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se - 412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden


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p e iga ng l i
Experimental Study on Cold Lap Formation in Tandem Gas Metal Arc Welding

Experimental Study on
Cold Lap Formation in Tandem Gas
Metal Arc Welding
peiga ng l i

2011

Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology


ch a l m er s u n i v er si t y of t ech nol ogy
Gothenburg, Sweden 2011

THESIIS FOR THE DEGREE


E OF LICEN
NTIATE OF
F ENGINEE
ERING

Exp
perimen
ntal Stud
dy on Co
old Lap F
Formatiion in T
Tandem Gas
Metall Arc We
elding

P
PEIGANG LI


Department of Enginee
ering Scien
nce
UNIIVERSITY W
WEST
TTAN, SWE
EDEN 2011
TROLLH


Dep
partment o
of Materiaals and Man
nufacturin
ng Technollogy
CHAL
LMERS UNIIVERSITY O
OF TECHNOL
LOGY
GOTHENB
BURG, SWEDEN 2011
















Experimental Study on Cold Lap Formation in Tandem Gas Metal Arc
Welding
Peigang Li

Peigang Li, 2011.

Technical Report no 69/2011.
ISSN: 16528891

Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology
Chalmers University of Technology
SE412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden Tel: +46 (0)31772 1000.

Printed by Chalmers Reproservice
Gothenburg, Sweden 2011







To Xiaolin and my coming baby


Abstract
Tandem gas metal arc welding (GMAW) is a high productivity welding process which is applied
in many industries. However, a type of imperfection, known as cold lap, was revealed that
mostly accompanies the tandem GMAW process.
Cold lap is a small lack of fusion in size at the weld toe which can have a negative influence on
the fatigue life of the weld [1, 2]. It generally runs parallel to the surface of the parent plate. Due
to its small size, it has not been successful to detect cold lap by any nondestructive test (NDT)
method. With a lot of work, it has been noticed that it is hard to produce a weld without cold
laps. Even for some posttreatment methods, e.g. TIGdressing, cold lap cannot be eliminated
completely [2]. Therefore, a better understanding of the formation mechanism is required to be
able to avoid their formation.
The main objectives of this thesis are to classify cold laps, to characterise cold lap interfaces, and
to investigate the main influencing factors on cold lap formation. For this purpose, several series
tandem GMAW experiments were performed. Domex 355 MC was used as the base metal and OK
Autrod 12.51 1.2 was used as the consumable material. Different shielding gases (pure argon
and pure carbon dioxide) and surface conditions (blasted surface and milled surface) of the base
metal were applied. A sealed chamber was used in the experiment to ensure a nonoxidising or
oxidising welding environment. Cross sections of the cold laps were prepared by a conventional
metallographic method, e.g. cutting, mounting, polishing, and etching (if necessary). The
metallographic samples were evaluated with the help of both a light optical microscope and a
scanning electron microscope (SEM) with an attached energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS).
Also, the interface between spatter and base metal was investigated using the same method as
an assistant study of cold laps.
The results showed three types of cold laps, i.e. spatter cold lap, overlap cold lap, and spatter
overlap cold lap. The cold lap is mostly composed of voids and oxides. For the materials (welding
consumables and parent materials) used in the experiments, the oxides were shown to be
manganesesilicon oxides (MnSi oxides). It was also found that MnSi oxides have a significant
influence on the occurrence of overlap cold lap. The blasted surface condition can have a minor
effect on enhancing cold laps. By studying the spatter/base metal interface, it is believed that
temperature/energy are the other important factors for the formation of cold laps.



Keywords: tandem GMAW, cold lap, imperfection, lack of fusion, spatter, overlap, overflow,
manganese, silicon, oxides, temperature/energy.

vi

Acknowledgements
In my studies I have had a lot of help from many people. First of all, I would like to express
my deep gratitude to my main supervisor Professor LarsErik Svensson for his patience,
discussions, suggestions, and help. I also would like to give my sincere thanks to my ex
main supervisor Professor Per Nyln for his valuable encouragement. My sincere thanks
are due to my assistant supervisor Nicolaie Markocsan for his positive advice and frank
discussion. Special thanks to my examiner Professor Uta Klement for her efforts to push
my PhD study forward.
My heartfelt thanks go to Professor Bill Lucas, Professor Yoshinori Hirata, and Dr. Stephan
Egerland for their valuable comments, helpful discussions and faithful advice during the
IIW conference and events. Many people have given me support and deserve my thanks:
Dr. Niklas Jrvstrt, Associate Professor Hkan Wirdlius, Mr.Tore Ronnhult, Professor Nils
Stenbacka, Dr. Yiming Yao, Mr. Hasse Olsson, Associate Professor Kenneth Hamberg, Mr.
Peter Nerman, Mr. Joakim Hedegrd, Mr. KjellArne Persson, Mr. Lars Hammar, and Mr.
Nicolas Curry. I thank all my colleagues who helped to create an inspiring and more
interesting working environment. Without the financial support from the LOST and WIQ
projects, this work would not have been possible. Also, I would like to thank Volvo
Construction Equipment (VCE) for important support.
Finally, I would like to dedicate all of my love and this work to my wife, Xiaolin Su, and my
coming baby. You mean the world to me!

Trollhttan, June 2011
Peigang Li

vii

viii

Abbreviations and notations


Abbreviations
/notations
Al

Aluminium

Ar

Argon

ASM

AmericanSocietyforMetals

BSE

BackScatterElectron

Carbon

Co

Cobalt

CO

Carbonmonoxide

CO2

Carbondioxide

Cr

Chromium

CTWD

ContactTipWorkingDistance

EDS

EnergyDispersiveSpectroscopy

Fe

Iron

GMAW

GasMetalArcWelding

Larc

ArcLength

MAG

MetalActiveGas

Mg

Magnesium

MIG

MetalInertGas

Mn

Manganese

MnO

Manganeseoxide

Description

MnS

Manganesesulphur

Mo

Molybdenum

Nitrogen

Nb

Niobium

NDT

NonDestructiveTest

Ni

Nickel

RLoF
SE

Ratiobetweenthelengthoflackoffusionattheinterfaceandtheentirelengthofthe
spatter/basemetalinterface
SecondaryElectron

SEM

ScanningElectronMicroscopy

Si

Silicon

SiO

Siliconmonoxide

SiO2

Silcondioxide

SMAW

ShieldedMetalArcWelding

STEDV

StandardDeviation

TA

TrochAngle

Ti

Titanium

TIG

TungstenInertGas

TS

TravelSpeed

Vanadium

VCE

VolvoConstructionEquipment

WFS

WireFeedSpeed

ix

WireC

WireCombination

WS

WeldingSpeed

VT

VisualTest

Zr

Zirconium


Contents
Abstract.....v
Acknowledgements..vii
Abbreviations.ix
Contents.xi
1

Introduction.....................................................................................................................................1
1.1

Background..............................................................................................................................1

1.2

Objective..................................................................................................................................1

1.3

Limitations.............................................................................................................................1

GMAWprocess................................................................................................................................3

Coldlaps..........................................................................................................................................7
3.1

Definitionofcoldlaps..............................................................................................................7

3.2

Detectionofcoldlaps............................................................................................................10

3.3

Previousclassificationofcoldlaps........................................................................................11

3.4

Influencefactorsforcoldlaps...............................................................................................15

OxidesinGMAWprocess..............................................................................................................23

Experimentaltechniques...............................................................................................................27

5.1

Steelandconsumablematerials...........................................................................................27

5.2

Shieldinggases......................................................................................................................27

5.3

Sealedchamber.....................................................................................................................28

5.4

SEMandEDS..........................................................................................................................28

Summaryofappendedpapers......................................................................................................31
6.1

PaperI....................................................................................................................................31

6.2

PaperII...................................................................................................................................32

6.3

PaperIII..................................................................................................................................32

Conclusionsandfuturework.........................................................................................................35

References.....................................................................................................................................37

Appendedpapers..........................................................................................................................39

xi

xii

1 Introduction
1.1 Background
Thisthesiscontributestowardsthefundamentalunderstandingoftheformationofcoldlap,
whichisatypeofweldingdefect,tobeexplainedlater.
Weldingisveryimportantinmodernmanufacturingindustry.GasMetalArcWelding(GMAW)is
especiallyutilizedinoffshoreindustryandvehiclemanufactureduetoitshighwelding
productivity.ItiswellknownthatsomeimperfectionsgeneratedintheGMAWprocess,suchas
pores,inclusions,undercuts,etc,areinevitableincivilindustrialmanufacture.These
imperfectionscaninfluencethepropertiesoftheweldedstructures,especiallythefatigue
properties.Fatigueisalocalphenomenoninwhichthelocalstressleveland/orlocaldefectscan
influencetheservicelifeofthematerialsseverely.Thefatiguepropertiesofthewelded
structuresalwaysneedtobeimprovedforthedevelopmentofnewproducts,whichmust
usuallyfeatureincreasedloadcapacity,highertravelspeedsandlongerlife.Sincethelast
century,manyfatiguetestshavebeenperformedandevaluatedonweldedsamplesusing
differentweldingmethods,fillermaterials,parentmaterials,weldingparameters,shielding
gases,jointtypes,andfatigueloadings[16].Besidesweldgeometry,coldlapwasrevealedas
anotherimportantfactorwhichcanhaveadetrimentaleffectonthefatiguelifeofthewelded
structures.Recently,anewcorporatestandardwasdevelopedwithinVolvoConstruction
Equipment(VCE),inwhichcoldlapwasfirstlygivenandrelatedtodifferentqualityclasses[7].
However,verylimitedknowledgeaboutcoldlapisavailableinliterature.Eventhedetectionof
coldlapisanobstacleforstudyingit.Previousinvestigationshaveshownthatitisverydifficult
toproduceaweldwithoutcoldlapwhenusingGMAW.Therefore,itisimportanttounderstand
coldlapfundamentally,e.g.classification,characterisation,mechanismofformation,etc.

