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Setting SEL-321 Relays

in the
Computer-Aided Protection Engineering System
(CAPE)

Prepared for
CAPE Users Group

Revised October 1, 2001


Revised November 11, 2008

Electrocon International, Inc.


Ann Arbor, Michigan
This document is the sole property of Electrocon International, Inc. and is provided to the
CAPE Users Group for its own use only. It may not be supplied to any third party, or
copied or reproduced in any form, without the express written permission of Electrocon
International, Inc. All copies and reproductions shall be the property of Electrocon
International, Inc. and must bear this ownership statement in its entirety.

Application Note on Setting SEL-321 Relay


I. Relay Models
A. Description
The CAPE library model in cape_starter.gdb includes the following features:

Four zones of phase and ground mho elements plus four zones of ground distance
quadrilateral elements, each reversible, with independent phase and ground timers

Positive-sequence memory voltage polarization

Four residual and negative-sequence overcurrent elements with negative-sequence


directional control

Phase, sequence, and ground time-overcurrent elements for backup protection

Negative-sequence directional element

Adaptive ground directional element choosing between negative- and zero-sequence


quantities (SEL-321-5)

Load-encroachment logic to suppress phase elements

Voltage elements

The following features are not modeled specially in the SEL-321:

Single-phase elements

Single-pole tripping and phase selection (SEL-321-5)

Weak-infeed logic

Remote-end-just-opened (REJO) logic, using 50A, 50B, 50C and 3P50 IOC elements

Mirrored Bit communications-aided tripping schemes (pilot schemes can be modeled


using the CAPE AUX elements instead)

Fault Locating

SELOGIC control equations (use CAPE contact logic instead)

Power-swing blocking and tripping (but the out-of-step elements can be plotted in CAPE
CG)

Internal supervision of phase distance zones 1-4 by the Loss-of-Potential Logic, SinglePole Open Logic, and Out-of-Step Blocking Logic

Zone 1 extension

Switch-Onto-Fault Logic

Loss-of Potential and Stub Protection Logic

B. Updates in the August 2001 Version


You can continue to use your existing relay STYLEs, or you can replace the older STYLES
with the SEL-321-1 or SEL-321-5, without losing your system settings. The database editor
can compare any two STYLEs to show the taps that are different.
The new STYLEs are:
STYLE

Rated current

SEL-321-1_5A
SEL-321-1_1A
SEL-321-5_5A
SEL-321-5_1A

5.0 A
1.0 A
5.0 A
1.0 A

The newer CAPE model includes:

TIMERs set from the common taps.


59PBD and 59PRD overvoltage timers
Separate left and right LOAD elements ZLIN and ZLOUT
Adaptive directional element for ground faults (SEL-321-5 only)
VOLT and AUX elements
Various informational taps from the current Schweitzer SEL-5010 database

The following older STYLES are no longer distributed to new users in the
database cape_starter.gdb.
SEL-321-R100
SEL-321-R101

5.0 A
5.0 A

SEL-321-R101_1A
SEL-321-1-R101

1.0 A
5.0 A

Base relay ; no timer taps


Base relay with additional informational taps; no timer
taps
1-Amp version of SEL-321-R101; no timer taps
Older version of SEL-321-1_5A.

II. Relay Elements


The logic for zone 1, 2 or 3 is as follows:

50ABC
32QF

21P

50PP

PHASE
DISTANCE

50L
50G
32Q

21G
GROUND
DISTANCE

50N

TRIPPING LOGIC
OR
PILOT SIGNAL

67N
32Q

INSTANTANEOUS
OVERCURRENT

50Q
67Q
32Q

INSTANTANEOUS
OVERCURRENT

51NP
51N
32Q

GROUND TIME
OVERCURRENT

III. Element Settings


All element settings, except for contact logic, are taken from the common taps. If you
change a setting or drag a curve, CAPE automatically changes the corresponding common
taps.
A. CT and VT Connections
When you place a relay style in your system, you will have to choose an appropriate
operating CT and VT. This can be done by clicking on the Connect Op CT button in the
relay setting form of the Database Editor, and choosing a suitable CT from the list shown.
If no CT exists, you will have to create one. The CT you choose will be assigned to all
elements that need a current input. For the voltage input, click on the Connect Op VT
button and choose an appropriate VT.
The SEL-321 does not require a separate directional polarizing VT or polarizing CT,
because CAPE stores the negative-sequence directional elements as distance elements
(with ZONE_CHARAC_UNIT_1 defined as DIRECTIONAL).
Do not change the CT and VT quantities; CAPE copies the defaults from the database
library.

