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# CONICS

A conic section is a curve obtained as the intersection of a cone with a plane and also called it plane
algebraic curve with degree 2.
Fig1:

The conic sections we obtained here are parabola, hyperbola, circle, Eclipse
Fig2:

Parabola(H)

Circle

Parabola(V)

Hyperbola(H)

Hyperbola(V)

Eclipse

The general equation for all conics is, Ax2 + Bxy + Cy2 + Dx + Ey + F = 0 ---------------(1)
Q ) How to classify the given general equation into conic section
If b2-4ac <0 the given equation is eclipse or circle
b2-4ac=0 the given equation is parabola
b2-4ac>0 the given equation is hyperbola
(OR)

If the given equation was squared with two variables with same sign and multiplied
by the same number then it is called circle
Eg-: 4x2+4y2-20x-30y+81=0
If the given equation is squared with two variables with same sign and multiplied by
diferent number then it is called eclipse
Eg-:9x2+4y2-54x-8y-59=0
If the given equation is squared with two variables and has the diferent sign is
called hyperbola
Eg-:x2-y2-2x-8=0
If the given equation is squared with one variable then its called parabola
Eg-: -x2+10x+y-21=0(V)
-y2+x+8y-17=0(H)
Here are some basic terms that we should know for this conics:
Center : the point (h, k) at the center of a circle, an ellipse, or an hyperbola.
Vertex : in the case of a parabola, the point (h, k) at the "end" of a parabola; in the case of an ellipse, an
end of the major axis; in the case of an hyperbola, the turning point of a branch of an hyperbola; the plural
form is "vertices.
Focus : a point from which distances are measured in forming a conic; a point at which these distancelines converge, or "focus"; the plural form is "foci".
Directrix : a line from which distances are measured in forming a conic; the plural form is "directrices".
Axis : a line perpendicular to the directrix passing through the vertex of a parabola; also called the "axis
of symmetry"; the plural form is "axes".
Major axis: a line segment perpendicular to the directrix of an ellipse and passing through the foci; the
line segment terminates on the ellipse at either end; also called the "principal axis of symmetry"; the half
of the major axis between the center and the vertex is the semi-major axis.
Minor axis: a line segment perpendicular to and bisecting the major axis of an ellipse; the segment
terminates on the ellipse at either end; the half of the minor axis between the center and the ellipse is the
semi-minor axis.
Locus : a set of points satisfying some condition or set of conditions; each of the conics is a locus of
points that obeys some sort of rule or rules; the plural form is "loci".
CIRCLE
A circle is formed by cutting a circular cone with a plane perpendicular to the symmetry axis of the cone.
The general equation of a circle is, x2+y2+dx+ey+f=0
The standard equation of the circle is,(x-h)2/r2+(y-k)2/r2=1
Here center =(h, k) and radius=r

Eg-:x2+y2-6x+4y-3=0
We can rewrite the given equation
=( x2-6x)+(y2+4y)=3
Add both sides 9 and 4 to complete the terms
=(x2-6x+9)+(y2+4y+4)=3+9+4
=(x-3)2+(y+2)2=16
=(x-3)2+(y-(-2))2=16
divide both sides with sides with 16
=(x-3)2/16+(y-(-3))2/16=1
Here center is (3,-2) and radius is 4

ECLIPSE
An ellipse is formed by cutting a three dimensional cone with a slanted plane. This
difers from a circle in that an ellipse does not have a constant radius. It has a
two focal points in which the sum of the length of both focal points to any given
point on the ellipse is always the same.
The general equation of eclipse is,
The standard equation of an ellipse is,

ax 2+cy2+dx+ey+f=0

Where (h,k) is the center of the ellipse, rx is the distance from the center of the
circle in the x direction and ry is the distance from the center in the y direction.
The foci of an ellipse is distance c, which is given by

From the center of the ellipse on the major axis. The major axis is the line of the
ellipse that has the biggest distance from the center of the circle. If the major axis is
horizontal, 2rx is the length and c2=rx2-ry2. If the major axis is vertical, 2ry is the
length and c2=ry2-rx2.
Eg-: 4x2+y2-16x+8y+16=0
We can rewrite the given equation into standard form
= (4x2-16x)+(y2+8y)=-16
We can add both sides 16 and 16 to complete the terms
= (4x2-16x+16)+(y2+8y+16)=-16+16+16
=4(x-2)2+(y+4)2=16
Divide both sides with 16
=4(x-2)2/16+(y+4)2/16=1
=(x-2)2/4+(y-(-4))2/16=1
Here radius is (2,-4) and the x and y radii are 2 and 4

Here Y is the major axis, the foci will be determined by c2=ry2-rx2, so c2=42-22=16-4=12=>2root3

When we add and subtract c on the major axis from the center, we get the foci.
Q) Find the x-intercepts and y-intercepts in the 4x2+y2-16x+8y+16=0
X-intercepts(y=0)=> 4x2-16x+16=0
4(x2-4x+4=0)
(x-2) 2=0
x=+2 and -2
x-intercepts are (2,0) and (2,0)
Y-intercepts(x=0)=> y2+8y+16=0
(y+4)2=0 => y=-4 and -4

Hyperbola
A hyperbola is formed when a plane slices the top and bottom section of the cone.
The general equation of hyperbola is,

ax 2-cy2+dx+ey+f=0

## Here center: (h, k), Foci: (c, 0), (-c, 0)

Vertices: (a, 0), (-a, 0)
Asymptotes: y = + b/a X

here c2 = a2+ b2

## The General equation of hyperbola(vertical) is, (y-h) 2/a2-(x-k)2/b2=1

Center: (0, 0)
Foci: (0, c), (0, -c)
Vertices: (0, a), (0, -a)
Asymptotes: y = + a/b X

Eg:-9x2-4y2+24y-72=0
We can rewrite the given equation into standard form
=9x2-4(y2-6y)=72
We can add both sides-36 to complete the terms

=9x2-4(y2-6y+9)=72-36
=9x2-4(y-3)2=36
Divide both sides with 36 then
x2/4-(y-3)2/9=1

PARABOLA
A parabola is formed by intersecting the plane through the cone and the top of the cone
The general equation of parabola is, ax2+dx+ey=0
The standard equation of parabola with horizontal axis has a focus at(h+p, k) and the equation is
(y-k) 2=4p(x-h)(here P is the distance)
If a > 0, opens right
If a < 0, opens left
Vertex: (h, k)
Focus: (h+p,k)
Directrix: x=x-p
Axis of Symmetry: x = h
Here a=1/4p
The standard equation of parabola with vertical axis has focus at (h,k+p) and the equation is
(x-h) 2=4p(y-k)
If a > 0, opens up
If a < 0, opens down
Vertex: (h, k)
Focus: (h, k+p)

Directrix: y = k-p
Axis of Symmetry: y = k Here a=1/4p
Eg
x2 = -16y
(x-0)2=-4(4)(y-k)(therefore (x-h)2=4p(y-k))
we can see that the x is squared and The value in front of y is negative so it must open downwards. The vertex is
also located at (0,0) and the length of the focus from the vertex is 4. By going down from the vertex by 4, we can see
that the focus is at (0,-4) and the directrix will be at y = 4.