1.2 Objective
Theobjectiveofthisongoingworkistostudycoldlapsinordertobetterunderstandthe
phenomenabehindtheirformationandthemechanismsinvolved.First,aclassificationofcold
lapsisgiven.Physicalcharacterisationofthecoldlapinterfaceisasecondimportantpartofthis
thesis.Thirdly,thefactorsthataresupposedtohaveasignificantinfluenceoncoldlap
formationarepresented.Regardingtheweldingprocess,differentinfluencefactorsare
illustratedtoexplainthecoldlapformation.

1.3 Limitations
Inthisstudy,thedetectionofcoldlapshascontinuedtobeanobstacle.Sincecoldlapsaresmall
insize,allstandardNDT(NonDestructiveTest)methodshavefailedindetectingthem,andonly
visualtests(asapreliminarytest)anddestructivetestswerefoundtobeefficientandreliable
methods.
Blastedsurfacesofthebasematerialshavebeenbroadlyintroducedinindustry.Therefore,this
studyonlyfocusesonblastedorburrgrindingsurfaceconditions.
Accordingtopreviousstudies,thesolidwirecangivethehighestfrequencyofcoldlapinthe
weldingprocess.Onetypeofbothweldingfillermaterial(solidwire)andbasemetalwereused
inthisstudy.
1

Onlytwotypesofjointwereusedinthisstudy,i.e.buttjointandbeadonplate,toreducethe
uncertaintiesoftheweldingprocess.TandemGMAWwasselectedastheweldingprocessinthis
studysinceitwasmostlyappliedintheworkshopofVCE.
Itisalsoimportanttopointoutthatthecoldlapsdiscussedinthisthesisonlyrefertolocalcold
laps,whicharecomparedwithatypeofcoldlapduetoalackoffusionalongtheentireweldtoe
inthelongitudinaldirection.Usually,thecoldlapsalongtheentireweldtoearedueto
incorrectweldingsetuporaverythickoxidelayeronthebasemetalsurface.Therefore,itis
believedthatthecoldlapalongtheentireweldcanbeeasilyavoidedinthemodernGMAW
process.

2 GMAW process
GasMetalArcWelding(GMAW)referstoanarcweldingprocessusinganarcbetweena
continuouslyfillingelectrodeandtheweldingpoolwithashieldinggas.GMAWwasintroduced
inthe1920s,butitwasnotuntil1948thatitwasmadecommerciallyavailable.Whenusing
differentshieldinggases,GMAWisalsocalledMIG(MetalInertGas)/MAG(MetalActiveGas)if
theshieldinggasisaninertoractivegas.InEuropetheprocessisalsosimplycalledMIG
welding.TheuseofGMAWcanbringmanyadvantages.Itcanbeusedforalmostallcommercial
metalsandalloys;itcanbedoneinallpositions;continuouswirefeedingispossible;deposition
ratesaresignificantlyhigh;itiseasytoautomatewelding;andminimalpostweldcleaningis
required.Therefore,GMAWisutilizedbroadlyinindustry.
ThetypicalequipmentsforGMAWincludepowersource,wiresupplyreel,wirefeedingdrive
rollers,flexibleconduit,hosepackage,weldinggun,contacttube,gasnozzle,andshieldinggas,
etc[8].

Figure1TypicalGMAWequipment.(1:Arc;2:Metalwireelectrode;3:Wiresupplyreel;4:Wirefeeding
driverollers;5:Flexibleconduit;6:Hosepackage;7:Weldinggun;8:Powersource;9:Contacttube;10:
Shieldinggas;11:Gasnozzle;12:Weldpool.)(Adaptedfrom[8])

TheGMAWweldingprocessisdependentonanumberofweldingparameters,themost
commonvariablesbeing[8]:

Electrodediameter
Voltage
Wirefeedspeedandcurrent
Weldingspeed
Electrodestickout
Choiceofshieldinggasandgasflowrate
Torchandjointposition

Toensuregoodweldingperformance,mostoftheseparametersmustbeoptimizedand
matchedtoeachother.Theworkingpointmustbewithintheworkingrangeortolerancebox
fortheparticularweldingsituation.Generally,thesizeofelectrodeischosenaccordingtothe
weldingcurrent.Whenahigherweldingcurrentisused,anelectrodewithahigherdiameter
shouldbechosen.Regardingvoltage,increasedvoltageincreasesthearclengthandgivesa
3

widerweldbead.Buttoohighavoltagewillbringtheriskofundercut.Ifshortarcweldingis
used,ahighervoltagereducestheshortcircuitfrequency,whichwillgivelargerdropsandmore
spatter.Ontheotherhand,toolowavoltagewillincreasetheriskofstubbingandpoorstart
performance.Normallythevoltageshouldbesetforastabilityarc.ForGMAW,thecurrentisset
indirectlybythewirefeedspeedanddiameter.Currentisthemainparameterforweldingto
achievesufficientweldingpenetration.However,itisalsoimportanttostrikeabalancewith
weldingspeed,voltagewithrespecttothearcstability,andweldquality.Whensettingwelding
speed,thisalsohasaconsiderableeffectontheshapeandpenetrationoftheweld.Therefore,a
higherweldingspeedalwaysaccompanieshighercurrentandvoltageandmayresultinpoor
stability.Electrodeextension,alsocalledstickout,referstothedistancefromthecontacttipto
themeltedelectrodetip.Practically,itiseasytousethedistancefromthecontacttiptothe
workpiece(CTWD)toexpresselectrodeextension.Therelationshipbetweenstickout,CTWD
andarclengthisshowninFigure2.Toosmallastickoutincreasestheriskofburnback,where
thearcwillweldtheelectrodetogetherwiththecontacttip.Toolongadistancewillincrease
theriskofstubbing,especiallyatthestart.Thecontacttiptoworkdistancealsohasan
influenceonthecurrentandpenetrationprofile.Iftheelectrodeextensionisincreased,the
currentandheatinputdecreasewhiletheamountofdepositedmetalremainsthesame.This
reducesthepenetration,andevenifitwasunintentionalariskofalackoffusionarises.
Therefore,thestickoutisusuallykeptconstantduringtheweldingoperation.Torchangles
relativetothejointarealsoanimportantweldingparameter.Ifthetorch/wireisdirectedaway
fromthefinishedpartoftheweld(forehandtechnique),thismakesthepenetrationprofile
moreshallowandthewidthoftheseamwider.Ontheotherhand,ifitisdirectedtowardsthe
finishedpartoftheweld(backhandtechnique),thepenetrationwillbedeeperandtheseam
widthwillbenarrower[810].

Figure2Relationshipbetweenstickout,CTWDandarclengthinGMAW

SolidwiresandcoredwiresarethetwotypesofwiresusedinGMAW.Thelattertypeconsistsof
ametallicoutersheath,filledwithfluxormetalpowder.Thefluxcoredwirescanhaveeithera
rutileorbasicfilling.Theycanalsobeselfshieldedforusewithoutshieldinggas.Thecostper
4

unittofcoredwiiresisconsid
derablyhigheerthanthatofsolidwires,buttheyaareinsomerrespects
sup
periortosolid
dwires.Ahigghdepositio nrateandgoodsidewallpenetratioonarefeaturesof
coreedwires.Bassicfluxcored
dwireshaveesimilarperfformancetobasicmanuaalstickelectrrodes,
givingatoughaandcrackressistantweldm
metal[8].Ge
enerally,the sizeoftheeelectrodeuse
edfor
MAWissmalleercompared
dwiththatussedforsubm
mergedarcandmanualsstickelectrod
de
GM
welding.Thewiireisusually0.9mmto11.6mmindiaameter[9].
ForGMAW,theestabilityoftthearcdepeendslargelyo
onhowthem
moltenmetaalistransferrredin
ndistinguishessentiallybbetweentwo
odifferenttyypesofarcs,,dependingo
onthe
thearc.Onecan
matterialtranspo
ort:thespra
ayarcandth eshortarc(shortcircuitingarc)[8,99].
Tan
ndemGMAW
Wisregardedasatypeoffhighefficien
ncyGMAWw
weldingproccessinwhich
hhigher
weldingspeedccanbeobtain
nbyusingthhedoublewire.Intandem
mGMAW,tw
woindividualwires
aremeltedintoonecommo
onweldpool usingtwoarcs,asshowninFigure33.Twopowerunits
weldingparam
metersforea
achwirecannbesetcomp
pletely
areusedfortheewires.Therrefore,thew
indiividually.However,becausethetwo arcsareveryclosetoea
achother,itiismuchmorre
com
mplicatedand
ddifficultto setthewelddingcurrentandvoltageforeachwirre.Anincorrect
weldingparameetersettingw
willincrease theriskofin
nterferencebetweentheetwoarcsth
hrough
maggneticarcblo
oweffect.

Figu
ure3TandemGMAWwithtwoindividuualwiresanda
arcs

Moreover,duetoanadditio
onalwirebeiingintroduce
edintothew
weldingproccess,morew
welding
paraametersneeedtobesetfforthetandeemGMAW,e
e.g.theangle
ebetweenthhetwowiress,the
disttancebetweeenthewires,andtherattioofcurrenttandvoltage
ebetweenthhetwowiress.