B. Negative-Sequence Directional Elements 32QF and 32QR


The relay measures the apparent impedance

Z2 = Re

FG V
HI

e jMTA

IJ
K

The MTA is the tap setting Z1ANG. For forward faults, Z2 is usually negative and must be
less than the tap setting Z2F. For reverse faults, Z2 is positive and must be greater than
Z2R. For the optimum MTA, the positive-sequence line angle is a good approximation.
CAPE models these elements as DIST elements. All settings are made from the relay
common taps. You do not have to visit the individual element setting forms. You must set
the common taps as follows:
Z2F
50QF
Z2R
50QR
a2

(Largest -seq source impedance component for forward faults)


(3I2 pickup for forward faults)
(Least -seq source impedance component for reverse faults)
(3I2 pickup for reverse faults)
least unbalance I2/I1 for operation

See [1] for setting rules, or use the CAPE Relay Setting macro sel_321_nseq.
C. Distance Elements
Reach and torque angle settings are made from the relay common taps. You do not have to
visit the individual element setting forms. CAPE does not allow external supervision in the
SEL-321. The DIST elements are already internally supervised and the present code
allows only one supervisor per element.
To set the DIST elements you specify the common taps, which are listed in detail below.
The important settings are:

Enabling taps PMHOZ, GMHOZ and QUADZ (N,1,2,3,4). The default for these is N
(no operation).

A single line angle (MTA) set as Z1ANG degrees for all zones.

Zone reach (secondary ohms). For zone 1, for example, Z1P, Z1MG and XG1 are all
measured from the R-X origin to the MHO circle or QUAD reactance line in the MTA
direction.

Zero-sequence compensation taps (complex k0) for the GROUND DIST elements: k01M,
k01A for zone 1 and k0M, k0A for zones 2, 3 and 4.

Nonhomogeneous system compensation angle T for the ground quadrilateral element.

Pickup taps for internal overcurrent supervision: 50PP phase and 50L and 50G ground.

Negative-sequence directional elements, which supervise the distance elements except


when three-phase faults are detected.

Timer settings for phase and ground elements.

The elements are:


DIST M1P Zone 1
DIST M2P Zone 2
DIST M3P Zone 3
DIST M4P Zone 4

Phase Mho characteristic

DIST Z1G Zone 1


DIST Z2G Zone 2
DIST Z3G Zone 3
DIST Z4G Zone 4

Ground distance with Mho and Quad units

DIST OOS Zone 5


DIST OOS Zone 6

Out-of-step blocking element, modeled for CG only

DIST ZLIN Zone 1

Left part of ZLOAD characteristic; operates only for positivesequence current > 0.1 * rated current and for arg(Z1)
between 90 and 270 degrees (inward load)

DIST ZLOUT Zone 1

Right part of ZLOAD characteristic; operates only for positivesequence current > 0.1 * rated current and for arg(Z1)
between -90 and 90 degrees (outward load)

Phase distance zones 1-4 are also supervised internally by the directional element 32QF or
32QR; these constraints are in the program code.
Operation of phase distance zones 1-4 is blocked by operation of either ZLOAD element
when Load-Encroachment Logic is enabled (tap ELE = Y). This constraint is in the
program code.
Ground distance zones 1-4 are also supervised internally by the directional element 32QF
or 32QR; these constraints are in the program code.
For DIST elements, you may set the Desired Primary Ohms and angle (degrees) for
informational purposes only.

