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AC to DC Power Conversion

Now and in the Future


PCIC-2001-14

Tony Siebert

Anders Troedson

Stephan Ebner

Member, IEEE
ABB Automation, Inc
P.O. Box 372P.O.
Milwaukee, WI 53201
USA

Member, IEEE
ABB Automation, Inc
Box 372
Milwaukee, WI 53201
USA

Member, IEEE
ABB Industrie AG
CH- 5300 Turgi
Switzerland

Agenda
Introduction
System Design Factors
Technology Assessment

Technology Comparison
Innovative Information Technology (IT) support
Conclusions

-2-

Rectifier History
1902 Invention of Semiconductor Diode (Crystal type)
1947 Invention of Transistor
1900

1910

1920

1930

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

1950 Development of Contact Rectifier


1939 First 50 kV HVDC transmission
1925 Mercury-Arc rectifier for grid control
1913 Fist Mercury-Arc rectifier

Mercury Arc Rectifier


-3-

Contact Rectifier

Rectifier History
Introduction of Thyristor Technology
Introduction of Diode Technology
1900

1910

1920

1930

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

1958 First semicond. Diode rectifier


1960 First diode plant > 100 kA
1968 First thyristor rectifier
1970 First diode rectifier unit > 100 kA

Thyristor Rectifier
-4-

Diode Rectifier

2000

Rectifier History
Ongoing Development of Thyristor Rectifier Technology
Ongoing Development of Diode Rectifier Technology
1900

1910

1920

1930

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1985 First thyristor rectifier for Aluminium Smelter


1990 First thyristor rectifier for DC-Arc Furnace

2 Thyristor Rectifier
-5-

3 Thyristor Rectifier

4 Thyristor Rectifier

1990

2000

Rectifier History
Introduction of IGCT Technology
Introduction of GTO Technology
Introduction of IGBT Technology
1900

1910

1920

1930

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

Mid-1990s first Chopper rectifier in Eletrolysis

IGBT Chopper Module PowerPac3


IGCT Chopper Module
-6-

2000

System design and decision factors

AC-Network Design Parameter

DC-Process Design Parameter

Voltage / current operating range


Voltage / current ripple
Voltage / current regulation accuracy
Voltage / current regulation speed
Overload capabilities

Investment- / install- / life-cycle cost


Production load schedule criteria
Energy day-time tariffs criteria
Plant start-up / lay-off criteria

Voltage level / voltage variation


Frequency / frequency variation
Available short circuit capability
Allowed power factor
Allowed harmonic distortion

Further Decision Factors

-7-

System reliability
System efficiency
Reparability and diagnostics
Footprint and mechanical dimension

Process Ratings

Typical Rectifier Rating


Rectifier Application Current (Amps) Voltage (DC)
Chemical electrolysis
5,000 - 150,000
40 - 1,000 Volts
Aluminum potline
10,000 - 300,000
< 1,300 Volts
DC Arc Furnace
50,000 - 130,000 600 - 1,150 Volts
Graphitizing Furnaces
20,000 - 120,000
50 - 250 Volts
Zinc/Lead, etc electrolysis 5,000 - 100,000 100 - 1,000 Volts
Copper refining
10,000 - 50,000
40 - 350 Volts
Traction substations
1,000 - 5,000
500 - 1,500 Volts
LV AC Drive (DC bus)
0 - 10,000
250 - 1,000 Volts
MV Drive (DC bus)
0 - 5,000
3,400 - 6,000 Volts

-8-

Technology Assessment
Diode
Thyristor
Diode and DC/DC Converter
(Chopper)
Active Rectifier
-9-

Diode Rectifier Topology


3 - phase bridge connection

Double wye connection with interphase transformer

6 puls circuit
6 puls circuit

LOAD

- 10 -

LOAD

Diode System Regulation Principle


Idc
[kA]

t [seconds]

T *)
Step of current setpoint
Step of OLTC

current without saturable reactor ramp control

( load impedance related )

current with saturable reactor ramp control


Range of saturable reactor control
T *) typ. 3 .. 5 s depending on OLTC drive
(saturable reactor control up to 5 ms depending on the load)
- 11 -