3 Cold laps
Coldlapisarelativelynewwordtodescribeanimperfectionattheweldtoe.Theimperfection
wasfirstdiscoveredinthe1990sduringexperimentalworktoimprovethefatiguepropertiesof
welds.Itwasalsoobservedatthattimethatcoldlapscanhaveanimportantinfluenceonthe
fatiguelifeoftheweldedstructures.However,intermsofavailableliterature,therearea
limitednumberofpublicationspresentingstudiesonweldprocessinfluenceoncoldlap
formationorphenomenawhichpromotecoldlaps.Inthischapter,thefewavailablearticlesare
summarizedinordertogiveabriefoverviewofcoldlaps.

3.1 Definition of cold laps


Inthisthesis,coldlapreferstoacracklikeimperfectionattheweldtoewhichhasanegative
influenceonthefatiguepropertiesoftheweld.
ThecoldlapwasfoundinfatiguetestscarriedoutbyLopezMartinezandKorsgren[1]inthe
1990s.Intheirfatigueinvestigation,twoweldingmethodswereevaluated,i.e.ShieldedMetal
ArcWelding(SMAW)andGasMetalArcWelding(GMAW).Theweldingrunswereperformedin
thebestweldingposition(1G).Fourdifferenttypesofweldingconsumablematerialswere
involved:OK48.00,abasiccoatedelectrode;PZ6130,abasicfluxcoredwire;PZ6111,arutile
fluxcoredwire;andOK12.51,asolidwire.ForGMAW,twotypesofshieldinggaseswere
appliedintheweldingexperiments.Differentweldingparameters,i.e.weldingcurrent,welding
voltage,andinterpasstemperature,wereusedduetothedifferentmethodsanddifferent
diametersoftheelectrodes.ThedetailsareshowninTable1.Twoparentmaterialswereused,
i.e.Domex350XPandWeldox900.
Table1ExperimentdetailsofLopezMartinezandKorsgrensinvestigation[1]
Weldmethod
Fillermetal

MMA
OK48.00

Gas

Weldingposition

1G
5mm
Nominal

Throatthickness
ElectrodeSize
(mm)
Current(A)
Voltage(V)
Heatinput
(kJ/mm)
Interpass
Temperature( )
Investigation
points
Numberofspots
withdefects
(Coldlaps)
Percentage

PZ6130
Mison25,
15l/min
1G
5mmNominal

GMA
PZ6111
Fogon20,
14l/min
1G
5.5mm
Measured

OK12.51
Mison25,
8l/min
1G
34mm
Nominal

1.6

1.6

1.0

185
24

185
23

257
25

140
20

2.0

1.6

1.3

0.6

25,110,125,
130

25,125,135,
80

20,20,20,20

20,20,20,20

712

720

5824

2896

38

83

112

475

5.3

12

1.9

35

Twotestingmethodswereinvolvedintheinvestigation:onewasfatiguetestingandtheother
wastheseparatetest.

Inthefatiguetest,thefracturesurfaceswereinvestigated.Atypeofmicrodefectwasidentified
attheweldtoeasthefatigueinitialspotinalmost70%oftheexaminedfracturesurfaces.These
socalledcoldlapsareparalleltoandatthesamelevelastheoriginalparentplatesurface.Cold
lapsappearedasplanardefectsattheweldtoeanddifferedinshape.Thedefectscanbevery
differentindepth(transversetoweldlongitudinaldirection)andlength(inweldlongitudinal
direction).Inthestudy[1],twocaseswereidentifiedregardingcoldlaps:oneisthecoldlaps
createdbyshrinkagecrackintheweldingprocessandanotheristhecoldlapswithoutany
influencefromshrinkagecrackintheweldingprocess;seeFigure4.Forthedetectedcoldlaps,
twodimensionsweredefinedasdepthandlength,asmentionedabove.Theresultsshowed
thatthecoldlapcanvarybetween0.1mmand3.5mminlengthand0.05mmand0.8mmin
depth[1]seeTable2.

Figure4TwocasesofcoldlapsidentifiedinLopezMartinezandKorsgrensinvestigation:a)Coldlaps
createdbyshrinkagecrack;andb)Coldlapswithoutinfluencefromshrinkagecrack.(Adaptedfrom[1])
Table2DimensionsofthecoldlapsfoundinLopezMartinezandKorsgrensstudy[1].
Dimensionsketchofacoldlap(a:
dimensioninlongitudinaldirection;b:
dimensionindepth
direction/transversedirection)
Samplenumber
11
13

a(mm)
0.8
1.0

b(mm)
0.15
0.5

14

3.5

0.5

16
18
21

1.0
1.5
2.0

0.5
0.4
0.8

22

0.3

0.3

22

1.5

0.4

33

0.25

0.125

34

N.A.

<0.05

67

<0.1

<0.1

Remarks

Nodefects.Shapeofearly
crack

Twocoldlapswerefound
forsample22
Twocoldlapswerefound
forsample22

Nodefect?Possiblyalong
lackoffusionwithdepth
<0.05mm

Intheseparatetest,theweldwascutandthecrosssectionsweremilled,polished(downto
3m),andetched(3%Nital).Newcrosssectionswerepreparedusingthesameprocedure
2mmawayfromtheformercrosssection.Amicroscopewasusedtoexaminethedefectson
thecrosssectionattwomagnifications(50xand200xmagnification).Thdepth(d)and
orientation()ofdefectswereevaluated,asshowninFigure5[1].

=0

Figure5Depth(d)andorientation()ofthetestedsample(Adaptedfrom[1])

Thenumberofcrosssections(investigationpoints)fordifferentweldingspecimensislistedin
Table3.InLopezMartinezandKorsgrenspaper[1],itisstatedthatthedefectsfoundin
separatetestscanberegardedascoldlapsbasedonthediscoveryinthefatiguetest.However,
thecoldlapsfoundinthefatiguetestwerestatedtobemainlyparalleltotheparentmetal
surface.Thedefectsof90oorientationcanbeanexceptionofcoldlaps,ortheymaybeduethe
shrinkagecrack[1].Also,theirformationcouldbedifferent.Therefore,thedefectswith90oare
notconsideredinthisthesis.Toillustratethefrequencyofdefectsfordifferentwelding
methodsandmaterials,thepercentageofinvestigatedpointswithdefectswasevaluated.The
meanvalueofthedefectlengthofthecrosssectionwasrecordandcalculated.Theresultsare
showninTable3.
Table3Separatetestresultfordefectsonthepreparedcrosssections(Adaptedfrom[1])
Weldmethod
Fillermetal
Investigationpoints
Numberofspotswithdefects(coldlaps)
Percentage(%)
Meanvalueind(mm)
STEDV

MMA
OK48.00
712
38
5,3
0.270
0.300

PZ6130
720
83
12
0.250
0.250

GMA
PZ6111
5824
112
1,9
0.047
0.050

OK12.51
2896
475
35
0.130
0.150

FromtheresultsshowninTable3,onlyasmalldifferencebetweenOK48.00(basicelectrode)
andPZ6130(basicfluxcoredwire)intermsofcoldlapmeandepthwasfound.ThePZ6111
(rutilefluxcoredwire)gavethesmallestdefectsindepth.TheOK12.51(solidwire)gavethe
highestfrequencyofcoldlaps.Hence,thetypeofelectrodehasthemostsignificantinfluence
oncoldlaps.Basicfillermaterialstendtogiveadeepercoldlap.Solidwirestendtogiveahigher
frequencyofcoldlaps.Incomparison,asshowninTable1,theeffectsofcurrent,voltage,and
heatinputoncoldlapsareweak.
AccordingtoSamuelsson[2],coldlapsarealocallackoffusion.Thisdefinitionoflackoffusion
makesiteasiertounderstandcoldlapcomprehensively.Furthermore,theimportanceofthe
9

lackoffusiondefinitionistoimplycoldlapformationastheconventionallackoffusion,e.g.lack
ofenergy/heat,improperpreweldcleaning,andincorrectweldingtechniques/operation,etc
[11].

3.2 Detection of cold laps


Asmentionedabove,coldlapsareverysmallinsize(0.1mm3.5mminlengthand0.05mm
0.8mmindepth).ItisveryhardtodetectcoldlapsbyanyNDTmethod.Theconventional
methodfordetectingcoldlapsiscutting,polishingandinvestigatingthecrosssectionby
microscopy.
However,thismethodcannotgiveinformationaboutthelengthofthecoldlapsalongthe
weldbead.Also,itishardtogetanoverviewofthenumberofcoldlapsintheweld.
Therefore,anewdestructivemethodwasdevelopedbyHolstetal.[5]whichcansuccessfully
detectcoldlaps.
Topreparethespecimen,thefirststepistogrindagapontheoppositesideoftheweld.The
locationofthegapistheplatethicknessplushalfthethroatthicknessfromtheedgeofthe
basemetal,andthedepthishalftheplatethickness.Thepositionanddepthcanbeseen
schematicallyinFigure6[5].Ifthegapistoodeeportoofarfromtheedge,thebendingwill
notoccurattherightplaceandnothingcanbegathered[5].

Figure6Thecorrectpositionanddepthofthegap(Adaptedfrom[5]).Thelocationofthegapisthe
platethicknessplushalfthethroatthicknessfromtheedgeofthebasemetalandthedepthishalfthe
platethickness.