D. Instantaneous Overcurrent
To set the IOC elements you specify the pickups, torque control and timer settings as
common taps. Also set the Enabling taps E50N and E50Q (N,1,2,3,4).
The following supervise the distance zones:
IOC 50PP1
IOC 50PP2
IOC 50PP3
IOC 50PP4

for mho phase distance supervision

IOC 50L1
IOC 50L2
IOC 50L3
IOC 50L4

for phase current

IOC 50G1
IOC 50G2
IOC 50G3
IOC 50G4

for residual current

There are four levels of instantaneous overcurrent protection.


The CAPE model treats directional and non-directional IOC elements separately; use either
in the contact logic.
IOC 50N1
IOC 50N2
IOC 50N3
IOC 50N4

Non-directional; instantaneous only

IOC 50Q1
IOC 50Q2
IOC 50Q3
IOC 50Q4
IOC 67N1

50N with internal supervisor DIR 32QF or 32QR;


instantaneous or time-delayed

IOC 67N2
IOC 67N3
IOC 67N4
IOC 67Q1

50Q with internal supervisor DIR 32QF or 32QR;


instantaneous or time-delayed

IOC 67Q2
IOC 67Q3
IOC 67Q4
6

Additional elements:
IOC 50H
IOC 50M
IOC 50ABC

High-set phase overcurrent


Medium-set phase overcurrent
(+seq for out-of-step blocking)

F. Phase and Ground Time Overcurrent


1. Elements
To set the TOC elements you specify the curve type, pickup, time dial setting and torquecontrol choice as common taps. Also set the Enable taps E51N and E51Q. You do not have
to visit the individual element setting forms.
The elements are:
TOC 51P
TOC 51N
TOC 51Q

internal supervisor tap-selectable (M2P, ZLIN, ZLOUT,


None)
internal supervisor tap-selectable (32QF, 32QR, Z2G, None)
internal supervisor tap-selectable (32QF, 32QR, M2P, Z2G,
None)

The alternative time-overcurrent curves are [1]:


CHARACTERISTIC

CAPE database name

Common Tap Setting

U1:
U2:
U3:
U4:

Moderately Inverse
Inverse
Very Inverse
Extremely Inverse

US_MOD_INVERSE_501
U.S. Inverse
U.S. Very Inverse
U.S. Extrem. Inverse

U1
U2
U3
U4

C1:
C2:
C3:
C4:

Standard Inverse
Very Inverse
Extremely Inverse
Long Time Backup

IEC_A_STANDARD_INV
IEC_B_VERY_INVERSE
IEC_C_EXTREM_INVERSE
IEC_LONG_TIME_INV

C1
C2
C3
C4

CAPE uses a fixed dropout time of 1 cycle; the reset equation is not implemented.
The time-dial Common Tap ranges are 0.01 - 15 with step 0.01 for all STYLES, to cover the
ranges of both US curves (0.5 to 15) and IEC curves (0.01 to 1.0).
Phase TOC elements may be blocked by one of the forward or reverse load-encroachment
elements (ZLOUT or ZLIN), or may be supervised by the Zone 2 element M2P. These
options are included in the library model.

2. Increasing the TOC operating time for high currents


The SEL-321 has three IOC elements to provide logical outputs for the TOC pickups with
no time delay: 51NP, 51QP and 51PP. These have the same torque-control taps as the TOC
elements 51N, 51Q and 51P. You may use these to provide a minimum operating time after
the TOC element picks up.
For the ground TOC element 51N, for example, choose 51NP to supervise an AUX element
TX set with the required tripping delay. Use 51N and TX as the contact logic codes for
elements 51N and TX. Then set a contact logic expression for the LZOP to include terms
(51N AND TX).
G. Timers
You set all TIMERs using the common taps. (Earlier versions of the SEL-321 library used
the TIMER element setting form instead.)
For each timer that you intend to include in the trip logic, set a suitable
CONTACT_LOGIC_CODE.
For instantaneous tripping of a zone, give its TIMER tap an operating time of zero.
The phase and ground elements have separate timers, as follows:
TIMER Z2PD internal supervisor DIST M2P Zone 2
TIMER Z3PD internal supervisor DIST M3P Zone 3
TIMER Z4PD internal supervisor DIST M4P Zone 4
TIMER Z2GD internal supervisor DIST Z2G Zone 2
TIMER Z3GD internal supervisor DIST Z3G Zone 3
TIMER Z4GD internal supervisor DIST Z4G Zone 4
TIMER 67NL1D internal supervisor IOC 67N1
TIMER 67NL2D internal supervisor IOC 67N2
TIMER 67NL3D internal supervisor IOC 67N3
TIMER 67NL4D internal supervisor IOC 67N4
TIMER 67QL1D internal supervisor IOC 67Q1
TIMER 67QL2D internal supervisor IOC 67Q2
TIMER 67QL3D internal supervisor IOC 67Q3
TIMER 67QL4D internal supervisor IOC 67Q4
TIMER 50PBD internal supervisor VOLT 59PB
TIMER 50PRD internal supervisor VOLT 59PR

