resistancecoefficient falls with decreasing rapidity as thevelocity increases, and once
having reached squarelaw it remains constant at all higher velocities.
The fact that there are considerable variations in the roughness and
transition curves in each class of pipe must not be considered a defect in
the method of analysis. Such variations are to be expected, since manufacturing conditions are not identical in different plants. For design purposes a series of transition curves for each class is obviously impracticable,
so mean curves corresponding to average conditions have been determined.
The scatter of the kvalues in Pig. 9 is too great t o be able to ascertain any
possible dependence of k on pipesize, so a single value for each class seems
justified especially as pipes of all sizes in any particularclass are made by
the same process. In thecase of builtup pipes, such as riveted steel pipes,
a variation of k with pipesize would be expected, and in a later Paper it
will be shown that thisoccurs in thecase of a certain class of riveted pipe.
Where it is not possible to determine by experiment the transition curve
for any particular type of pipe, the theoretical transition curve (12) may
be used with verylittle error provided that theroughness can be determined,
and this is not difficult since some reliable experimental data on a few
pipes over at least a small range of velocities is usually available.
All formulas in the Paper are nondimensional throughout and it is
possible,therefore, to use the results inany system of units. Since the transition curves are somewhat complex and are not, therefore, easy to use,
five designTables (Tables 11VI) based on these functions are included
Footnote ( l ) ,p. 163.
158
APPENDIX.
'
1,710 X 463
= 22.1 cu8ecB.
Problem (2).
To find thc diameter of a new asphalted castiron pipe to discharge 10 cuseca with
a gradient of 1 in 4
00.
The sizeof pipe is determined by the value of
156
Q = 208 .d=
10.4 cusecs
Problem (3).
To find the diameter of an asphalted castiron pipewhich will discharge 36 cusecs
30 years hence witha gradient of 1 in 100 and apH value of 7.2.
The required pipe must have a value
of
and by interpolation in Table VI for a pH value of 7.2 it is seen that a 33inch diameter pipe has a valueof A C d g = 365 approximately a t this pH value.
TABLETT.SMOOTH
D:
inrhes.
ACdG
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
15
18
21
24
27
30
33
36
40
44
48
54
60
66
72
78
84
107.5
110.5
112.5
114,:i
116
0.061
0.385
1.11
2.37
4.25
6.87
10.3
14.6
20
26.3
33.6
42.2
76
121.5
182
2.57
U=l
PIPES
: VALVESOF C
A4cd/m
0.0713
94
0.141
103
ACdG
0474
0.46
1.32
105
106.5
108
109.5
l1 0.5
112
114.5
4.45
7.15
10.7
15.2
20.7
27.3
34.9
l
124
44
78.8
85.3
136
203
288
392
515
660
825
1085
l390
1740
2360
3940
4980
6150
7420
1

100,000
127.5
130
131.5
133.5
l35
l36
137.5
134.5
140
141
142
143.5
145
146.5
147.5
148.5
150
G ~ ~ A QR =D( A C ~ ~ ~ VARIOUS
T A T VELOCITIES.
5
8.05
1245
17.1
23.2
30.5
39.2
49.1
87.7
40.5
209
296
402
527
678
848
1115
142.5
1785
2420
3180
4090
5130
62S0
7620
GRADIENT =
I
99
107.5
112.5
0.078
0.48
1.38
2.93
119
121
123
125
126
127.5
129
130
132.5
135
136.5
138.5
5.25
8.4
12.55
17.8
24.1
31.8
40.7
51.1
91
146
217
307
140.5
419
141
142.5
143.5
145
146.5
147.5
149
150
151.5
153
154
154.5
547