Tobendthespecimen,thespecimenneedstobeplacedonplateswhichcanslideapartasthe
pressgoesdownuntiltheweldistorncompletely.Aspacercanbeplacedonthetoptospread
theforceoverthespecimen.Theforceneededvarieswiththedepthofthegap,lengthofthe
specimen,thicknessofplate,design,throatthickness,andgeometry.
Inthefirststage,theweldtearsupattheweldtoe.Inthenextstage,thecrackpropagates
throughthematerialandfinallythespecimensplitsintotwopieces,asshowninFigure7.Itis
importanttoprotecttheedgeofthefracturedsurface.

10


Figure7Fracturedweldtoe.(Adaptedfrom[5])Thedetectedweldtoeistornupwiththepressure
andtowslideblocks.Finally,thespecimensplitsintotwopieces.

Toexaminethespecimen,astereomicroscopewithmagnificationof46timesissuggested.
Foramoreexactdefectsizedetermination,acameraconnectedtoacomputercanbeused.
Coldlapsandspatterswereidentifiedonthefracturesurfaceoftheweldtoeintheworkof
Holstetal.[5].
Therefore,usingthemethodabove,itispossibletoperformadestructivetestofaspecimen
toindicatecoldlaps,spatters,lackoffusionandporesforsolidelectrodeMAGwelds.Boththe
lengthandthedepthofthecoldlapscanbedetermined.

3.3 Previous classification of cold laps


ColdlapswerecharacterizedandcategorizedbyFarajianSohiandJrvstrt[12].Inthe
experiment,tandemGMAWweldingwasused.Structuralsteel(EN10025S275JR)plateswere
usedasthebasemetalandwereplasmacutintosmallercouponswiththedimensionsof
12*50*300mm.Weldingwasperformedontheplate(beadonplate).Asmilledsteelplates
andweldpositionPAwerechosenfortheexperiment.Thirtyeightweldedspecimenswith
differentweldingparameterswereproduced.Whenselectingtheweldingparameters,spray
modewasensured,evenfordifferentarclengthsengaged.Also,theratioofwirefeedspeed
(WFS)andtravelspeed(TS)waskeptfixedtokeepthesamedepositionrateinwhichdifferent
weldprofileswereproduced.Theinfluenceofelectrodestickoutcanbestudiedbyvarying
contacttubetoworkpiecedistance(CTWD).Theinfluenceoftheweldingtorchangle(forward
andbackward)wasalsostudied.TheWFSoftheleadingwirewaskeptalwaysequaltothatof
thetrailingwire.Twocombinationsofelectrodes,i.e.solidsolidandsolidcoredwire,were
usedintheexperiment.
Adevelopedrapiddestructivemethodwasusedtodetectcoldlapsinwhichthespecimens
werehitbyapendulumtipinanimpacttestmachine.Afterbreakingthespecimens,the
fracturesurfaceofthebrokenpartswasstudiedusinglightopticalandscanningelectron
microscope.Thetestswithdifferentloadingspeedsshowedthatafasterloadingspeedanda
lowertemperaturecouldgiveabetterpictureoftheimperfections.Inordertofracturethe
partsinabrittlemanner,thespecimenswerefirstcooleddowninacontainerfilledwithliquid
nitrogenfor10minutesbeforetheimpacttest.Thetestcouponswerepreparedwiththe
dimension11*12*50mm.Thependulumhitsthespecimensfrombehindandbreaksthemby
propagatingacrackstartingattheweldtoes.InFigure8,thespecimenpreparationandimpact
testingaredescribedschematically[12].
11


Figgure8Schem
maticaldescrip
ptionoftheteest:a)Beadonplateweldspecimen.b) Slicingthesp
pecimen
inttosubspecim
mens.c)Hittin
ngwithapenddulum.d)Lightorelectron
nmicroscopy ofthefracturresurface
[12](OriginallypublishedinSteelResearcchInternation
nal,77(2006)),No.12,pagees889895.W
With
peermission.)

Byystudyingth
hefracturesu
urfaces,the initialimperfectionswhichexistbetw
weenthewe
eldtoe
an
ndbasemateerialcouldbe
eobserved. Thefracture
esurfacesfro
omthisimpaacttestandtthe
prreviousfatigu
uetestswerecompared .Coldlapscaanbeobservvedclearlyinnbothmetho
ods.
Ussingtheseexxperiments,FarajianSohhiandJrvstrrt[12]obse
ervedtwotyppesofcoldla
aps,
kn
nownasoveerlapandsp
patter.
InFigure9,ovverlapwasob
bservedassoolidifiedoverflowoftheweldpoolo nthebasem
metal.A
sh
harpcontrasttcanbeobse
ervedbetweeenthebasematerialfracturesurfacceandthesu
ub
fraacturesurfacceoftheove
erlaps(seeF igure9a).Th
hreeoverlapsswereshow
wnattheweldtoein
Figgure9.Thed
detailsofthe
eencircledim
mperfectioninFigure9aareshowni nFigure9ba
ata
highermagniffication.Asemielliptical cracklikeim
mperfectionw
wasobserveedwhichis1..5mm
Theobservat ionoftheim
mperfectionsshowednom
metallicbindingwith
longand0.45mmdeep.T
hebasemateerial.Thesub
bsurfaceoftthecoldlapssappearedp
porous.Intheelargeporess,some
th
so
olidinclusion
nscanbeobsserved[12].

12

Figgure9Overlaapfoundin[12].a)Scanninngelectronmicroscopyoftthefracturessurfaceofthewelded
sp
pecimencontaainingoverlap
ptypecoldlaaps.b)Magnifficationofthe
ecoldlapscirrcledina)[12]
(O
OriginallypublishedinStee
elResearchIntternational,7
77(2006),No.12,pages8889895.With
peermission.)

To
ostudytheeelementspre
esentonthe observedco
oldlapsurfacce,energydi spersive
sp
pectroscopy(EDS)investiigationusinggthescannin
ngelectronm
microscopew
wasperforme
edatthe
po
ointwhereso
olidinclusion
nsweredom
minant,asshowninFigurre10.ThereesultsfromtheEDS
an
nalysisshoweedthatsilico
onandmangganesewerepresentontthesurfacei nadditionto
oiron,
oxxygenandcaarbon,assho
owninTable4.Thissugggeststhatthe
esiliconand manganese
inclusionswerretrappedbetweenthew
weldandthe
ebasemetal,formingthhenonmetalllic
ondinglayerduringthew
weldingand solidification
nprocess.
bo

Figgure10Surfaceofacoldla
apinvestigateedusingEDS[[12](OriginallypublishediinSteelResea
arch
Intternational,7
77(2006),No..12,pages8889895.Withp
permission.)

13

Table4ChemicalcompositionobtainedbyEDSinvestigationofone
coldlapsurface,asshowninFigure10.(Modifiedfrom[12])

Element Weight(%) Atomic(%)


C

2.07

7.31

9.11

24.15

Si

0.91

1.37

Mn

1.50

1.16

Fe

85.75

65.13

AnothertypeofcoldlapfoundbyFarajianSohiandJrvstrt[12]isnamedspatter.The
lengthofasinglespatterismuchshorterthanthatoftheoverlaptypecoldlaps,andin
generaltheaspectratio(a/ca:crackdepth,2c:cracklength)ofspatterlikecoldlapsislarger
thanthatofoverlaplikecoldlaps.InFigure11,asinglespattertrappedwithintheweldmetal
attheweldtoeisshown.Theobservedspatterhasadiameterofaround200mandwas
believedtobecoveredbytheweldweaves.Someoxideswerealsofoundsurroundingthe
spatter,whichisthesamematerialastheinclusionsintheporesontheoverlapsurface.A
clusterofspatterwasalsoobservedattheedgeofthefracturesurface,asshowninFigure12.
Betweenthestickingspatters,oxidesandporeswerestatedtobefound.Thelengthofthis
spatterclusteris1.8mmanditsdepthis0.6mm.

Figure11Spatterfoundin[12].a)Singlespatteronthetopofthefracturesurface.b)Magnified
pictureofthespatterintheleftimage.[12](OriginallypublishedinSteelResearchInternational,77
(2006),No.12,pages889895.Withpermission.)

14


Figure12a)Clusterofspatteronthetopofthefracturesurface.b)Magnifiedpictureofthepart
circledina)[12](OriginallypublishedinSteelResearchInternational,77(2006),No.12,pages889
895.Withpermission.)

Inthediscussionofthepaper[9],theauthorsstatedthatseveralforcefieldsinthewelding
process,e.g.arcpressure,electromagneticfieldsandtheforcefromtheshieldinggasflow,
resultinthefluctuationoftheweldpool.Thefluctuationsarethesourceoftherippleofthe
weld.Iftheforcefieldswhichcontrolthefluctuationsoftheweldpoolweredisturbed,larger
rippleswouldbeproduced.Whenthelargerrippleswithhigherkineticenergythannormal
ripplesreachtheweldtoe,theyoverlaponthebasemetalandformtheoverlaptypeofcold
laptogetherwiththecoldbasemetalsurface.Thesolidinclusionscontainingsiliconand
manganesewereregardedtobetrappedparticleswhichareproducedduringwelding.The
siliconandmanganeseinclusionswereassumedtobeproductsofdeoxidizationofthe
electrodesandcleanersforbasemetalsurfacescontainingoxides/millscale.Itwasstatedin
[12]thatgasescanbereleasedwhiletheinclusionissolidifying.