The three timers TX, TY and TZ are stored as AUX elements; CAPE automtically sets their
pickup and dropout times from the common taps.
Other timers are provided for record-keeping only. It is unlikely that they will be included
in the LZOP trip path.
H. Voltage Elements
27L
3P27
3P59
59L

Phase undervoltage
Three-phase undervoltage
Three-phase overvoltage
Phase overvoltage

(Min (Va, Vb, Vc))


(Max (Va, Vb, Vc))
(Min (Va, Vb, Vc))
(Max (Va, Vb, Vc))

59N

Zero-sequence overvoltage

(3V0)

59PB + seq bus overvoltage (Vp) with timer 50PBD


Voltage element 59PR, if modeled fully, would need to be a DIST element in CAPE as it
operates on both current and voltage. It estimates a remote-bus overvoltage for long lines
as (Vo - a1 * Z1L * Ip). The element is not normally used in distance or pilot protection
schemes. The CAPE model uses Vp only and treats tap a1 as zero.
I. AUX Elements
The following AUX elements may be used in the system data with any supervising
elements. You must specify the supervisors separately in the system Aux Element Data
form for each SEL-321 relay in the system. The pickup and dropout times are read from
the common taps specified in the library data.
Element

Pickup_Time_Tap_Name

Dropout_Time_Tap_Name

TX
TY
TZ

TXPU
TYPU
TZPU

TXDO
TYDO
TZDO

IV. Distance Element Comparators


Let the (+/-/0) sequence relay voltages and currents be (V1, V2, V0) and (I1, I2, I0). Let the
phase A, B and C voltages and currents be (Va, Vb, Vc) and (Ia, Ib, Ic).
A. Negative-Sequence Directional Elements
The relay measures the apparent impedance

V2

Z2 =
exp (-j MTA)
I2

The MTA is the tap setting Z1ANG. For forward faults, Z2 is usually negative and must be
less than the tap setting Z2F. For reverse faults, Z2 is positive and must be greater than
Z2R. For the optimum MTA, the line angle Z1ANG is a good approximation.
Abs(I2/I1) must exceed the setting a2, and abs (3*I2) must exceed the pickup 50QF
(forward) or 50RF (reverse).
B. Supervision of Distance Zones
The phase A ground elements will operate only if
abs(Ia) > pickup 50L for the zone
and
abs(3 * I0 > pickup 50G for the zone
Each ground distance element is supervised by the negative-sequence directional element,
directly in the program code.
The B-C phase (MHO) element will operate only if
abs(Ib-Ic) > pickup 50AB for the zone.
If fewer than three DIST phase loops operate, the phase element is also supervised by the
negative-sequence directional element, directly in the program code. If all three phase
loops operate, the phase element operation is restricted by the ZLOAD limit as in [1].
C. MHO and QUAD Elements
All three phase-phase or phase-ground loops are evaluated; the element asserts if any one
phase asserts.
In the phase distance elements, a memory-polarized mho comparator evaluates the three
phase-phase loops A-B, B-C and C-A. The zone will operate if any one of the three
loops operates according to the following equation (shown for loop A-B):