1
10,000
~
1
0=3
1l 6
2.8
101
103
U=Z
1 1
JIOO
GRADIENT =
U=1.5
IN
703
880
1153
1480
1855
2510
3290
4220
5310
6.520
7850
u=5
C
u=10
U=;
ACd\/m
ACdm
0.096F
0.585
14ij
_105
114
l19
122
l25
127.5
130
131
132.5
134
135.5
136.5
139.5
141
143
145
146.5
148
149
150
151.5
153
154.5
l56
157
158
159.5
160.5
161
114
122
128
131
I
134.5
0.0828
0.508
1.46
3.08
5.5
8.85
13.25
15.4
13.4
12.8
53.6
16
152
227
322
437
575
73.5
920
1206
1545
1940
2630
3440
4400
5550
6800
8200
123
126.5
129.5
131.5
133.6
135.5
137
138.5
139.5
140.5
143.3
146
148
150
150.5
152
153.5
154.5
156
157
158.5
l60
161.5
162
163.5
164.5
165.5
1.51
3.19
5.7
9.12
13.6
19.3
E6.2
136.5
138
140
141.5
142.5
!4.5
0.09
119
0.545
1'X
1.57
5.92
132..5
I36
139.5
9.45
141.5
14.05
20
27.1
35.5
143
145
146.5
138
149
150
153.5
1 55
l57..5
139.<5
161
162
163
164.5
165.5
167
168
169.5
171
172
I73
174
175
3.31
14.1
i5.3
57.5
23.5
333
450
590
757
94.7
1215
1585
l990
2700
3540
4520
5680
6970
8420
GRADIENT
162
155.5
156.5
158
159.5
160.5
161.5
163
164.5
165.5
167
168
l69
170
1
1,000
=
465
607
780
975
1280
1630
2050
2780
3630
4660
5830
7150
8650
3.53
6.3
10.05
15.0
21.3
28,s
GR,\DIENT=
1
148
150
151.5
153
155
156.5
158
159.5
162
I
161..j
166
168
170
170.5
172
173
174.9
176
177
179
180
181.5
I82.5
183.5
1 83
48.3
60.5
07.5
I72
256
362
492
642
823
1030
1350
1720
2160
2920
3830
4910
6I
U
,;
7550
9100
6.5
10.4
15.45
21.8
29.7
39
50
62.7
]L11.5
l
17.4
264
373
507
661
818
I060
l390
>R .\DIEXI'=

l
10
1780
2220
3020
3940
5070
6340
7770
9400
1L
GRADIEhT = 100
[TABLE111.

D:
inches
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
0.00136
0.00546
0.01228
0.0218
04341
0.0491
04668
0.0874
0.1 104
0.1362
0.165
0.1965
0,267
0,349
0,442
0.546
0.66
0.786
ACdK
0.102
0.1444
70.5
75
0.1772
79
0.2042
0.2282 I_ H:!
0.25
84
0.27
86
0.289
87.5
0.306
89
92
0.323
90.5
0.339
92
0353
93
0.382
94.5
0.408
96
0.433
97.5
0,457
99
3,478
100
3.50
101
62
10.0086
0.0555
0.163
0.352
0.638
3.01
3.97
5.13
6.45
9.62
13.6
18.7
24.7
31.5
39.6
lGRADIENT=
64.5
73
78
82
84.5
93.5
94.5
95.5
97.5
99.5
100.5
102
103
104
1
lo,ooo
l

0.5
GALVAIVIZTDIRON
PIPES: VALUESOF C m U
TABLE111.NEW
Cdgi AND Q
u=3
= ( A C d n ) d i AT
u=5
U=7
A C G
l
73.5
0.0102
0.39
U=20
U=30
I
ll
76
34.5
0.705
1.14
1.71
2.44
3.31
4.36
5.62
7.05
2.55
10.55
15.0
103.5
111
117 11.8
16.8
22.9
30.0
38.8 123 38.5
20.5
1
7
34.5
43.5
GRADIENT =
U=lO
11
04097
0,062
0. I82
VARIOUS VELOCITIES.
114
1