3.4 Influence factors for cold laps


Foradeeperunderstandingofcoldlaps,itisimportanttounderstandtheinfluencefactors
whicharesupposedtobeabletosignificantlycontroltheoccurrenceanddimensionsofcold
laps.
RoboticRapidArcGMAW(highspeedwelding)withsolidwirewasusedbyHedegrd[13]to
produceweldingspecimens.Filletweldswereproducedintheexperiment.Adestructive
method(crosssectionsoftheweld)wasusedtodetectandevaluatecoldlaps.
Table5Sevenvariedimportantweldingparametersinexperiment.(Adaptedfrom[13])

Examinedweldingparameter

Valueoftwolevels

Electrodestickout

22/29(mm)

Heatinput

0.8/1.1(kJ/mm)

Weldinggunangles

A/B(notspecifiedinpaper)

Weldinggunposition

e.g.badposition:1/0(mm)off

Weldingposition

1F/2F

Surfacequalityoftheplate

Blasted/asdelivered

Weldsize(throatsize)

4/6(mm)throatsize

15

Intheexperiment,multifactorialtestswereperformedandeighttestserieswerewelded,
consistingofthreespecimenseach.Sevenimportantweldingparameterswerevariedina
standardisedandreducedtwolevelmultifactorialtest.Theweldingparametersexaminedare
shownbelow.
Intotal,twentyfiveindependentcutsweremadeforeachseries.Byevaluatingthecross
sections,threesignificantparameterswererevealedforcoldlapoccurrence,i.e.welding
position,surfacecondition,andweldinggunposition[13].
ThemostimportantparametersforGMAW,asconsideredbyFarajianSohiandJrvstrt[14]
intheirexperiment,arelistedinTable6.

Table6Nominalweldparameters.(Controlledparametersaredenotedby*,thoseheldfixedaredenoted
byo,andthosefullydeterminedbycontrolledparametersaredenotedby.)(Adaptedfrom[14])

Welding
parameter

Basematerial

Fillermaterialsand
Shieldinggas

Totalwirefeedspeed*
(21m/s)

Alloy o(Steel,EN
10025S275JR)

Wiretype*(solid:OKAutrod12.51,
metalcored:OKTubrod14.12)

Weldtorchangle*(0,
vertical)

Platethickness o
(12mm)

Wirediameter o(1.2mm,leadingand
trailing)

Arclength*(4mm)

Surfacequality o
(Asrolled)

Distancebetweenthetwocontact
tubeso(20mm)

Contacttubetowork
distance(16mm)*

geometryo(50300mm,
beadonplate)

Gastype*:92%Arand8%Co2

Electrodestickout

Weldingposition o
(Horizontal,PA)

Gasflowrateo(28l/min)

Current

Voltage

Weldingspeed

Afractionalfactorialtwolevelmodelwithonereplicationwaschosentodesignthe
experimentusingthesoftwareMODDE.Sixvariablesoftheweldingparametersfortandem
GMAWwithtwolevelswereinvolvedinexperimentaldesign,asshowninTable7[14].
Atotalnumberof38weldspecimenswithdifferentandcontrolledweldingparameterswere
producedaccordingtotheworksheet,asshowninTable8[14].Strangely,thetwolevelof
CTWDusedare13mmand15mminsteadofthelevelsshowninTable7.

16

Table7Weldingvariablesandtheirrangesinthepaper.(Adaptedfrom[14])

Tandemarcweldingparameters

Notation

Range

WireFeedSpeed

WFS

18,21,24(m/s)*

ArcLength(Leading)

Larc

2,4,6(mm)

ContactTubetoWorkDistance(Leading)

CTWD

15,16,17(mm)*

TorchAngle

TA

10(Pull),0,10(Push)degrees

Wirecombinations

WireC

WeldSpeed(SettoWFS/15)

WS

Solidsolid:0
Solidcored:1
1.2,1.4,1.6(m/s)*

*Thethreevaluesrefertothelow,midandhighlevelofthevariables.Withthemiddlevaluethe
repetitionsweregiven.

Table8Worksheetofweldingparameters.(Adaptedfrom[14])

No.

WFS

WS

Larc

CTWD

(m/min) (m/min) (mm)

(mm)

TA Wiretype

VoltageLeading
(V)

1.20

18

1.2

13

10

Cored

27.5

2.21

24

1.6

13

10

Solid

29.0

3.22

18

1.3

13

10

Solid

29.8

4.23

24

1.6

13

10

Cored

34.8

5.24

18

1.2

15

10

Solid

26.0

6.25

24

1.6

15

10

Cored

29.5

7.26

18

1.2

15

10

Cored

32.0

8.27

24

1.6

15

10

Solid

34.8

9.28

18

1.2

13

10

Solid

26.0

10.29

24

1.6

13

10

Cored

29.5

11.30

18

1.2

13

10

Cored

31.5

12.31

24

1.6

13

10

Solid

34.8

13,32

18

1.2

15

10

Cored

27.5

14.33

24

1.6

15

10

Solid

29.5

15.34

18

1.2

15

10

Solid

29.5

16.35

24

1.6

15

10

Cored

34.8

17

21

1.4

14

Cored

31.0

18

21

1.4

14

Cored

31.0

19

21

1.4

14

Cored

31.0

36

21

1.4

14

Solid

29.6

37

21

1.4

14

Solid

29.6

38

21

1.4

14

Solid

29.6
17

Toevaluatethespecimens,boththeconventionalcrosssectionmethodandthedeveloped
impacteddestructivemethod(asmentionedintheabovechapter)wereengaged.Lightoptical
andscanningelectronmicroscopewasusedfortheinvestigations.Twotypesofcoldlapwere
observedinthisstudy[14],i.e.overlapandspatters,andMnandSiinclusionwasalsofound
onthesurfaceoftheflaw[14].
Thedepthofthetwotypesofcoldlapsforallthefracturedspecimenswasmeasured.The
maximumdefectdepthwasregisteredoveradistanceofabout11cmforeachsetofweld
parameters.InFigure13,histogramsshowingdefectdepthrangesmeasuredfromallthe
detectedtoeflawsaregiven.

Figure13Histogramsofthedepthofa)overlapandb)spatter[14](ReprintedwithpermissionofASM
International.Allrightsreserved.www.asminternational.org)

Thehistogramsshowthattheoverlapdepthhasanormaldistributionwithanaveragevalueof
0.25mmandthatspattersarerandomlydistributedwithanaveragedepthof0.34mm.
TheeffectofthedifferentparameterswasstatisticallyevaluatedusingthesoftwareMODDE.
Foroverlaps,FarajianSohiandJrvstrt[14]statedthatthefactorswiththemostpronounced
effectontheoverlapdepthwerethetotalwirefeedspeed(WFS)andthetorchangle(TA),as
showninFigure14.Thecontacttubetoworkpiecedistance(CTWD)hadaminoreffectbut
stillstatisticallysignificant.

Figure14Scaledandcanteredcoefficientplotofparametersaffectingmaximumoverlapdepthin
110mmofwelds.[14](ReprintedwithpermissionofASMInternational.Allrightsreserved.
www.asminternational.org)

Thestatisticallyderivedempiricalmodelswerealsogiven,asshowninequation1and2.
Forsolidsolidwire:

18


0.004

4
0.22 0.006
0.5
0.21

0.01
0.03

0.06

0.001

Eq.(1)

Forsolidcoredwire:

0.004

3.45
0.56

0.23

0.006
0.23

0.01
0.03

0.04 0.001
Eq.(2)

Forthespatters,usingthesamemethod,theauthorsstatedthatthetotalwirefeedspeed
(WFS)andthetorchangle(TA)weredominatingfactors,asshowninFigure15.

Figure15Scaledandcentredcoefficientplotofparametersaffectingmaximumspatterdepthin
110mmofwelds.[14](ReprintedwithpermissionofASMInternational.Allrightsreserved.
www.asminternational.org)

Regardingtheoverlap,iftheequations(Eq.1andEq.2)arereliableandabletobesimplified,
neglectingtheinteracteditems,thenewequationscanbewrittenas:
Forsolidsolidwire:

0.22

0.06

0.5

Eq.(3)

0.21

Forsolidcoredwire:

3.45

0.23

0.04

0.56

Eq.(4)

0.23

Consideringthechangerangeofthevalueforeachparameter,themaximumeffectofeach
parametercanbecalculated,asfollows:
Forsolidsolidwire:

0.22
0.06
0.5

0.22 24
0.06 10

0.5 6
0.21

1.32 Eq.(5)

10

1.2 Eq.(6)

18

2 Eq.(7)
0.21 17

15

0.42 Eq.(8)

Forsolidcoredwire:

0.23
0.06
0.5

0.23 24
0.04 10

0.56 6

18

1.38 Eq.(9)

10

0.8 Eq.(10)

2.24 Eq.(11)

19

0.23

0.23
0
17

15

0..46 Eq.(12)

FrromEq.5toEEq.12,someagreementccanbeseen withtheautthorsonthe effectofWFFS,TA


an
ndCTWD.Ho
owever,itisobviousthattthearclenggthhastheg
greatesteffe ctonthedepthof
ovverlapcoldlaapforbothssolidsolidwiireandsolidcoredwire.Physically,tthearclengthmeans
th
hevoltageintheweldpro
ocess,fromw
whichtheco
onclusioncan
nbedrawntthatwelding voltage
haasthemostssignificantefffectonoverrlapdepth.FForthespatte
ers,thesam eargumentsscan
alssoberaised.