Diode Rectifiers
24-Pulse Diode Rectifier
+7.5

- 12 -

Simplest Technology
Longest use
Used with On-Load-Tap-Changers
Used with saturable core reactors
(amplistats, voltage controlled reactors)
-7.5

Load

Thyristor Rectifier Topology


3 - phase bridge connection

Double wye connection with interphase transformer

6 puls circuit
6 puls circuit

LOAD

- 13 -

LOAD

Thyristor System Regulation Principle


Idc
[kA]

Steps only with OLTC

t [milliseconds]

T *)
Step of current setpoint

theor.current without phase angle ramp control ()

( load impedance related )

current with phase angle ramp control in operation


Range of phase angle control
T *) typ. 100 ms .. 300 ms
possible up to 5 ms depending on the load
- 14 -

Thyristor Rectifiers
24-Pulse Thyristor Rectifier
+7.5

Load

Simple Technology
Widely Used
Can be used with On-Load-TapChangers
Relatively fast control of current
-7.5

- 15 -

Diode Rectifier + DC-Chopper Topology


3 - phase bridge connection

6 puls circuit

LOAD

- 16 -

DC-Chopper Regulation Principle


T on

T off

Idc
[kA]

Tmod 2)

T 1)
Step of current setpoint

t [milliseconds]

theor.current without PWM ramp control

( load impedance related )

current with PWM ramp control


Range of modulation control
T 1) typ. 100 ms .. 300 ms with electrolyis process load
possible up to 1 .. 5 ms depending on the load
- 17 -

Tmod 2) typ. 0.2 ms .. 1 ms

Diode Rectifier with Chopper Converter


+7.5

Newer Technology
Relatively entering into Market
Merging of older (diode) and new
technology
Fast control of current
-7.5

- 18 -

Active Rectifier Topology (AC-Chopper)


3 - phase bridge connection

6 puls circuit

Active Current Source Inverter

LOAD

- 19 -

AC-Chopper Regulation Principle


T on

T off

Idc
[kA]

Tmod 2)

T 1)
Step of current setpoint

t [milliseconds]

theor.current without ramp control

( load impedance related )

current with ramp control


Range of modulation control
T 1) typ. 100 ms .. 300 ms with electrolyis process load
possible up to 1 .. 5 ms depending on the load
- 20 -

Tmod 2) typ. 0.2 ms .. 1 ms

Active Rectifier (AC-Chopper)


Active Current Source Inverter
Load

- 21 -

Newest Application of Technology


Limited Market entry
Based upon proven technology
Fast control of current

Technology use by Process


Application
Chemical Electrolysis
Aluminum Potline
DC Arc Furnace

Diode

Thyristor

Chopper

Active Rectifier

Seldom

Standard

Seldom

Future

Standard

Seldom

Not Acceptable

Distant Future

Seldom

Future

Not Acceptable Standard

Graphitizing Furnace

Standard

Seldom

Future

Future

Zinc Electrolysis

Standard

Seldom

Future

Future

Copper Refining

Seldom

Standard

Seldom

Future

Traction Substation

Standard

Seldom

Future

Distant Future

LV AC Drive (DC Link)

Standard

Seldom

Not Applicable

Seldom

MV Drive (DC Link)

Standard

Seldom

Not Applicable

Seldom

- 22 -

Technology Share
Technology Share of Units > 10 kA
100%
90%
80%
70%

Chopper
Thyristor
Diode

60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%

- 23 -

2000

1998

1996

1994

1992

1990

1988

1986

1984

1982

1980

1978

1976

1974

1972

0%

Technology Comparison

- 24 -

Power Factor
Efficiency
Harmonic Distortion
Reliability / Availability / Service Support
Space Requirements
System Cost

The Process Load Characteristic


Udo
100 %

U Range

75 %

Chlorine
Zinc

50 %

Aluminium
Copper

25 %

I Range

- 25 -

100 %

Id

Power Factor Comparison

Power Factor

Power Factor vs Transformer Impedance

0.9600
0.9500
0.9400
0.9300
0.9200
0.9100
0.9000
0.8900
0.8800

Diode / DB
Thyristor / DB

10

11

Transformer Impedance

Note: Low Transformer Impedance = High Voltage


Harmonics

- 26 -

12

Power Factor Comparison


Diode vs Thyristor with Electrolysis Process Load
PF [-]