1000
117
118.5
GRADIENT =
1
,m
119
120
121.5
11.9
17
23
30.2
I
GYADTT?\l=
D:
inrhes.
TARLX
IVNEW ASPRALTEDCASTIRONPIPES : VALUESOF C
u=1.0
A:
U = 1.5
ACd\/m
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
l5
40
44
48
54
60
C ~ ~ ~ F AQI =T ( D
A C d m ) d ; AT T
I
T V E L~O ~ ~ ~~ E S . ~
u=m
__.
sqllnre
feert.
3
4
18
21
24
27
30
33
36
u=2.0
IN
181
1240
I560
2120
2780
116.5
118.5
120
121
122
123.5
125
126
127.5
l29
130
1Mi
358
470
602
756
993
I270
l605
21 80
2860
I .25
136
137.5
139
1
= lo,ooO
AC&i
2.71
4.87
7.90
135
GRADIENT
99.5
l25
127
128.5
130
131
I32
133.5
263
ACdK
103
106.5
108.5
110.5
112
114
115.5
116.5
118
121
163
255
347
458
587
735
967
ACl\/m
U = 30.0
ACV%
107.5
1.31
2.78
111
~
117
1.32
2.7!1
5.03
8.1 3
12.2
120.5
16.7
22.8
30
38.3
139
208
294
400
524
672
842
1105
1415
l780
241 5
3180

11.8
48.2
86.7
130
132.5
134.5
136.5
137.5
139
88.5
142
212
300
407
4x15
F89
860
l130
1440
1820
2470
32.50
140.5
142
143
144.5
146
148
149
GRADTEXT =
17.1
23.4
30.9
39.6
49.8
X!I.T,
144
214
303
410
540
694
870
1136
1455
1835
2490
3280
AC&i
1.32
107..5
111.5
2.80
114.5
5.03
117
119
121
123
124.5
125.5
127
130
132.5
134.5
136.5
8.13
12.2
17.2
23.6
31
39.6
49.8
89.5
144
214
303
138
416
139.5
141
142
143.5
14.5
146
147.5
149.5
542
G96
870
1140
1460
I835
2190
3290
100
[TABLEV.
TABLE
V.NEW WROUQHTIRON
PWES: VALUESOF C IN U
D :
inches
A:
qnarr feet.
U =0.5
dGi :
(feet)&.
U=0.7
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
0.001362
0,0054fi
0,01228
0.02182
0.0341
0.0491
0.0668
0.0874
0.1104
0.1332
0.165
0.1965
0.267
0.349
0.442
0,546
0.66
0.786
0.102
0.144c5
0.1772
0.204
0.228
0.25
0.27
0.289
0.306
0.323
0.339
0.353
0.383
0.408
0.433
0.457
0.478
0.5
67.5
76
80.5
84
87
89.5
91.5
93
94.5
96
97
98
100
101.5
103
104.5
105.5
106.5
0.0094
0.060
0.175
0.374
0.677
1.10
1.64
2.35
3.20
4.20
5.42
6.82
10.2
14.4
19.7
26.0
33.2
41.7
GRADIENT =
70.5
7'3
84
87.5
90
92.5
94.5
96
98
99.5
100.5
101.5
103
104.5
106
107.5
109
112.5
110
1
10,000
2.42
99.5
0.0103
0.065
0.19
0.405
0.727
1.18
1.76
2.51
3.41
4.49
5.78
10.5
14.8
20.3
26.8
34.3
43.1
Gdz
AD
u=5
= (ACdm)d/7AT VARIOUS
VELOCTRES.
u=7
1
I
U=IO
ACdK
u=30
U=15

l
0.5
u=3
U=2
U=1.5
U=l
106.5
109.5
113.5
7.30
10.85
15.4
21.0
27.7
35.4
44.5
77
85.5
91
94.5
97.5
100
101.5
103
104.5
106
107.5
108.5
110.5
112
113.5
1l 5
116
117
0.0107
0.0675
0.197
0.01l l
79.5
0.421
0.758
1.23
1.83
2.60
3.53
4.65
6.00
7.55
11.3
15.9
21.7
28.6
36.6
45.8
GRADIENT =
100
102
104
105.5
107
108.5
110
111
113
114.5
116
117.5
119
120
1