M
Moreover,theeauthors[14
4]alsoconcluudedthatsw
witchingfrom
masolidsoli dwirecomb
bination
to
oasolidcoreedwirecomb
binationresuultedindeep
peroverlap,a
asshownin Figure16an
ndFigure
177.However,fromthepre
eviouswork ofLopezMaartinezetal.[1]andHedeegrdetal.[[13],a
co
ontradictoryconclusionw
wasdrawnthhatthesolidwiregavedeepercoldlaapscompare
edwith
co
oredwireinaasinglewire
eorRapidAr cweldingprrocess(seechapters2.1aand2.5).One
exxplanationfo
orthecontra
adictoryresu ltswasgiven
nbyFarajian
nSohiandJrvstrt[14].The
au
uthorsstated
dthattheexperimentsw
wereperform
medonasrolledmetalshheetsandthesurface
qu
ualitywasno
otoptimal.Therefore,th esurfaceimpuritieshad adominanteffectinpro
oducing
th
hecontradicttoryresultsw
withtheprevviouswork.H
However,ifitistruethattthesurface
e
co
onditionhasadominanteffect,allth eresultscou
uldbequestiionable.

Figgure16Statissticalmodelrepresentingaa)Depthofovverlapforsoliidsolidwire. b)Depthofo
overlap
forsolidcoredwire.[14](Re
eprintedwithhpermissiono
ofASMIntern
national.Allriightsreserved
d.
ww.asminternational.org)
ww

20


Figgure17Statissticalmodelrepresentingaa)Depthofsp
patterforsolidsolidwire.bb)Depthofspatterfor
so
olidcoredwire
e.[14](ReprintedwithperrmissionofASSMInternatio
onal.Allrightssreserved.
ww
ww.asminternational.org)

urthermore,itiswellkno
ownthattheeselectionoffindependen
ntfactorsissstatistically
Fu
im
mportantfortheexperim
mentaldesignn.However,iinthestudy[14],theautthorsselecte
edarc
lengthandcon
ntacttipworrkdistance(CCTWD)asth
hefactorsinttheirfractionnalfactorial
exxperimentaldesign.Asdiiscussedincchapter2,thearclengthandCTWDaarenotindep
pendent
factorwiththeefixedstickout.Therefoore,thisinde
ependencecouldalsogivvepoorstatisstical
mentaldesignnofthepape
er.
siggnificanceintheexperim
Lo
opezMartineezetal.[15]producedw eldsbyMAG
Gusingblaste
edWeldox7000asthebasse
material.Befo
orethefatigu
uetest,TIGddressingwassperformedontheweld toes.Thefailure
sp
pecimeninth
hefatiguetestwasprepaaredsothatthefracture surfacescouuldbeanalyssed
ussinganopticalmicroscop
peandascannningelectro
onmicroscop
petoidentifyytheinitialp
pointsof
fatigue.Bythisobservation,coldlapsw
werefoundinthespecim
mensafterTIIGdressingb
butata
lowerdepth.TTheresultsshowedthatTTIGdressinggcannotelim
minatethecooldlapsfrom
mthe
ducethedep thofthecoldlaps.
weldtoe,butcanonlyred

21

22

4 Oxides in GMAW process


Weldingcanberegardedasametallurgyprocesswithquickmelting,coolingandsolidification.
Fromthisrapidprocess,asoundweldisproducedwithhighstrengthandtoughnesscompared
withtheparentmaterial.Thealloyelementsintheweldmetalarethekeytoensuringthe
requiredmechanicalproperties.FortheGMAWweldingprocess,bothdropletandweldpool
willexperienceanextremelyhightemperature,andoxidizationisinevitable.Thisoxidisation
willconsumeacertainamountofthebeneficialalloyelements.Fordifferentparentmaterials,
thebeneficialelementscanbedifferent.Ontheotherhand,thealloyelementsareimportant
fortheweldabilityintermsofbeingfreefromweldingflaws,e.g.properviscosityofthe
moltenmetal,alighteroxidewhichcaneasilyflowuptotheweldpoolsurface,etc.Forthese
purposes,therearealargenumberofalloyelements,e.g.C,Si,Mn,Cr,Ni,V,Ti,Co,Mg,N,
Mo,Zr,NbandAl,etc[8,9,11].However,onlythebehaviourofmanganeseandsiliconis
focusedoninthisstudy,sinceMnSioxideswerefoundtobethemajoroxidesincoldlaps.
Manganeseisagreyishwhitemetallicelementwithanatomicweightof54.9andamelting
pointof1245oC.Acertainquantityofmanganesecancommonlybefoundinmoststeels,asit
isahelpfuladditiveinironalloys.Manganesehasastrongeraffinitytooxygen,sulphurand
carbonthaniron.Whenaddedtomolteniron,manganesereactswithoxygentoform
manganeseoxide(MnO).Hence,manganeseisadeoxidizerforiron,butitisstilllessimportant
thanaluminiumandsilicon.Inthemelt,Manganesecanalsoreactpreferentiallywithsulphur
toformmanganesesulphur(MnS).Therefore,theMnSinclusioniscommoninhotrolledsteel
asathinlayerinclusion.Manganeseiscommonlyfoundasanalloyingadditioninalltypesof
carbonandlowalloysteelbasemetalsandfillermetalsforwelding.Thepurposeof
manganesecangenerallybesummarizedasbeingthreefold[16]:

Combineswithoxygeninthemoltensteelasadeoxidizer;
Tiesupanysulphurthatmaybepresenttoavoidhotcracking;
Promotesgreaterstrengthbyincreasingthehardenabilityofthesteel(toughnessis
usuallyimprovedasabonuseffect)

Siliconhasanatomicweightof28andameltingpointof1427oC.Siliconisusedmainlyin
steelsasadeoxidizingagent.Insteelmaking,theamountofsilicontobeaddedisslightlyin
excessofthequantityneededtocombinewiththeoxygen.Siliconandoxygenreactvigorously
toliberatealargeamountofheat,andsilicondioxide(SiO2)isformed.Thesilicondioxidecan
eitherescapetothemoltenmetalsurfaceorforminclusionsinthesolidifiedsteel.Withthe
presenceofmanganeseinthemoltensteel,thesilicondioxideinclusionswilloftenoccuras
complexironmanganesesilicatecompounds.Ifmanganeseandsiliconareaddedtogetherand
actsynergistically,themanganeseandsiliconcanachieveanonmetalliccompositionthatwill
remainliquidatthefreezingtemperatureofthesteel[16].Thesiliconcanalsobeusedasa
ferritestrengthener,anditisstrongerinthisrespectthanmostothercommonlyusedalloying
elements.Also,siliconisastronghardenabilitypromoter.Therefore,heattreatablealloy
steelshaveahighproportionofsilicon.Finally,siliconcanpromotethefluidityofthemolten
steel.Itissometimesusefulinpouringcastingsandincertainfusionweldingprocesses.

23

Inthemoltensteel,thedeoxidationofsiliconandmanganesecangivecomplexproducts,even
fortheequilibriumcondition.AccordingtoTurkdogan[17],theproductswillbedeterminedby
allthreefactors,i.e.thecontentofsiliconandmanganese,thecontentratiobetweensilicon
andmanganese,andthetemperature,asshowninFigure18.

Figure18Productsofoxidationofsiliconandmanganeseinequilibriummoltensteel.(Adaptedfrom
[17])

However,theoxidationproductsofsiliconandmanganesecouldbemorecomplexbecause
theweldingprocessgenerallyfeaturesarapidcoolingprocess,makingithardtoachieve
equilibriumconditionsinthemoltenmaterial.Also,itishardtomeasurethetemperaturein
theweldingprocess.GrongandChristensen[18]performedanexperimentinanenclosed
chamber.Differentshieldinggaseswereusedintheexperiment.Basically,twotypesof
specimenswereprepared:oneisachilledweldmetalandtheotheroneisamultilayer
weldment.Theelectrodetipafterweldingwasalsoanalysed.
Forthechilledweldmetalsamples,theweldwasmadeonawatercoolingcopperwheel
whichwascoveredbyaTeflonscrapertoeasetheweldmetalseparation.Thechilledmetal
wascollectedintheformofintermittentstrips(1to2mmwide,thickness0.05to0.1mm,
length20to150mm).
Forthemultilayerweldmetal,theweldingtrialswereperformedonmildsteelcoupons
(135mmx95mmx15mm).Sixlayersweredepositedforeachsample.Theweldingspeed
was3mm/s.OnlythetopbeadswereinvestigatedwithrespecttoC,O,SiandMncontent.
Afillerwireof0.8mmdiameterwasused.Therateofwirefeed(about125mm/s)was
adjustedtotheoperationalconditions(90to100Aand24to26V,respectively).Thechemical
compositionofthefillerwireisshowninTable1.
Table9Chemicalcompositionofthefillerwire.(Adaptedfrom[18])
Elements
Content(wt %)