Re VAB conj VAB,MEM

Re e jMTA I AB conj VAB,MEM

10

< Z REACH

VAB and IAB are the voltage and current in the loop. The MEM subscript denotes memory
(prefault) voltage in the loop. MTA is the tap setting Z1ANG. ZREACH is the reach of the zone
being evaluated (the circle diameter and the magnitude in the MTA direction).
The other two loops are evaluated similarly. The Operating CT Quantity and Operating VT
Quantity are set internally in the code as Three Phase (A or B or C).
For the ground distance elements, both the MHO element and the reactance portion of the
quadrilateral element compare the reach with its tap setting (e.g. Z1P, Z1MG, X1G) at the
line angle Z1ANG, not at 90 degrees. The quadrilateral element sees fault resistance up to
the tap setting (e.g. RG1) for a radial line. For a non-radial line, the remote-end infeed
reduces the resistive reach.
The ground distance comparator equations are quoted below from reference [2] for mho,
reactance, and resistance boundaries. The negative-sequence directional element
determines the boundary behind the relay.

Excerpt from [2] showing ground mho comparator equations for SEL-321 distance elements.
k0 is the zero-sequence compensation setting (Z0L/Z1L 1)/3 for the protected line. Ir = 3 I0
= residual current into the protected line.

11

Excerpt from [2] showing ground quad comparator equations for SEL-321 distance
elements.
The "S-bus" is the local bus at the relay. k0 and T are relay settings.

12

The ground quadrilateral element is bounded at the top by the reactance line. The tilt
angle T is set nonzero for a nonhomogeneous system (where the zero-sequence source
impedance angles at the line ends are different from the line angle). T should be estimated
for a single-line-ground fault as:
T = arg(fault current from line to ground) - arg (zero-sequence current from relay to fault).
T is a function of fault location and the network impedances. It is independent of load. If T
is set exactly, the reach is independent of load. If T varies along the line, T should be set at
its value for a fault on the line-end bus, negative or zero but not positive. A negative value
of T tilts the reactance line down to the right. Then any error in T causes underreach rather
than overreach, increasing security.
When you apply a fault and plot it in Coordination Graphics, the apparent impedance that
is reported and displayed (for the ground distance element) depends on the type of unit that
is enabled in the relay.
If both the MHO and QUAD units are enabled, then, the apparent impedance is the
ground-current compensated value given by

ZAPP =

VA
IA + 3I0 K 0

The above value is shown and reported irrespective of which of the two units operated.
If the QUAD unit is the only one enabled, the apparent impedance is not a single
calculation. It is made up of two parts: (a) the calculation of the reactance according to
equation 18 above (excerpt from [2]), and (b) the calculation of the fault resistance RF
according to equation 20 above (excerpt from [2]).
It is important to note that equation 18 is not a true reactance measurement, but
measurement along the angle Z1ANG. Also, RF is the estimate of the fault resistance
component, and does not include the resistance of the protected line to the point of fault.
Therefore, the calculated apparent impedance must be manipulated a little bit before it can
be plotted in CG, and reported.
D. Fault Identification Selection (FIDS) Logic [3]
This identifies the faulted phases in ground faults. If the ground current (3I0) is greater
than 0.1 * rated current, the phase and ground distance elements are blocked for selected
phases. Otherwise, any phase can cause tripping.
Let I0 and Ia2 be the relay zero-sequence and negative-sequence currents (the phase A
sequence components).

13

Let arg (Ia2/I0) = S, when both 3*Ia2 and 3*I0 magnitudes exceed 0.1 * rated current.
If -30 <= S <= 30 degrees, the fault is A-G or B-C-G and is measured by elements A-G and
B-C only. The remaining elements are blocked.
If -30 <= arg (Ib2/I0) <= 30 degrees, the fault is B-G or C-A-G and is measured by elements
B-G and C-A only. Here Ib2 is the phase B component of negative sequence current:

arg (I b2 ) = arg (I a 2 ) + 120degrees,


so the phase B condition is equivalently -150 <= S <= -90 degrees.
Similarly, a C-G or A-B-G fault is detected when 90 <= S <= 150 degrees.
The margin of 30 degrees is arbitrarily suggested in [3] because most faults have an angle S
close to one of the center values (0, 120, -120). If S differs by more than 30 degrees from all
the center values, there is no phase selection in CAPE and any element can operate. The
additional rules for the actual relay are not available.
V. Contact Logic
To assign contact logic, first enter the element data for the system. In the database editor,
select the Elements tab of the Protective Device Data form. You specify a contact logic code
for each element that directly trips the breakers in the relay LZOP. All other contact logic
codes can be blank. In the simplest schemes, only the TOC element, the ZONE 2-4
TIMERS, and the ZONE 1 DISTANCE elements need contact-logic codes.
Next go to the Contact Logic Data form and enter the contact logic codes and expressions.
You can enter the tripping code as a single long expression or in several stages.
Finally view the LZOP Data form and assign the highest-level LZOP logic code. When this
asserts as TRUE, the breakers in the LZOP open.
The DIST, IOC and TOC elements can be taken out of service by setting their Enable taps
appropriately (N, 1, 2, 3, 4), or by setting their CONTACT_STATUS to O.
The contact-logic-code names will help you to interpret the reports from CAPE RC and SS.
The names of the SELogic variables are suitable. Since each contact logic code can refer to
at most one element in the LZOP, you should add a prefix if there are two similar relays in
the LZOP.

14

The following are examples.


Element

Suggested Contact Logic

TOC 51N

Neutral

TOC 51P
TOC 51Q

Three-phase
Negative-Sequence (3*INR)

51N (or A_51N, B_51N to keep names


unique in A and B schemes)
51P
51Q

For DIST elements the Contact Logic Code is usually blank except for Zone 1. Suggested
values for Zone 1 Contact Logic are:
DIST M1P
DIST Z1G

M1P
Z1G

If you want to use the elements 50PP, 50L, or 50G in your trip logic, you can define the
following intermediate contact logic codes in the Contact Logic Data.
50PP = 50PP1 or 50PP2 or 50PP3 or 50PP4
50L = 50L1 or 50L2 or 50L3 or 50L4
50G = 50G1 or 50G2 or 50G3 or 50G4
Example of Contact Logic Data:
SEL321_TRIP
SEL321_TOC
SEL321_DIST
SEL321_Z1
SEL321_T2
SEL321_T3
SEL321_T4

(DIST OR TOC)
(51P OR 51Q OR 51N)
(SEL321_Z1 OR SEL321_T2 OR SEL321_T3 OR SEL321_T4)
(M1P OR Z1G)
(Z2PD OR Z2GD)
(Z3PD OR Z3GD)
(Z4PD OR Z4GD)

VI. Common Taps


Only the taps that CAPE uses are shown here. All the taps are shown in the database
editor. They may be set for recordkeeping by the user.
All taps are set in secondary (relay) units (amps, volts or ohms).
All angles are in degrees.
All times are in cycles.

15

Line Settings
Z1MAG
Z1ANG
Z0MAG
Z0ANG
LL
CTR
PTR

Positive_Seq. Line Impedance Magnitude


Positive-Seq. Line Impedance Angle
Information only (Zero-Seq. Line Impedance Magnitude)
Information only (Zero-Seq. Line Impedance Angle)
Information only (Line Length)
Information only (Current Transformer Ratio)
Information only (Potential Transformer Ratio)

Enable Zones of Distance Settings (N = none, 1 = zone 1 only; 2= zones 1 and 2, etc.)
PMHOZ
GMHOZ
QUADZ

Mho Phase enable(N,1,2,3,4)


Mho Ground enable
Quad Ground enable

Distance-Zone and Overcurrent-Level Direction


DIR1
DIR2
DIR3
DIR4

Distance Zone 1/Overcurrent Level 1 Direction (F/R)


Distance Zone 2/Overcurrent Level 2 Direction
Distance Zone 3/Overcurrent Level 3 Direction
Distance Zone 4/Overcurrent Level 4 Direction

Mho Phase Distance


Z1P
Z2P
Z3P
Z4P

Zone 1 Phase Reach at angle Z1ANG


Zone 2 Phase Reach at angle Z1ANG
Zone 3 Phase Reach at angle Z1ANG
Zone 4 Phase Reach at angle Z1ANG