1.00
0.95
0.90
0.85
0.80
0.75
0.70
Ud

0.65
0.60
0.55
0.50

Id

0.45
0.40
250.00
Diode OLTC
- 27 -

300.00
Thyristor OLTC

350.00
Thyristor Uncompensated

400.00

Ud [V]

450.00

Thyristor Compensated

Power Factor Comparison

- 28 -

Diode
Thyristor
Diode and Chopper
Active Rectifier

Good
Low
Good
Best

Efficiency vs. Voltage


1
0.99
0.98

Efficiency

0.97
0.96
0.95
0.94
0.93
0.92
0.91
0.9
0

200

400

Typ Dio/Thy Bridge


Typ Chopper

- 29 -

600

800

1000

1200

Typ Dio/Thy Single Way


Dio/Thy Projects

1400
1600
Voltage

Comparison at Nominal load Operation


Nominal Load Operation

AC-Power (12p-Transformer)
Power Factor without correction
Compensation up to PF=0.93
Compensation up to PF=0.98
Losses
Transformer (including harmonics)
Rectifier
Chopper
Line Filter (for PF=0.93)
Total
Relative Difference
Efficiency (for Components considered)

- 30 -

DC-Voltage:
DC-Current:
DC-Power:

500 V
70 kA
35 MW

Diode
System
39 MVA
0.91
3 MVAR
10 MVAR

Thyristor
System
41 MVA
0.86
8 MVAR
15 MVAR

Chopper
System
38 MVA
0.93
7 MVAR

430 kW
183 kW

450 kW
192 kW

400 kW
170 kW
250 kW

56 kW
669 kW
-151 kW
0.981

84 kW
726 kW
-94 kW
0.980

820 kW
0 kW
0.977

Comparison at Reduced load Operation


Reduced Load Operation

AC-Power (12p-Transformer)
Power Factor without correction
Compensation up to PF=0.93
Compensation up to PF=0.98
Losses
Transformer (including harmonics)
Rectifier
Chopper
Line Filter (for PF=0.93)
Total
Relative Difference
Efficiency (for Components considered)

- 31 -

DC-Voltage:
DC-Current:
DC-Power:

440 V
50 kA
22 MW

Diode
System
25 MVA
0.90
3 MVAR
10 MVAR

Thyristor
System
34 MVA
0.65
8 MVAR
15 MVAR

Chopper
System
24 MVA
0.93
7 MVAR

240 kW
105 kW

260 kW
120 kW

170 kW
100 kW
250 kW

56 kW
401 kW
-119 kW
0.982

84 kW
464 kW
-56 kW
0.979

520 kW
0.977

Efficiency Comparison

- 32 -

Diode
Thyristor
Diode and Chopper
Active Rectifier

High
Medium - High
Low
Medium - Low

Harmonic Comparison
20 kA, 200 V DC, 6 Pulse Rectifier
D i o d e a n d C h o p p e r ( 0 d e g r e e s ) a n d Thyristor
(variable d e p e n d i n g o n o u t p u t D C v o l t a g e )

16
14
12
10

AC Current in [kA]

8
6
4
2
0

0o
10o
20o
30o
40o
50o
60o

- 33 -

11

13

60o
17

19

23 25

Harmonic Number

40o
29

31

20o
35

37

41

0o
43

47

Harmonic Comparison

- 34 -

Diode
Thyristor
Diode and Chopper
Active Rectifier

Good
Lower
Good
Best

Reliability Comparison
Based Upon Component Count of
Rectifier Devices

- 35 -

Diode
Thyristor
Diode and Chopper
Active Rectifier

High
High
Low
Medium

Service Skill Comparison

- 36 -

Diode
Thyristor
Diode and Chopper
Active Rectifier

Low
Medium
High
High

System Cost Comparison

Diode Rectifier
Thyristor Rectifier
Diode & Chopper
Active Rectifier

105%
100%
124%
115%

Based upon past projects, component count and further


developments.

- 37 -

Space Comparison

Diode
Thyristor

Average
Larger

(with power factor included)

Diode and Chopper


Active Rectifier

- 38 -

Larger
Average

Conclusions
Considerations
Total System Requirements
Future Provision of System
Requirements
Customers Experience / Background
Technology comparison for exact
project
All Technologies Will continue for near
future
- 39 -

- Thank You -