C
0.097

O
0.020

Si
0.83

Mn
1.52

24

Bothelectronprobeanalysisandchemicalanalysiswereperformedforthesamples.A
comparisonbetweentheresultsofthechilledweldmetalandthemultilayerweldmetal
revealedthattheoxidizingreactionofcarbondoesnotnormallytakeplaceintheweldpool,
butoccurseitherattheelectrodetiporinthearcplasma,ormaybeboth.Grongand
Christensen[18]alsodiscussedthatitisreasonabletoassumethattheoxidationmainlyoccurs
ontheelectrodetip,ratherthaninthearcplasma.Thelargemetal/atmosphereinterfaceis
themainreasonforCOnucleationduringdropletformation.Twopartsofthedropletwere
distinguishedinthediscussionofcarbonoxidation.Oneisthehotlayer,whichreferstothe
partfacingthearc.Thispartismostlikelythelocationofcarbonoxidation.Theotherpartis
thepartonthesideoftheelectrodewire(thelowertemperaturepartcomparedwiththepart
facingthearc)inwhichSiandMnareexpectedtoprotectcarbonfromoxidation.When
reachingthecriticalCOgaspressure,thecarbonreactionisblocked.Thus,siliconand
manganesewilltakeoverandcontroltheoxygenlevelinthemetal.Onereasonforthelackof
carbonoxidationinthearcplasmaisaninadequatesupplyofoxygenduetoMnandFevapour
arisingfrommetalsuperheating.Inthehotpartoftheweldpool(thepartsimultaneously
beneathandfollowingthearc),theplasmajetblowstheMnandFevapourawayandprovides
asteadysupplyofoxygen.However,themetal/atmosphereinterfacemaybetoosmallin
volumecomparedwiththedropletstolimitthecarbonoxidationinthisstage.Inthecooler
partoftheweldpool(thepartnexttothearcintheweldpool),SiandMnarenormally
expectedtopreventanycarbonreaction.
Regardingthelossesofsilicon,GrongandChristensen[18]concludedthatlossesofsilicon
mainlyoccurintheweldpoolandtheamountofSilostontheelectrodetipandinthearc
plasmaismuchsmaller.Sincenoslagisformedonthesurfaceofthechilledmetalsample,the
authorsbelievethatthesiliconmustescapeintheformofagaseousproduct.Ontheother
hand,evaporationlossescanbeexcludedinthiscaseduetoaverylowSivapourpressureat
theprevailingtemperature.Therefore,itisreasonabletoassumethatSiOisformedonthetip
dropletsurface.Thesiliconlossesofchilledmetalwithincreasingoxygenpotentialofshielding
gasarebelievedtobecausedbythereaction:
SiO2(inslag)+CO(g)=SiO(g)+CO2(g)
Whencomparingthemanganesecontentbetweenthechilledmetalsamplesandthemulti
layerweldmetalsamples,GrongandChristensen[18]believedthatthelossesofMnare
mainlyduetovaporizationduringextremelyhightemperaturearcplasma(2400oC).
Intheirconclusion,theauthorssummarizedtheresultsbydifferentlocationinthewelding
process,i.e.electrodetip,arcplasma,hotpartoftheweldpool,andthecoolingpartofthe
weldpool.Fortheelectrodetip,thetemperaturewasstatedtobeabout1600oCandcarbon
monoxideandmanganesesilicateslagwereformed.Carbonwaslostmainlyinthisstageas
well.AcertainamountofsiliconwaslostasaresultofSiOformationinthefumes.
Forthearcplasma,withatemperatureofabout2400oC,theprecipitatedmanganeseslagin
theformerstageredissolvesinthemetaluponheating.Furtherabsorptionofoxygenwillbe
preventedbyFeandMnvapours.Fumesareformedbymetalvapourreactingwithoxygen.

25

Forthehotpartoftheweldpool,thetemperaturerangeis2000oCto1800oC.Oxygenis,toa
largeextent,dissolvedintheweldpoolatthearcrootresultingfromtheinteractionwiththe
plasmagas.Manganesesilicateslagformationtakesplacesimultaneously,preventingthe
oxygenconcentrationfromexceedingacertainlimit.Aseparationofmicroslagproceeds
continuouslyundertheexistingturbulentconditions.ForCO2welding,aCOgasbarrierabove
themetalsurface,fromthedecompositionofCO2,preventstheabsorptionofoxygen.
Inthecoolingpartoftheweldpool,thetemperatureisbelow1800oC.Siliconandmanganese
reactfurtherwithdissolvedoxygenuponcooling.Themicroslagseparationwillbehighly
unfavourableduetoanearlystagnantbath.Forthisreason,theanalyticaloxygencontentis
highlyunpredictable,butisneverthelesscloselylinkedtothesiliconandmanganese
concentrationsintheweldmetal.

26

5 Experimental techniques
5.1 Steel and consumable materials
Intheexperimentalworkofthisthesis,Domex355wasusedastheparentmaterialandESAB
OKAutrod12.51wasusedastheweldingwire.
Domex355isahotrolledcoldformingsteelwhichmeetssteelS355MCinEN101492.Itcan
beusedinapplicationssuchastruckchassis,cranesandearthmovingmachines.Thechemical
compositionofDomex355isshowninTable10anditsmechanicalpropertiesinTable11[19].
Table10ChemicalcompositionofDomex355MC(Adaptedfrom[19])

C Si Mn P
S
Al Nb V Ti
Basemetal:Domex355MC 0.10 0.03 1.50 0.025 0.010 0.015 0.09 0.200.15

Table11MechanicalpropertiesofDomex355MC(Adaptedfrom[19])

Yieldstrength Tensilestrength
Rm(Nmm)
Reff(Nmm)
min
minmax
355

430550

Elongationonfailure
<3mm 3mm
A5%
A80%
min
min
19
23

ESABOKAutrod12.51isatypeofsolidwirecoveredbycopperwhichisastandardG3Si1wire.
ThechemicalcompositionisgiveninTable12.
Table12ChemicalcompositionofOKAutrod12.51
OKAutrod12.51 C Si Mn P
S
Wire/strip(%) 0.14 1.00 1.60 0.025 0.025

5.2 Shielding gases


Itiswellknownthattheshieldinggascanhaveasignificantinfluenceontheweldingprocess.
Agasmixtureofargonandcarbondioxideisthemostcommonshieldinggasusedinthe
GMAWprocess.FortheArCO2shieldinggases,anincreasedCO2contentcanchangethe
droplettransfermodeandinfluencespattergenerationanddistribution,whereasahigher
amountorpureargonwilldecreasethearcstabilityoftheGMAW.
Inthestudypresentedinthefirstappendedpaper,theshieldinggasusedwas92Ar8CO2.This
mixedshieldinggashasbeenmostlyusedfortheweldingofDomex355MCbasemetalwith
OKAutrod12.51wire.TheweldingparameterprocedurefollowedtheprocessusedinVCE.
Inthesecondandthirdpapers,themaininterestwasfocusedontheeffectofMnSioxideson
coldlapformation.Therefore,anexperimentwasdesignedwithtwotypesofshieldinggases:
onewasanoxidizinggas,i.e.CO2andtheotherwasaninertgas,i.e.pureAr.

27

5.3 Se
ealed cha
amber
Inordertocreeateanonoxxidizingenvi ronment,assealedchamberwasuse dforthewe
elding
exxperimentsu
usingArshieldinggas.Thhechamberisaweldedstainlesssteeelstructuressealed
withplasticinawaythatp
permitsfree movementssoftherobotarmwhich holdsthewelding
gu
uninsidetheechamber.A
Agasoutletw
waspresetaatthetopofthesealedcchambertoe
exhaust
th
heairfromth
hechamberw
whilefilling inwithshieldinggasthro
oughthegasssupplynozzzleon
th
hebottomoffthechambe
er.Theconteentoftheoxygeninsidetthechamberrwasmeasuredwith
an
noxygenanaalysermounttedontheroobotarmataaheightof6
600800mm abovethebottomof
th
hechamber.InthepureA
Arwelding,ttheoxygenccontentwaskeptintherrangeof255
50ppm.
Also,abracketwassetonthebottom ofthecham
mberinorderrtoimprove theground
co
onnectionfro
omtheworkkpiecebackttotheweldin
ngpowersource.Thesettupofthese
ealed
ch
hamberissho
owninFigurre19.
G
Gas outlet
Oxygen
analyzer

Welding
torch

600-800 mm

Plastic coover

Cham
mber

Workpieece

Gas Supply

Figgure19Schem
maticfigureo
ofexperimenttsetup

5.4 SE
EM and EDS
Ascanningeleectronmicroscope(SEM))isamateriaalsinvestigattiontoolthattcanproduccehigh
gyscanningeelectronbea
am.For
reesolutionmiccrostructureimageswithhthehelpof ahighenerg
su
uchinvestigations,anele
ectronbeam isaccelerate
edusingahighvoltagefiieldintheelectron
gu
un.Thehighenergyelecttronsinteracctwiththeattomsatornearthesampplesurfacea
and
prroducesignals,e.g.secon
ndaryelectroons,backscaatteredelecttronsandch aracteristicX
Xray,as
sh
howninFigure20.These signalscanbbedetectedandreceivedusinganellectrondetector,
reesultinginan
nimageofthesamplesu rface.These
econdaryele
ectron(SE)im
mageandback
sccatterelectro
on(BSE)imaggearethem
mostcommon
nimagemod
desinSEM.

28


Figure20SignalsproducedinSEM

Thesecondaryelectronshavelowenergyduetotheinelasticinteractionwiththeatomsinthe
sample.Duetotheircharacteristics,thesecondaryelectronscomefromanareaverynearto
thesamplesurface.Also,theedgesoftheobjectstendtogivemoresecondaryelectrons.
Therefore,SEimagescanusuallygiveveryhighresolutionsurfaceimagesandcanalsobeused
toproduceathreedimensionalimageofthesamplesurface.
BSEsarebeamelectronsthatarereflectedfromthesamplebyelasticscattering.TheBSEs
havehighenergyandcangeneratealargeinteractionvolumebeneaththespecimensurface.
Sincetheheavyelementscangivemorebackscatteredelectrons,BSEsareusedtodetect
contrastbetweenareaswithdifferentchemicalcompositions.
ThespatialresolutionoftheSEMdependsonthesizeoftheelectronspotandthesizeofthe
interactionvolume,asshowninFigure21.Thelargerelectronspotandgreaterinteraction
volumegivealowerresolutionoftheSEM.Sincetheinteractionvolumeisdependentonthe
energyofthebeam,lowerbeamenergyissuggestedwhenperformingimageanalysisatthe
specimensurface.