Mho Phase Distance Overcurrent Supervision


50PP1
50PP2
50PP3
50PP4

Zone 1 Phase supervising IOC pickup (A)


Zone 2 Phase supervising IOC pickup (A)
Zone 3 Phase supervising IOC pickup (A)
Zone 4 Phase supervising IOC pickup (A)

Mho Ground Distance


Z1MG
Z2MG
Z3MG
Z4MG

Zone 1 Ground MHO Reach at angle Z1ANG


Zone 2 Ground MHO Reach at angle Z1ANG
Zone 3 Ground MHO Reach at angle Z1ANG
Zone 4 Ground MHO Reach at angle Z1ANG

Quadrilateral Ground Distance


XG1
XG2

Zone 1 Ground QUAD Reach at Z1ANG


Zone 2 Ground QUAD Reach at Z1ANG
16

XG3
XG4

Zone 3 Ground QUAD Reach at Z1ANG


Zone 4 Ground QUAD Reach at Z1ANG

RG1
RG2
RG3
RG4

Zone 1 Ground QUAD Resistive Reach


Zone 2 Ground QUAD Resistive Reach
Zone 3 Ground QUAD Resistive Reach
Zone 4 Ground QUAD Resistive Reach

Ground Distance Overcurrent Supervision


50L1
50L2
50L3
50L4

Zone 1 Ground supervising phase IOC pickup


Zone 2 Ground supervising phase IOC pickup
Zone 3 Ground supervising phase IOC pickup
Zone 4 Ground supervising phase IOC pickup

50G1
50G2
50G3
50G4

Zone 1 Ground supervising residual IOC pickup (3I0)


Zone 2 Ground supervising residual IOC pickup (3I0)
Zone 3 Ground supervising residual IOC pickup (3I0)
Zone 4 Ground supervising residual IOC pickup (3I0)

Zero-Sequence Compensation Factor


k01M
k01A

Zone 1 Zero-Sequence Comp. Magnitude (Z0/Z1 - 1)/3


Zone 1 Zero-Sequence Comp. Angle

k0M
k0A

Zone 2, 3, & 4 Zero-Sequence Comp. Magnitude


Zone 2, 3, & 4 Zero-Sequence Comp. Angle

Non-Homogeneous Correction Angle (for Ground QUAD)

Out-of-Step Blocking and Tripping


X1T5
X1B5
R1R5
R1L5
X1T6
X1B6
R1R6
R1L6
50ABC

Zone 5 OOS Top Reactive Reach


Zone 5 OOS Bottom Reactive Reach
Zone 5 OOS Right Resistive Reach
Zone 5 OOS Left Resistive Reach
Zone 6 OOS Top Reactive Reach
Zone 6 OOS Bottom Reactive Reach
Zone 6 OOS Right Resistive Reach
Zone 6 OOS Left Resistive Reach
Zone 6 Positive-sequence overcurrent supervision

Load Encroachment
ELE
ZLF
ZLR
PLAF
NLAF

Enable Load-Encroachment (Y/N)


Load-Encroachment Forward Reach
Load-Encroachment Reverse Reach
Load-Encroachment Forward Positive Angle
Load-Encroachment Forward Negative Angle
17

PLAR
NLAR

Load-Encroachment Reverse Positive Angle


Load-Encroachment Reverse Negative Angle

Negative Sequence Directional Element


Z2F
50QF
Z2R
50QR
a2

Forward Directional Z2 Threshold


(ohms)
Forward Directional Current Threshold (A)
Reverse Directional Z2 Threshold
(ohms)
Reverse Directional Current Threshold (A)
Positive-Sequence Current Restraint Factor (I2/I1)

Phase Time-Overcurrent Element


E51P
51PP
51PC
51PTD
51PRS
51PTC

Enable Phase TOC (Y/N)


Phase TOC pickup
Phase TOC Curve Family
Phase TOC Time-Dial
Information only (Phase TOC Reset Delay)
Phase TOC Torque Control (ZLIN,ZLOUT,M2P,N)

Residual Time-Overcurrent Element


E51N
51NP
51NC
51NTD
51NRS
51NTC

Enable Residual TOC (Y/N/S with S treated as Y)