1,000
0.778
1.25
1.87
2.66
3.62
4.75
6.15
7.72
11.5
16.3
22.2
29.3
37.5
47.0
83
91.5
96.5
100.5
103
105.5
0.012
88.5
0.075
97.5
0.218
102.5
104
04ti:I
106.5
I07
0.833 ' 109.5
109.5
1.34
112
111
2.00
113.5
2.85
115.5
113
114.5
3.87
117
118.5
5.08
6.55
120
8.23
121
122.5
12.25
0.072
107.5
0.448
0.802
1.30
1.93
109
2.75
110.5
112
113.5
114.5
116.5
l18
119.5
121
122.5
123.5
48.4
128.5
GRADIENT = 100
0.077
0.222
0.47.5
0.852
2.04
2.92
3.96
5.20
6.70
8.40
12.5
17.6
24.1
31.8
40.5
50.8
!)9.5
105
109
111.5
114
I16
118
119.5
121
122.5
123.5
125
126.5
128.5
130
131
132
94
95.5
103
104.5
108.5
110
114
117
119.5
121.5
123.5
125
112.5
I20
3.03
11.5.5
118
120
122
123.5
123
126
127.5
109
130.R
132.5
131
126..i
128
129
130.5
132.5
134.5
136
137
138
135
136
GRBDIENT
1
10
=
k=n.n75 inch.
k y 0 . 1 inch
k = @ 3 inrh
k=0.15 inch
k0.5 inch.
k=0.7.5 inch.
7
8
9
10
11
12
15
18
21
24
27
30
33
36
40
44
48
54
60
66
72
78
84
0.0491
0.0873
0.13F
0.196
0.267
0.349
0.442
0.545
0.66
0.785
1.227
1.767
2.405
3.14
3.98
4.91
5.94
7.07
8.73
10.56
12.57
15.90
19.63
23.76
28.27
33.15
3848
k3.0inch.
ACdk
l
C
ACl/Z
0.25
0.288
0.322
0.354
0.383
0.408
0,433
0.457
0.478
0.5
0.56
0.613
0.662
0.707
0.75 316
0.79
0.83
0.02
2.0
3.63
5.90
8.90
12.7
75.3
79.3
52.5
85
87.2
89
1.86
3.38
5.52
8.30
11.8
16.3
21.5
27.6
3'4.9
63.3
102
154
219
299
89
105.9
107.5
417
0.866
0.912
0.955
1.0
1.06
1.12
1.17
1.225
1.275
1,325
0.85
69.6
73.7
76.8
79.4
81.5
83.3
85
86.4
87.8
114
115.6
118.5
120.8
121.8
9.5
1432
1950
2570
3290
4150
5120
6200
92.1
94.6
96.7
98.7
100.2
101.7
103
104.4
105.8
107
108.3
110
111.4
112.9
114
115.
116
39.5
508
640
843
1080
1360
1860
2450
3 140
3960
48S0
5900
9.1
0.81
1.76
3.2
65.7
69.6
72.8
75.3
77.4
79.3
80.8
82.5
83.8
85
88.2
90.7
92.8
94.7
96.3
97.8
99
100.2
101.6
103
104.4
106
107.4
108.8
111.1
lI2'l
5.23
7.9
11.3
15.5
20.5
26.4
33.2
60.7
98.0
148
210
287
379
488
614
810
1040
1310
17nn
2360
3020
3820
4710
5710
60
64
67.2
69.7
71.5
73.7
75.3
76.8
78.2
79.3
82.5
85
87.1
89
90.6
92.1
93.5
94.7
96.2
97.5
98.6
100.4
101.9
103.2
104.4
105.5
10F.5
0.74
1.61
2.96
4.85
7.33
10.5
14.4
19.1
24.7
31.1
56.8
92.0
139
19s
270
R37
461
580
765
953
1040
1700
2240
2870
3620
4470
5430
60
65.7
67.8