Figure21Electroninteractionvolume

TheSEMusedinthisstudywasaJSM6490LVfromJOEL,whichhasaresolutionof3.0nm.The
lowvacuummodewasusedtoinvestigatetheinfluenceofmountingmaterialinthefirst
29

paper.Thehighvacuummodewasusedintheworkpresentedinthesecondandthirdpapers
duetotheutilizationofconductivemountingmaterials.Standardautomatedfeatureswere
alsousedintheabovementionedexperiments,includingAutoFocus,AutoGun(saturation,
biasandalignment),andautomaticcontrastandbrightness.
Energydispersivespectroscopy(EDS)isananalyticaltechniqueusedfortheelementalanalysis
orchemicalcharacterizationofamaterial.Asmentionedabove,acharacteristicXraycanbe
emittedwhenthehighenergyelectronbeamhitsthesample.Thenumberandenergyofthe
Xraysemittedfromaspecimencanbemeasuredusinganenergydispersivespectrometer.By
analysingtheuniqueXray,EDSallowstheidentificationofdifferentelementsinthesample.
TheaccuracyoftheEDSspectrumcanbeaffectedbymanyfactors.Windowsinfrontofthe
detectorcanabsorbthelowenergyXray(i.e.EDSdetectorscannotdetectelementswithan
atomicnumberoflessthan4,i.e.H,He,andLi).Also,manyelementswillhaveoverlapping
peaks(e.g.TiKandVK,MnKandFeK).Theaccuracyofthespectrumcanalsobe
affectedbythenatureofthesample.Xrayscanbegeneratedbyanyatominthesamplethat
issufficientlyexcitedbytheincomingbeam.TheseXraysareemittedinanydirection,andso
theymaynotallescapethesample.ThelikelihoodofanXrayescapingthespecimen,andthus
beingdetectedandmeasured,dependsontheenergyoftheXrayandtheamountand
densityofthematerialithastopassthrough.Thiscanresultinreducedaccuracyinthecaseof
inhomogeneousandroughsamples.
TwotypesofSEMandEDSsystemwereusedinthisstudy.IntheexperimentofpaperI,the
SEMandEDSsystemisahighresolutionfieldemissiontypeLEO1550Geminiequippedwith
anOxfordEDSsystem.IntheexperimentofpaperIIandpaperIII,thesystemisaBruker
Quantax800system.ThedetectorisanXflash4010witharesolutionof127eVfortheMnK
peak.

30

6 Summary of appended papers


Threepapershavebeenorwillbepublishedregardingtheobjectivesofthisthesis:

Classificationofcoldlaps,
Characterizationofcoldlapinterface,
Investigationoftheinfluencingfactorsoncoldlapformation.

Thischapterpresentsabriefsummaryofthepaperswhichhavebeenreformattedfor
uniformityandincreasedreadability.

6.1 Paper I
Themainpurposeofthispaperistoclassifycoldlaps.Secondly,theinterfaceofthe
spatter/basemetalissupposedtobecharacterized.Atandemweldingexperimentwas
performedusing92Ar8CO2shieldinggas,Domex355MCbasemetal,andESABOKAutrod
12.51wire.Avisualtest(VT)wasfirstperformedontheweldedspecimens.Thespecimens
werecutandpolishedtopreparefortheconventionalmetallographicsamples.Thesamples
wereevaluatedbylightopticalmicroscopyandscanningelectronmicroscope(SEM).Three
typesofcoldlapswereobserved,i.e.spattercoldlap,overlapcoldlapandspatteroverlap
coldlap.
Spattercoldlap,namedastypeI,isformedwhenaspatterissituatedclosetotheweldtoeso
thatthespatterisfusedandpartiallyincludedintheweld.Itisworthpointingoutherethat
thecoldlapsfromspattersstatedin[12]canalsoberegardedasaspecificsituationinwhich
thespatterisfullyembeddedintheweldandisinvisible[12].Inthiscase,itcanbe
characterizedbyL<Rifweregardthepositivevalueinthedirectionawayfromtheweld
centre,asshowninFigure22.Thespattercoldlapisinasemicircleontheweldtoeandthe
sizedependsonthesizeofspatter,whichcanrangefromseveralmillimetresdowntoten
micron.

Figure22Onespecificsituationofthespattercoldlap

TypeIIisnamedoverlapcoldlap,andisbelievedtobecausedbyalocaloverflowofthe
meltedmaterialintheweldpoolinwhichtheoverflowmetalincompletelyfuseswiththebase
metalonitssurface.Overlapcoldlapsareusuallysemiellipticalattheweldtoe,whichcanbe
severalmillimetresinbothlongitudinalandtransversalaxesoftheweld.Itisalsopossibleto
31

findcoldlapsalongtheentireweldtoe(inthelongitudinaldirectionoftheweld),whichare
usuallycausedbythepoorsurfaceconditionofthebasemetalandimproperwelding
parameters.TypeIIIisreferredtoasspatteroverlapcoldlap,andcanberegardedasa
combinationoftypeIandtypeII.Thisusuallyappearsinawormlikeshapeandcanbeseveral
millimetresawayfromtheweldtoe.
Microscopyanalysisofthespatter/basemetalinterfacehasrevealedalackoffusionconsisting
ofbothvoidsandoxides.ThemainoxidesdetectedwereMnSioxides,whichcanbe
symbolisedwiththegeneralformula(MnSi)Onwherenvariesfrom0.3to0.5.

6.2 Paper II
ThemainpurposeofthispaperistoinvestigatetheinfluenceoftheMnSioxidesobservedin
paperIoncoldlaps.Secondly,anyotherinfluencingfactorsoncoldlapswerestudied.Aseries
oftandemarcweldingexperimentswasperformedinasealedchamberfilledupeitherwith
pureargonorwithpureCO2withthepurposeofcreatingoxidizingornonoxidizingwelding
environments,respectively,andstudyingtheinfluenceoftheshieldinggasontheformationof
coldlaps.Twosurfaceconditions,i.e.anironsandblastedsurfaceandaburrgrindingsurface,
werepreparedforthebasemetal.Theweldedspecimenswerevisuallyexaminedusingthe
nakedeye.Spatterswerealsoevaluatedintermsofsizeanddistributiononthewelded
specimens.InthepureArweldingprocess,smallerspattersweregeneratedandconcentrated
inasmallareaclosetotheweldtoe,whereasthespattersinpureCO2weldingwerelargerin
sizeandmoreevenlydistributed.
Allthreetypesofcoldlapswereidentifiedandanalysed.Theinterfaceofdifferenttypesof
coldlapswasexaminedusingalightopticalmicroscope,SEMandEDS.VoidsandMnSioxides
werefoundinthecoldlapinterface.TheresultsrevealedthattheMnSioxideshavethemost
significantinfluenceonoverlapcoldlapoccurrence.Itwasalsoobservedthattheblasted
surfacecanenhancethelackoffusionbyeasingtheairentrapmentintheinterface.By
evaluatingthespattersurfaceandbasemetalsurfaceafterweldingregardingMnSioxides,it
couldbeconcludedthattheMnSioxidesincoldlapscamemainlyfromtheoxidizationof
dropletsbeforetheyreachedtheweldpool.

6.3 Paper III


Themainpurposeofthispaperistorevealthefactor(s)behindthecoldlapsfoundinthepure
ArweldinginpaperII,bystudyingthespatter/basemetalinterface.Thespatter/basemetal
interfacewasinvestigatedfortwodifferentweldingconditions,i.e.inpureArandinpureCO2.
ThecontributionofMnSioxideswasconfirmedforthelackoffusionformationatthe
spatter/basemetalinterface.Theratiobetweenthelengthoflackoffusionattheinterface
andtheentirelengthofthespatter/basemetalinterface(RLoF)wasintroducedinthis
investigation.StudyingtheRLoFagainstspatterdistanceandspatterdiameterrevealedthat
theRLoFincreasedabruptlyuntilthespatterdiameterreachedacriticalvalue(approx.1mm)
asthespatterdiameterdecreasedfromitshighestvalue.Forlowerspatterdiametervalues
thanthecriticalvalue(i.e.under1mm),theRLoFremainedconstant(100%)withthe
continuousdecrementofspatterdiameter.Adirectproportionwasrevealedbetweenspatter
distanceandRLoF.However,theheat/temperatureofthespatterisinfluencedbyboththe
32

spatterdiameterandthespatterdistanceregardingthefusionbetweenspatterandbase
metal.Therefore,theheat/temperaturecanberegardedastheotherimportantinfluence
factorforlackoffusionformation.

33

34

7 Conclusions and future work


Throughtheexperimentalstudyofcoldlaps,threetypesofcoldlapswereidentified,i.e.
overlapoldlap,spattercoldlap,andspatteroverlapcoldlap.Foralltypesofcoldlaps,the
interfacewascharacterizedbyvoidsandoxides.Theoxidesdependedonthewelding
consumables.Forthematerialsappliedinthisstudy,manganesesiliconoxideswereshownto
havesignificantinfluenceoncoldlapoccurrence.Theinfluenceoftemperatureoncoldlaps
wasshownbytheindicatorsofspatterdiameteranddistancefromspattertotheweld.
Inthefuturework,thetemperatureinfluenceoftheweldingworkpieceoncoldlapsshouldbe
investigated.Also,thebehaviouroftheweldingpoolcanbestudiedwithhelpofhighspeed
imagingtechnology.Regardingtheinfluenceofoxidesoncoldlaps,newconsumablesof
GMAW,whichcanavoidoxidesinweldingprocess,areofinteresttostudy.

35

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37

38

9 Appended papers

39

40