Residual TOC pickup (3I0)
Residual TOC Curve Family
Residual TOC Time-Dial
Information only (Residual TOC Reset Delay)
Residual TOC Torque Control (32QF,32QR,Z2G,N)

Residual Overcurrent Element


E50N
50N1
50N2
50N3
50N4

Enable Number of Residual IOC Levels (N,1,2,3,4)


Level 1 Residual IOC pickup (3I0)
Level 2 Residual IOC pickup
Level 3 Residual IOC pickup
Level 4 Residual IOC pickup

Negative-Sequence Time-Overcurrent Element


E51Q
51QP
51QC
51QTD
51QRS
51QTC

Enable Negative-Sequence TOC (Y/N/S with S treated as Y)


Negative-Sequence TOC pickup (3I2)
Negative-Sequence TOC Curve Family
Negative-Sequence TOC Time-Dial
Information only (Negative-Sequence TOC Reset Delay) Y/N
Negative-Sequence TOC Torque Control
(32QF,32QR,M2P,Z2G,N)

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Negative-Sequence Overcurrent Element


E50N
50N1
50N2
50N3
50N4

Enable Number of Negative-Sequence IOC Levels (N,1,2,3,4)


Level 1 Negative-Sequence IOC pickup
Level 2 Negative-Sequence IOC pickup
Level 3 Negative-Sequence IOC pickup
Level 4 Negative-Sequence IOC pickup

Voltage Element
EVOLT
59N
27L
59L
59PB
59PBD
59PR
59PRD
a1

Enable Voltage Elements


Zero-Sequence Over-Voltage
Bus Phase Under-Voltage
Bus Phase Over-Voltage
Positive-Sequence bus over-voltage pickup
Positive-Sequence bus over-voltage delay
Positive-Sequence remote bus over-voltage
Current-compensated remote over-voltage time delay
Information only: current-compensated remote voltage
adjustment

Time Step Backup Time Delay


Z2PD
Z3PD
Z4PD
Z2GD
Z3GD
Z4GD
67NL1D
67NL2D
67NL3D
67NL4D
67QL1D
67QL2D
67QL3D
67QL4D

Zone 2 phase long time delay (cycles)


Zone 3 phase time delay
Zone 4 phase time delay
Zone 2 ground long time delay
Zone 3 ground time delay
Zone 4 ground time delay
Level 1 residual delay
Level 2 residual delay
Level 3 residual delay
Level 4 residual delay
Level 1 neg-seq delay
Level 2 neg-seq delay
Level 3 neg-seq delay
Level 4 neg-seq delay

Permissive Overreach: settings used for information only


Directional Comparison Unblocking: for information only
Directional Comparison Blocking: for information only
Zone 1 Extension: for information only
Remote-End-Just-Opened: for information only
Switch-Onto-Fault: for information only
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Loss-of-Potential: for information only


Miscellaneous Schemes: for information only
Miscellaneous Timers
TXPU
TXDO
TYPU
TYDO
TZPU
TZDO

AUX element TX pickup delay


AUX element TX dropout delay
AUX element TY pickup delay
AUX element TY dropout delay
AUX element TZ pickup delay
AUX element TZ dropout delay

Logic: for information only


Special taps for CAPE model (setting fixed for each STYLE)
ADAPTIVE_GROUND_DIR
RATED_CURRENT

Y for adaptive torque control; in SEL-321-5 only


1A or 5A

References
1. SEL-321, SEL-321-1, and SEL 321-2 Phase and Ground Distance Relay, Directional
Overcurrent Relay, and Fault Locator Instruction Manual, Schweitzer Engineering
Laboratories, Inc., Pullman WA; November 20, 1996.
2. S. E. Zocholl, Three-Phase Circuit Analysis and the Mysterious k0 Factor, 22nd
Annual Western Protective Relay Conference, Spokane, Washington; October 1995.
3. E. O. Schweitzer III and Jeff Roberts, Distance Relay Element Design, 46th Annual
Conference for Protective Relay Engineers, Texas A & M University, College Station,
Texas; April 12-14, 1993.

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