69.7
71.2
72.8
74.2
56.3
85
86.7
88
89.3
90.6
92.1
93.3
94.6
96.2
2150
97.7
99
low2
101.4
102.4
0.69
1.51
4.57
6.92
9.9
13.6
18.1
23.4
29.5
189
258
341
440
555
733
940
l190
l624
2750
3480
4300
5220
50.3
54.4
57.5
60
62.2
64.1
65.7
67.2
68.5
69.7
72.8
7R.4
77.5
79.3
81
82.5
83.8
85
86.5
87.8
89
90.7
92.2
93.5
94.8
95.8
96.8
0.62
1.37
2.53
4.17
6.35
9.12
12.6
16.7
21.6
27.3
50.0
81.5
123
176
241
320
413
520
688
885
1120
1530
2030
2600
3290
4060
4930
43.2
47.2
50.3
52.9
55
56.9
58.5
60
61.3
62.5
65.7
68.2
70.3
72.2
73.7
75.3
76.7
77.8
79.3
80.6
81.9
83.5
85
86.3
874
88.7
89.7
0.53
1.19
2.21
3.68
5.61
8.1
11.2
14.9
19.4
24.5
45.2
74.0
112
160
220
292
378
477
630
813
1030
1410
1870
2400
3040
3760
4570
37.6
0.46
1.05
1.96
3.28
5.06
7.3
10.1
13.5
17.6
41.6
44.7
47.2
494
51.3
52.9
54.3
55.7
56.9
60
62.5
62.7
66.7
68.2
69.7
71
72.2
73.7
75
76.2
77.8
79.3
80.7
81.9
83
84
22.3
41.3
67.5
103
148
203
271
360
442
587
757
957
1314
1745
2245
2840
3 520
4270
pH* value of vater to give above vaIues of k aftor 30 years' grovt: n cast. In pipes
7.0
8.4
8.2
7.8
7.4
8.8
AC.\/m
ACd/na
ACdK
18.2
22.3
25.4
27.9
30.1
314
33.6
35.1
36.4
37.6
40.7
43.2
45.3
47.2
48.8
50.3
51.7
52.9
54.3
55.7
564
58.5
60
61.3
62.6
63.7
64.7
0.22
0.56
1.11
1.94
3.07
4.54
6.45
8.75
11.5
14.75
28.0
46.7
72.2
105
14.5
195
2.55
324
432
562
715
987
1320
1705
21 70
2700
3290
~ ~
.
3
4
5
k = 1 4 inch.
.
D:
A:
inchcs. square fret.
Based on 2 1og a = 3.8  pH, There a denotes the growthrate in inches per year =
k"  0405'
30
33.6
37.6
40.7
43.2
45.4
47.2
48.8
50.3
51.7
52.9
56
58.6
60.7
62.6
64.2
65.7
67
68.2
60.7
71
72.2
73.8
75.3
76.7
774
79
80
0.41
0.95
1.79
3.00
4.65
6.72
9.35
12.5
16.3
20.7
38.5
63.3
96.7
139
191
255
330
418
555
716
907
1245
1660
2130
2700
3350
4070
6.8
27.0
31.9
3.i.l
37.6
2.61
4.08
5.92
8.30
11.1
23.9
0.29
274
0.7
31 1.54 1.36
33.5
2.33
35.7
3.62
37.6
5.35
7.50
39.2
40.7
10.1
13.3
16.9
57.2
87.7
0.34
0.8
39.8
41.6
43.2
44.7
46.1
47.2
50.3
52.9
55
5F.9
31.9
52.7
81.5
117
I63
217
283
358
477
619
785
1084
1445
1860
2370
2940
3580
48.8
51.1
68.6
60
61.3
62.6
64.1
65.3
66.5
68.3
69.7
71
72.3
73.3
74.3
302
67.3
383
58.5
510
60
658
61.3
837 62.5
l152
64.2
1532
65.7
1975
67
6.4
6.2
5.5